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BMC Infectious Diseases

Aura Falco, Yusibeska Ramos, Esther Franco, Alegría Guzmán, Howard Takiff
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have been isolated in many hospitals in Venezuela, but they have not been well-studied. The aim of this study was to characterize carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from the pediatric service of a hospital located in Anzoategui State, in the eastern part of Venezuela...
October 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Bao-Zhong Zhang, Jianpiao Cai, Bin Yu, Yanhong Hua, Candy Choiyi Lau, Richard Yi-Tsun Tsun Kao, Kong-Hung Sze, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Jian-Dong Huang
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) constitutes a great majority of hospital diarrhea cases in industrialized countries and is induced by two types of large toxin molecules: toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Development of immunotherapeutic approaches, either active or passive, has seen a resurgence in recent years. Studies have described vaccine plasmids that express either TcdA and/or TcdB receptor binding domain (RBD). However, the effectiveness of one vector encoding both toxin RBDs against CDAD has not been evaluated...
October 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zachary Tanner, Nathan Lachowsky, Erin Ding, Hasina Samji, Mark Hull, Angela Cescon, Sophie Patterson, Jason Chia, Alia Leslie, Janet Raboud, Mona Loutfy, Curtis Cooper, Marina Klein, Nima Machouf, Christos Tsoukas, Julio Montaner, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to dramatically decrease progression to AIDS, premature death and HIV transmission. However, there are no comprehensive data regarding combination antiretroviral therapy outcomes among this population. We sought to identify socio-demographic and clinical correlates of viral suppression and rebound. METHODS: Our analysis included MSM participants in the Canadian Observational Cohort, a multi-site cohort of HIV-positive adults from Canada's three most populous provinces, aged ≥18 years who first initiated combination antiretroviral therapy between 2000 and 2011...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Larry D Teeter, Padmaja Vempaty, Duc T M Nguyen, Jane Tapia, Sharon Sharnprapai, Smita Ghosh, J Steven Kammerer, Roque Miramontes, Wendy A Cronin, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: Tracking the dissemination of specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains using genotyped Mtb isolates from tuberculosis patients is a routine public health practice in the United States. The present study proposes a standardized cluster investigation method to identify epidemiologic-linked patients in Mtb genotype clusters. The study also attempts to determine the proportion of epidemiologic-linked patients the proposed method would identify beyond the outcome of the conventional contact investigation...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Minh D Pham, Paul A Agius, Lorena Romero, Peter McGlynn, David Anderson, Suzanne M Crowe, Stanley Luchters
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing increases patient accessibility to assessment of antiretroviral therapy eligibility. This review evaluates field performance in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) of currently available POC CD4 technologies. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were searched for field studies published between January 2005 and January 2015 of six POC CD4 platforms: PointCare NOW™, Alere Pima™ CD4, Daktari™ CD4 Counter, CyFlow® CD4 miniPOC, BD FACSPresto™, and MyT4™ CD4...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marco Gelpi, Hans J Hartling, Kristina Thorsteinsson, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic primary HIV infection is associated with an adverse prognosis, and immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is recommended. However, little is known about immunological predictors of immune recovery. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that promotes CD4+ T cells homeostatic polyclonal proliferation and regulates Th17/regulatory T-cell balance, immunological functions known to be affected during primary HIV infection. The aim of this study was to describe immune recovery in primary and chronic HIV infection and possible impact of TSLP...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Fawziah Marra, Mei Chong, Mehdi Najafzadeh
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown an increasing incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) infection, which may be related to the introduction of varicella vaccination programs in children. We examined the epidemiology and treatment costs of HZ and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) over time in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The cohort consisted of all cases with HZ infection from January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2012. Incident zoster was defined as a case (ICD-9 053 or ICD-10 B02) without a previous episode of HZ or PHN in the previous 12 months...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Insa Joost, Johannes Steinfurt, Philipp T Meyer, Winfried V Kern, Siegbert Rieg
BACKGROUND: Ustekinumab (Stelara®), a human monoclonal antibody targeting the p40-subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, is indicated for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. In large multicenter, prospective trials assessing efficacy and safety of ustekinumab increased rates of severe infections have not been observed so far. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 64-year old woman presenting with chills, pain and swelling of her right foot with dark maculae at the sole, and elevated inflammatory markers...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Songyuan Tang, Weiming Tang, Kathrine Meyers, Polin Chan, Zhongdan Chen, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Despite global efforts to control HIV among key populations, new infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) individuals are still increasing. The increasing HIV epidemic among MSM/TG in China indicates that more effective services are urgently needed. However, policymakers and program managers must have a clear understanding of MSM/TG sexual health in China to improve service delivery. To meet this need, we undertook a scoping review to summarize HIV epidemiology and responses among MSM and TG individuals in China...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sebastien Breurec, Coralie Bouchiat, Jean-Marie Sire, Olivier Moquet, Raymond Bercion, Moussa Fafa Cisse, Philippe Glaser, Ousmane Ndiaye, Sidy Ka, Helene Salord, Abdoulaye Seck, Haby Signate Sy, Remy Michel, Benoit Garin
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal's most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. METHODS: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hui-Ling Deng, Yu-Feng Zhang, Ya-Ping Li, Yu Zhang, Yan Xie, Jun Wang, Xiao-Yan Wang, Shuang-Suo Dang
