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BMC Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525973/varicella-zoster-virus-seroprevalence-in-children-and-adolescents-in-the-pre-varicella-vaccine-era-germany
#1
Miriam Wiese-Posselt, Anette Siedler, Annette Mankertz, Andreas Sauerbrei, Hartmut Hengel, Ole Wichmann, Christina Poethko-Müller
BACKGROUND: In 2004, universal childhood varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany. We aimed to determine the age-specific prevalence of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG-antibodies among children in the pre-varicella vaccine era in Germany, to identify factors associated with VZV seropositivity, and to assess the suitability of a commercially available ELISA for VZV seroepidemiological studies by comparing it with an in-house fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test (FAMA) as the gold standard...
May 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525965/erratum-to-precision-of-the-kalon-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-igg-elisa-an-international-inter-laboratory-assessment
#2
Eshan U Patel, Jordyn Manucci, Erin M Kahle, Jairam R Lingappa, Rhoda Ashley Morrow, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Anelet James, Kwitaka F Maluzi, Maina M Cheeba, Glenda Gray, Barry Kosloff, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Mubiana Inambao, Bellington Vwalika, Thomas C Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521833/hiv-infection-hypercoagulability-and-ischaemic-stroke-in-adults-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-in-zambia-a-case-control-study
#3
Stanley Zimba, Patrice Mukomena Ntanda, Shabir Lakhi, Masharip Atadzhanov
BACKGROUND: In Zambia, 14.2% of adults have HIV/AIDS. There has been a substantial and significant increase in patients hospitalized for ischaemic stroke with co-existing HIV infection. However, little is known about the mechanism of stroke in these HIV + ve patients let alone studied in our region. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the association of hypercoagulability state in HIV + ve patients with ischaemic stroke. This was achieved by comparing hypercoagulability state markers between HIV + ve ischaemic stroke patients with HIV-ve and HIV + ve patients with and without ischaemic stroke respectively...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521810/estimation-of-the-burden-of-varicella-in-europe-before-the-introduction-of-universal-childhood-immunization
#4
Margarita Riera-Montes, Kaatje Bollaerts, Ulrich Heininger, Niel Hens, Giovanni Gabutti, Angel Gil, Bayad Nozad, Grazina Mirinaviciute, Elmira Flem, Audrey Souverain, Thomas Verstraeten, Susanne Hartwig
BACKGROUND: Varicella is generally considered a mild disease. Disease burden is not well known and country-level estimation is challenging. As varicella disease is not notifiable, notification criteria and rates vary between countries. In general, existing surveillance systems do not capture cases that do not seek medical care, and most are affected by underreporting and underascertainment. We aimed to estimate the overall varicella disease burden in Europe to provide critical information to support decision-making regarding varicella vaccination...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521786/role-of-routine-abdominal-ultrasonography-in-intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-algorithms-at-hiv-clinics-in-high-tb-burden-settings
#5
Sonam Spalgais, Upasna Agarwal, Rohit Sarin, Devesh Chauhan, Anita Yadav, Anand Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: High proportion of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is undiagnosed. Due to this active TB case finding is recommended for HIV clinics in high TB burden countries. Presently sputum examination and chest radiography are frontline tests recommended for HIV infected TB presumptives. Abdominal TB which occurs frequently in PLHIV may be missed even by existing programmatic intensified case finding protocols. This study evaluated the routine use of ultrasonography (USG) for active case finding of abdominal TB in HIV clinics...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521744/determination-of-the-sources-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-salmonella-isolated-from-the-poultry-industry-in-southern-ethiopia
#6
Reta Duguma Abdi, Fisseha Mengstie, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Takele Beyene, Hika Waktole, Bedasso Mammo, Dinka Ayana, Fufa Abunna
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia set an ambitious masterplan to increase chicken meat and egg production from 2015 to 2020. Poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in the country have received executive order to import, amplify and distribute commercial chickens to end users. The biosecurity and the pathogen fauna of the centers have not been evaluated as to whether the centers could implement the mission effectively without any risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosecurity practices and the pathogen prevalence, risk factors and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using Salmonella as case study...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514947/enhanced-chlorhexidine-skin-penetration-with-1-8-cineole
#7
A L Casey, T J Karpanen, B R Conway, T Worthington, P Nightingale, R Waters, T S J Elliott
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine (CHG) penetrates poorly into skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the depth of CHG skin permeation from solutions containing either 2% (w/v) CHG and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or 2% (w/v) CHG, 70% (v/v) IPA and 2% (v/v) 1,8-cineole. METHODS: An ex-vivo study using Franz diffusion cells was carried out. Full thickness human skin was mounted onto the cells and a CHG solution, with or without 2% (v/v) 1,8-cineole was applied to the skin surface...
