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BMC Medical Research Methodology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330450/erratum-to-evaluation-of-biases-present-in-the-cohort-multiple-randomised-controlled-trial-design-a-simulation-study
#1
Jane Candlish, Alexander Pate, Matthew Sperrin, Tjeerd van Staa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320348/methods-for-conceptualising-visual-ability-as-a-measurable-construct-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#2
Belinda Deramore Denver, Margareta Adolfsson, Elspeth Froude, Peter Rosenbaum, Christine Imms
BACKGROUND: Vision influences functioning and disability of children with cerebral palsy, so there is a growing need for psychometrically robust tools to advance assessment of children's vision abilities in clinical practice and research. Vision is a complex construct, and in the absence of clarity about this construct it is challenging to know whether valid, reliable measures exist. This study reports a method for conceptualising 'visual ability' as a measurable construct. METHODS: Using the items from 19 assessment tools previously identified in a systematic review, this study used a two-phase process: first, deductive content analysis linked items to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY), and second, vision-specific 'Activity'-level items were explored using inductive thematic analysis...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320340/incorporating-nonlinearity-into-mediation-analyses
#3
George J Knafl, Kathleen A Knafl, Margaret Grey, Jane Dixon, Janet A Deatrick, Agatha M Gallo
BACKGROUND: Mediation is an important issue considered in the behavioral, medical, and social sciences. It addresses situations where the effect of a predictor variable X on an outcome variable Y is explained to some extent by an intervening, mediator variable M. Methods for addressing mediation have been available for some time. While these methods continue to undergo refinement, the relationships underlying mediation are commonly treated as linear in the outcome Y, the predictor X, and the mediator M...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302052/standardizing-effect-size-from-linear-regression-models-with-log-transformed-variables-for-meta-analysis
#4
Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Aurelio Tobías, Daniel Redondo, Elena Molina-Portillo, María José Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis is very useful to summarize the effect of a treatment or a risk factor for a given disease. Often studies report results based on log-transformed variables in order to achieve the principal assumptions of a linear regression model. If this is the case for some, but not all studies, the effects need to be homogenized. METHODS: We derived a set of formulae to transform absolute changes into relative ones, and vice versa, to allow including all results in a meta-analysis...
March 17, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302050/implementation-of-clinical-research-trials-using-web-based-and-mobile-devices-challenges-and-solutions
#5
EDITORIAL
Roy Eagleson, Luis Altamirano-Diaz, Alex McInnis, Eva Welisch, Stefanie De Jesus, Harry Prapavessis, Meghan Rombeek, Jamie A Seabrook, Teresa Park, Kambiz Norozi
BACKGROUND: With the increasing implementation of web-based, mobile health interventions in clinical trials, it is crucial for researchers to address the security and privacy concerns of patient information according to high ethical standards. The full process of meeting these standards is often made more complicated due to the use of internet-based technology and smartphones for treatment, telecommunication, and data collection; however, this process is not well-documented in the literature...
March 17, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302054/the-feasibility-of-matching-on-a-propensity-score-for-acupuncture-in-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-patients-with-chronic-pain
#6
Eric S Johnson, John F Dickerson, William M Vollmer, Alee M Rowley, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Richard A Deyo, Lynn DeBar
BACKGROUND: Propensity scores are typically applied in retrospective cohort studies. We describe the feasibility of matching on a propensity score derived from a retrospective cohort and subsequently applied in a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain before the start of acupuncture or usual care treatment and enrollment in a comparative effectiveness study that required patient reported pain outcomes. METHODS: We assembled a retrospective cohort study using data from 2010 to develop a propensity score for acupuncture versus usual care based on electronic healthcare record and administrative data (e...
March 16, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292267/assignment-of-adverse-event-indexing-terms-in-randomized-clinical-trials-involving-spinal-manipulative-therapy-an-audit-of-records-in-medline-and-embase-databases
#7
Lindsay M Gorrell, Roger M Engel, Reidar P Lystad, Benjamin T Brown
BACKGROUND: Reporting of adverse events in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is encouraged by the authors of The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. With robust methodological design and adequate reporting, RCTs have the potential to provide useful evidence on the incidence of adverse events associated with spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). During a previous investigation, it became apparent that comprehensive search strategies combining text words with indexing terms was not sufficiently sensitive for retrieving records that were known to contain reports on adverse events...
