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BMC Psychiatry

Isabelle Dibu Mulango, Julius Atashili, Bradley N Gaynes, Tsi Njim
BACKGROUND: Mental health and mental illness are often overlooked in the management of patients in our health services. Depression is a common mental disorder worldwide. Recognising and managing mental illnesses such as depression by primary health care providers (PHCPs) is crucial. This study describes the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of PHCPs regarding depression in Fako Division. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among PHCPs (general practitioners, nurses, pharmacy attendants and social workers) in public-owned health facilities in the four health districts in Fako Division...
March 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Yuanhan Bai, Xi Yang, Zhiqiang Zeng, Haichen Yang
BACKGROUND: Ritualistic behaviors are common in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), while catatonic stupor occasionally occurs in psychotic or mood disorders. Schizoaffective disorder is a specific mental disorder involving both psychotic and affective symptoms. The syndrome usually represents a specific diagnosis, as in the case of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) or the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)...
March 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Kristin Gustavson, Ann Kristin Knudsen, Ragnar Nesvåg, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Stein Emil Vollset, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders often have onset early in life, contribute substantially to the global disease burden, and may interfere with young people's ability to complete age-relevant tasks in important developmental periods. However, knowledge about prevalence and course of mental disorders in young adulthood is sparse. The aim of the current study was to estimate prevalence and stability of mental disorders from the twenties to the thirties/forties. METHODS: DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two waves (1999-2004 and 2010-2011) in 1623 young adult Norwegian twins (63...
March 12, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Sumaya Mall, Philippe Mortier, Lian Taljaard, Janine Roos, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner
BACKGROUND: College students are at risk of depression. This risk may be increased by the experience of childhood adversity and/or recent stressors. This study examined the association between reported experiences of childhood adversity, recent stressors and depression during the last 12 months in a cohort of South African university students. METHODS: Six hundred and eighty-six first year students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa completed a health-focused e-survey that included items on childhood adversity, recent stressors and mood...
March 9, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Sarah Toner, Megan Cassidy, Agnes Chevalier, Aida Farreny, Monica Leverton, Mariana Pinto da Costa, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Befriending has become a widely used method for tackling social isolation in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI), and evidence exists to support its effectiveness. However, patient preferences for befriending remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether patients with SMI want a volunteer befriender and, if so, the volunteer characteristics and character of the relationship they would prefer. METHODS: A survey of outpatients was conducted across London-based community mental health teams, for individuals diagnosed with affective or psychotic disorders...
March 9, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Kuan-Yu Chu, Chih-Yang Huang, Wen-Chen Ouyang
BACKGROUND: There are currently no systematic reviews or meta-analyses of Chinese calligraphy therapy (CCT) to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of CCT for people with neuropsychiatric symptoms. METHODS: We searched Chinese and English databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Wanfang Data for relevant articles published between the earliest year available and December 2016...
March 7, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Emily C Baron, Sujit D Rathod, Charlotte Hanlon, Martin Prince, Abebaw Fedaku, Fred Kigozi, Mark Jordans, Nagendra P Luitel, Girmay Medhin, Vaibhav Murhar, Juliet Nakku, Vikram Patel, Inge Petersen, One Selohilwe, Rahul Shidhaye, Joshua Ssebunnya, Mark Tomlinson, Crick Lund, Mary De Silva
BACKGROUND: The Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) sought to implement mental health care plans (MHCP) for four priority mental disorders (depression, alcohol use disorder, psychosis and epilepsy) into routine primary care in five low- and middle-income country districts. The impact of the MHCPs on disability was evaluated through establishment of priority disorder treatment cohorts. This paper describes the methodology of these PRIME cohorts. METHODS: One cohort for each disorder was recruited across some or all five districts: Sodo (Ethiopia), Sehore (India), Chitwan (Nepal), Dr...
March 6, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Muna Bhattarai, Khomapak Maneewat, Wipa Sae-Sia
BACKGROUND: One of many types of injuries following an earthquake is spinal cord injury (SCI) which is a life-long medically complex injury and high-cost health problem. Despite several negative consequences, some persons with SCI are resilient enough to achieve positive adjustment, greater acceptance, and better quality of life. Since resilience is influenced by several factors and can vary by context, it is beneficial to explore factors that affect the resilience of people who sustained spinal cord injury from the 2015 earthquake in Nepal...
March 2, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Derek Richards, Daniel Duffy, Brid Blackburn, Caroline Earley, Angel Enrique, Jorge Palacios, Matthew Franklin, Gabriella Clarke, Sarah Sollesse, Sarah Connell, Ladislav Timulak
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common mental health disorders worldwide. The UK's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme is part of the National Health Service (NHS) designed to provide a stepped care approach to treating people with anxiety and depressive disorders. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is widely used, with computerised and internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT and iCBT, respectively) being a suitable IAPT approved treatment alternative for step 2, low- intensity treatment...
March 2, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Anthony F Jorm, Anna M Ross, Erminia Colucci
BACKGROUND: A number of Delphi expert consensus studies have been carried out with different countries and cultural groups to develop guidelines on how a member of the public should provide assistance to a person who is suicidal. The present study aimed to determine whether cross-culturally generalizable suicide first aid actions are possible by comparing agreement across these Delphi studies. METHODS: Data on endorsement rates for items were compared across six Delphi studies...
