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BMC Psychiatry

Ting Zhou, Xue Li, Ye Pei, Jianan Gao, Junhui Kong
BACKGROUND: Subthreshold depression has a considerable impact on individuals' subjective well-being and psychosocial functioning and is a predictor of major depressive disorder. Internet-based cognitive behavioural treatments (iCBTs) have been used to reduce the symptoms of subthreshold depression. This meta-analysis aims to systematically review evidence indicating the efficacy of iCBT programs on the improvement of depressive symptoms in this population. METHODS: Articles published from January 2005 to July 2016 were searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PsycArticles and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Bushra Farah Nasir, Leanne Hides, Steve Kisely, Geetha Ranmuthugala, Geoffrey C Nicholson, Emma Black, Neeraj Gill, Srinivas Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Maree Toombs
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. METHOD: Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: 'suicide', 'gatekeeper', 'training', 'suicide prevention training', 'suicide intervention training' and 'Indigenous'...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Masanori Nagamine, Nahoko Harada, Jun Shigemura, Kosuke Dobashi, Makiko Yoshiga, Naoki Esaki, Miyuki Tanaka, Masaaki Tanichi, Aihide Yoshino, Kunio Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Defense Force workers engaged in disaster relief activities might suffer from strong psychological stress due to the tasks that they had been involved. We evaluated how living environments, work environments, and individual factors psychologically affect those who engaged in disaster relief activities. METHOD: Data generated with 1506 personnel engaged in the Great East Japan Earthquake relief activity were analyzed. Those who scored ≥25 points on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) were allocated into the high post-traumatic stress response (high-PTSR) group, and the high general psychological distress (high-GPD) group, respectively...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Sonja Rutten, Chris Vriend, Jan H Smit, Henk W Berendse, Adriaan W Hoogendoorn, Odile A van den Heuvel, Ysbrand D van der Werf
BACKGROUND: A disturbed circadian rhythm seems to be a causal factor in the occurrence of depressive disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The circadian rhythm can be restored with light. Therefore, Bright Light Therapy (BLT) might be a new treatment option for depression in PD patients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this double-blind controlled trial, 84 subjects with idiopathic PD are randomized to either BLT or a control light condition. The BLT condition emits white light with an intensity of 10,000 Lux, while the control device emits dim white light of 200 Lux, which is presumed to be too low to influence the circadian rhythm...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Wouter van Ballegooijen, Jeroen Ruwaard, Eirini Karyotaki, David D Ebert, Johannes H Smit, Heleen Riper
BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of mental health symptoms may influence the symptoms that it measures, i.e. assessment reactivity. In the field of depression, EMA reactivity has received little attention. We aim to investigate whether EMA of depressive symptoms induces assessment reactivity. Reactivity will be operationalised as an effect of EMA on depressive symptoms measured by a retrospective questionnaire, and, secondly, as a change in response rate and variance of the EMA ratings...
October 21, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Mahlet Fikreyesus, Matiwos Soboka, Garumma Tolu Feyissa
BACKGROUND: Psychotic relapse leads to repeated hospitalization and negatively affects the clinical prognosis of the patients. Information on prevalence of relapse among patients with psychotic disorders in Ethiopian setting is scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of relapse among patients with psychotic disorders attending services in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). METHODS: Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire...
October 20, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Paul L Plener, Marc Allroggen, Nestor D Kapusta, Elmar Brähler, Jörg M Fegert, Rebecca C Groschwitz
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a proposed new "condition for further study" in the DSM-5. To date no prevalence data has been available on this diagnostic entity from a representative sample of the general population. METHODS: A representative sample of the German population (N = 2509, mean age = 48.8 years, SD = 18.1, female 55.4 %) completed the NSSI section of the German version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI-G)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Alonso Montoya, Jeremie Lebrec, Karen Mary Keane, Irene Fregenal, Antonio Ciudad, Ángel Moríñigo, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Irene Romera, Inmaculada Gilaberte, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Goals of treating major depressive disorder (MDD) include achieving remission and avoiding relapse. It is possible that patients may have a broader view of remission than what is captured via clinician-rated scales. This patient perspective may, in turn, have an impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: The association between a broader conceptualization of remission, based on the Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) score at baseline, and being in symptomatic remission after 6 months was evaluated in subjects (N = 613) with MDD in symptomatic remission at baseline (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAMD-17] ≤7)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Shih-Cheng Liao, Wei-Lieh Huang, Huei-Mei Ma, Min-Tzu Lee, Tzu-Ting Chen, I-Ming Chen, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) in Taiwan, and to explore its relation to somatoform disorders (DSM-IV) and to somatic symptom and related disorders (DSM-5). METHODS: We recruited 471 individuals, 151 with somatoform disorders and 200 with somatic symptom and related disorders. Subjects completed the Chinese version of the PHQ-15, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and received a DSM-IV- and DSM-5-based diagnostic interview...
