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BMC Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651629/risk-factors-person-place-and-time-characteristics-associated-with-hepatitis-e-virus-outbreak-in-napak-district-uganda
#1
Geofrey Amanya, Samuel Kizito, Immaculate Nabukenya, Joan Kalyango, Collins Atuheire, Hellen Nansumba, Stephen Akena Abwoye, Denis Nixon Opio, Edrisa Kibuuka, Charles Karamagi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E is self-limiting, but can cause death in most at risk groups like pregnant women and those with preexisting acute liver disease. In developing countries it presents as epidemic, in 2014 Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) outbreak was reported in Napak district Uganda. The role of factors in this setting that might have propagated this HEV epidemic, including host, agent, and environmental characteristics, were still not clear. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the risk factors, person, place and time characteristics, associated with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) epidemic in Napak district...
June 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651525/sofia-%C3%A2-rsv-prospective-laboratory-evaluation-and-implementation-of-a-rapid-diagnostic-test-in-a-pediatric-emergency-ward
#2
Léa C Tran, Céline Tournus, Julia Dina, Rémy Morello, Jacques Brouard, Astrid Vabret
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is responsible for severe respiratory infections and higher costs in medical care. The two aims of this work were to assess the performances of SOFIA(®)RSV tests in "real-life-laboratory" conditions (study 1) and implemented at point-of-care testing in a pediatric emergency department (ED, study 2), during two consecutive winter seasons. METHODS: In study 1, fresh nasopharyngeal swabs from patients of all ages were sampled in 1...
June 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651522/the-role-of-enterococcus-spp-and-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-causing-pyogenic-liver-abscesses
#3
Marcus M Mücke, Johanna Kessel, Victoria T Mücke, Katharina Schwarzkopf, Michael Hogardt, Christoph Stephan, Stefan Zeuzem, Volkhard A J Kempf, Christian M Lange
BACKGROUND: Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) remain a significant clinical problem. Unfortunately, little is known about current bacterial susceptibility profiles and the incidence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) causing PLA in Western countries. Yet, this crucial information is pivotal to guide empirical antibiotic therapy. Aim of this study was to provide detailed characteristics of PLA with a special focus on underlying bacterial pathogens and their susceptibility to antibiotics...
June 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646854/treatment-delay-and-fatal-outcomes-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-advanced-age-a-retrospective-nationwide-cohort-study
#4
Chih-Hsin Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Hsien-Chun Lin, Pai-Yang Lin, Jer-Hwa Chang, Chi-Won Suk, Li-Na Lee, Chou-Chin Lan, Kuan-Jen Bai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies focusing on pulmonary tuberculosis in advanced age (≥80 years) are lacking. This study aimed to explore treatment delay, outcomes and their predictors in this group. METHODS: Adult (≥20 years) patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 2004 to 2009. Treatment completion and mortality rates were noted at one year after treatment. RESULTS: Among the 81,081 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis identified, 13,923 (17...
June 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645322/erratum-to-trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-of-bloodstream-infections-at-a-general-hospital-in-mid-norway-a-prospective-observational-study
#5
Arne Mehl, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Angela Kümmel, Stian Lydersen, Julie Paulsen, Ingvild Haugan, Erik Solligård, Jan Kristian Damås, Stig Harthug, Tom-Harald Edna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645266/poorer-outcomes-among-cancer-patients-diagnosed-with-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-united-states-community-hospitals
#6
Andrew Delgado, Ivan A Reveles, Felicia T Cabello, Kelly R Reveles
BACKGROUND: Cancer predisposes patients to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to health care exposures and medications that disrupt the gut microbiota or reduce immune response. Despite this association, the national rate of CDI among cancer patients is unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear how CDI affects clinical outcomes in cancer. The objective of this study was to describe CDI incidence and health outcomes nationally among cancer patients in the United States (U.S.). METHODS: Data for this study were obtained from the U...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#7
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645256/socioeconomic-status-is-associated-with-symptom-severity-and-sickness-absence-in-people-with-infectious-intestinal-disease-in-the-uk
#8
Tanith C Rose, Natalie L Adams, Benjamin Barr, Jeremy Hawker, Sarah J O'Brien, Mara Violato, Margaret Whitehead, David C Taylor-Robinson
