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American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316006/management-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-current-challenges-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Bharathi Upadhya, Dalane W Kitzman
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in patients older than 65 years. Among elderly women living in the community, HFpEF comprises nearly 90% of incident HF cases. The health and economic impact of HFpEF is at least as great as that of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with similar severity of acute hospitalization rates and substantial mortality. Despite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315197/the-positive-regulation-of-enos-signaling-by-ppar-agonists-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Cristina Maccallini, Adriano Mollica, Rosa Amoroso
Increasing evidence shows that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular endothelial function through a range of mechanisms, including non-metabolic. Among these, the PPAR-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) appears to be of considerable importance. The regulated and sustained bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelium is essential to avoid the development of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or atherosclerosis...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255870/efficacy-and-safety-of-lomitapide-in-hypercholesterolemia
#3
REVIEW
Xin Liu, Peng Men, Yuhui Wang, Suodi Zhai, Zhigang Zhao, George Liu
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive use of statins, patients with hypercholesterolemia, especially homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), do not achieve recommended targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). There is an urgent need for novel options that could reduce proatherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Lomitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTP) inhibitor, was approved three years ago as an orphan drug for the treatment of patients with HoFH...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211030/antithrombotic-therapy-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#4
Raul Moreno
Current guidelines for patients who are undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation but who do not require anticoagulation recommend double antiplatelet therapy for 3-6 months after the procedure, followed by aspirin indefinitely. However, these guidelines are based on expert consensus rather than clinical trials. Several randomized trials are currently evaluating alternative antithrombotic strategies, and recommendations will likely change when their results become available.
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197979/no-effect-of-omega-3-carboxylic-acids-on-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-warfarin-or-on-platelet-function-when-co-administered-with-acetylsalicylic-acid-results-of-two-phase-i-studies-in-healthy-volunteers
#5
Elliot Offman, Michael Davidson, Catarina Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) can lower triglyceride levels. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the effects of OM3-CA on warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-dependent and independent platelet activation when co-administered with ASA in two phase I studies. METHODS: In ECLIPSE II (NCT01431690), 26 participants received warfarin 25 mg on days 1 and 22 and OM3-CA 4 g once daily from day 8 to day 28...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197978/managing-cardiovascular-risk-in-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#6
REVIEW
James J Maciejko
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare, life-threatening, autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the LIPA gene, which encodes for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). This enzyme is necessary for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride in lysosomes. Deficient LAL activity causes accumulation of these lipids in lysosomes and a marked decrease in the cytoplasmic free cholesterol concentration, leading to dysfunctional cholesterol homeostasis. The accumulation of neutral lipid occurs predominantly in liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body, and the aberrant cholesterol homeostasis causes a marked dyslipidemia...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197977/interpreting-cardiovascular-endpoints-in-trials-of-antihyperglycemic-drugs
#7
REVIEW
Himika Chawla, Nikhil Tandon
In view of the significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and concerns raised about the CV safety of some glucose-lowering drugs, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance for the industry in 2008 to demonstrate CV safety for the approval of all new antihyperglycemic drugs. Seven randomized controlled trials involving around 60,000 participants have been completed so far and have demonstrated the CV safety of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin and sitagliptin), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (lixisenatide, liraglutide and semaglutide) and a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (empagliflozin) in patients with type 2 diabetes...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063129/rates-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-use-in-patients-with-established-cardiovascular-disease-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study-from-nhanes-2009-2010
#8
Gregory Castelli, Ashley Petrone, Jun Xiang, Carl Shrader, Dana King
PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever in the USA. Unfortunately, NSAIDs have been associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, especially among NSAID users with established cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an initial warning regarding NSAID use and CVD risk, and recently, in July 2015, released an updated statement strengthening this initial warning...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050885/results-of-an-international-postmarketing-surveillance-study-of-pl-vegf165-safety-and-efficacy-in-210-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#9
Roman Deev, Igor Plaksa, Ilia Bozo, Artur Isaev
INTRODUCTION: The effective treatment of chronic lower limb ischemia is one of the most challenging issues confronting vascular surgeons. Current pharmacological therapies play an auxiliary role and cannot prevent disease progression, and new treatment methods are needed. pl-VEGF165, a gene therapy drug, was approved in Russia for the treatment of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) after clinical studies in 2011. The study drug is an original gene construction in which pl-VEGF165 1...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039585/iron-therapy-in-patients-with-heart-failure-and-iron-deficiency-review-of-iron-preparations-for-practitioners
#10
REVIEW
Marcin Drozd, Ewa A Jankowska, Waldemar Banasiak, Piotr Ponikowski
In patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) correlates with decreased exercise capacity and poor health-related quality of life, and predicts worse outcomes. Both absolute (depleted iron stores) and functional (where iron is unavailable for dedicated tissues) ID can be easily evaluated in patients with HF using standard laboratory tests (assessment of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction has been shown to alleviate HF symptoms and improve exercise capacity and quality of life...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130659/pitavastatin-a-review-in-hypercholesterolemia
#11
REVIEW
Sheridan M Hoy
Oral pitavastatin (Livalo(®); Livazo(®)) is a competitive HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor that is available in the EU for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in adults with primary hypercholesterolemia and combined (mixed) dyslipidemia. In short-term, phase III or IV studies in this patient population, pitavastatin 1-4 mg once daily was generally no less effective than presumed equipotent dosages of atorvastatin and simvastatin (including in patients with type 2 diabetes or ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors) and was superior to pravastatin (including in patients aged ≥65 years) in lowering LDL-C levels...
