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Sirithip Chuaijit, Worawit Boonyatistan, Pichsinee Boonchuay, Chanatip Metheetrairut, Wichit Suthammarak
Assembly of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) requires not only structural subunits for electron transport, but also assembly factors. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, NUAF-1 and NUAF-3 are the only two assembly factors that have been characterized. In this study, we identify ACDH-12 as an assembly factor of the respiratory complex I. We demonstrate for the first time that a deficiency of ACDH-12 affects the formation and function of complex I. RNAi knockdown of acdh-12 also shortens lifespan and decreases fecundity...
March 11, 2018: Mitochondrion
Mark A Tarnopolsky, Arun N E Sundaram, John Provias, Lauren Brady, Bekim Sadikovic
Two patients with an m.8340G>A mitochondrial DNA variant have been reported with one patient showing ptosis, ophthalmoparesis and myopathy at 53% heteroplasmy and another with pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts and sensory neural deafness and slightly higher heteroplasmy (65%). Here we report that higher muscle mutant heteroplasmy (93%) for m.8340G>A is associated with ptosis, ophthalmoparesis and mitochondrial myopathy, thus confirming the initial phenotypic association and showing that heteroplasmy per se does not explain the phenotypic spectrum of disease associated with the m...
February 28, 2018: Mitochondrion
Ankit Sabharwal, Disha Sharma, Shamsudheen Karuthedath Vellarikkal, Rijith Jayarajan, Ankit Verma, Vigneshwar Senthivel, Vinod Scaria, Sridhar Sivasubbu
Mitochondria are organelles involved in a variety of biological functions in the cell, apart from their principal role in generation of ATP, the cellular currency of energy. The mitochondria, in spite of being compact organelles, are capable of performing complex biological functions largely because of the ability to exchange proteins, RNA, chemical metabolites and other biomolecules between cellular compartments. A close network of biomolecular interactions are known to modulate the crosstalk between the mitochondria and the nuclear genome...
February 24, 2018: Mitochondrion
Marion Masingue, Isaac Adanyeguh, Maya Tchikviladzé, Thierry Maisonobe, Claude Jardel, Damien Galanaud, Fanny Mochel
Mutations in the gene encoding polymerase gamma (POLG) are a common cause of mitochondrial diseases in adults. We retrospectively analyzed volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging data from 20 adult POLG-mutated patients compared to healthy controls. We used an original clinical binary load score and electroneuromyography to evaluate disease severity. Patients showed atrophy in the basal ganglia, amygdala, and brainstem (p < 0.05) compared to controls, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the cingulate gyrus, the internal capsule and the corona radiata (p < 0...
February 21, 2018: Mitochondrion
Leire Palencia-Madrid, Sergio Cardoso, Fernando Castro-Maestre, Igor Baroja-Careaga, Ana M Rocandio, Marian M de Pancorbo
This work presents the design, development and optimization of a screening method based on single-base extension sequencing to simultaneously analyze a panel of 52 mitochondrial SNPs. This enables to recognize the main mitochondrial haplogroups and to discriminate even between lineages from the same phylogenetic branch that diverged in different continents. The unavailability of individuals harboring infrequent variants was a limitation to optimize the panel. To overcome this, we have modified DNA by site-directed mutagenesis to create the unavailable allelic variants...
February 21, 2018: Mitochondrion
Aaron B Morton, Andres Mor, J Matthew Hinkley, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Demetra D Christou, Ashley J Smuder
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly effective anthracycline antibiotic. Unfortunately, the clinical use of DOX is limited by the risk of deleterious effects to cardiac and respiratory (i.e. diaphragm) muscle, resulting from mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this regard, exercise is demonstrated to protect against DOX-induced myotoxicity and prevent mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the protective mechanisms are currently unclear. We hypothesized that exercise may induce protection by increasing the expression of mitochondria-specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and reducing mitochondrial DOX accumulation...
February 20, 2018: Mitochondrion
Karien Esterhuizen, J Zander Lindeque, Shayne Mason, Francois H van der Westhuizen, Anu Suomalainen, Anna H Hakonen, Christopher J Carroll, Richard J Rodenburg, Paul B de Laat, Mirian C H Janssen, Jan A M Smeitink, Roan Louw
We used a comprehensive metabolomics approach to study the altered urinary metabolome of two mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes (MELAS) cohorts carrying the m.3243A>G mutation. The first cohort were used in an exploratory phase, identifying 36 metabolites that were significantly perturbed by the disease. During the second phase, the 36 selected metabolites were able to separate a validation cohort of MELAS patients completely from their respective control group, suggesting usefulness of these 36 markers as a diagnostic set...
