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BMC Public Health

Rachel G Tabak, Jaime R Strickland, Richard I Stein, Hank Dart, Graham A Colditz, Bridget Kirk, Ann Marie Dale, Bradley A Evanoff
BACKGROUND: Describing how and why an evidence-based intervention is adapted for a new population and setting using a formal evaluation and an adaptation framework can inform others seeking to modify evidence-based weight management interventions for different populations or settings. The Working for You intervention was adapted, to fit a workplace environment, from Be Fit Be Well, an evidence-based intervention that targets weight-control and hypertension in patients at an outpatient clinic...
November 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Devarsetty Praveen, David Peiris, Stephen MacMahon, Kishor Mogulluru, Arvind Raghu, Anthony Rodgers, Shailaja Chilappagari, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Gari D Clifford, Pallab K Maulik, Emily Atkins, Rohina Joshi, Stephane Heritier, Stephen Jan, Anushka Patel
BACKGROUND: Non-optimal blood pressure (BP) levels are a major cause of disease burden globally. We describe current BP and treatment patterns in rural India and compare different approaches to BP lowering in this setting. METHODS: All individuals aged ≥40 years from 54 villages in a South Indian district were invited and 62,194 individuals (84%) participated in a cross-sectional study. Individual 10-year absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was estimated using WHO/ISH charts...
November 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Julie Barnett, Fiona M Begen, M Hazel Gowland, Jane S Lucas
BACKGROUND: Eating outside the home is challenging for consumers with food allergy (FA) and intolerance (FI) and lack of allergen information provision in eating out venues can lead to unnecessary restrictions. Following European legislation (2014) designed to improve allergen information provision, little is known about differences in information provision experienced by consumers seeking to avoid particular allergens, or how this impacts on their eating out experiences. This study compared the information provision that consumers with FA/FI to different allergens experience when eating out...
November 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Catherine Kimber, Daniel Frings, Sharon Cox, Ian Albery, Lynne Dawkins
BACKGROUND: Article 20 of the EU Tobacco Products Directive [TPD] stipulates that e-cigarette packets and refill products must carry a nicotine addiction health warning. Although previous studies conducted in North America have found that perceived harm, addictiveness and intention to use declined following exposure to e-cigarette health warnings, possible effects of the TPD health warnings on smokers and non-smokers has not been studied. This study will investigate the effects of the EU TPD e-cigarette health warnings and a comparative harm message (COMP; developed specifically for this study) on smokers' and non-smokers' perceptions of harm, addictiveness and social acceptability of e-cigarettes...
November 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Maija Toivakka, Aki Pihlapuro, Markku Tykkyläinen, Lauri Mehtätalo, Tiina Laatikainen
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the differences in the outcomes of care by socioeconomic status (SES) is beneficial for both the efficient targeting of health care services and to decrease health inequalities. This study compares the effects of three patient-based SES predictors (earned income, educational attainment, employment status) with three small-area-based SES predictors (median income, educational attainment, proportion of the unemployed) on the treatment outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients...
November 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Yumeng Shi, Amanda Lee Grech, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
BACKGROUND: Snacking is a prevalent dietary behaviour among young adults, which could independently contribute to weight gain. Vending machines provide easy access to unhealthy snacks and beverages for young adults in universities. A voluntary front-of-pack labelling, named the Health Star Rating (HSR) system, has been implemented nationally by the Australian government as one strategy to address obesity since 2014. The primary aim of this study was to detect changes in the availability, pricing and advertising of healthy and unhealthy snacks and beverages in university vending machines after introduction of the HSR...
November 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Tobias Weinmann, Céline Vetter, Susanne Karch, Dennis Nowak, Katja Radon
BACKGROUND: The effect of shift work on impairment of cognition in later life has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, we aimed at testing the feasibility of a large-scale epidemiologic study examining this putative association in a pilot study. METHODS: Between January and April 2017, a cross-sectional study invited a random sample of 425 former and current employees of a German university hospital aged 55 years and older to undergo a cognitive test battery (including the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Trail Making Test, Letter-Number Span, and Vocabulary Test) and to complete a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, chronotype, sleep, occupational history including shift work, and medical history...
November 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
A Whiteman, A Mejia, I Hernandez, J R Loaiza
BACKGROUND: We sought to identify if socioeconomic and demographic factors play a role in resident knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika in order to inform effective management procedures for disease prevention in Panama, a middle-income tropical country in Central America. All three are arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquito vectors present in the focal region of Panama City, the largest city in Central America and an urban region of extreme socioeconomic polarization...
November 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lena D Stephens, David Crawford, Lukar Thornton, Dana Lee Olstad, Philip J Morgan, Frank J van Lenthe, Kylie Ball
BACKGROUND: Men of low socioeconomic position (SEP) are less likely than those of higher SEP to consume fruits and vegetables, and more likely to eat processed discretionary foods. Education level is a widely used marker of SEP. Few studies have explored determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in men's eating behaviours. The present study aimed to explore intrapersonal, social and environmental factors potentially contributing to educational inequalities in men's eating behaviour. METHODS: Thirty Australian men aged 18-60 years (15 each with tertiary or non-tertiary education) from two large metropolitan sites (Melbourne, Victoria; and Newcastle, New South Wales) participated in qualitative, semi-structured, one-on-one telephone interviews about their perceptions of influences on their and other men's eating behaviours...
November 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Simbarashe Chinyowa, Joel M Palefsky, Zvavahera M Chirenje, Rudo Makunike-Mutasa, Marshall Munjoma, Godfrey I Muguti
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of anal cancer; in the majority of cases this is linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Anal cancer screening is not routinely offered in Zimbabwe. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 152 patients (88 females; 64 males) attending Opportunistic Infection Clinics at 2 tertiary hospitals between November 2014 and June 2015. Demographic data, immunological parameters and behavioural characteristics were collected...