BACKGROUND: The burden of infectious intestinal disease (IID) in the UK is substantial. Negative consequences including sickness absence are common, but little is known about the social patterning of these outcomes, or the extent to which they relate to disease severity. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis using IID cases identified from a large population-based survey, to explore the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and symptom severity and sickness absence; and to assess the role of symptom severity on the relationship between SES and absence...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645255/haemoglobin-changes-and-risk-of-anaemia-following-treatment-for-uncomplicated-falciparum-malaria-in-sub-saharan-africa
#9
Julien Zwang, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jean-Louis Ndiaye, Abdoulaye A Djimdé, Grant Dorsey, Andreas A Mårtensson, Corine Karema, Piero L Olliaro
BACKGROUND: Anaemia is common in malaria. It is important to quantitate the risk of anaemia and to distinguish factors related to the natural history of disease from potential drug toxicity. METHODS: Individual-patient data analysis based on nine randomized controlled trials of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria from 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Risk factors for reduced haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anaemia on presentation and after treatment were analysed using mixed effect models...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645254/comparing-self-and-provider-collected-swabbing-for-hpv-dna-testing-in-female-to-male-transgender-adult-patients-a-mixed-methods-biobehavioral-study-protocol
#10
Sari L Reisner, Madeline B Deutsch, Sarah M Peitzmeier, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Timothy Cavanaugh, Dana J Pardee, Sarah McLean, Elliot J Marrow, Matthew J Mimiaga, Lori Panther, Marcy Gelman, Jamison Green, Jennifer Potter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer, nearly all cases of which are caused by one of several high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (hr-HPV), leads to significant morbidity and mortality in individuals with a cervix. Trans masculine (TM) individuals were born with female reproductive organs and identify as male, man, transgender man, or another diverse gender identity different from their female assigned sex at birth. Routine preventive sexual health screening of TM patients is recommended, including screening for cervical cancer and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, as many as one in three TM patients are not up-to-date per recommended U...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641577/a-case-report-of-septic-shock-syndrome-caused-by-s-pneumoniae-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-despite-of-vaccination
#11
Josef Singer, Christoph Testori, Peter Schellongowski, Ammon Handisurya, Catharina Müller, Eva-Maria Reitter, Wolfgang Graninger, Paul Knöbl, Thomas Staudinger, Stefan Winkler, Florian Thalhammer
BACKGROUND AND CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of septic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a patient who had undergone splenectomy due to an autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is characterized as a dysfunction of immunoregulation. Although the patient was vaccinated with a conjugated polysaccharide vaccine after the splenectomy, he was still susceptible to S. pneumoniae infection, because the isolated serovar (24F), a serovar long thought to be apathogenic, is not covered by any vaccine currently approved, neither a conjugated nor an unconjugated polysaccharide one...
June 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633639/fusobacterial-liver-abscess-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Dilip Jayasimhan, Linus Wu, Paul Huggan
BACKGROUND: Fusobacteriae are facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli which cause a range of invasive infections, amongst which pyogenic liver abscesses are rare. We describe a case of Fusobacterium nucleatum liver abscess and review the relevant literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old lady presented with a 4-day history of abdominal pain, diarrhoea, fever, rigors, and lethargy. Imaging revealed an abscess which was drained. Cultures of the blood and abscess aspirate grew Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella pleuritidis respectively...
June 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633630/clinical-characteristics-of-acute-hepatitis-a-outbreak-in-taiwan-2015-2016-observations-from-a-tertiary-medical-center
#13
Nan-Yu Chen, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Shian-Sen Shie, Tsung-Hsing Chen, Ting-Shu Wu
BACKGROUND: Acute hepatitis A is a fecal-oral transmitted disease related to inadequate sanitary conditions. In addition to its traditional classification, several outbreaks in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population have resulted in acute hepatitis A being recognized as a sexually transmitted disease. However, few studies have clarified the clinical manifestations in these outbreaks involving the MSM population. METHODS: Beginning in June 2015, there was an outbreak of acute hepatitis A involving the MSM population in Northern Taiwan...
