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BMC Medical Research Methodology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329525/reporting-of-heterogeneity-of-treatment-effect-in-cohort-studies-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Meryl Dahan, Caroline Scemama, Raphael Porcher, David J Biau
BACKGROUND: This article corresponds to a literature review and analyze how heterogeneity of treatment (HTE) is reported and addressed in cohort studies and to evaluate the use of the different measures to HTE analysis. METHODS: prospective cohort studies, in English language, measuring the effect of a treatment (pharmacological, interventional, or other) published among 119 core clinical journals (defined by the National Library of Medicine) in the last 16 years were selected in the following data source: Medline...
January 12, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325533/a-systematic-review-of-comparisons-between-protocols-or-registrations-and-full-reports-in-primary-biomedical-research
#2
Guowei Li, Luciana P F Abbade, Ikunna Nwosu, Yanling Jin, Alvin Leenus, Muhammad Maaz, Mei Wang, Meha Bhatt, Laura Zielinski, Nitika Sanger, Bianca Bantoto, Candice Luo, Ieta Shams, Hamnah Shahid, Yaping Chang, Guangwen Sun, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Zainab Samaan, Mitchell A H Levine, Jonathan D Adachi, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Prospective study protocols and registrations can play a significant role in reducing incomplete or selective reporting of primary biomedical research, because they are pre-specified blueprints which are available for the evaluation of, and comparison with, full reports. However, inconsistencies between protocols or registrations and full reports have been frequently documented. In this systematic review, which forms part of our series on the state of reporting of primary biomedical, we aimed to survey the existing evidence of inconsistencies between protocols or registrations (i...
January 11, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325529/a-multiple-imputation-method-based-on-weighted-quantile-regression-models-for-longitudinal-censored-biomarker-data-with-missing-values-at-early-visits
#3
MinJae Lee, Mohammad H Rahbar, Matthew Brown, Lianne Gensler, Michael Weisman, Laura Diekman, John D Reveille
BACKGROUND: In patient-based studies, biomarker data are often subject to left censoring due to the detection limits, or to incomplete sample or data collection. In the context of longitudinal regression analysis, inappropriate handling of these issues could lead to biased parameter estimates. We developed a specific multiple imputation (MI) strategy based on weighted censored quantile regression (CQR) that not only accounts for censoring, but also missing data at early visits when longitudinal biomarker data are modeled as a covariate...
January 11, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321002/comparison-of-nuisance-parameters-in-pediatric-versus-adult-randomized-trials-a-meta-epidemiologic-empirical-evaluation
#4
Ben Vandermeer, Ingeborg van der Tweel, Marijke C Jansen-van der Weide, Stephanie S Weinreich, Despina G Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Dirk Bassler, Ricardo M Fernandes, Lisa Askie, Haroon Saloojee, Paola Baiardi, Susan S Ellenberg, Johanna H van der Lee
BACKGROUND: We wished to compare the nuisance parameters of pediatric vs. adult randomized-trials (RCTs) and determine if the latter can be used in sample size computations of the former. METHODS: In this meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation we examined meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of Systematic-Reviews, with at least one pediatric-RCT and at least one adult-RCT. Within each meta-analysis of binary efficacy-outcomes, we calculated the pooled-control-group event-rate (CER) across separately all pediatric and adult-trials, using random-effect models and subsequently calculated the control-group event-rate risk-ratio (CER-RR) of the pooled-pediatric-CERs vs...
January 10, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316881/what-kind-of-systematic-review-should-i-conduct-a-proposed-typology-and-guidance-for-systematic-reviewers-in-the-medical-and-health-sciences
#5
LETTER
Zachary Munn, Cindy Stern, Edoardo Aromataris, Craig Lockwood, Zoe Jordan
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews have been considered as the pillar on which evidence-based healthcare rests. Systematic review methodology has evolved and been modified over the years to accommodate the range of questions that may arise in the health and medical sciences. This paper explores a concept still rarely considered by novice authors and in the literature: determining the type of systematic review to undertake based on a research question or priority. RESULTS: Within the framework of the evidence-based healthcare paradigm, defining the question and type of systematic review to conduct is a pivotal first step that will guide the rest of the process and has the potential to impact on other aspects of the evidence-based healthcare cycle (evidence generation, transfer and implementation)...
January 10, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316880/structure-formats-of-randomised-controlled-trial-abstracts-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-their-current-usage-and-association-with-methodology-reporting
#6
Fang Hua, Tanya Walsh, Anne-Marie Glenny, Helen Worthington
BACKGROUND: The reporting of randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts is of vital importance. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between structure format and RCT abstracts' quality of methodology reporting, informed by the current requirement and usage of structure formats by leading general medical/internal medicine journals (secondary objective). METHODS: A two-part cross-sectional study. First, through hand searches, we identified all RCTs published in the top-50 high-impact general medical/internal medicine journals during July-December 2015 (n = 370), and retrieved the 'instructions to authors' of these journals...