February 19, 2018: Mitochondrion
Eugene P Sokolov, Inna M Sokolova
Salinity is an important environmental factor affecting physiology of marine organisms. Osmoconformers such as marine mollusks maintain metabolic function despite changes of the osmolarity and composition of the cytosol during salinity shifts. Currently, metabolic responses to the salinity-induced changes of the intracellular milieu are not well understood. We studied the effects of osmolarity (450 vs. 900 mOsm) and compatible osmolytes (70-590 mM of taurine or betaine) on isolated gill mitochondria of a marine osmoconformer, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
Eric L Bell, Robert W Shine, Peter Dwyer, Lyndsay Olson, Jennifer Truong, Ross Fredenburg, Matthew Goddeeris, Dominique Stickens, Effie Tozzo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive, fatal X-linked disease that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting due to the absence of dystrophin, which is an a essential protein that bridges the inner cytoskeleton and extra-cellular matrix. This study set out to characterize the mitochondria in primary muscle satellite cell derived myoblasts from mdx mice and wild type control mice. Compared to wild type derived cells the mdx derived cells have reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics and have fewer mitochondria...
February 16, 2018: Mitochondrion
Allison E McDonald, Dmytro V Gospodaryov
The electron transport systems in mitochondria of many organisms contain alternative respiratory enzymes distinct from those of the canonical respiratory system depicted in textbooks. Two of these enzymes, the alternative NADH dehydrogenase and the alternative oxidase, were of interest to a limited circle of researchers until they were envisioned as gene therapy tools for mitochondrial disease treatment. Recently, these enzymes were discovered in several animals. Here, we analyse the functioning of alternative NADH dehydrogenases and oxidases in different organisms...
February 6, 2018: Mitochondrion
Lauren Brady, Bekim Sadikovic, C Anthony Rupar, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been implicated in a wide variety of neurological conditions and are maternally inherited through a complex process which is not fully understood. Genetic counselling for mitochondrial conditions secondary to a mtDNA mutation can be challenging as it is not currently possible to accurately predict the mutational load/heteroplasmy of the mutation which could be passed to the offspring. In general, one expects that the higher the level of heteroplasmy the more likely that the same mtDNA mutation will be seen in the offspring...
February 1, 2018: Mitochondrion
Karol Małota, Sebastian Student, Piotr Świątek
The male germ-line cysts that occur in annelids appear to be a very convenient model for spermatogenesis studies. Germ-line cysts in the studied earthworm are composed of two compartments: (1) germ cells, where each cell is connected via one intercellular bridge to (2) an anuclear central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. In the present paper, confocal and transmission electron microscopy were used to follow the changes in the mitochondrial activity and ultrastructure within the cysts during spermatogenesis...
February 1, 2018: Mitochondrion
Lihua Lyu, Qiufeng Wang, Shujie Song, Liyan Li, Huaibin Zhou, Ming Li, ZhiYing Jiang, Chen Zhou, Guorong Chen, Jianxin Lyu, Yidong Bai
Oncocytic tumors are composed of oncocytes characterized by acidophilic granular and reticular cytoplasm. Such features have been attributed to the distinctive aggregation of abnormal mitochondria. Sporadic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, particularly those in complex I subunit genes, have been identified as one of the most noticeable alterations. We reviewed 11,051 cases of patients with thyroid tumors who visited the first affiliated hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January 2011 to August 2017, and we were able to identify 123 cases as oncocytic tumors...
January 28, 2018: Mitochondrion
Catharina Nickel, Regina Horneff, Ralf Heermann, Boris Neumann, Kirsten Jung, Jürgen Soll, Serena Schwenkert
Mitochondrial localized proteins are mostly synthesized in the cytosol and translocated across the outer mitochondrial membrane via the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex. Although the channel protein is conserved among eukaryotes, the receptor proteins are more divergent and show features specific to the plant lineage. OM64, which is a paralogue of the chloroplast docking protein Toc64, is unique to plants. However, due to the presence of a cytosolic exposed TPR domain it might functionally replace yeast/mammalian Tom70, which is not found in plant mitochondria, by interacting with the C-terminal (M)EEVD motif of the heat shock proteins Hsp90 and Hsp70...