BACKGROUND: Severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is sometimes associated with serious complications such as acute heart failure that can cause substantial child mortality. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a sensitive and specific biomarker of congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to use plasma NT-proBNP levels to establish the severity of childhood HFMD. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 128 Chinese patients with severe HFMD and 88 patients with mild HFMD treated between January 2014 and October 2015...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Glennah Kerubo, Evans Amukoye, Stefan Niemann, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is an emerging health problem in Kenya and especially in slums. Slum environments create a conducive environment for the spread of tuberculosis (TB) due to high population density and lack of basic amenities such as decent housing, access to clean water, lack of drainage and basic sanitation. Furthermore, ineffective health services in crowded and poorer populations, poor patient compliance, a large pool of untreated cases, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment regimens are likely to favour selection and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains in such settings, however, precise data on this problem are only sparsely available...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Frank Günther, Uta Merle, Uwe Frank, Matthias M Gaida, Nico T Mutters
BACKGROUND: Achromobacter xylosoxidans (AX) is known for intrinsic resistance to disinfectants. Our laboratory routine surveillance system detected an unexpected rise in AX bloodstream infections in a 2200-bed hospital. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to find the source and disrupt further transmission. METHODS: Outbreak cases were defined as patients with at least one positive blood culture positive for AX from May 2014 to May 2015. Medical records were reviewed, affected wards, as well as the microbiology laboratory were audited...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Aniruddha More, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Ravi Uniyal
BACKGROUND: Acute vision loss in the post-partum period can occur due to many reasons. Eclampsia, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), pituitary apoplexy, and central serous retinopathy are some of the important causes. Cryptococcal meningitis as a cause of acute vision loss in the post-partum period has not been mentioned in literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old female presented to us with acute bilateral complete vision loss in the post-partum period...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Chun-Yuan Lee, Calvin M Kunin, Chung Chang, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Yao-Shen Chen, Hung-Chin Tsai
BACKGROUND: Cellulitis is a common infectious disease. Although blood culture is frequently used in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of cellulitis, it is a contentious diagnostic test. To help clinicians determine which patients should undergo blood culture for the management of cellulitis, a diagnostic scoring system referred to as the Bacteremia Score of Cellulitis was developed. METHODS: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed as part of a retrospective cohort study of all adults diagnosed with cellulitis in a tertiary teaching hospital in Taiwan in 2013...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nguyen Duc Bang, Maxine Caws, Thai Thanh Truc, Tran Ngoc Duong, Nguyen Huy Dung, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Guy E Thwaites, Doortje Heemskerk, Joel Tarning, Laura Merson, Pham Van Toi, Jeremy J Farrar, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Pouplin, Jeremy N Day
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis in adults is well characterized in Vietnam, but there are no data on the disease in children. We present a prospective descriptive study of Vietnamese children with TBM to define the presentation, course and characteristics associated with poor outcome. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study of 100 consecutively admitted children with TBM at Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City. Cox and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with risk of death and a combined endpoint of death or disability at treatment completion...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
James C Hurley
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter species such as Acinetobacter baumanii are of increasing concern in association with ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). In the ICU, Acinetobacter infections are known to be subject to seasonal variation but the extent of geographic variation is unclear. The objective here is to define the extent and possible reasons for geographic variation for Acinetobacter associated VAP whether or not these isolates are reported as Acinetobacter baumanii. METHODS: A meta-regression model of VAP associated Acinetobacter incidence within the published literature was undertaken using random effects methods...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie, Osei Kuffour Afreh, George Khumalo Kuma, Godfred Owusu-Okyere, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Archibald Kwame Worwui, Catherine Okoi, Madikay Senghore, Jacob Kweku Otu, Chinelo Ebruke, Richard Bannerman, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, David Opare, Gemma Kay, Timothy Letsa, Owen Kaluwa, Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, Victor Bampoe, Syed M A Zaman, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jason M Mwenda, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of pneumococcal meningitis among non-infant children and adults occurred in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana between December 2015 and April 2016 despite the recent nationwide implementation of a vaccination programme for infants with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients with suspected meningitis in the Brong-Ahafo region. CSF specimens were subjected to Gram staining, culture and rapid antigen testing...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Constanze Ciavarella, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Merler, Ciro Cattuto, Marco Ajelli
BACKGROUND: Nearly every year Influenza affects most countries worldwide and the risk of a new pandemic is always present. Therefore, influenza is a major concern for public health. School-age individuals are often the most affected group, suggesting that the inclusion in preparedness plans of school closure policies may represent an option for influenza mitigation. However, their applicability remains uncertain and their implementation should carefully be weighed on the basis of cost-benefit considerations...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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