June 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629459/antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-within-seven-days-of-enrolment-outcomes-and-time-to-undetectable-viral-load-among-children-at-an-urban-hiv-clinic-in-uganda
#14
Rogers Ssebunya, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Heather Lukolyo, Milton Mutto, Grace Kisitu, Pauline Amuge, Albert Maganda, Adeodata Kekitiinwa
BACKGROUND: Viral suppression is a critical indicator of HIV treatment success. In the era of test-and-start, little is known about treatment outcomes and time to undetectable viral loads. This study compares treatment outcomes, median times to achieve undetectable viral loads and its predictors under different antiretroviral (ART) treatment initiation schedules (i.e. within seven days of enrolment or later). METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 367 patients <18 years who enrolled in care between January 2010 and December 2015 with a baseline viral load of >5000 copies/ml were followed up for 60 months...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629439/msm-hiv-testing-following-an-online-testing-intervention-in-china
#15
Ngai Sze Wong, Weiming Tang, Larry Han, John Best, Ye Zhang, Shujie Huang, Heping Zheng, Bin Yang, Chongyi Wei, Stephen W Pan, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Scaling up HIV testing is the first step in the HIV treatment continuum which is important for controlling the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Following an online HIV testing intervention among MSM, we aim to examine sociodemographic and spatial factors associated with HIV testing. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis on data from an online HIV testing intervention among MSM who had never-tested for HIV. The survey was distributed through online networks connected to all provinces and regions of China...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629426/development-and-validation-of-a-prognostic-scoring-model-for-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-an-observational-cohort-study
#16
Shogo Kumagai, Akihiro Ito, Toru Hashimoto, Satoshi Marumo, Hironobu Tokumasu, Aya Kotani, Haruka Yamaki, Masahiro Shirata, Koji Furuuchi, Motonari Fukui, Tadashi Ishida
BACKGROUND: Patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease (LD) have a heterogeneous prognosis. This study aimed to develop and validate a prognostic scoring model for these patients using independent risk factors for survival. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with MAC-LD from two hospitals (cohort 1, n = 368; cohort 2, n = 118). Cohort 1 was evaluated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to identify independent risk factors for overall survival (OS)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629395/early-experiences-from-one-of-the-first-treatment-programs-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Hanna Aberra, Hailemichael Desalegn, Nega Berhe, Girmay Medhin, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is virtually absent in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we present early experiences from a pilot program for treatment of CHB in Ethiopia. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) with CHB were included in a cohort study at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, from February 2015. The baseline assessment included liver function tests, viral markers and transient elastography (Fibroscan 402, Echosense, France)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629333/efficacy-of-ultra-short-course-chemotherapy-for-new-smear-positive-drug-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-study-protocol-of-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
Mengqiu Gao, Jingtao Gao, Jian Du, Yuhong Liu, Yao Zhang, Liping Ma, Fengling Mi, Liang Li, Shenjie Tang
BACKGROUND: Shortening the standard 6-month treatment for drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (DS-PTB) would be a major improvement for TB case management and disease control. METHODS: We are conducting a randomized, open-label, controlled, non-inferiority trial involving patients with smear-positive, newly diagnosed DS-PTB cases nationwide to assess the efficacy and safety of two 4.5- month regimens in comparison to the standard 6-month WHO recommended regimen...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623882/peripheral-venous-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-is-associated-with-severe-complications-and-potential-death-a-retrospective-observational-study
#19
Akihiro Sato, Itaru Nakamura, Hiroaki Fujita, Ayaka Tsukimori, Takehito Kobayashi, Shinji Fukushima, Takeshi Fujii, Tetsuya Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of peripheral vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections (PVC-BSIs) and determine the risk of severe complications or death. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study from June 2010 to April 2015 at two regional university-affiliated hospitals in Tokyo. We studied the clinical manifestations, underlying diseases, laboratory results, treatment methods, recurrence rates, and complications in 62 hospitalized patients diagnosed with PVC-BSIs by positive blood cultures...
June 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622763/treatment-decisions-and-mortality-in-hiv-positive-presumptive-smear-negative-tb-in-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-era-a-cohort-study
#20
Sabine M Hermans, Juliet A Babirye, Olive Mbabazi, Francis Kakooza, Robert Colebunders, Barbara Castelnuovo, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: The Xpert™ MTB/RIF (XP) has a higher sensitivity than sputum smear microscopy (70% versus 35%) for TB diagnosis and has been endorsed by the WHO for TB high burden countries to increase case finding among HIV co-infected presumptive TB patients. Its impact on the diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a routine care setting is unclear. We determined the change in diagnosis, treatment and mortality of smear-negative presumptive TB with routine use of Xpert MTB/RIF (XP). METHODS: Prospective cohort study of HIV-positive smear-negative presumptive TB patients during a 12-month period after XP implementation in a well-staffed and trained integrated TB/HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda...
June 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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