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BMC Pediatrics

Bikila Lencha, Gemehu Ameya, Zanebe Minda, Feyissa Lamessa, Jiregna Darega
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive status disclosure is an essential component of Pediatric care and long term disease management. Children have a right to know their HIV diagnosis result. However, Pediatric HIV disclosure is complex and varies in different communities. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of HIV-positive status disclosure to infected children and associated factors among caregivers of infected children. METHODOLOGY: A facility based mixed methods research design study was conducted in Bale Zone of South East Ethiopia...
November 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Violet Okaba Kayom, Jamiir Mugalu, Abel Kakuru, Sarah Kiguli, Charles Karamagi
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is one of the most important causes of mortality in developing countries and yet the most preventable. In developing countries clinical algorithms are used to diagnose clinical neonatal sepsis because of inadequate microbiological services. Most information on incidence and risk factors of neonatal sepsis are from hospital studies which may not be generalized to communities where a significant proportion of mothers do not deliver from health facilities. This study, conducted in urban Uganda, sought to determine the community based incidence of clinical neonatal sepsis and the factors associated...
November 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Woosun Choi, Young Bae Choi
BACKGROUND: Splenic hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the spleen. However, it remains a rare medical condition in children. Although the natural course of splenic hemangioma is slow growth, treatment for large splenic hemangiomas has been recommended due to the risk of spontaneous rupture causing life-threating hemorrhage. However, the optimal treatment for splenic hemangioma in children is unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11-year-old girl had an enhancing mass, 61 × 54 × 65 mm in size and numerous daughter nodules throughout the entire spleen on a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography...
November 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Gunhild Nordbø Marthinsen, Sølvi Helseth, Liv Fegran
BACKGROUND: Sleep is essential for human health and functioning. Parents of preterm infants are susceptible to sleep disturbances because of stress related to the preterm birth. Poor sleep has the potential to affect parental health and well-being. The aim of this study was to identify and map evidence on sleep and its relationship to health in parents of preterm infants. No review has summarized the evidence on this topic. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted...
November 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Merab Nyishime, Ryan Borg, Willy Ingabire, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Evrard Nahimana, Neil Gupta, Anne Hansen, Michelle Labrecque, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Christine Mutaganzwa, Francois Biziyaremye, Claudine Mukayiranga, Francine Mwamini, Hema Magge
BACKGROUND: Despite worldwide efforts to reduce neonatal mortality, 44% of under-five deaths occur in the first 28 days of life. The primary causes of neonatal death are preventable or treatable. This study describes the presentation, management and outcomes of hospitalized newborns admitted to the neonatal units of two rural district hospitals in Rwanda after the 2012 launch of a national neonatal protocol and standards. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed routinely collected data for all neonates (0 to 28 days) admitted to the neonatal units at Rwinkwavu and Kirehe District Hospitals from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014...
November 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Camille Brotelande, Nicolas Leboucq, Mohamed Akkari, Thomas Roujeau, Massimo Di Maio, Christophe Milési, Michel Mondain, Charles Raybaud, Gilles Cambonie
BACKGROUND: Congenital bilateral vocal cord paralysis is a rare occurrence. Approximately half the cases are associated with a major comorbidity, usually neurological, neuromuscular or malformative. CASE PRESENTATION: In a male newborn, respiratory distress syndrome and stridor were observed immediately following birth. The cause was bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the adducted position. Neuroradiological investigation revealed a unilateral discontinuity between the upper pons and the right medulla oblongata...
November 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Cristina Garcia-Vaquero, Cristina Mir, Domingo Graterol, Nuria Ortiz, Maria Isabel Rochera-Villach, Matilde E LLeonart, Juan Lorente
BACKGROUND: Although considerable progress has been made in the last 30 years in the treatment of cleft palate (CP), a multidisciplinary approach combining examinations by a paediatrician, maxillofacial surgeon, otolaryngologist and speech and language pathologist followed by surgical operation is still required. In this work, we performed an observational cross-sectional study to determine whether the CP grade or number of ventilation tubes received was associated with tympanic membrane abnormalities, hearing loss or speech outcomes...
