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BMC Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934954/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-first-isolation-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Elaine Cheong, Tamalee Roberts, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Thomas V Riley, Paul N Newton, David A B Dance
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge of the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia, and in particular the Greater Mekong Subregion, is very limited. Only a few studies from Thailand and Vietnam have been reported from the region with variable testing methods and results, and no studies from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Therefore we investigated the presence of C. difficile in a single centre in the Lao PDR and determined the ribotypes present. METHOD: Seventy unformed stool samples from hospital inpatients at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, were tested for the presence of C...
September 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934938/shifting-trends-in-bacteriology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-gastrointestinal-fistula-patients-in-china-an-eight-year-review-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
Qinjie Liu, Jianan Ren, Xiuwen Wu, Gefei Wang, Zhiwei Wang, Jie Wu, Jinjian Huang, Tianyu Lu, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the shifting trends in bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance of infectious specimens isolated from gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients over eight years in China. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the microbial records of intra-abdominal specimens at a teaching hospital from 2008 to 2015. Study period was divided into the first half (2008-2011) and the second half (2012-2015). All isolates underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing by the micro dilution method...
September 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934934/effects-of-x-ray-on-the-metacestodes-of-echinococcus-granulosus-in-vitro
#3
Rui Mao, Ge Wu, Hui Wang, Pengfei Lu, Jun Li, Haitao Li, Aimudula Ainiwaer, Yiwei Bai, Mingyang Shu, Yongxing Bao, Wenbao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy may represent an alternative treatment modality for cystic echinococcosis (CE), but there is no adequate evidence for it up to now. In this study, we aim to investigate the parasiticidal effects of X-ray on the metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro. METHODS: Protoscoleces obtained from sheep naturally infected with CE were cultivated in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 °C in 5% CO2. Upon encystation on day 14, the metacestodes were subjected to various intensities of X-ray...
September 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931390/who-s-holding-the-baby-a-prospective-diary-study-of-the-contact-patterns-of-mothers-with-an-infant
#4
Patricia Therese Campbell, Jodie McVernon, Niraj Shrestha, Paula M Nathan, Nicholas Geard
BACKGROUND: Models of infectious disease are increasingly utilising empirical contact data to quantify the number of potentially infectious contacts between age groups. While a growing body of data is being collected on contact patterns across many populations, less attention has been paid to the social contacts of young infants. We collected information on the social contacts of primary carers of young infants and investigated their potential for use as a proxy for contacts made by their infant...
September 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931369/acute-hiv-infection-presenting-as-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Farheen Manji, Evan Wilson, Etienne Mahe, John Gill, John Conly
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an uncommon systemic inflammatory condition that can result from infections, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. It is a rarely reported life threatening complication of an acute HIV infection, with only ten documented case reports per our literature search. We present a case of HLH secondary to acute HIV infection with a negative HIV antibody-based assay and high plasma viral load. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45 year old male with a past medical history of well controlled hypertension presented with fever, dizziness and non-bloody diarrhea...
September 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927397/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-clinical-specimens-using-conventional-microbial-culture-and-16s-metagenomics-a-comparative-study
#6
Lalanika M Abayasekara, Jennifer Perera, Vishvanath Chandrasekharan, Vaz S Gnanam, Nisala A Udunuwara, Dileepa S Liyanage, Nuwani E Bulathsinhala, Subhashanie Adikary, Janith V S Aluthmuhandiram, Chrishanthi S Thanaseelan, D Portia Tharmakulasingam, Tharaga Karunakaran, Janahan Ilango
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and diagnosis of polymicrobial and fungal infections is increasingly challenging in the clinical setting. Conventionally, molecular detection is still the best method of species identification in clinical samples. However, the limitations of Sanger sequencing make diagnosis of polymicrobial infections one of the biggest hurdles in treatment. The development of massively parallel sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of metagenomics, with wide application of the technology in identification of microbial communities in environmental sources, human gut and others...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927377/erratum-to-lack-of-immunity-against-rubella-among-italian-young-adults
#7
Maria Serena Gallone, Maria Filomena Gallone, Angela Maria Vittoria Larocca, Cinzia Germinario, Silvio Tafuri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927373/variation-in-loss-of-immunity-shapes-influenza-epidemics-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#8
Rutger G Woolthuis, Jacco Wallinga, Michiel van Boven
BACKGROUND: Protective antibody immunity against the influenza A virus wanes in 2-7 years due to antigenic drift of the virus' surface proteins. The duration of immune protection is highly variable because antigenic evolution of the virus is irregular. Currently, the variable nature of the duration of immunity has had little attention in analyses of the impact of vaccination, including cost-effectiveness studies. METHODS: We developed a range of mathematical transmission models to investigate the effect of variable duration of immunity on the size of seasonal epidemics...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923024/sero-epidemiology-study-of-leptospirosis-in-febrile-patients-from-terai-region-of-nepal
#9
Lalmani Regmi, Kishor Pandey, Meena Malla, Santosh Khanal, Basu Dev Pandey
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic strains of bacteria belonging to genus Leptospira whose symptoms can range from mild clinical manifestations to a severe life threatening illness. This disease may be under-recognized in resource poor settings like Nepal where many clinical laboratories lack appropriate equipment, technology and personnel for proper diagnosis. METHODS: We used IgM ELISA to estimate the sero-prevalence of leptospirosis in a group of febrile patients in a western region of Nepal...
