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BMC Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149873/health-care-workers-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-tuberculosis-infection-control-nepal
#1
Anita Shrestha, Dipesh Bhattarai, Barsha Thapa, Prem Basel, Rajendra Raj Wagle
BACKGROUND: Infection control remains a key challenge for Tuberculosis (TB) control program with an increased risk of TB transmission among health care workers (HCWs), especially in settings with inadequate TB infection control measures. Poor knowledge among HCWs and inadequate infection control practices may lead to the increased risk of nosocomial TB transmission. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 28 health facilities providing TB services in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
November 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145819/recurrent-tuberculosis-in-finland-1995-2013-a-clinical-and-epidemiological-cohort-study
#2
Virve Korhonen, Hanna Soini, Tuula Vasankari, Jukka Ollgren, Pieter W Smit, Petri Ruutu
BACKGROUND: We investigated the epidemiology and prevalence of potential risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) recurrence in a population-based registry cohort of 8084 TB cases between 1995 and 2013. METHODS: An episode of recurrent TB was defined as a case re-registered in the National Infectious Disease Register at least 360 days from the date of the initial registration. A regression model was used to estimate risk factors for recurrence in the national cohort...
November 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145807/durability-of-switch-regimens-based-on-rilpivirine-or-on-integrase-inhibitors-both-in-association-with-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-in-hiv-infected-virologically-suppressed-patients
#3
Nicola Gianotti, Andrea Poli, Silvia Nozza, Laura Galli, Nadia Galizzi, Marco Ripa, Marco Merli, Alessia Carbone, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
BACKGROUND: Switch strategies based on rilpivirine/tenofovir/emtricitabine or on an integrase inhibitor (InSTI) plus tenofovir/emtricitabine have never been compared in randomized clinical trials. The main aim of the study was to investigate the durability of these two switch regimens in virologically suppressed, HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients who started rilpivirine or an InSTI (both with tenofovir and emtricitabine) with <50 HIV-RNA copies/mL and had at least one HIV-RNA assessed while receiving the study regimen...
November 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145802/effectiveness-of-current-and-future-regimens-for-treating-genotype-3-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-large-scale-systematic-review
#4
Hosnieh Fathi, Andrew Clark, Nathan R Hill, Geoffrey Dusheiko
BACKGROUND: Six distinct genetic variants (genotypes 1 - 6) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist globally. Certain genotypes are more prevalent in particular countries or regions than in others but, globally, genotype 3 (GT3) is the second most common. Patients infected with HCV GT1, 2, 4, 5 or 6 recover to a greater extent, as measured by sustained virological response (SVR), following treatment with regimens based on direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) than after treatment with older regimens based on pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN)...
November 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141606/trends-in-bednet-ownership-and-usage-and-the-effect-of-bednets-on-malaria-hospitalization-in-the-kilifi-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-khdss-2008-2015
#5
Alice Kamau, Victoria Nyaga, Evasius Bauni, Benjamin Tsofa, Abdisalan M Noor, Philip Bejon, J Anthony G Scott, Laura L Hammitt
BACKGROUND: Use of bednets reduces malaria morbidity and mortality. In Kilifi, Kenya, there was a mass distribution of free nets to children < 5 years in 2006. In 2009, a new policy was implemented to offer bednets to pregnant women and children < 5 years free of charge. Nets were again distributed to children and adults through national mass campaigns in 2012 and 2015. We aimed to evaluate trends in bednet ownership and usage, and the effect of bednets on the incidence of malaria hospitalization in children < 5 years within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137626/treatment-outcomes-of-mdr-tuberculosis-patients-in-brazil-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#6
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Geisa Fregona, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Eliana Zandonade, Mauro N Sanchez, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#7
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137604/varicella-zoster-virus-associated-morbidity-and-mortality-in-africa-a-systematic-review
#8
Hannah Hussey, Leila Abdullahi, Jamie Collins, Rudzani Muloiwa, Gregory Hussey, Benjamin Kagina
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and herpes zoster. These vaccine preventable diseases are common globally. Most available data on VZV epidemiology are from industrialised temperate countries and cannot be used to guide decisions on the immunization policy against VZV in Africa. This systematic review aims to review the published data on VZV morbidity and mortality in Africa. METHODS: All published studies conducted in Africa from 1974 to 2015 were eligible...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132303/prevalence-of-naturally-occurring-ns5a-resistance-associated-substitutions-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-subtype-1a-1b-and-3a-co-infected-or-not-with-hiv-in-brazil
#9
Fernanda Malta, Karine Vieira Gaspareto, Gaspar Lisboa-Neto, Flair José Carrilho, Maria Cássia Mendes-Correa, João Renato Rebello Pinho
BACKGROUND: Non-structural 5A protein (NS5A) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) have been identified in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even prior to exposure to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Selection for these variants occurs rapidly during treatment and, in some cases, leads to antiviral treatment failure. DAAs are currently the standard of care for hepatitis C treatment in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, in Brazil, the prevalence of pre-existing NS5A RASs is largely unknown...
November 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126397/no-mers-cov-but-positive-influenza-viruses-in-returning-hajj-pilgrims-china-2013-2015
#10
Xuezheng Ma, Fang Liu, Lijuan Liu, Liping Zhang, Mingzhu Lu, Abuduzhayier Abudukadeer, Lingbing Wang, Feng Tian, Wei Zhen, Pengfei Yang, Kongxin Hu
BACKGROUND: There is global health concern that the mass movement of pilgrims to and from Mecca annually could contribute to the international spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In China, about 11,000 Muslim pilgrims participate in the Hajj gathering in Mecca annually. This is the first report of MERS-CoV and respiratory virus molecular screening of returning pilgrims at points of entry in China from 2013 to 2015. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 847 returning Hajj pilgrims participated in this study...
