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Mitochondrion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154852/the-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-2-gene-is-causal-for-the-spontaneous-polycystic-liver-diseases-in-mice
#1
Misa Hirose, Paul Schilf, Sarah Rohde, Yask Gupta, Tiphaine Sancerni, Marie-Clotilde Alves-Guerra, Christian Sina, Robert Jaster, Bruno Miroux, Saleh M Ibrahim
Polycystic liver diseases (PCLDs) are autosomal dominant disorders. To date, 3 genes are known to be associated with the disease, SEC63 and PRKCSH and LRP5. Here, we report that mice deficient in the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 gene (Ucp2(-/-)) spontaneously developed PCLDs when they were over 12months old. Macroscopical observation, blood chemistry as well as histopathological analysis demonstrated the PCLDs found in Ucp2(-/-) mice were very similar to the findings in human PCLDs. This is the first report describing the gene encoding mitochondrial protein is causative for PCLDs...
November 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146487/mitochondria-a-master-regulator-in-macrophage-and-t-cell-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Pu-Ste Liu, Ping-Chih Ho
Orchestrating biological activities of immune cells through metabolic reprogramming reveals a new approach to harnessing immune responses. Increasing evidence reveals that the mitochondrion is a central regulator for modulating metabolic reprogramming and controlling immune cell activation and functions. In addition to supporting bioenergetic demands, the mitochondrion serves as a signaling platform through the generation of reactive oxygen species and metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to modulate signaling cascades controlling immune cell activation and immune responses...
November 13, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129554/development-of-a-novel-observer-reported-outcome-tool-as-the-primary-efficacy-outcome-measure-for-a-rare-disease-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Peter W Stacpoole, Jonathan Shuster, John L P Seamus Thompson, Sara Jo Nixon, Robert A Prather, Lee Ann Lawson, Baiming Zou, Richard Buchsbaum
We developed an Observer-Reported Outcome (ObsRO) survey instrument to be applied in a multicenter, placebo-controlled, crossover randomized controlled trial of dichloroacetate in children with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. The instrument quantifies a subject's at-home level of functionality, as reported by a parent/caregiver, who were instrumental in providing the clinical descriptors and domains that formed the instrument's content. Feasibility testing of the ObsRO tool showed it to be easy to use and comprehensive in capturing the major clinical functional limitations of affected children and requires less than 5min for a parent/caregiver to complete daily...
November 9, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129553/mitoepigenome-kb-a-comprehensive-resource-for-human-mitochondrial-epigenetic-data
#4
Sourav Ghosh, Anop Singh Ranawat, Priya Tolani, Vinod Scaria
Epigenetic modifications in the mitochondrial genome has been an emerging area of interest in the recent years in the field of mitochondrial biology. The renewed interest in the area has been largely fueled by a number of reports in the recent years suggesting the presence of epigenetic modifications in human mitochondrial genome and their associations with exposure to environmental factors and human diseases and or traits. Nevertheless there has been no systematic effort to curate, organize this information to enable cross-comparison between studies and datasets...
November 9, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107116/mitophagy-and-the-release-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#5
REVIEW
James Harris, Nadia Deen, Shahrzad Zamani, Md Abul Hasnat
Mitophagy is a selective form of autophagy in which damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria are specifically targeted by autophagosomes for lysosomal degradation. Studies have demonstrated that loss of autophagy/mitophagy can lead to a build-up of cytosolic reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial DNA, which can, in turn, activate immune signalling pathways that ultimately lead to the releases of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Moreover, release of these cytokines can subsequently promote the release of others, including IL-23 and IL-17...
October 26, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079447/chemotherapeutic-agents-induce-mitochondrial-superoxide-production-and-toxicity-but-do-not-alter-respiration-in-skeletal-muscle-in-vitro
#6
Emma Rybalka, Cara A Timpani, Beatrice D Cheregi, James C Sorensen, Kulmira Nurgali, Alan Hayes
Chemotherapy agents (CAs) can independently promote skeletal muscle dysfunction, fatigue and wasting with mitochondrial toxicity implicated as a possible mechanism. Thus, we aimed to characterise the effects of various CAs on mitochondrial function, viability and oxidant production in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes. All CAs significantly reduced the viable mitochondrial pool but did not affect mitochondrial functional parameters. Doxorubicin and oxaliplatin increased oxidant production in myotubes while all CAs, except for irinotecan, increased oxidant production in myoblasts and reduced myotube diameter...
October 24, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054473/mitochondrial-disorders-of-the-retinal-ganglion-cells-and-the-optic-nerve
#7
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Michelangelo Mancuso, Davide Pareyson, Jean-Marc Burgunder, Thomas Klopstock
OBJECTIVES: To summarise and discuss recent findings and future perspectives concerning mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) affecting the retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve (mitochondrial optic neuropathy. MON). METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: MON in MIDs is more frequent than usually anticipated. MON may occur in specific as well as non-specific MIDs. In specific and non-specific MIDs, MON may be a prominent or non-prominent phenotypic feature and due to mutations in genes located either in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or the nuclear DNA (nDNA)...
