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Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888243/challenges-to-quantitative-applications-of-landsat-observations-for-the-urban-thermal-environment
#1
REVIEW
Feng Chen, Song Yang, Kai Yin, Paul Chan
Since the launch of its first satellite in 1972, the Landsat program has operated continuously for more than forty years. A large data archive collected by the Landsat program significantly benefits both the academic community and society. Thermal imagery from Landsat sensors, provided with relatively high spatial resolution, is suitable for monitoring urban thermal environment. Growing use of Landsat data in monitoring urban thermal environment is demonstrated by increasing publications on this subject, especially over the last decade...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888242/surface-ozone-scenario-and-air-quality-in-the-north-central-part-of-india
#2
Renuka Saini, Ajay Taneja, Pradyumn Singh
Tropospheric pollutants including surface ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and meteorological parameters were measured at a traffic junction (78°2' E and 27°11' N) in Agra, India from January 2012 to December 2012. Temporal analysis of pollutants suggests that annual average mixing ratios of tropospheric pollutants were: O3 - 22.97±23.36ppbV, NO2 - 19.84±16.71ppbV and CO - 0.91±0.86ppmV, with seasonal variations of O3 having maximum mixing ratio during summer season (32.41±19.31ppbV), whereas lowest was found in post-monsoon season (8...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888241/buoyancy-and-turbulence-driven-atmospheric-circulation-over-urban-areas
#3
Yifan Fan, Julian Charles Roland Hunt, Yuguo Li
In the buoyancy and turbulence-driven atmospheric circulations (BTDAC) that occur over urban areas where the approach means wind speeds are very low (less than turbulent fluctuations and typically <3m/sec), the surface temperatures are significantly higher than those in the external rural areas, and the atmosphere above the mixing layer is stably stratified. In this paper, the mechanisms of BTDAC formation are studied through laboratory experiments and modelling, with additional low-level inflow from external rural areas and a divergent outflow in the opposite direction in the upper part of the mixed layer...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888240/sensitivity-of-precipitation-statistics-to-urban-growth-in-a-subtropical-coastal-megacity-cluster
#4
Christopher Claus Holst, Johnny C L Chan, Chi-Yung Tam
This short paper presents an investigation on how human activities may or may not affect precipitation based on numerical simulations of precipitation in a benchmark case with modified lower boundary conditions, representing different stages of urban development in the model. The results indicate that certain degrees of urbanization affect the likelihood of heavy precipitation significantly, while less urbanized or smaller cities are much less prone to these effects. Such a result can be explained based on our previous work where the sensitivity of precipitation statistics to surface anthropogenic heat sources lies in the generation of buoyancy and turbulence in the planetary boundary layer and dissipation through triggering of convection...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888239/urban-climate-in-the-tokyo-metropolitan-area-in-japan
#5
REVIEW
Jun Matsumoto, Fumiaki Fujibe, Hideo Takahashi
Long-term climate changes related with urbanization in Tokyo, Japan, and recent temperature and heavy rainfall distribution in the Tokyo metropolitan area are reviewed. A relatively high temperature increase in annual mean temperature at the rate of 3.0°C/century was detected in Tokyo for the period 1901-2015. Some observational evidence showed the existence of both thermal and mechanical effects of urbanization on recent heavy rainfall occurrences, and modeling studies also support precipitation enhancement...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888238/gis-based-analysis-of-population-exposure-to-pm2-5-air-pollution-a-case-study-of-beijing
#6
Zhao Liu, Meihui Xie, Kun Tian, Peichao Gao
PM2.5, formally defined as particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5μm, is one of most harmful air pollutants threatening human health. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that both short-term and long-term exposures to PM2.5 are strongly linked with respiratory diseases. In this study, various types of spatio-temporal data were collected and used to estimate the spatio-temporal variation of PM2.5 exposure in Beijing in 2014. The seasonal and daily variation of the population-weighted exposure level (PWEL) in 2014 was estimated and compared...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888237/street-floods-in-metro-manila-and-possible-solutions