January 10, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310575/a-comparison-of-estimators-from-self-controlled-case-series-case-crossover-design-and-sequence-symmetry-analysis-for-pharmacoepidemiological-studies
#7
Yoshinori Takeuchi, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Yutaka Matsuyama
BACKGROUND: Despite the frequent use of self-controlled methods in pharmacoepidemiological studies, the factors that may bias the estimates from these methods have not been adequately compared in real-world settings. Here, we comparatively examined the impact of a time-varying confounder and its interactions with time-invariant confounders, time trends in exposures and events, restrictions, and misspecification of risk period durations on the estimators from three self-controlled methods...
January 8, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304734/effects-of-pre-notification-invitation-length-questionnaire-length-and-reminder-on-participation-rate-a-quasi-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Marie Koitsalu, Martin Eklund, Jan Adolfsson, Henrik Grönberg, Yvonne Brandberg
BACKGROUND: Improving participation rates in epidemiologic studies using questionnaires and biological sampling is important for the generalizability of the outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pre-notification, invitation length, questionnaire length, and reminder on participation rate and to investigate whether some factors contributed to participants doing both the questionnaire and blood sampling as oppose to only one part. METHODS: Our study was embedded within the pilot testing of a large population-based study about prostate cancer screening...
January 5, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301497/evaluating-screening-approaches-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-cohort-of-hcv-related-cirrhosis-patients-from-the-veteran-s-affairs-health-care-system
#9
Nabihah Tayob, Peter Richardson, Donna L White, Xiaoying Yu, Jessica A Davila, Fasiha Kanwal, Ziding Feng, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has limited treatment options in patients with advanced stage disease and early detection of HCC through surveillance programs is a key component towards reducing mortality. The current practice guidelines recommend that high-risk cirrhosis patients are screened every six months with ultrasonography but these are done in local hospitals with variable quality leading to disagreement about the benefit of HCC surveillance. The well-established diagnostic biomarker α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is used widely in screening but the reported performance varies widely across studies...
January 4, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301487/a-systematic-comparison-of-recurrent-event-models-for-application-to-composite-endpoints
#10
Ann-Kathrin Ozga, Meinhard Kieser, Geraldine Rauch
BACKGROUND: Many clinical trials focus on the comparison of the treatment effect between two or more groups concerning a rarely occurring event. In this situation, showing a relevant effect with an acceptable power requires the observation of a large number of patients over a long period of time. For feasibility issues, it is therefore often considered to include several event types of interest, non-fatal or fatal, and to combine them within a composite endpoint. Commonly, a composite endpoint is analyzed with standard survival analysis techniques by assessing the time to the first occurring event...
January 4, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287585/a-scoping-review-of-comparisons-between-abstracts-and-full-reports-in-primary-biomedical-research
#11
Guowei Li, Luciana P F Abbade, Ikunna Nwosu, Yanling Jin, Alvin Leenus, Muhammad Maaz, Mei Wang, Meha Bhatt, Laura Zielinski, Nitika Sanger, Bianca Bantoto, Candice Luo, Ieta Shams, Hamnah Shahid, Yaping Chang, Guangwen Sun, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Zainab Samaan, Mitchell A H Levine, Jonathan D Adachi, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that research abstracts are commonly inconsistent with their corresponding full reports, and may mislead readers. In this scoping review, which is part of our series on the state of reporting of primary biomedical research, we summarized the evidence from systematic reviews and surveys, to investigate the current state of inconsistent abstract reporting, and to evaluate factors associated with improved reporting by comparing abstracts and their full reports...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284417/abstract-analysis-method-facilitates-filtering-low-methodological-quality-and-high-bias-risk-systematic-reviews-on-psoriasis-interventions
#12
Francisco Gómez-García, Juan Ruano, Macarena Aguilar-Luque, Patricia Alcalde-Mellado, Jesús Gay-Mimbrera, José Luis Hernández-Romero, Juan Luis Sanz-Cabanillas, Beatriz Maestre-López, Marcelino González-Padilla, Pedro J Carmona-Fernández, Antonio Vélez García-Nieto, Beatriz Isla-Tejera
BACKGROUND: Article summaries' information and structure may influence researchers/clinicians' decisions to conduct deeper full-text analyses. Specifically, abstracts of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MA) should provide structured summaries for quick assessment. This study explored a method for determining the methodological quality and bias risk of full-text reviews using abstract information alone. METHODS: Systematic literature searches for SRs and/or MA about psoriasis were undertaken on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284414/can-statistic-adjustment-of-or-minimize-the-potential-confounding-bias-for-meta-analysis-of-case-control-study-a-secondary-data-analysis
#13
Tianyi Liu, Xiaolu Nie, Zehao Wu, Ying Zhang, Guoshuang Feng, Siyu Cai, Yaqi Lv, Xiaoxia Peng
BACKGROUND: Different confounder adjustment strategies were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) in case-control study, i.e. how many confounders original studies adjusted and what the variables are. This secondary data analysis is aimed to detect whether there are potential biases caused by difference of confounding factor adjustment strategies in case-control study, and whether such bias would impact the summary effect size of meta-analysis. METHODS: We included all meta-analyses that focused on the association between breast cancer and passive smoking among non-smoking women, as well as each original case-control studies included in these meta-analyses...