November 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Emma Olsson, Agneta Anderzén-Carlsson, Sigríður María Atladóttir, Anna Axelin, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Mats Eriksson, Guðrún Kristjánsdóttir, Emilia Peltonen, Bonnie Stevens, Bente Vederhus, Randi Dovland Andersen
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are especially vulnerable to pain. The intensive treatment often necessary for their survival unfortunately includes many painful interventions and procedures. Untreated pain can lead to both short- and long-term negative effects. The challenge of accurately detecting pain has been cited as a major reason for lack of pain management in these non-verbal patients. The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) is one of the most extensively validated measures for assessing procedural pain in premature infants...
November 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Ruth Sinclair, Tim Schindler, Kei Lui, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: Lipid emulsions (LE) are routinely administered as part of parenteral nutrition in neonates. There is a wide variation in clinical practice of plasma triglyceride monitoring during LE therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the incidence of hypertriglyceridaemia (Plasma triglyceride > 2.8 mmol/L) and its association with mortality and major morbidities in extremely preterm infants on parenteral nutrition. METHODS: A retrospective review of 195 infants < 29 weeks gestation...
November 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Deniz Baklaci, Ismail Guler, Ihsan Kuzucu, Rauf Oguzhan Kum, Muge Ozcan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the success of type 1 tympanoplasty in pediatric patients with chronic otitis media, and to evaluate the prognostic factors that may influence its success. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 102 children aged between 8 and 18 years (46 female, 56 male) who underwent type 1 tympanoplasty for chronic tympanic membrane perforation between January 2010 and July 2017 were reviewed. Age, gender, condition of contralateral ear (unilateral, bilateral), type (central, marginal) and location of perforation (anterior, posterior, inferior), graft material (fascia, cartilage), pre- and post-operative hearing levels, mean air-bone gap (ABG), surgical approach (postauricular, endaural) and length of follow up were recorded...
November 6, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Tamala Gondwe, Kalpana Betha, G N Kusneniwar, Clareann H Bunker, Gong Tang, Hyagriv Simhan, P S Reddy, Catherine L Haggerty
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found a relationship between cesarean section delivery and adverse outcomes in the offspring, partially attributing these findings to differential development of immunity in infants delivered by cesarean compared to vaginal delivery. The purpose of this study is to determine whether cesarean section delivery is associated with higher reports of adverse short-term infant health outcomes in a peri-urban Indian population. METHODS: Data from a prospective pregnancy cohort study in a peri-urban region of Telangana State, India, were analyzed to assess the association between mode of delivery, cesarean section or vaginal, and maternal report of recent infant diarrhea and/or respiratory symptoms at a 6 month follow-up visit...
November 6, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Juan Emmanuel Dewez, Harish Chellani, Sushma Nangia, Katrin Metsis, Helen Smith, Matthews Mathai, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is a form of non-invasive ventilatory support which is increasingly used in low- and middle-income countries to treat neonates with acute respiratory distress. However, it may be harmful if used incorrectly. We aimed to explore the experiences of doctors and nurses using CPAP in neonatal units in India and their views on enablers and barriers to implementation of CPAP. METHODS: Participants from 15 neonatal units across Andhra Pradesh were identified through purposive sampling...
November 6, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Tammy E Corr, Eric W Schaefer, Ian M Paul
BACKGROUND: Infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) initially experience neurologic excitability, poor feeding, and/or hyperphagia in the setting of increased metabolic demand. Because the longitudinal effects of these early symptoms and behaviors on weight trends are unknown, we sought to contrast weight gain patterns through age 1 year for infants diagnosed with NAS with matched controls. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of 70 singletons with a gestational age of ≥37 weeks and an ICD-9 or ICD-10 diagnosis of NAS made ≤7 days after birth with institutional follow-up matched to patients without NAS...