March 14, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283019/why-sample-selection-matters-in-exploratory-factor-analysis-implications-for-the-12-item-world-health-organization-disability-assessment-schedule-2-0
#8
Cadeyrn J Gaskin, Sylvie D Lambert, Steven J Bowe, Liliana Orellana
BACKGROUND: Sample selection can substantially affect the solutions generated using exploratory factor analysis. Validation studies of the 12-item World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) have generally involved samples in which substantial proportions of people had no, or minimal, disability. With the WHODAS 2.0 oriented towards measuring disability across six life domains (cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, life activities, and participation in society), performing factor analysis with samples of people with disability may be more appropriate...
March 11, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264661/trial-sequential-analysis-in-systematic-reviews-with-meta-analysis
#9
Jørn Wetterslev, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors) and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors)...
March 6, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259155/aimd-a-validated-simplified-framework-of-interventions-to-promote-and-integrate-evidence-into-health-practices-systems-and-policies
#10
Peter Bragge, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Cynthia Lokker, Heather Colquhoun
BACKGROUND: Proliferation of terms describing the science of effectively promoting and supporting the use of research evidence in healthcare policy and practice has hampered understanding and development of the field. To address this, an international Terminology Working Group developed and published a simplified framework of interventions to promote and integrate evidence into health practices, systems, and policies. This paper presents results of validation work and a second international workgroup meeting, culminating in the updated AIMD framework [Aims, Ingredients, Mechanism, Delivery]...
March 4, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253851/a-systematic-review-of-studies-with-a-representative-sample-of-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-living-in-the-community-for-participation-in-mental-health-research
#11
Joanne C Enticott, Frances Shawyer, Shiva Vasi, Kimberly Buck, I-Hao Cheng, Grant Russell, Ritsuko Kakuma, Harry Minas, Graham Meadows
BACKGROUND: The aim was to review the literature to identify the most effective methods for creating a representative sample of refugee and asylum seeker groups living in the community to participate in health and mental health survey research. METHODS: A systematic search of academic and grey literature was conducted for relevant literature with 'hidden' groups published between January 1995 and January 2016. The main search used Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and SCOPUS electronic databases...
March 2, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241798/leveraging-the-ehr4cr-platform-to-support-patient-inclusion-in-academic-studies-challenges-and-lessons-learned
#12
Yannick Girardeau, Justin Doods, Eric Zapletal, Gilles Chatellier, Christel Daniel, Anita Burgun, Martin Dugas, Bastien Rance
BACKGROUND: The development of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) in hospitals offers the ability to reuse data from patient care activities for clinical research. EHR4CR is a European public-private partnership aiming to develop a computerized platform that enables the re-use of data collected from EHRs over its network. However, the reproducibility of queries may depend on attributes of the local data. Our objective was 1/ to describe the different steps that were achieved in order to use the EHR4CR platform and 2/ to identify the specific issues that could impact the final performance of the platform...
February 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236806/test-treatment-rcts-are-susceptible-to-bias-a-review-of-the-methodological-quality-of-randomized-trials-that-evaluate-diagnostic-tests
#13
Lavinia Ferrante di Ruffano, Jacqueline Dinnes, Alice J Sitch, Chris Hyde, Jonathan J Deeks
BACKGROUND: There is a growing recognition for the need to expand our evidence base for the clinical effectiveness of diagnostic tests. Many international bodies are calling for diagnostic randomized controlled trials to provide the most rigorous evidence of impact to patient health. Although these so-called test-treatment RCTs are very challenging to undertake due to their methodological complexity, they have not been subjected to a systematic appraisal of their methodological quality...