May 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511667/epidemiology-of-pertussis-in-casablanca-morocco-contribution-of-conventional-and-molecular-diagnosis-tools
#8
Khalid Katfy, Nicole Guiso, Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Zerouali, Bouchra Slaoui, Zineb Jouhadi, Abdelhadi Zineddine, Houria Belabbes, Naima Elmdaghri
BACKGROUND: Pertussis, a vaccine preventable disease, is still responsible of significant morbidity and mortality around the world, mostly in newborns. The aim of the present study was (1) to introduce pertussis surveillance in the major pediatric hospital of Casablanca (2) to analyze the prevalence of pertussis among children under 14 years of age and their entourage in Casablanca, Morocco. METHODS: This is a prospective and non-case controlled study, including children suspected of Pertussis admitted at the Abderrahim Harouchi Pediatric Hospital in Casablanca, from January 2013 to June 2015...
May 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511640/tryptophan-catabolism-and-immune-activation-in-primary-and-chronic-hiv-infection
#9
Marco Gelpi, Hans J Hartling, Per M Ueland, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio (KTR) is increased in HIV infection, and linked to immune activation. We hypothesized that early cART initiation results in lower KTR compared to late initiation. Furthermore, we hypothesized that KTR prior to cART is a predictor of the magnitude of subsequent reduction in immune activation. METHODS: Prospective study including 57 HIV-infected individuals (primary HIV infection (N = 14), early presenters (>350 CD4+ T cells/μL, N = 24), late presenters (<200 CD4+ T cells/μL, N = 19))...
May 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511638/screening-for-tuberculosis-in-an-urban-shelter-for-homeless-in-switzerland-a-prospective-study
#10
Jean-Paul Janssens, Timothee Wuillemin, Dan Adler, Yves Jackson
BACKGROUND: Whereas high risk groups such as asylum seekers are systematically screened for active tuberculosis (TB) upon entry in Switzerland, this strategy does not apply to homeless persons despite a reported high risk. Geneva health and social authorities implemented an intersectoral project to screen for active TB in homeless persons. We aimed to assess acceptability of this program and prevalence of active TB in this group. METHODS: This prospective study targeted all homeless adults registering for shelter accommodation in Geneva during winter 2015...
May 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511636/hpv-prevalence-and-type-distribution-in-cypriot-women-with-cervical-cytological-abnormalities
#11
George Krashias, Dana Koptides, Christina Christodoulou
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent, and it can cause cervical lesions and cancer in females. Currently, information regarding the prevalence of HPV in Cyprus is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HPV type-specific prevalence in 596 women, aged 19-65 years, with cytological abnormalities. Additionally, in a subset of 348 women for whom cytology results of the Pap test were available, the association between HPV infection and cervical disease was investigated...
May 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506278/a-framework-for-evaluating-epidemic-forecasts
#12
Farzaneh Sadat Tabataba, Prithwish Chakraborty, Naren Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan Venkatramanan, Jiangzhuo Chen, Bryan Lewis, Madhav Marathe
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, numerous forecasting methods have been proposed in the field of epidemic forecasting. Such methods can be classified into different categories such as deterministic vs. probabilistic, comparative methods vs. generative methods, and so on. In some of the more popular comparative methods, researchers compare observed epidemiological data from the early stages of an outbreak with the output of proposed models to forecast the future trend and prevalence of the pandemic...
May 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506254/reemergence-of-yellow-fever-in-ethiopia-after-50%C3%A2-years-2013-epidemiological-and-entomological-investigations
#13
Abrham Lilay, Negga Asamene, Abyot Bekele, Mesfin Mengesha, Milliyon Wendabeku, Israel Tareke, Abiy Girmay, Yonas Wuletaw, Abate Adossa, Yamar Ba, Amadou Sall, Daddi Jima, Debritu Mengesha
BACKGROUND: Yellow Fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by aedes mosquito species. Approximately, 200,000 cases and 30,000 deaths occur worldwide every year. In Ethiopia, the last outbreak was reported in 1966 with 2200 cases and 450 deaths. A number of cases with deaths from unknown febrile illness reported from South Ari district starting from November 2012. This investigation was conducted to identify the causative agent, source of the outbreak and recommend appropriate interventions...
May 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506215/comparison-of-antibody-responses-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigen-rv0679c-in-tuberculosis-patients-from-the-endemic-and-non-endemic-regions-of-the-beijing-genotype-a-case-control-study
#14
Jingge Zhao, Takashi Matsuba, Xiaoyan Zhang, Susan Leano, Chie Nakajima, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Elizabeth Freda Telan, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Toshio Hattori
BACKGROUND: Strains of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are reportedly associated with the virulence of tuberculosis (TB) infection, unfavorable outcomes of anti-TB treatment, and the global TB pandemic. Rv0679c, a hypothetical membrane protein related to host cell invasion, has a Beijing genotype-specific mutation at residue 142 (Asn142Lys). Antigenicity differences between Rv0679c-Asn142 (N-type) and Rv0679c-Lys142 (K-type) have been previously observed in mice antigen-antibody responses...