March 1, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Manuel Föcker, Jochen Antel, Corinna Grasemann, Dagmar Führer, Nina Timmesfeld, Dana Öztürk, Triinu Peters, Anke Hinney, Johannes Hebebrand, Lars Libuda
BACKGROUND: Depression is a significant health and economic burden worldwide affecting not only adults but also children and adolescents. Current treatment options for this group are scarce and show moderate effect sizes. There is emerging evidence that dietary patterns and specific nutritional components might play a role in the risk for developing depression. This study protocol focusses on the role of vitamin D which is for long known to be relevant for calcium and phosphorous homeostasis and bone health but might also impact on mental health...
March 1, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Clare C W Yu, Simpson W L Wong, Farica S F Lo, Raymond C H So, Dorothy F Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal physical activity levels and tolerance, poor motor skills and poor physical health are demonstrated in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We speculate that social interaction and communication deficits in children with ASD are two major factors that hinder these children from actively participating in group physical activities. While previous studies have demonstrated that exercise intervention improves motor skills and behavioral outcomes in children with ASD, these programs tend to focus only on a single sport, which may not cater to the interests of different children with ASD...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Jurgen Cornelis, Ansam Barakat, Jack Dekker, Tessy Schut, Sandra Berk, Hans Nusselder, Nikander Ruhl, Jeroen Zoeteman, Rien Van, Aartjan Beekman, Matthijs Blankers
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is a common method to intensify care for patients experiencing a psychiatric crisis. A short-term, specialised, out-patient crisis intervention by a Crisis Resolution Team (CRT) in the Netherlands, called Intensive Home Treatment (IHT), is a viable intervention which may help reduce hospital admission days. However, research on the (cost-)effectiveness of alternatives to hospitalisation such as IHT are scarce. In the study presented in this protocol, IHT will be compared to care-as-usual (CAU) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Tomas Fagerberg, Erik Söderman, J Petter Gustavsson, Ingrid Agartz, Erik G Jönsson
BACKGROUND: Personality is considered as an important aspect in persons with psychotic disorders. Several studies have investigated personality in schizophrenia. However, no study has investigated stability of personality traits exceeding three years in patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the stability of personality traits over a five-year period among patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic individuals and to evaluate case-control differences. METHODS: Patients with psychotic disorders (n = 36) and non-psychotic individuals (n = 76) completed Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) at two occasions five years apart...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Alicia Salamanca-Sanabria, Derek Richards, Ladislav Timulak, Leónidas Castro-Camacho, Mónica Mojica-Perilla, Yamilena Parra-Villa
BACKGROUND: Depression is the principal cause of disability in the world. High prevalence rates of depression in general populations and college students have been found worldwide and in various cultural groups. Low-intensity cognitive behavioural internet-delivered treatment has demonstrated efficacy in high-income-countries (HICs). However little is known of their potential for adaptation and efficacy in low and middle-income countries. METHODS: Study (1) involves the cultural adaptation of the Space from Depression cognitive-behaviour internet-delivered programme with an asynchronous support for depressive symptoms...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Rahel Hoffmann, Julia Große, Michaela Nagl, Dietger Niederwieser, Anja Mehnert, Anette Kersting
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of the individuals experiencing the death of a loved one develop prolonged grief disorder (PGD) after bereavement. Family members of haematological cancer patients might be particularly burdened since their loss experience is preceded by a very strenuous time of disease and aggressive treatment. However, support needs of relatives of cancer patients often remain unmet, also after the death of the patient. Therapeutic possibilities are enhanced by providing easily available and accessible Internet-based therapies...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Daniel Flynn, Mary Kells, Mary Joyce, Catalina Suarez, Conall Gillespie
BACKGROUND: In the Republic of Ireland, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a feature of approximately 11-20% of clinical presentations to outpatient clinics within mental health services. These estimates are similar to other countries including the UK and USA. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is an intervention with a growing body of evidence that demonstrates its efficacy in treating individuals diagnosed with BPD. While a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of DBT, there is limited research which evaluates the effectiveness of this model when applied to real world settings...
February 26, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Zuojie Zhang, Lingli Zhang, Guorong Zhang, Jianing Jin, Zhenyang Zheng
BACKGROUND: The risk of relapse in major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with high worldwide disease burden. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and its modifications might be effective in relapse prevention. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments for reducing relapse of MDD. METHODS: The retrieval was performed in the databases of MEDLINE via Pubmed, EMBASE and PsycINFO via OVID, The Cochrane Library and four Chinese databases...
February 23, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Felix Akpojene Ogbo, John Eastwood, Alexandra Hendry, Bin Jalaludin, Kingsley E Agho, Bryanne Barnett, Andrew Page
BACKGROUND: Depression is a leading source of morbidity and health loss in Australian women. This study investigates the determinants of antenatal depressive symptoms and postnatal depressive symptoms in an Australian population, including people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. METHOD: The study used a retrospective cohort of mothers of all live births in public health facilities in 2014 (N = 17,564) within South Western Sydney Local Health District and Sydney Local Health District in New South Wales, Australia...
February 20, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Richard F Armenta, Toni Rush, Cynthia A LeardMann, Jeffrey Millegan, Adam Cooper, Charles W Hoge
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can have long-term and far-reaching impacts on health and social and occupational functioning. This study examined factors associated with persistent PTSD among U.S. service members and veterans. METHODS: Using baseline and follow-up (2001-2013) questionnaire data collected approximately every 3 years from the Millennium Cohort Study, multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with persistent PTSD...
February 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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