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Michael Karlsson, Johannes K Ehinger, Sarah Piel, Fredrik Sjövall, Johanna Henriksnäs, Urban Höglund, Magnus J Hansson, Eskil Elmér
Metabolic crisis is a clinical condition primarily affecting patients with inherent mitochondrial dysfunction in situations of augmented demand. To model this, ten pigs received an infusion of rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, or vehicle. Clinical parameters, blood gases, continuous indirect calorimetry, in vivo muscle oxygen tension, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration and metabolomics were assessed. Rotenone induced a progressive increase in lactate which was paralleled by an increase in oxygen tension in venous blood and skeletal muscle...
October 18, 2016: Mitochondrion
Carolina Ribeiro, Maria do Carmo Macário, Ana Teresa Viegas, João Pratas, Maria João Santos, Marta Simões, Cândida Mendes, Mafalda Bacalhau, Paula Garcia, Luísa Diogo, Filipe Silva, Manuela Grazina
Leigh syndrome (LS) is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative mitochondrial disorder of infancy. It is a genetically heterogeneous disease. The mutations in SURF1 gene are the most frequently known cause. Here two cases of LS likely caused by SURF1 gene variants are reported: a 39-year-old male patient with a novel homozygous deletion (c.-11_13del), and a case of a 6-year-old boy with the same deletion and a nonsense mutation (c.868dupT), both in heterozygosity. Blue native PAGE showed absence of assembled complex IV...
October 15, 2016: Mitochondrion
Claudia B Catarino, Uwe Ahting, Mirjana Gusic, Arcangela Iuso, Birgit Repp, Katrin Peters, Saskia Biskup, Bettina von Livonius, Holger Prokisch, Thomas Klopstock
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited mitochondrial disease that usually leads to acute or subacute bilateral central vision loss. In 95% of cases, LHON is caused by one of three primary mutations of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), m.11778G>A in the MT-ND4 gene, m.14484T>C in the MT-ND6 gene, or m.3460G>A in the MT-ND1 gene. Here we characterize clinically, genetically, and biochemically a LHON family with multiple patients harboring two of these primary LHON mutations, m.11778G>A homoplasmic and m...
October 6, 2016: Mitochondrion
Sandipan Datta, Sunil Sahdeo, Jennifer A Gray, Christophe Morriseau, Bruce D Hammock, Gino Cortopassi
Mitochondrial toxicity is emerging as a major mechanism underlying serious human health consequences. This work performs a high-throughput screen (HTS) of 176 environmental chemicals for mitochondrial toxicity utilizing a previously reported biosensor platform. This established HTS confirmed known mitochondrial toxins and identified novel mitotochondrial uncouplers such as 2, 2'-Methylenebis(4-chlorophenol) and pentachlorophenol. It also identified a mitochondrial 'structure activity relationship' (SAR) in the sense that multiple environmental chlorophenols are mitochondrial inhibitors and uncouplers...
October 4, 2016: Mitochondrion
Łukasz P Zieliński, Anthony C Smith, Alexander G Smith, Alan J Robinson
Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction causes a variety of life-threatening diseases affecting about 1 in 4300 adults. These diseases are genetically heterogeneous, but have the same outcome; reduced activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes causing decreased ATP production and potentially toxic accumulation of metabolites. Severity and tissue specificity of these effects varies between patients by unknown mechanisms and treatment options are limited. So far most research has focused on the complexes themselves, and the impact on overall cellular metabolism is largely unclear...
September 30, 2016: Mitochondrion
Djurdja Djordjevic, Lauren Brady, Renkui Bai, Mark A Tarnopolsky
We describe here two novel mitochondrial mutations associated with a complex mitochondrial encephalopathy. An A to G transition at position 7495 (MT-TS1 (MT-tRNSer(UCN))) was identified at 83% heteroplasmy in the muscle of a four year old female with ptosis, hypotonia, seizures, and dilated cardiomyopathy (Case 1). A homoplasmic C to T transition at position 5577 (MT-TW (MT-tRNATrp)) was found in a twenty-four year old woman with exercise intolerance, mild muscle weakness, hearing loss, seizures, and cognitive decline (Case 2)...
