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BMC Infectious Diseases

Girma Alemayehu Beyene, Lelisa Sena Dadi, Solomon Berhanu Mogas
BACKGROUND: Despite wide spread use of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) by pregnant women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the transmission rate is still higher by 18% after breastfeeding ends. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting mother-to-child HIV transmission. METHODS: Unmatched case-control study was conducted in Addis Ababa, from April to May, 2017. A case was HIV positive mother who had been on PMTCT program with her child confirmed HIV positive at or before 24 months and control was HIV positive mother who had been on PMTCT program with her child tested definitive HIV negative at 24 months...
July 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Xingzhe Yang
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is an inflammatory disease affecting the central part of face characterized by persistent or recurrent episodes of erythema, papules, pustules and telangiectasias of unknown etiology. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative bacillus, which is one of the main causes of chronic gastritis, gastric cancer and gastrointestinal ulcers. Recent evidences have suggested that H. pylori infection is closely related to the occurrence of diseases. In recent years, studies have found that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the occurrence of acne rosacea...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kamakshi Prudhula Devalraju, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar Neela, Sharadambal Sunder Ramaseri, Arunabala Chaudhury, Abhinav Van, Siva Sai Krovvidi, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri
BACKGROUND: IL-17 and IL-22 cytokines play an important role in protective immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Information on the production of these cytokines and the factors that regulate their production in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or active tuberculosis disease (ATB) is limited. In the current study, we compared the production of these two cytokines by PBMC of HIV-LTBI+ and HIV + LTBI+ individuals in response to Mtb antigens CFP-10 (culture filtrate protein) and ESAT-6 (Early Secretory Antigenic Target)...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Joseph Jillwin, Shivaprakash Mandya Rudramurthy, Krishna Chandra Rijal, Niranjan Nayak, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Arnab Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Laryngeal aspergillosis is uncommon and is usually secondary to pulmonary involvement in immunocompromised patients. Primary laryngeal aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare, with a few cases documented over the last five decades. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of primary localised laryngeal aspergillosis in a 21-year-old apparently immunocompetent student. Septate hyphae were observed on histopathology of the laryngeal lesion, which was further confirmed as Aspergillus fumigatus after extraction of fungal DNA from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPET) and sequencing...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kindie Mitiku Kebede, Dejene Derseh Abateneh, Alemayehu Sayih Belay
BACKGROUND: There are several epidemiological studies available on hepatitis B virus among pregnant women in Ethiopia. These individual studies revealed wide variation over time and across geographical areas. The aim of this systematic review and Meta-analysis is to estimate the overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Ethiopia. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases including PubMed, Popline, Lalicus, Ovid, MedNar, African Journal Online (AJOL) and advanced Google Scholar was conducted regardless of publication year from August 30, 2017 to September 25, 2017...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Valérie Potard, Cécile Goujard, Marc Antoine Valantin, Jean Marc Lacombe, Rima Lahoulou, Arnaud Chéret, Pierre Marie Girard, Dominique Costagliola
BACKGROUND: Etravirine (ETR), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) available in France since 2006, is indicated for antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected adults, in combination with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI). To assess its clinical impact in routine care, we compared hospitalization rates according to ETR + PI prescription or not, among heavily treated HIV-1 infected individuals on failing regimens between 2005 and 2011. METHODS: From the French Hospital Database on HIV (ANRS CO4), we selected heavily treated individuals (prior exposure to at least 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 2PI and 1 NNRTI) with viral load (VL) > 50 copies/mL who started a new antiretroviral (ARV) regimen between 2005 and 2011...