January 24, 2018: Mitochondrion
Amarish Kumar Yadav, Saripella Srikrishna
scrib loss of function is associated with various human-cancers. Most of the human-cancers have been characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction with elevated oxidative stress. However, the role of scrib to mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer has not been investigated earlier. Here, we have shown that scrib knockdown leads to mitochondrial depolarization, fragmentation and perinuclear-clustering along with disruption of the redox homeostasis. Moreover, the scrib abrogated tumor showed the elevation of Drp-1 and reduced expression of Marf, which suggests enhanced mitochondrial-fission...
January 19, 2018: Mitochondrion
Luis A Sánchez, Mauricio Gomez-Gallardo, Alma L Díaz-Pérez, Christian Cortes-Rojo, Jesús Campos-García
The [Fe-S] late-acting subsystem comprised of Isa1p/Isa2p, Grx5p, and Iba57p proteins (Fe-S-IBG subsystem) is involved in [4Fe-4S]-cluster protein assembly. The effect of deleting IBA57 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on mitochondrial respiratory complex integration and functionality associated with Rieske protein maturation was evaluated. The iba57Δ mutant showed decreased expression and maturation of the Rieske protein. The loss of Rieske protein caused by IBA57 deletion affected the structure of supercomplexes III2IV2 and III2IV1 and their integration into the mitochondria, causing dysfunction in the electron transport chain...
January 14, 2018: Mitochondrion
Elena Herbers, Nina J Kekäläinen, Anu Hangas, Jaakko L Pohjoismäki, Steffi Goffart
The different cell types of multicellular organisms have specialized physiological requirements, affecting also their mitochondrial energy production and metabolism. The genome of mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) and thus plays a central role in many human mitochondrial pathologies. Disorders affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance are typically resulting in a tissue-specific pattern of mtDNA deletions and rearrangements. Despite this role in disease as well as a biomarker of mitochondrial biogenesis, the tissue-specific parameters of mitochondrial DNA maintenance have been virtually unexplored...
January 12, 2018: Mitochondrion
Hui-Ting Lee, Chen-Sung Lin, Siao-Cian Pan, Tsai-Hung Wu, Chyou-Shen Lee, Deh-Ming Chang, Chang-Youh Tsai, Yau-Huei Wei
We evaluated plasma glutamine levels and basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (mOCRB) and basal extracellular acidification rate (ECARB) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Lower plasma glutamine levels correlated with higher SLE disease activity indexes (p=0.025). Incubated in DMEM containing 100mg/dL glucose, SLE-PBMCs displayed lower mOCRB (p=0.018) but similar ECARB (p=0.467) to those of HC-PBMCs, and their mOCRB got elevated (p<0...
January 11, 2018: Mitochondrion
Erkan Tuncay, Verda Bitirim, Yusuf Olgar, Aysegul Durak, Guy A Rutter, Belma Turan
Functional contribution of S(E)R-mitochondria coupling to normal cellular processes is crucial and any alteration in S(E)R-mitochondria axis may be responsible for the onset of diseases. Mitochondrial free Zn2+ level in cardiomyocytes ([Zn2+]Mit) is lower comparison to either its cytosolic or S(E)R level under physiological condition. However, there is little information about distribution of Zn2+-transporters on mitochondria and role of Zn2+-dependent mitochondrial-function associated with [Zn2+]Mit. Since we recently have shown how hyperglycemia (HG)-induced changes in ZIP7 and ZnT7 contribute to Zn2+-transport across S(E)R and contribute to S(E)R-stress in the heart, herein, we hypothesized that these transporters can also be localized to mitochondria and affect the S(E)R-mitochondria coupling, and thereby contribute to cellular Zn2+-muffling between S(E)R-mitochondria in HG-cells...
January 4, 2018: Mitochondrion
Austin A Larson, Shanti Balasubramaniam, John Christodoulou, Lindsay C Burrage, Ronit Marom, Brett H Graham, George A Diaz, Emma Glamuzina, Natalie Hauser, Bryce Heese, Gabriella Horvath, Andre Mattman, Clara van Karnebeek, S Lane Rutledge, Amy Williamson, Lissette Estrella, Johan K L van Hove, James D Weisfeld-Adams
Elevations of specific acylcarnitines in blood reflect carboxylase deficiencies, and have utility in newborn screening for life-threatening organic acidemias and other inherited metabolic diseases. In this report, we describe a newly-identified association of biochemical features of multiple carboxylase deficiency in individuals harboring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in MT-ATP6 and in whom organic acidemias and multiple carboxylase deficiencies were excluded. Using retrospective chart review, we identified eleven individuals with abnormally elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) or hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH) with mutations in MT-ATP6, most commonly m...
January 4, 2018: Mitochondrion
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