September 28, 2016: Mitochondrion
Marcia A Ogasawara, Jinyun Liu, Helene Pelicano, Naima Hammoudi, Carlo M Croce, Michael J Keating, Peng Huang
Deletion of chromosome 17p with a loss of p53 is an unfavorable cytogenetic change in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with poor clinical outcome. Since p53 affects mitochondrial function and integrity, we examined possible mitochondrial changes in CLL mice with TCL1-Tg/p53(-/-) and TCL1-Tg/p53(+/+) genotypes and in primary leukemia cells from CLL patients with or without 17p-deletion. Although the expression of mitochondrial COX1, ND2, and ND6 decreased in p53(-/-)CLL cells, there was an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis as evidenced by higher mitochondrial mass and mtDNA copy number associated with an elevated expression of TFAM and PGC-1α...
September 17, 2016: Mitochondrion
Pan Zhang, David C Samuels, Shilin Zhao, Jing Wang, Yu Shyr, Yan Guo
MOTIVATION: High-throughput genomic data often contain unexpected information that can be mined for alternative applications. Despite the rise of high-throughput sequencing, Illumina genotyping arrays remain a driving force in large scale genetic and epidemiology studies. By processing and analyzing genotyping data of over 100,000 samples genotyped on Illumina genotyping arrays, we discovered evidence that indicated that mitochondrial heteroplasmy can be estimated from the florescence intensity data of the array...
September 11, 2016: Mitochondrion
Jin Zhang, Min Li, Zhu Zhang, Ronhui Zhu, Riccardo Olcese, Enrico Stefani, Ligia Toro
Mitochondrial BKCa channel, mitoBKCa, regulates mitochondria function in the heart but information on its protein partnerships in cardiac mitochondria is missing. A directed proteomic approach discovered the novel interaction of BKCa with Tom22, a component of the mitochondrion outer membrane import system, and the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT). The expressed protein partners co-immunoprecipitated and co-segregated into mitochondrial fractions in HEK293T cells. The BKCa 50 amino acid splice insert, DEC, facilitated BKCa interaction with ANT...
August 31, 2016: Mitochondrion
Kui-Ming Hung, Marcus J Calkins
Neurodegeneration and mitochondrial dysfunction are closely linked across many clinical conditions. In genetic diseases that result from defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) synthesis or maintenance, neurodegeneration is a frequent and major component of the disease pathology. In sporadic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, mtDNA defects have been observed clinically. Mitochondrial stress related to mtDNA dysregulation can produce neuronal dysfunction and death via impaired electron transport chain activity, which results in deficient ATP production and related increases in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
August 28, 2016: Mitochondrion
Tapas Chandra Nag, Shashi Wadhwa
Earlier studies reported accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations in ageing and age-related macular degeneration. To know about the mitochondrial status with age, we examined immunoreactivity (IR) to markers of mitochondria (anti-mitochondrial antibody and voltage-dependent anion channel-1) and complex I-V (that mediate oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS) in donor human retinas (age: 19-94years; N=26; right eyes). In all samples, at all ages, IR to anti-mitochondrial antibody and voltage-dependent anion channel-1 was prominent in photoreceptor cells...
August 28, 2016: Mitochondrion
Mohammad Waseem, Heena Tabassum, Suhel Parvez
There is increasing recognition of the magnitude of mitochondria in neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondria play a key role in apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Melatonin (Mel), an indoleamine produced in several organs including the pineal gland has been known for its neuroprotective actions. In our study, we have investigated whether the mitochondrial ATP sensitive potassium (mtKATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and calcium (Ca(2+)) affects permeability transition pore (PTP) alterations in isolated brain mitochondria treated with melatonin (Mel) and cyclosporin A (CsA)...
August 14, 2016: Mitochondrion
Humberto Gonczarowska-Jorge, René P Zahedi, Albert Sickmann
In the past decade mass spectrometry-based proteomics has greatly contributed to shaping our knowledge about Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria, from the initial identification of novel essential components in purified protein complexes, to the actual characterization of the mitochondrial proteome, the specific analysis of mitochondrial subcompartment proteomes, and the study of regulatory mechanisms that govern mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we provide an overview of relevant mitochondrial proteome studies and furthermore discuss future possibilities how proteomics will further improve our existing understanding of mitochondria...