November 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Vanessa Er, Kaiseree Ioni Dias, Angeliki Papadaki, James White, Sian Wells, Dianne Stanton Ward, Chris Metcalfe, Russell Jago, Ruth Kipping
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood with detrimental effects on health. We aimed to examine the relationships of diet in childcare settings and daily physical activity (PA) of preschoolers with body mass index z-score (z-BMI). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 150 children aged 2-4-years participating in the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) UK study to examine the associations of their diet in childcare settings and daily PA with z-BMI...
November 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lena Faust, Sanni Yaya
BACKGROUND: As high stigmatization of HIV and relatively low knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention measures persist in Sub-Saharan Africa, the improvement of HIV-related knowledge, and the evaluation of which types of interventions are most effective in this regard, is an important aspect of further prevention efforts. In addition, it is of interest to assess whether improvements in HIV-related knowledge may actually lead to increased engagement in preventive behaviours and ultimately lower HIV transmission...
November 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Hanieh Malmir, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
In a recent issue of the BMC Public Health journal, Bian et al. described the results of an interesting meta-analysis on the association between dairy products consumption and risk of hip fracture. Although the results are important and valuable, some critical points should be noticed in the explanation of these findings. We prepared these critical points in a letter to the editor and hope to be an interest of you.
November 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Zilmar Augusto de Souza Filho, Alaidistânia Aparecida Ferreira, Juliano Dos Santos, Karina Cardoso Meira, Angela Maria Geraldo Pierin
BACKGROUND: The Brazilian indigenous population is currently undergoing a process of epidemiological transition regarding the occurrence of communicable diseases, malnutrition and non-communicable chronic diseases. Chronic non-infectious diseases are the most common causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, the main objective of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, with an emphasis on hypertension, in the Mura Indians living in the municipality of Autazes in the northern Brazilian state of Amazonas...
November 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Charlotte Renwick, Qi Wu, Magdalena Opazo Breton, Rebecca Thorley, John Britton, Sarah Lewis, Elena Ratschen, Steve Parrott
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke (SHS) causes numerous health problems in children such as asthma, respiratory tract infections and sudden infant death syndrome. The home is the main source of exposure to SHS for children, particularly for young children. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of a complex intervention designed to reduce SHS exposure of children whose primary caregiver feels unable or unwilling to quit smoking. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out alongside an open-label, parallel, randomised controlled trial in deprived communities in Nottingham, England...
November 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ebaa Al-Ozairi, Katie Ridge, Etab Taghadom, Nicole de Zoysa, Clare Tucker, Kurtis Stewart, Daniel Stahl, Khalida Ismail
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and suboptimal glycaemic control in Kuwait requires novel, wide-reaching, low-cost interventions to motivate and mobilise individuals towards more effective self-management. More than 2 million people in Kuwait own mobile phones. We will test whether automated personalised health text messages based on principles of motivational interviewing and are responsive to biodata delivered remotely is potentially effective in improving glycaemic control compared to usual care...
November 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Charli Eriksson, Birgitta Kimber, Therése Skoog
BACKGROUND: This research program aims to investigate the implementation and effects of a theoretically promising prevention method. It is being developed in a European research collaboration within a Comenius project (2012-2015) between 6 European universities (in Malta, Italy, Greece, Croatia, Portugal and Sweden) with the purpose of enhancing European children's resilience. METHODS/DESIGN: RESCUR in Sweden consists in a RCT study of the Resilience Curriculum (RESCUR) that is taking place in Sweden 2017-2019...
November 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Placidie Mugwaneza, Alexandre Lyambabaje, Aline Umubyeyi, James Humuza, Landry Tsague, Fabian Mwanyumba, Vincent Mutabazi, Sabin Nsanzimana, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Ange Irakoze, Emmanuel Mutaganzwa, Carl Lombard, Debra Jackson
BACKGROUND: In 2010, Rwanda adopted ART for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV from pregnant women living with HIV during pregnancy and breasfeeding period. This study examines rates of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV at 6-10 weeks postpartum and risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) among HIV infected women on ART during pregnancy and breastfeeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted between July 2011-June 2012 among HIV-exposed infants aged 6-10 weeks and their mothers/caregivers...
November 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kerri Coomber, Renee Zahnow, Jason Ferris, Nicolas Droste, Richelle Mayshak, Ashlee Curtis, Kypros Kypri, Dominique de Andrade, Kristy Grant, Tanya Chikritzhs, Robin Room, Heng Jiang, Nicholas Taylor, Jake Najman, Peter Miller
BACKGROUND: This study aims to explore short-term changes following the introduction of alcohol restrictions (most notably 2 am to 3 am last drinks). We examined patterns of nightlife attendance, intoxication, and alcohol use among patrons shortly before and after restrictions were introduced in Fortitude Valley, Brisbane: the largest night-time entertainment precinct of Queensland. METHODS: Street-intercept patron interviews were conducted in Fortitude Valley in June (n = 497) and July (n = 562) 2016...
November 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sinead Watson, Sophie E Moore, Momodou K Darboe, Gaoyun Chen, Yu-Kang Tu, Yi-Ting Huang, Kamilla G Eriksen, Robin M Bernstein, Andrew M Prentice, Christopher P Wild, Ya Xu, Michael N Routledge, Yun Yun Gong
BACKGROUND: Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin produced by fungi that commonly contaminates cereal crops across sub-Saharan Africa, has been associated with impaired child growth. We investigated the impact of aflatoxin exposure on the growth of Gambian infants from birth to two years of age, and the impact on insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis proteins. METHODS: A subsample (N = 374) of infants from the Early Nutrition and Immune Development (ENID) trial (ISRCTN49285450) were included in this study...
November 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
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