October 18, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054472/the-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-a-metabolic-rheostat-of-innate-immune-cell-mediated-antibacterial-responses
#8
REVIEW
Leif E Sander, Johan Garaude
Upon microbial infection, cells of the innate immune system undergo profound metabolic reprogramming in order to eradicate pathogens, promote inflammation, and eventually restore tissue homeostasis. Mitochondria are at the core of these adaptations, given their dual role as metabolic hubs and innate immune signaling platforms. The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is very well characterized at the genetic, molecular, structural, and biochemical level. In contrast, the role for mitochondrial ETC and metabolites beyond fulfilling cellular ATP synthesis in innate immune cell biology was not understood until recently...
October 18, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054471/innate-immunity-and-tolerance-toward-mitochondria
#9
REVIEW
Anthony Rongvaux
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles that originate from a bacterial symbiont, and they retain multiple features of this bacterial ancestry. The immune system evolved to detect the presence of invading pathogens, including bacteria, to eliminate them by a diversity of antimicrobial mechanisms and to mount long-term protective immunity. Due to their bacterial ancestry, mitochondria are sensed by the innate immune system, and trigger inflammatory responses comparable to those induced by pathogenic bacteria...
October 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042306/cigarette-smoke-induces-mitochondrial-metabolic-reprogramming-in-lung-cells
#10
Hitendra S Solanki, Niraj Babu, Ankit Jain, Mohd Younis Bhat, Vinuth N Puttamallesh, Jayshree Advani, Remya Raja, Kiran K Mangalaparthi, Mahesh M Kumar, T S Keshava Prasad, Premendu Prakash Mathur, David Sidransky, Harsha Gowda, Aditi Chatterjee
Cellular transformation owing to cigarette smoking is due to chronic exposure and not acute. However, systematic studies to understand the molecular alterations in lung cells due to cigarette smoke are lacking. To understand these molecular alterations induced by chronic cigarette smoke exposure, we carried out tandem mass tag (TMT) based temporal proteomic profiling of lung cells exposed to cigarette smoke upto 12months. We identified 2620 proteins in total, of which 671 proteins were differentially expressed (1...
October 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032234/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-mhr1-can-bind-xho-i-induced-mitochondrial-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-vivo
#11
Kanchanjunga Prasai, Lucy C Robinson, Kelly Tatchell, Lynn Harrison
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for maintaining mtDNA integrity, but little is known about the proteins involved in mtDNA DSB repair. Here, we utilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model to identify proteins involved in mtDNA DSB repair. We show that Mhr1, a protein known to possess homologous DNA pairing activity in vitro, binds to mtDNA DSBs in vivo, indicating its involvement in mtDNA DSB repair. Our data also indicate that Yku80, a protein previously implicated in mtDNA DSB repair, does not compete with Mhr1 for binding to mtDNA DSBs...
October 12, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032101/mitochondrial-activity-in-t-cells
#12
REVIEW
Gabriela Desdín-Micó, Gonzalo Soto-Heredero, María Mittelbrunn
Mitochondria fulfill important and diverse roles during the different stages of T cell adaptive responses. Here we discuss the role of the mitochondria in T cells from the initial steps of activation at the immune synapse to their participation in memory responses and T cell exhaustion. Mitochondria are relocated to the immune synapse in order to supply local ATP and to aid calcium signaling. During expansion and proliferation, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species drive proliferation. Aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis and fatty acid oxidation regulate the program of differentiation into effector or regulatory T cell subsets, and mitochondrial remodeling proteins are required for the long-lasting phenotype of memory cells...
October 12, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032233/proteome-wide-prediction-and-annotation-of-mitochondrial-and-sub-mitochondrial-proteins-by-incorporating-domain-information
#13
Ravindra Kumar, Bandana Kumari, Manish Kumar
Mitochondrion is one of the most important subcellular organelle of eukaryotic cells. It carries out several biochemical functions that are extremely vital for cells. Defects in mitochondria also play an important role in the development and progression of different types of cancer. Therefore knowledge of complete mitochondrial protein repertoire is essential to understand overall mitochondrial functionality, maintenance, dynamics and metabolism. It would be of a great practical significance to develop an automated and reliable approach that can identify the mitochondrial proteins and their sub-mitochondrial location...
October 11, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993255/relations-of-mitochondrial-genetic-variants-to-measures-of-vascular-function
#14
Jessica L Fetterman, Chunyu Liu, Gary F Mitchell, Vasan S Ramachandran, Emelia J Benjamin, Joseph A Vita, Naomi M Hamburg, Daniel Levy
Mitochondrial genetic variation with resultant alterations in oxidative phosphorylation may influence vascular function and contribute to cardiovascular disease susceptibility. We assessed relations of peptide-encoding variants in the mitochondrial genome with measures of vascular function in Framingham Heart Study participants. Of 258 variants assessed, 40 were predicted to have functional consequences by bioinformatics programs. A maternal pattern of heritability was estimated to contribute to the variability of aortic stiffness...