August 14, 2016: Mitochondrion
Rikke Kruse, Kurt Højlund
Mitochondria are essential for several biological processes including energy metabolism and cell survival. Accordingly, impaired mitochondrial function is involved in a wide range of human pathologies including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Within the past decade a growing body of evidence indicates that reversible phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of mitochondrial processes as well as tissue-specific mitochondrial functions in mammals...
August 10, 2016: Mitochondrion
Fabian Hosp, Ines Lassowskat, Valeria Santoro, David De Vleesschauwer, Daniela Fliegner, Henning Redestig, Matthias Mann, Sven Christian, Matthew A Hannah, Iris Finkemeier
Cellular signaling pathways are regulated in a highly dynamic fashion in order to quickly adapt to distinct environmental conditions. Acetylation of lysine residues represents a central process that orchestrates cellular metabolism and signaling. In mitochondria, acetylation seems to be the most prevalent post-translational modification, presumably linked to the compartmentation and high turnover of acetyl-CoA in this organelle. Similarly, the elevated pH and the higher concentration of metabolites in mitochondria seem to favor non-enzymatic lysine modifications, as well as other acylations...
July 28, 2016: Mitochondrion
Nuri Gueven, Monila Nadikudi, Abraham Daniel, Jamuna Chhetri
Many reports have illustrated a tight connection between vision and mitochondrial function. Not only are most mitochondrial diseases associated with some form of vision impairment, many ophthalmological disorders such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy also show signs of mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite a vast amount of evidence, vision loss is still only treated symptomatically, which is only partially a consequence of resistance to acknowledge that mitochondria could be the common denominator and hence a promising therapeutic target...
July 28, 2016: Mitochondrion
Anthony L Luz, Joel N Meyer
The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is intimately linked to cellular and organismal health, as demonstrated by the fact that mutations in and depletion of mtDNA result in severe mitochondrial disease in humans. However, cells contain hundreds to thousands of copies of mtDNA, which provides genetic redundancy, and creates a threshold effect in which a large percentage of mtDNA must be lost prior to clinical pathogenesis. As certain pharmaceuticals and genetic mutations can result in depletion of mtDNA, and as many environmental toxicants target mitochondria, it is important to understand whether reduced mtDNA will sensitize an individual to toxicant exposure...
September 2016: Mitochondrion
Christine Sabine Siegismund, Ingo Schäfer, Peter Seibel, Uwe Kühl, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Dirk Lassner
We developed a multiplex fragment length analysis (MFLA) for clearly assigning mitochondrial haplogroups mostly endemic in Europe for future cardiac diagnostics. As a technical proof, 23 commonly used human cell lines were haplotyped as reference standards. The functional analysis on mtDNA copies per cell revealed no correlation to haplogroups but a relatively high rate of mitochondria per cell and at the same time a very low expression of all mitochondrial and some nuclear encoded mitochondrial related genes...
September 2016: Mitochondrion
Koyo Tsujikawa, Joe Senda, Keizo Yasui, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Minoru Hoshiyama, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinically latent brain atrophy of patients with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) harboring a mitochondrial DNA A3243G mutation (A3243G) and A3243G carriers without stroke-like episodes (SEs). METHODS: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with magnetic resonance imaging to investigate gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume reductions in four MELAS patients and in five A3243G carriers compared to 16 healthy controls...
September 2016: Mitochondrion
Creed M Stary, Xiaoyun Sun, YiBing Ouyang, Le Li, Rona G Giffard
Neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the hippocampus are vulnerable to cerebral ischemia, while dentate gyrus (DG) neurons are more resistant. This effect is mediated by local astrocytes, and may reflect differences in subregional hippocampal expression of miR-29a. We investigated the role of miR-29a on survival of hippocampal astrocytes cultured selectively from CA1 and DG in response to glucose deprivation (GD). CA1 astrocytes exhibited more cell death and a greater decrease in miR-29a than DG astrocytes...
September 2016: Mitochondrion
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