November 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121862/human-papillomavirus-in-semen-and-the-risk-for-male-infertility-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Zhangyan Lyu, Xiaoshuang Feng, Ni Li, Wei Zhao, Luopei Wei, Yuheng Chen, Wenjing Yang, Hongxia Ma, Bing Yao, Kai Zhang, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Dong Hang, Min Dai
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. Despite the increasing evidence of HPV prevalence in semen, the worldwide distribution of HPV types in semen and risk for male infertility remain inconclusive. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched for English language studies conducted between January 1990 and December 2016 that reported HPV DNA prevalence in semen. Based on the PRISMA guidelines, HPV prevalence was estimated among general population and fertility clinic attendees, respectively, and heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran's Q and I (2) statistics...
November 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115944/correction-to-the-impact-of-drug-resistance-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-child-household-contacts-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Vera Golla, Kathryn Snow, Anna M Mandalakas, H Simon Schaaf, Karen Du Preez, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
After publication of the original article [1] the authors noted that the following errors had occurred.
November 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115933/new-variant-identified-in-major-susceptibility-locus-to-tuberculosis-on-chromosomal-region-8q12-q13-in-moroccan-population-a-case-control-study
#13
Mounia Qrafli, Imane Asekkaj, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi, Rajae El Aouad, Khalid Sadki
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Several studies have implicated genetic host factors in predisposing populations to TB disease. In this study, we have selected NSMAF (Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activation Associated Factor) as a candidate gene to evaluate its level of association with TB disease in a Moroccan population for two reasons: first, this gene is located in a major susceptibility locus on chromosomal region 8q12-q13 in the Moroccan population, closely linked to the CYP7A1 gene, which was previously shown to be associated with TB disease; second, NSMAF has an important role in immune system function...
November 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110640/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-among-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-southern-china
#14
Yu Pang, Damian Zhu, Huiwen Zheng, Jing Shen, Yan Hu, Jie Liu, Yanlin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) plays a unique role in the treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in both first- and second-line regimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of PZA resistance among MDR-TB isolates collected in Chongqing municipality. METHODS: A total of 133 MDR-TB isolates were collected from the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who were registered at local TB dispensaries of Chongqing...
November 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143681/economic-evaluation-of-hcv-testing-approaches-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
REVIEW
Jake R Morgan, Maria Servidone, Philippa Easterbrook, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health burden with diverse epidemics worldwide, but at present, only a minority of infected persons have been tested and are aware of their diagnosis. The advent of highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, which is becoming available at increasingly lower costs in low and middle income countries (LMICs), represents a major opportunity to expand access to testing and treatment. However, there is uncertainty as to the optimal testing approaches and who to prioritize for testing...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#16
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143675/economic-evaluations-of-hbv-testing-and-treatment-strategies-and-applicability-to-low-and-middle-income-countries
#17
REVIEW
Shevanthi Nayagam, Elisa Sicuri, Maud Lemoine, Philippa Easterbrook, Lesong Conteh, Timothy B Hallett, Mark Thursz
BACKGROUND: Many people living with chronic HBV infection remain undiagnosed until later stages of disease. Increasing testing and treatment rates form part of the strategy to respond to the WHO goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. However, achieving these ambitious targets is dependent on finding effective and cost-effective methods of scale up strategies. The aim of this study was to undertake a narrative review of the literature on economic evaluations of testing and treatment for HBV infection, to help inform the development of the 2017 WHO Hepatitis Testing Guidelines...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143673/the-heptestcontest-a-global-innovation-contest-to-identify-approaches-to-hepatitis-b-and-c-testing
#18
Joseph D Tucker, Kathrine Meyers, John Best, Karyn Kaplan, Razia Pendse, Kevin A Fenton, Isabelle Andrieux-Meyer, Carmen Figueroa, Pedro Goicochea, Charles Gore, Azumi Ishizaki, Giten Khwairakpam, Veronica Miller, Antons Mozalevskis, Michael Ninburg, Ponsiano Ocama, Rosanna Peeling, Nick Walsh, Massimo G Colombo, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: Innovation contests are a novel approach to elicit good ideas and innovative practices in various areas of public health. There remains limited published literature on approaches to deliver hepatitis testing. The purpose of this innovation contest was to identify examples of different hepatitis B and C approaches to support countries in their scale-up of hepatitis testing and to supplement development of formal recommendations on service delivery in the 2017 World Health Organization hepatitis B and C testing guidelines...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143672/diagnostic-accuracy-of-serological-diagnosis-of-hepatitis-c-and-b-using-dried-blood-spot-samples-dbs-two-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#19
Berit Lange, Jennifer Cohn, Teri Roberts, Johannes Camp, Jeanne Chauffour, Nina Gummadi, Azumi Ishizaki, Anupriya Nagarathnam, Edouard Tuaillon, Philippe van de Perre, Christine Pichler, Philippa Easterbrook, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) are a convenient tool to enable diagnostic testing for viral diseases due to transport, handling and logistical advantages over conventional venous blood sampling. A better understanding of the performance of serological testing for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) from DBS is important to enable more widespread use of this sampling approach in resource limited settings, and to inform the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on testing for HBV/HCV...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143626/methodological-challenges-in-appraising-evidence-on-diagnostic-testing-for-who-guidelines-on-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
Roger Chou, Philippa Easterbrook, Margaret Hellard
Linking persons with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection with appropriate prevention and treatment requires that they first be diagnosed. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed its first guidelines on testing for chronic HBV and HCV infection, using a framework based on methods from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group for the formulation of recommendations, including determining the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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