December 29, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281984/the-alarming-problems-of-confounding-equivalence-using-logistic-regression-models-in-the-perspective-of-causal-diagrams
#14
Yuanyuan Yu, Hongkai Li, Xiaoru Sun, Ping Su, Tingting Wang, Yi Liu, Zhongshang Yuan, Yanxun Liu, Fuzhong Xue
BACKGROUND: Confounders can produce spurious associations between exposure and outcome in observational studies. For majority of epidemiologists, adjusting for confounders using logistic regression model is their habitual method, though it has some problems in accuracy and precision. It is, therefore, important to highlight the problems of logistic regression and search the alternative method. METHODS: Four causal diagram models were defined to summarize confounding equivalence...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281981/compliance-of-systematic-reviews-in-ophthalmology-with-the-prisma-statement
#15
Seon-Young Lee, Harkiran Sagoo, Reem Farwana, Katharine Whitehurst, Alex Fowler, Riaz Agha
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are becoming increasingly important methods to summarize published research. Studies of ophthalmology may present additional challenges because of their potentially complex study designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on topics in ophthalmology to determine compliance with the PRISMA guidelines. We assessed articles published between 2010 and 2015 in the five major relevant journals with the highest impact factors...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281975/a-survey-of-prevalence-of-narrative-and-systematic-reviews-in-five-major-medical-journals
#16
Clovis Mariano Faggion, Nikolaos P Bakas, Jason Wasiak
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews may provide less biased evidence than narrative reviews because they observe a strict methodology, similarly to primary studies. Hence, for clinical research questions, systematic reviews should be the study design of choice. It would be important to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of narrative and systematic reviews published in prominent medical journals. Researchers and clinicians give great value to articles published in such scientific journals...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281974/development-of-an-intervention-to-reduce-antibiotic-use-for-childhood-coughs-in-uk-primary-care-using-critical-synthesis-of-multi-method-research
#17
Patricia J Lucas, Jenny Ingram, Niamh M Redmond, Christie Cabral, Sophie L Turnbull, Alastair D Hay
BACKGROUND: Overuse of antibiotics contributes to the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic stewardship interventions address this threat by reducing the use of antibiotics in occasions or doses unlikely to be effective. We aimed to develop an evidence-based, theory-informed, intervention to reduce antibiotic prescriptions in primary care for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTI). This paper describes our methods for doing so. METHODS: Green and Krueter's Precede/Proceed logic model was used as a framework to integrate findings from a programme of research including 5 systematic reviews, 3 qualitative studies, and 1 cohort study...
December 28, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272994/what-s-the-uptake-pragmatic-rcts-may-be-used-to-estimate-uptake-and-thereby-population-impact-of-interventions-but-better-reporting-of-trial-recruitment-processes-is-needed
#18
Katy J L Bell, Amanda McCullough, Chris Del Mar, Paul Glasziou
BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of interventions in pragmatic trials may not translate directly into population impact, because of limited uptake by clinicians and/or the public. Uptake of an intervention is influenced by a number of factors. METHODS: We propose a method for calculating population impact of clinical interventions that accounts for the intervention uptake. We suggest that population impact may be estimated by multiplying the two key components: (1) the effectiveness of the intervention in pragmatic trials (trial effect); and, (2) its uptake in clinical practice...
December 22, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268721/the-development-of-champ-a-checklist-for-the-appraisal-of-moderators-and-predictors
#19
Ralph van Hoorn, Marcia Tummers, Andrew Booth, Ansgar Gerhardus, Eva Rehfuess, Daniel Hind, Patrick M Bossuyt, Vivian Welch, Thomas P A Debray, Martin Underwood, Pim Cuijpers, Helena Kraemer, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Wietkse Kievit
BACKGROUND: Personalized healthcare relies on the identification of factors explaining why individuals respond differently to the same intervention. Analyses identifying such factors, so called predictors and moderators, have their own set of assumptions and limitations which, when violated, can result in misleading claims, and incorrect actions. The aim of this study was to develop a checklist for critically appraising the results of predictor and moderator analyses by combining recommendations from published guidelines and experts in the field...
December 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268701/multiple-score-comparison-a-network-meta-analysis-approach-to-comparison-and-external-validation-of-prognostic-scores
#20
Sarah R Haile, Beniamino Guerra, Joan B Soriano, Milo A Puhan
BACKGROUND: Prediction models and prognostic scores have been increasingly popular in both clinical practice and clinical research settings, for example to aid in risk-based decision making or control for confounding. In many medical fields, a large number of prognostic scores are available, but practitioners may find it difficult to choose between them due to lack of external validation as well as lack of comparisons between them. METHODS: Borrowing methodology from network meta-analysis, we describe an approach to Multiple Score Comparison meta-analysis (MSC) which permits concurrent external validation and comparisons of prognostic scores using individual patient data (IPD) arising from a large-scale international collaboration...
December 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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