September 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923020/caretakers-understanding-of-malaria-use-of-insecticide-treated-net-and-care-seeking-behavior-for-febrile-illness-of-their-children-in-ethiopia
#10
Zewdie Birhanu, Yemane Ye-Ebiyo Yihdego, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: Local understandings of malaria and use of preventive measures-are critical factors in sustained control of malaria. This study assessed caretakers' knowledge on malaria, use of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) and care-seeking behavior for their children's illness in different malaria transmission settings of Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from 709 caretakers of children of 2-9 years of age during in 2016. A standard questionnaire was used to assess caretakers' perceptions of malaria, use of LLIN and care seeking behavior for febrile illness of children aged 2-9 years...
September 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923018/effects-on-preventing-mother-to-child-transmission-of-syphilis-and-associated-adverse-pregnant-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study-from-2001-to-2015-in-shanghai-china
#11
Yang Li, Liping Zhu, Li Du, Lingxiao Qu, Weili Jiang, Biao Xu
BACKGROUND: Maternal syphilis is a health threat to both the pregnant women and the children. This study aimed to delineate the longitudinal trend of maternal syphilis and burden of associated adverse pregnant outcomes (APOs) in Shanghai from 2001 to 2015; and to evaluate the effects of preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of syphilis in Shanghai with regard to service coverage and APOs averted. METHODS: PMTCT program of syphilis has been implemented since 2001...
September 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923008/an-eleven-year-retrospective-hospital-based-study-of-epidemiological-data-regarding-human-strongyloidiasis-in-northeast-thailand
#12
Thidarat K Prasongdee, Pokkamol Laoraksawong, Wanida Kanarkard, Ratthaphol Kraiklang, Kraisit Sathapornworachai, Sureeporn Naonongwai, Porntip Laummaunwai, Oranuch Sanpool, Pewpan M Intapan, Wanchai Maleewong
BACKGROUND: Human strongyloidiasis is a chronic and persistent gastrointestinal disease caused by infection with soil-transmitted helminths of the genus Strongyloides. The aim of this research was to obtain diagnostic prevalence regarding strongyloidiasis in northeast Thailand through a hospital-based study. METHODS: Patients' demographic data and the results of stool examinations conducted using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were collected from the parasitology laboratory records at Srinagarind Hospital in Khon Kaen, Thailand...