May 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499418/early-morning-urine-collection-to-improve-urinary-lateral-flow-lam-assay-sensitivity-in-hospitalised-patients-with-hiv-tb-co-infection
#15
Phindile Gina, Philippa J Randall, Tapuwa E Muchinga, Anil Pooran, Richard Meldau, Jonny G Peter, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Urine LAM testing has been approved by the WHO for use in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression. However, sensitivity remains suboptimal. We therefore examined the incremental diagnostic sensitivity of early morning urine (EMU) versus random urine sampling using the Determine® lateral flow lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) in HIV-TB co-infected patients. METHODS: Consenting HIV-infected inpatients, screened as part of a larger prospective randomized controlled trial, that were treated for TB, and could donate matched random and EMU samples were included...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499359/cystic-fibrosis-carriership-and-tuberculosis-hints-toward-an-evolutionary-selective-advantage-based-on-data-from-the-brazilian-territory
#16
Lander Bosch, Barbara Bosch, Kris De Boeck, Tim Nawrot, Isabelle Meyts, Dominique Vanneste, Cleonice Alexandre Le Bourlegat, Julio Croda, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho
BACKGROUND: The reason why Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal genetic disease among Caucasians has been incompletely studied. We aimed at deepening the hypothesis that CF carriers have a relative protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS: Applying spatial epidemiology, we studied the link between CF carriership rate and tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Brazil. We corrected for 5 potential environmental and 2 immunological confounders in this relation: monthly income, sanitary provisions, literacy rates, racial composition and population density along with AIDS incidence rates and diabetes mellitus type 2...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499357/identification-of-a-major-listeria-monocytogenes-outbreak-clone-linked-to-soft-cheese-in-northern-italy-2009-2011
#17
Ettore Amato, Virginia Filipello, Maria Gori, Sara Lomonaco, Marina Nadia Losio, Antonio Parisi, Pol Huedo, Stephen John Knabel, Mirella Pontello
BACKGROUND: Molecular subtyping and enhanced surveillance in Lombardy region identified a cluster of possibly related listeriosis cases from 2006 to 2010. This cluster grouped 31 isolates that belonged to serotype 1/2a and Sequence Type 38 (ST38) as defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). METHODS: Our study expanded the previous investigation to include cases from 2011 to 2014 and used Multi-Virulence-Locus Sequence Typing (MVLST) on all ST38 isolates to better understand their epidemiology and possibly identify a common source outbreak...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499348/total-delay-in-treatment-among-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-in-china-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Yu He, Chao Han, Kai-Feng Chang, Mao-Shui Wang, Tian-Ren Huang
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is limited data on the risk factors associated with treatment delay in tuberculous meningitis (TBM). This study aimed to assess the duration of delay in the treatment TBM and to investigate its determinants. METHODS: During the period from September 2009 to February 2016, a retrospective cohort study of consecutive TBM patients admitted to our hospital was conducted to determine the risk factors associated with treatment delay in TBM...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494795/a-bio-behavioral-intervention-to-decrease-intravaginal-practices-and-bacterial-vaginosis-among-hiv-infected-zambian-women-a-randomized-pilot-study
#19
Maria L Alcaide, Maureen Chisembele, Emeria Malupande, Violeta J Rodriguez, Margaret A Fischl, Kristopher Arheart, Deborah L Jones
BACKGROUND: Intravaginal practices (IVP) (cleansing or introducing products inside the vagina for hygiene, health or to please sexual partners) are common among women with HIV. IVP increase the risk of developing bacterial Vaginosis (BV), the most common genital infection associated with transmission of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. This study tested a pilot intervention to reduce IVP and BV in HIV infected women in Zambia. METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight HIV infected women engaging in IVP were randomized to two conditions: enhanced standard of care (n = 70) and experimental (n = 58) from May 1, 2013 to February 28, 2014...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494805/relative-incidence-and-individual-level-severity-of-seasonal-influenza-a-h3n2-compared-with-2009-pandemic-h1n1
#20
Kin On Kwok, Steven Riley, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Vivian W I Wei, Peng Wu, Lan Wei, Daniel K W Chu, Ian G Barr, J S Malik Peiris, Benjamin J Cowling
BACKGROUND: Two subtypes of influenza A currently circulate in humans: seasonal H3N2 (sH3N2, emerged in 1968) and pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1, emerged in 2009). While the epidemiological characteristics of the initial wave of pH1N1 have been studied in detail, less is known about its infection dynamics during subsequent waves or its severity relative to sH3N2. Even prior to 2009, few data was available to estimate the risk of severe outcomes following infection with one circulating influenza strain relative to another...
May 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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