October 7, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986305/high-throughput-biosorter-quantification-of-relative-mitochondrial-content-and-membrane-potential-in-living-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Young Joon Kwon, Sujay Guha, Florin Tuluc, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial respiratory chain disease is caused by a wide range of individually rare genetic disorders that impair cellular energy metabolism. While fluorescence microscopy analysis of nematodes fed MitoTracker Green (MTG) and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) can reliably quantify relative mitochondrial density and membrane potential, respectively, in C. elegans, it is a tedious process with limitations in the number and age of animals that can be studied. A novel, large particle, flow cytometry-based method reported here accelerates and automates the relative quantitation of mitochondrial physiology in nematode populations...
October 3, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941588/cysteine-desulfurase-is-regulated-by-phosphorylation-of-nfs1-in-yeast-mitochondria
#16
Agostinho G Rocha, Simon A B Knight, Alok Pandey, Heeyong Yoon, Jayashree Pain, Debkumar Pain, Andrew Dancis
The cysteine desulfurase Nfs1/Isd11 uses the amino acid cysteine as the substrate and its activity is absolutely required for contributing persulfide sulfur to the essential process of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly in mitochondria. Here we describe a novel regulatory process involving phosphorylation of Nfs1 in mitochondria. Phosphorylation enhanced cysteine desulfurase activity, while dephosphorylation decreased its activity. Nfs1 phosphopeptides were identified, and the corresponding phosphosite mutants showed impaired persulfide formation...
September 21, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935446/mitochondrial-adaptation-in-steatotic-mice
#17
Claudia Einer, Simon Hohenester, Ralf Wimmer, Lena Wottke, Renate Artmann, Sabine Schulz, Christian Gosmann, Alisha Simmons, Christin Leitzinger, Carola Eberhagen, Sabine Borchard, Sabine Schmitt, Stefanie M Hauck, Christine von Toerne, Martin Jastroch, Ellen Walheim, Christian Rust, Alexander L Gerbes, Bastian Popper, Doris Mayr, Max Schnurr, Angelika M Vollmar, Gerald Denk, Hans Zischka
Western lifestyle-associated malnutrition causes steatosis that may progress to liver inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a key factor in promoting this disease. Here we have molecularly, biochemically and biophysically analyzed mitochondria from steatotic wild type and immune-compromised mice fed a Western diet (WD) - enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). WD-mitochondria demonstrated lipidomic changes, a decreased mitochondrial ATP production capacity and a significant sensitivity to calcium...
September 18, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893634/metabolism-and-dna-repair-shape-a-specific-modification-pattern-in-mitochondrial-dna
#18
Tina Pawar, Magnar Bjørås, Arne Klungland, Lars Eide
The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) resides in the vicinity of energy-rich reactions. Thus, chemical modifications of mtDNA might mirror mitochondrial processes and could serve as biomarkers of metabolic processes in the mitochondria. This hypothesis was tested by assessing modifications at 17 different sites in the mtDNA as a function of cell type, oxidative stress and mitochondrial activity. Two mouse mutants with a metabolic phenotype were compared to wild-type (WT) mice: the ogg1(-/-) mouse that lacks the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), and the alkbh7(-/-) mouse missing the ALKBH7 protein that has been implicated in fatty acid oxidation...
September 8, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890118/mitochondrial-dna-content-a-new-biomarker-for-sudden-intrauterine-unexplained-death-syndrome-siuds
#19
D Lattuada, G Alfonsi, L Roncati, T Pusiol, A Bulfoni, S Ferrero, A M Lavezzi
In literature there are no data related to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS). To test the hypothesis that a quantitative defect of mtDNA would play a role in the pathogenesis of SIUDS, mtDNA content was measured in cerebral cortex of 9 SIUDS and in 7 controls. The median (interquartile range) mtDNA in SIUDS and controls was 14,000 (8600-33,500), 3400 (0-8500) copies per nuclear DNA, respectively (p=0.007). Mitochondria are involved in SIUDS and higher mitochondrial DNA content may be a biomarker of this syndrome...
September 7, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866056/mitochondrial-dynamics-transport-and-quality-control-a-bottleneck-for-retinal-ganglion-cell-viability-in-optic-neuropathies
#20
Yoko A Ito, Adriana Di Polo
Retinal ganglion cells, the neurons that selectively die in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies, are endowed with an exceedingly active metabolism and display a particular vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are exquisitely dynamic organelles that are continually responding to endogenous and environmental cues to readily meet the energy demand of neuronal networks. The highly orchestrated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, fission, transport and degradation is paramount for the maintenance of energy-expensive synapses at RGC dendrites and axon terminals geared for optimal neurotransmission...
September 1, 2017: Mitochondrion
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