September 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915895/impact-of-ugt1a1-gene-polymorphisms-on-plasma-dolutegravir-trough-concentrations-and-neuropsychiatric-adverse-events-in-japanese-individuals-infected-with-hiv-1
#13
Hiroki Yagura, Dai Watanabe, Hiroyuki Kushida, Kosuke Tomishima, Hiroaki Togami, Atsushi Hirano, Masaaki Takahashi, Kazuyuki Hirota, Motoko Ikuma, Daisuke Kasai, Yasuharu Nishida, Munehiro Yoshino, Kunio Yamazaki, Tomoko Uehira, Takuma Shirasaka
BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir (DTG) is metabolized mainly by uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), and partly by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Therefore, we focused on UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms (*6 and *28) in Japanese individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 to examine the relationship between their plasma trough concentration of DTG and gene polymorphisms. Recently, neuropsychiatric adverse events (NP-AEs) after the use of DTG have become a concern, so the association between UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms and selected NP-AEs was also investigated...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915849/exposure-rate-of-vzv-among-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinic-in-sri-lanka-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Saluwadana Walawwe Pavithra Lakmini Daulagala, Faseeha Noordeen, Mohamed Mukthar Fathina Fara, Chathura Rathnayake, Kapila Gunawardana
BACKGROUND: Varicella or chickenpox was not a notifiable disease until 2005 in Sri Lanka and only a few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of VZV infection in the country. The anti-VZV IgG sero-prevalence among antenatal women is extremely limited and thus a selected group of antenatal clinic attendees were chosen to determine the exposure rate to VZV infection. METHODS: Women attending the antenatal clinic at Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were selected for the study and 3 mL of venous blood was collected from 181 participants and the demographic data was obtained through a pre-tested questionnaire...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915796/correlates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-failure-in-child-household-contacts-with-infectious-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-settings-in-nairobi-kenya-a-cohort-study
#15
Florence Nafula Okwara, John Paul Oyore, Fred Nabwire Were, Samson Gwer
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa continues to document high pediatric tuberculosis (TB) burden, especially among the urban poor. One recommended preventive strategy involves tracking and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children under 5 years in close contact with infectious TB. However, sub-optimal effectiveness has been documented in diverse settings. We conducted a study to elucidate correlates to IPT strategy failure in children below 5 years in high burden settings. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was done in informal settlings in Nairobi, where children under 5 years in household contact with recently diagnosed smear positive TB adults were enrolled...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915795/future-complications-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-a-low-risk-area-projections-from-the-hepatitis-c-study-in-northern-norway
#16
H Kileng, L Bernfort, T Gutteberg, O S Moen, M G Kristiansen, E J Paulssen, L K Berg, J Florholmen, R Goll
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) infection causes an asymptomatic chronic hepatitis in most affected individuals, which often remains undetected until cirrhosis and cirrhosis-related complications occur. Screening of high-risk subjects in Northern Norway has revealed a relatively low prevalence in the general population (0.24%). Despite this, late complications of HCV infection are increasing. Our object was to estimate the future prevalence and complications of chronic HCV infection in the period 2013-2050 in a low-risk area...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903736/factors-associated-with-syphilis-treatment-failure-and-reinfection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-shenzhen-china
#17
Zhenzhou Luo, Lin Zhu, Yi Ding, Jun Yuan, Wu Li, Qiuhong Wu, Lishan Tian, Li Zhang, Guomao Zhou, Tao Zhang, Jianping Ma, Zhongwei Chen, Tubao Yang, Tiejian Feng, Min Zhang
BACKGROUND: The treatment failure and reinfection rates among syphilis patients are high, and relevant studies in China are limited. The aim of this study was to detect the rates of treatment failure and reinfection after syphilis treatment and to explore the potential associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in a sexually transmitted disease clinic, the Department of Dermatology and Venereology in Nanshan Center for Chronic Disease Control...
September 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903730/routine-monitoring-and-assessment-of-adults-living-with-hiv-results-of-the-british-hiv-association-bhiva-national-audit-2015
#18
A Molloy, H Curtis, F Burns, A Freedman
BACKGROUND: The clinical care of people living with HIV changed fundamentally as a result of the development of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV infection is now a long-term treatable condition. We report a national audit to assess adherence to British HIV Association guidelines for the routine investigation and monitoring of adult HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: All UK sites known as providers of adult HIV outpatient services were invited to complete a case-note review and a brief survey of local clinic practices...
September 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903726/a-novel-diagnostic-method-for-malaria-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-and-minion%C3%A2-nanopore-sequencer
#19
Kazuo Imai, Norihito Tarumoto, Kazuhisa Misawa, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Jun Sakai, Kyoko Hayashida, Yuki Eshita, Ryuichiro Maeda, Josef Tuda, Takashi Murakami, Shigefumi Maesaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Junya Yamagishi, Takuya Maeda
BACKGROUND: A simple and accurate molecular diagnostic method for malaria is urgently needed due to the limitations of conventional microscopic examination. In this study, we demonstrate a new diagnostic procedure for human malaria using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and the MinION™ nanopore sequencer. METHODS: We generated specific LAMP primers targeting the 18S-rRNA gene of all five human Plasmodium species including two P. ovale subspecies (P...
September 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893207/hepatitis-b-virus-and-hiv-co-infection-among-pregnant-women-in-rwanda
#20
Mwumvaneza Mutagoma, Helene Balisanga, Samuel S Malamba, Dieudonné Sebuhoro, Eric Remera, David J Riedel, Steve Kanters, Sabin Nsanzimana
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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