February 24, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231757/research-waste-in-diagnostic-trials-a-methods-review-evaluating-the-reporting-of-test-treatment-interventions
#14
Lavinia Ferrante di Ruffano, Jacqueline Dinnes, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Clare Davenport, Chris Hyde, Jonathan J Deeks
BACKGROUND: The most rigorous method for evaluating the effectiveness of diagnostic tests is through randomised trials that compare test-treatment interventions: complex interventions comprising episodes of testing, decision-making and treatment. The multi-staged nature of these interventions, combined with the need to relay diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning, has led researchers to hypothesise that test-treatment strategies may be very challenging to document. However, no reviews have yet examined the reporting quality of interventions used in test-treatment RCTs...
February 24, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231768/erratum-to-exploring-functional-data-analysis-and-wavelet-principal-component-analysis-on-ecstasy-mdma-wastewater-data
#15
Stefania Salvatore, Jørgen G Bramness, Jo Røislien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231767/performance-of-firth-and-logf-type-penalized-methods-in-risk-prediction-for-small-or-sparse-binary-data
#16
M Shafiqur Rahman, Mahbuba Sultana
BACKGROUND: When developing risk models for binary data with small or sparse data sets, the standard maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) based logistic regression faces several problems including biased or infinite estimate of the regression coefficient and frequent convergence failure of the likelihood due to separation. The problem of separation occurs commonly even if sample size is large but there is sufficient number of strong predictors. In the presence of separation, even if one develops the model, it produces overfitted model with poor predictive performance...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222682/a-statistical-method-utilizing-information-of-imported-cases-to-estimate-the-transmissibility-for-an-influenza-pandemic
#17
Ka Chun Chong, Benny Chung Ying Zee, Maggie Haitian Wang
BACKGROUND: In a new influenza pandemic, travel data such as arrival times of cases seeded by the originating country can be regarded as a combination of the epidemic size and the mobility networks of infections connecting the originating country with other regions. It can be a complete and timely source for estimating the basic reproduction number (R 0 ), a key indicator of disease transmissibility. METHOD: In this study, we developed a likelihood-based method using arrival times of infected cases in different countries to estimate R 0 for influenza pandemics...
February 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219336/participant-retention-practices-in-longitudinal-clinical-research-studies-with-high-retention-rates
#18
Martha Abshire, Victor D Dinglas, Maan Isabella A Cajita, Michelle N Eakin, Dale M Needham, Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb
BACKGROUND: There is a need for improving cohort retention in longitudinal studies. Our objective was to identify cohort retention strategies and implementation approaches used in studies with high retention rates. METHODS: Longitudinal studies with ≥200 participants, ≥80% retention rates over ≥1 year of follow-up were queried from an Institutional Review Board database at a large research-intensive U.S. university; additional studies were identified through networking...
February 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219326/estimation-of-treatment-preference-effects-in-clinical-trials-when-some-participants-are-indifferent-to-treatment-choice
#19
Stephen D Walter, Robin M Turner, Petra Macaskill, Kirsten J McCaffery, Les Irwig
BACKGROUND: In the two-stage randomised trial design, a randomly sampled subset of study participants are permitted to choose their own treatment, while the remaining participants are randomised to treatment in the usual way. Appropriate analysis of the data from both arms of the study allows investigators to estimate the impact on study outcomes of treatment preferences that patients may have, in addition to evaluating the usual direct effect of treatment. In earlier work, we showed how to optimise this design by making a suitable choice of the proportion of participants who should be assigned to the choice arm of the trial...
February 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202011/a-comparison-of-analytic-approaches-for-individual-patient-data-meta-analyses-with-binary-outcomes
#20
Doneal Thomas, Robert Platt, Andrea Benedetti
BACKGROUND: Individual patient data meta-analyses (IPD-MA) are often performed using a one-stage approach-- a form of generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) for binary outcomes. We compare (i) one-stage to two-stage approaches (ii) the performance of two estimation procedures (Penalized Quasi-likelihood-PQL and Adaptive Gaussian Hermite Quadrature-AGHQ) for GLMMs with binary outcomes within the one-stage approach and (iii) using stratified study-effect or random study-effects. METHODS: We compare the different approaches via a simulation study, in terms of bias, mean-squared error (MSE), coverage and numerical convergence, of the pooled treatment effect (β 1) and between-study heterogeneity of the treatment effect (τ 1(2) )...
February 16, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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