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Conor D Tweed, Angela M Crook, Evans I Amukoye, Rodney Dawson, Andreas H Diacon, Madeline Hanekom, Timothy D McHugh, Carl M Mendel, Sarah K Meredith, Michael E Murphy, Saraswathi E Murthy, Andrew J Nunn, Patrick P J Phillips, Kasha P Singh, Melvin Spigelman, Genevieve H Wills, Stephen H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of tuberculosis chemotherapy toxicity is poorly characterised. We used data available from patients in the REMoxTB trial to provide an assessment of the risks associated with the standard regimen and two experimental regimens containing moxifloxacin. METHODS: All grade 3 & 4 adverse events (AEs) and their relationship to treatment for patients who had taken at least one dose of therapy in the REMoxTB clinical trial were recorded...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lukas Frans Ocias, Ram Benny Dessau, Anne-Mette Lebech, Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen, Randi Føns Petersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt
BACKGROUND: With a prevalence of 4.7-13% in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks, Rickettsia helvetica is one of the most frequently detected tick-borne organisms in Denmark. Most reports of human exposure have described asymptomatic seroconversion or a mild, self-limiting flu-like illness but it has also been implicated as a cause of subacute lymphocytic meningitis. Because Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) and R. helvetica are both found in the same tick species, potential co-transmission is a possibility...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anuj Tiwari, Steaven Dandel, Rita Djupuri, Liesbeth Mieras, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Indonesia ranking third in the world, regarding leprosy burden. Chemoprophylaxis is effective in reducing risk of developing leprosy among contacts. 'Blanket approach' is an operational strategy for leprosy post-exposure prophylaxis in which all members of an isolated community, high endemic for leprosy are screened and given a single dose of rifampicin (SDR) in the absence of signs and symptoms of leprosy. The objective is to assess the operational feasibility of a population-wide 'blanket' administration of SDR for leprosy prevention in isolated communities in a remote island...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
D N Birdsell, Y Özsürekci, A Rawat, A E Aycan, C L Mitchell, J W Sahl, A Johansson, R E Colman, J M Schupp, M Ceyhan, P S Keim, D M Wagner
BACKGROUND: Underlying coinfections may complicate infectious disease states but commonly go unnoticed because an a priori clinical suspicion is usually required so they can be detected via targeted diagnostic tools. Shotgun metagenomics is a broad diagnostic tool that can be useful for identifying multiple microbes simultaneously especially if coupled with lymph node aspirates, a clinical matrix known to house disparate pathogens. The objective of this study was to analyze the utility of this unconventional diagnostic approach (shotgun metagenomics) using clinical samples from human tularemia cases as a test model...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tadele Girum, Abebaw Wasie, Abdulsemed Worku
BACKGROUND: HIV infection continues to be epidemic of public health importance with a prevalence of 1.1% and incidence of 0.33/1000 population having low-intensity mixed epidemic. Ethiopia has adopted the 90-90-90 by 2020 target but its progress was not yet assessed. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the trend of HIV infection for the last 26 years and to predict the achievements of the 90-90-90 target. METHODS: We used aggregates of HIV/AIDS indicator data from 1990 to 2016 of UNAIDS data bases...
July 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yu-Ling Qin, Bo Li, Yue-Su Zhou, Xin Zhang, Lei Li, Bing Song, Peng Liu, Yue Yuan, Zhong-Peng Zhao, Jun Jiao, Jing Li, Yi Sun, Stephen Sevalie, Joseph E Kanu, Ya-Jun Song, Jia-Fu Jiang, Foday Sahr, Tian-Jun Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered highly prevalent in West Africa. However, major gaps in surveillance exist in Sierra Leone. Although healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk for HBV infection, little is known about the prevalence and knowledge of hepatitis B among HCWs in Sierra Leone. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of all HCWs at the No. 34 Military Hospital located in Freetown, Sierra Leone, was conducted from March 20 to April 10, 2017. Whole blood was collected and screened for HBV markers using a one-step rapid immunochromatographic test with positive samples tested for HBV DNA...
July 9, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jian Li, Xia Gao, Yu-Long Ye, Tang Wan, Hao Zang, Ping-Hua Mo, Can-Lei Song
BACKGROUND: GII noroviruses are a common cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks in institutional settings globally. However, AGE outbreaks caused by GI norovirus, especially the GI.5 genotype, are relatively uncommon. METHODS: In February 2017, an AGE outbreak occurred in a primary school in Shanghai, China. An outbreak investigation was undertaken, and fecal specimens, rectal swabs, and environmental swabs were collected. Pathogen detection was performed and the positive specimens were characterized by gene sequencing...