November 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Fengxiu Ouyang, Fan Jiang, Fangbiao Tao, Shunqing Xu, Yankai Xia, Xiu Qiu, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Assessment of child growth is important in detecting under- and over-growth. We aimed to examine the growth patterns of healthy Chinese infants from birth to 24 months. METHODS: This study was based on six recent birth cohorts across China, which provided data (from 2015) on 4251 children (2174 boys, 2077 girls) who were born at term to mothers without gestational or preexisting diabetes, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, or eclampsia. Analyses were performed using 28,298 longitudinal anthropometric measures in 4251 children and the LMS method to generate smoothed Z-score growth curves, which were compared to the WHO growth standards (which are based on data from 2003) and current Chinese growth references (which are based on data from 2005)...
November 5, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Shipra Chaudhary, Nisha Keshary Bhatta, Madhab Lamsal, Rajendra Kumar Chaudhari, Basudha Khanal
BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is a paediatric emergency with high mortality and morbidity requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Clinically, it is often difficult to differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis. Several studies have demonstrated the raised values of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in bacterial infections including meningitis but without definite cut-off guidelines. Hence, this study was done to evaluate serum PCT as a marker to differentiate bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children and assess its efficacy...
November 2, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Stacey Kallem, Rachel S Gruver, Senbagam Virudachalam, Alexander G Fiks
BACKGROUND: Social media is a common way for mothers to seek advice about their infants. However, little is known about how low-income urban mothers use social media to obtain infant health information and whether this information is consistent with expert pediatric recommendations. OBJECTIVES: (1) identify the types of health questions asked by low-income mothers of infants in a social media parenting group; (2) describe whether peer answers are consistent with or contradict AAP guidelines; (3) identify the practices that mothers post about that are inconsistent with AAP guidelines...
October 31, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Manuela Capozza, Iolanda Chinellato, Vito Guarnieri, Natascia Di Lorgi, Maria Accadia, Cristina Traggiai, Girolamo Mattioli, Antonio Di Mauro, Nicola Laforgia
BACKGROUND: Neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of calcium homeostasis, characterized by striking hyperparathyroidism, marked hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroid bone disease. We report the case of a newborn with a novel homozygous mutation of the CaSR, treated by successful subtotal parathyroidectomy, who had an acute presentation of the disease, i.e. out-of hospital cardiorespiratory arrest. . CASE PRESENTATION: A 8-day-old female newborn was admitted to the NICU of University of Bari "Aldo Moro" (Italy) after a cardiorespiratory arrest occurred at home...
October 30, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jiangping Wang, Jinling Liu, Yi Gao, Kaixuan Wang, Kewen Jiang
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Genetically based subtype identification may prove more beneficial not only in illuminating the course and prognosis, but also for individualized treatment targets of an ASD sub-group. Increasing evidence has shown that de novo loss-of-function mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) gene are associated with an ASD sub-group. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe two ASD cases in children with mild intellectual disability, early motor deficits, and speech delay, without distinct structural or EEG brain anomalies...
October 30, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Kanwal Nayani, Rubaba Naeem, Owais Munir, Naureen Naseer, Asher Feroze, Nick Brown, Asad I Mian
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress is a common presenting complaint in children brought to the Emergency Department (ED). The Clinical Respiratory Score (CRS) has shown promise as a screen for severe illness in High Income Countries. We aimed to validate the admission CRS in children presenting to the ED of a Low-to Middle Income Country. METHODS: Children (1 month to 16 years) presenting with respiratory distress to the ED of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, between November 2015 to March 2016, were enrolled...
October 30, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Archana Patel, Priyanka Kuhite, Amrita Puranik, Samreen Sadaf Khan, Jitesh Borkar, Leena Dhande
BACKGROUND: Every year, nearly one million deaths occur due to suboptimal breastfeeding. If universally practiced, exclusive breastfeeding alone prevents 11.6% of all under 5 deaths. Among strategies to improve exclusive breastfeeding rates, counselling by peers or health workers, has proven to be highly successful. With growing availability of cell phones in India, they are fast becoming a medium to spread information for promoting healthcare among pregnant women and their families. This study was conducted to assess effectiveness of cell phones for personalized lactation consultation to improve breastfeeding practices...
October 30, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
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