October 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Jennifer M Hensel, Jay Shaw, Lianne Jeffs, Noah M Ivers, Laura Desveaux, Ashley Cohen, Payal Agarwal, Walter P Wodchis, Joshua Tepper, Darren Larsen, Anita McGahan, Peter Cram, Geetha Mukerji, Muhammad Mamdani, Rebecca Yang, Ivy Wong, Nike Onabajo, Trevor Jamieson, R Sacha Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is a substantial and rising contributor to the global burden of disease. Access to and utilization of mental health care, however, is limited by structural barriers such as specialist availability, time, out-of-pocket costs, and attitudinal barriers including stigma. Innovative solutions like virtual care are rapidly entering the health care domain. The advancement and adoption of virtual care for mental health, however, often occurs in the absence of rigorous evaluation and adequate planning for sustainability and spread...
October 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Mark Haddad, Ahmed Waqas, Wahhaj Qayyum, Maryam Shams, Saad Malik
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders such as depression are common and rank as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Condition recognition and subsequent management of depression is variable and influenced by the attitudes and beliefs of clinicians as well as those of patients. Most studies examining health professionals' attitudes have been conducted in Western nations; this study explores beliefs and attitudes about depression among doctors working in Lahore, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 used a questionnaire concerning demographics, education in psychiatry, beliefs about depression causes, and attitudes about depression using the Revised Depression Attitude Questionnaire (R-DAQ)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Lone Baandrup, Ole Bernt Fasmer, Birte Yding Glenthøj, Poul Jørgen Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe mental illness often suffer from disruptions in circadian rest-activity cycles, which might partly be attributed to ongoing psychopharmacological medication. Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for prolonged periods despite recommendations of only short-term usage. Melatonin, a naturally occurring nocturnal hormone, has the potential to stabilize disrupted circadian rhythmicity. Our aim was to investigate how prolonged-release melatonin affects rest-activity patterns in medicated patients with severe mental illness and if benzodiazepine dose reduction is associated with changes in circadian rhythm parameters...
October 13, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Paula Kersten, Margaret Dudley, Shoba Nayar, Hinemoa Elder, Heather Robertson, Robyn Tauroa, Kathryn M McPherson
BACKGROUND: Screening children for behavioural difficulties requires the use of a tool that is culturally valid. We explored the cross-cultural acceptability and utility of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for pre-school children (aged 3-5) as perceived by families in New Zealand. METHODS: A qualitative interpretive descriptive study (focus groups and interviews) in which 65 participants from five key ethnic groups (New Zealand European, Māori, Pacific, Asian and other immigrant parents) took part...
October 12, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Deborah Mitchison, Lisa Dawson, Lucy Hand, Jonathan Mond, Phillipa Hay
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that changes in quality of life (QoL) predicts later changes in eating disorder (ED) symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore individual sufferers' perspectives on the influence of QoL on the onset, maintenance, and/or remission of ED symptoms. METHOD: 19 women from the community with a history of eating disorders (n = 13 currently symptomatic; n = 6 recovered) were interviewed about their observations on the relationship between QoL and ED symptoms over time in their own lives...
October 11, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Lamiece Hassan, Jane Senior, Roger T Webb, Martin Frisher, Mary P Tully, David While, Jenny J Shaw
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons...
October 10, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Edward Watkins, Alexandra Newbold, Michelle Tester-Jones, Mahmood Javaid, Jennifer Cadman, Linda M Collins, John Graham, Mohammod Mostazir
BACKGROUND: Depression is a global health challenge. Although there are effective psychological and pharmaceutical interventions, our best treatments achieve remission rates less than 1/3 and limited sustained recovery. Underpinning this efficacy gap is limited understanding of how complex psychological interventions for depression work. Recent reviews have argued that the active ingredients of therapy need to be identified so that therapy can be made briefer, more potent, and to improve scalability...
October 6, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Charis P Kaite, Maria N Karanikola, Foteini J D Vouzavali, Anna Koutroubas, Anastasios Merkouris, Elizabeth D E Papathanassoglou
BACKGROUND: Research evidence shows that healthcare professionals do not fully comprehend the difficulty involved in problems faced by people living with severe mental illness (SMI). As a result, mental health service consumers do not show confidence in the healthcare system and healthcare professionals, a problem related to the phenomenon of adherence to therapy. Moreover, the issue of unmet needs in treating individuals living with SMI is relared to their quality of life in a negative way...
October 6, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Manli Huang, Yi Huang, Liang Yu, Jianbo Hu, Jinkai Chen, Pingbo Jin, Weijuan Xu, Ning Wei, Shaohua Hu, Hongli Qi, Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore differences in links between negative symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in adolescent and adult patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by positive and negative symptoms, reduced emotional expression, excitatory status, and poor cognitive ability. The severity of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia was reported to be more related to poor quality of life, weak functional ability, and heavy burden from families than with the severity of positive symptoms...
October 6, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Yngvild S Danielsen, Guro Årdal Rekkedal, Stein Frostad, Ute Kessler
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder associated with a wide array of negative health complications and psychiatric comorbidity. Existing evidence for AN treatment in adults is weak, and no empirically supported treatment has been reliably established. The primary objective of this study is to gain knowledge about the effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for anorexia nervosa delivered in a public hospital setting. Baseline predictors of treatment outcome and dropout are studied...
October 5, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Varuni Asanka de Silva, Chathurie Suraweera, Suhashini S Ratnatunga, Madhubashinee Dayabandara, Nimali Wanniarachchi, Raveen Hanwella
BACKGROUND: Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn't been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. METHODS: All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015...
October 3, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
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