July 9, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sarah S Lee, Joshua P Havens, Harlan R Sayles, Jennifer L O'Neill, Anthony T Podany, Susan Swindells, Kimberly K Scarsi, Sara H Bares
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is associated with less renal and bone toxicity compared with tenofovir disoproxil (TDF). TAF's recent FDA approval has spurred HIV providers to consider switching antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens containing TDF to TAF to minimize long term risks. Patient views on the process of such medication switches have not been explored. METHODS: Patients taking elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) following the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) received medication education from an HIV pharmacist prior to switching to the tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) formulation...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ana Rita Coelho, Flávia Andreia Moreira, Ana Cristina Santos, André Silva-Pinto, António Sarmento, Davide Carvalho, Paula Freitas
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy dramatically reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality, prolonging the lifespan of HIV-infected patients. Greater duration of infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy makes these patients susceptible to traditional cardio-metabolic risk factors and pathologies. The optimal diagnostic protocol for Diabetes Mellitus in these patients is still controversial. Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has been shown to underestimate glycaemia levels and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been shown to reveal cases of glucose metabolism disturbances in patients with normal fasting glucose...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Maxine S Eikani, Melodee Nugent, Arash Poursina, Pippa Simpson, Hara Levy
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is increasing globally. However, the related epidemiology, comorbidities, and clinical impact of NTM infection remains unclear in the progress of CF lung disease and patient survival. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, case-control, cohort study (10 years), comparing NTM culture-positive CF patients (N = 28) to matched controls (N = 26). NTM positive patients were divided in to two groups of slow-growing (N = 17) and rapid- growing NTM (N = 8)...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Akira Machida, Tasuku Ishihara, Eiichiro Amano, Shinichi Otsu
BACKGROUND: Although paradoxical reactions (PRs) to anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) therapy during treatment are well-established occurrences, PRs presenting as a new lesion after the completion of treatment are extremely rare, and little is known about the management of such cases, particularly of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old female, with a past medical history of tuberculous meningitis 10 years ago and who completed the anti-TB treatment with asymptomatic remnant tuberculomas in the basal cistern, was admitted to our hospital because of a headache and the worsening of pre-existing visual disturbance...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mohammed Assen Seid, Mohammed Seid Hussen
BACKGROUND: Globally, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex public problem, which is mainly fuelled by inappropriate use of antimicrobials. Rational use of antimicrobials is the main strategy for the prevention of AMR, which can be achieved by changing the prescribers' behavior and knowledge. Hence, this study aimed to assess knowledge and attitude of paramedical students regarding antimicrobial resistance, which helps to rationalize the use of antimicrobials. METHODS: An institutional based cross-sectional study was performed on 323 graduates paramedical students at the University of Gondar, Ethiopia...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sean G Young, Andrew Kitchen, Ghazi Kayali, Margaret Carrel
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza H5N1 has a high human case fatality rate, but is not yet well-adapted to human hosts. Amino acid substitutions currently circulating in avian populations may enhance viral fitness in, and thus viral adaptation to, human hosts. Substitutions which could increase the risk of a human pandemic (through changes to host specificity, virulence, replication ability, transmissibility, or drug susceptibility) are termed key substitutions (KS). Egypt represents the epicenter of human H5N1 infections, with more confirmed cases than any other country...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Marta Zofia Wałaszek, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and microbiology of VAP in Polish ICUs from 2013 to 2015, as well as to understand how these depended on the diagnostic methods used to identify VAP pathogens and the clinical strategy for VAP treatment. METHODS: This observational study was carried out in seven Polish adult ICUs. VAP surveillance was based on the European Healthcare-associated Infections Surveillance Network recommendations and was defined as pneumonia occurring more than 48 h after receiving mechanical ventilation, with symptom onset 3 days or more after the hospital stay...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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