April 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882517/cost-effectiveness-of-apixaban-versus-warfarin-or-aspirin-for-stroke-prevention-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-greek-perspective
#12
Kostas Athanasakis, Nadia Boubouchairopoulou, Eleftheria Karampli, Filippos Tarantilis, Paraskevi Savvari, Aikaterini Bilitou, John Kyriopoulos
BACKGROUND: Strokes attributed to atrial fibrillation (AF) represent a major cause of adult disability and a great burden to society and healthcare systems. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the cost effectiveness of apixaban, a direct acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC), versus warfarin or aspirin for patients with AF in the Greek healthcare setting. METHODS: We used a previously published Markov model to simulate clinical events for patients with AF treated with apixaban, the vitamin K antagonist (VKA) warfarin, or aspirin...
April 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873238/cardiovascular-safety-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors-a-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-randomized-trials
#13
REVIEW
Islam Y Elgendy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Amr F Barakat, Akram Y Elgendy, Marwan Saad, Ahmed Abuzaid, Siddarth A Wayangankar, Anthony A Bavry
BACKGROUND: Large randomized trials have shown conflicting evidence regarding the cardiovascular safety of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Systematic reviews have been limited by incomplete data and inclusion of observational studies. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the cardiovascular safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized trials that compared DPP-4 inhibitors versus placebo and reported cardiovascular outcomes...
April 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854064/the-rationale-for-and-clinical-pharmacology-of-prasugrel-5-mg
#14
REVIEW
Joseph A Jakubowski, David Erlinge, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, David S Small, Kenneth J Winters, Paul A Gurbel, Dominick J Angiolillo
Prasugrel is a third-generation thienopyridine platelet P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist administered with aspirin for the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with planned percutaneous coronary intervention. Prasugrel is administered periprocedurally at an oral loading dose of 60 mg followed by daily maintenance doses (MDs) of 10 mg for most patients and 5 mg for patients weighing <60 kg or aged ≥75 years. Data from a prasugrel phase III study, TRITON-TIMI 38, suggested that a lower MD might be more suitable for patients weighing <60 kg or aged ≥75 years; subsequent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have indicated that prasugrel 5 mg reduced platelet reactivity in these populations to an extent similar to that of prasugrel 10 mg in heavier or younger patients...
April 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837448/consensus-on-the-statin-of-choice-in-patients-with-impaired-glucose-metabolism-results-of-the-diana-study
#15
Jesús Millán Núñez-Cortés, Aleix Cases Amenós, Juan Francisco Ascaso Gimilio, Vivencio Barrios Alonso, Vicente Pascual Fuster, Juan Carles Pedro-Botet Montoya, Xavier Pintó Sala, Adalberto Serrano Cumplido
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the recognized clinical benefit of statins on cardiovascular prevention, providing correct management of hypercholesterolaemia, possible adverse effects of their use cannot be disregarded. Previously published data shows that there is a risk of developing diabetes mellitus or experiencing changes in glucose metabolism in statin-treated patients. The possible determining factors are the drug characteristics (potency, dose), patient characteristics (kidney function, age, cardiovascular risk and polypharmacy because of multiple disorders) and the pre-diabetic state...
April 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826802/clinical-pharmacology-and-cardiovascular-safety-of-naproxen
#16
REVIEW
Dominick J Angiolillo, Steven M Weisman
The voluntary withdrawal of Vioxx (rofecoxib) from the market in 2004, as well as the 2005 and 2014 US FDA Advisory Committee meetings about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cardiovascular risk, have raised questions surrounding the use of NSAIDs in at-risk populations. This paper discusses the cardiovascular safety profile of naproxen in the context of the NSAID class. The balance of evidence suggests that cardiovascular risk correlates with cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selectivity, and the low COX-2 selectivity of naproxen results in a lower cardiovascular risk than that of other NSAIDs...
April 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778192/therapeutic-targeting-of-cellular-stress-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-a-review-of-the-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Arshag D Mooradian
The availability of effective drugs targeting the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has reduced morbidity and mortality. Cumulative relative risk of CVD events can be reduced by 75 % with a combination of aspirin, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (β-blocker), an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin), and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. The principal pharmacodynamics of these drugs cannot explain the entirety of their cardioprotective action, as other drugs with similar pharmacologic targets have not been associated with favorable clinical effects...
April 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988834/selexipag-a-review-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Sean T Duggan, Susan J Keam, Celeste B Burness
Selexipag (Uptravi(®)) is an orally active, first-in-class, selective prostacyclin IP receptor agonist. Selexipag was approved recently in the EU for the long-term treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adult patients with WHO functional class (FC) II or III as combination therapy in patients insufficiently controlled with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor or as monotherapy in patients who are not candidates for these therapies, and in the USA for the treatment of PAH (WHO Group I) to delay disease progression and reduce the risk of hospitalization for PAH...
February 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837449/erratum-to-optimizing-the-use-of-cangrelor-in-the-real-world
#19
Arman Qamar, Deepak L Bhatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778191/impact-of-adding-eicosapentaenoic-acid-to-statin-therapy-on-plasma-pentraxin-3-level-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-study
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Shigemasa Tani, Ken Nagao, Tsukasa Yagi, Wataru Atsumi, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the additional administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving statin has the potential to lower the serum pentraxin 3 (PTX3) level, an indicator of plaque stabilization. METHODS: We randomly assigned CAD patients already receiving statin therapy to an EPA group (1800 mg/day, n = 53) or control group (n = 53). RESULTS: No significant difference was found in the change in the plasma PTX3 level between the groups...
February 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
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