#7
Alfredo Mahar Lagmay, Jerico Mendoza, Fatima Cipriano, Patricia Anne Delmendo, Micah Nieves Lacsamana, Marc Anthony Moises, Nicanor Pellejera, Kenneth Niño Punay, Glenn Sabio, Laurize Santos, Jonathan Serrano, Herbert James Taniza, Neil Eneri Tingin
Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888236/urban-air-quality-meteorology-and-traffic-linkages-evidence-from-a-sixteen-day-particulate-matter-pollution-event-in-december-2015-beijing
#8
Dongmei Hu, Jianping Wu, Kun Tian, Lyuchao Liao, Ming Xu, Yiman Du
A heavy 16-day pollution episode occurred in Beijing from December 19, 2015 to January 3, 2016. The mean daily AQI and PM2.5 were 240.44 and 203.6μg/m(3). We analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of air pollutants, meteorology and road space speed during this period, then extended to reveal the combined effects of traffic restrictions and meteorology on urban air quality with observational data and a multivariate mutual information model. Results of spatiotemporal analysis showed that five pollution stages were identified with remarkable variation patterns based on evolution of PM2...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888235/predicting-vehicle-fuel-consumption-patterns-using-floating-vehicle-data
#9
Yiman Du, Jianping Wu, Senyan Yang, Liutong Zhou
The status of energy consumption and air pollution in China is serious. It is important to analyze and predict the different fuel consumption of various types of vehicles under different influence factors. In order to fully describe the relationship between fuel consumption and the impact factors, massive amounts of floating vehicle data were used. The fuel consumption pattern and congestion pattern based on large samples of historical floating vehicle data were explored, drivers' information and vehicles' parameters from different group classification were probed, and the average velocity and average fuel consumption in the temporal dimension and spatial dimension were analyzed respectively...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888234/disseminating-near-real-time-hazards-information-and-flood-maps-in-the-philippines-through-web-gis
#10
Alfredo Mahar Francisco A Lagmay, Bernard Alan Racoma, Ken Adrian Aracan, Jenalyn Alconis-Ayco, Ivan Lester Saddi
The Philippines being a locus of tropical cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. These natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property. Situated in a region where climate and geophysical tempest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888233/asian-urban-environment-and-climate-change-preface
#11
EDITORIAL
Julian Hunt, Jianping Wu
The Asian Network on Climate Science and Technology (www.ancst.org), in collaboration with Tsinghua University, held a conference on environmental and climate science, air pollution, urban planning and transportation in July 2015, with over 40 Asian experts participating and presentation. This was followed by a meeting with local government and community experts on the practical conclusions of the conference. Of the papers presented at the conference a selection are included in this special issue of Journal of Environmental Science, which also reflects the conclusions of the Paris Climate meeting in Dec 2015, when the major nations of the world agreed about the compelling need to reduce the upward trend of adverse impacts associated with global climate change...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774630/the-chlorination-transformation-characteristics-of-benzophenone-4-in-the-presence-of-iodide-ions
#12
Fan Yang, Dongbin Wei, Ming Xiao, Xuefeng Sun, Qiaorong Guo, Yi Liu, Yuguo Du
Benzophenone-type UV filters are a group of compounds widely used to protect human skin from damage of UV irradiation. Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) was targeted to explore its transformation behaviors during chlorination disinfection treatment in the presence of iodide ions. With the help of ultra performance liquid phase chromatograph and high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, totally fifteen halogenated products were identified, and five out of them were iodinated products. The transformation mechanisms of BP-4 involved electrophilic substitution generating mono- or di-halogenated products, which would be oxidized into esters and further hydrolyzed into phenolic derivatives...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774629/characterization-of-halogenated-dbps-and-identification-of-new-dbps-trihalomethanols-in-chlorine-dioxide-treated-drinking-water-with-multiple-extractions
#13
Jiarui Han, Xiangru Zhang, Jiaqi Liu, Xiaohu Zhu, Tingting Gong
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO2-treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774628/trihalomethane-concentrations-in-tap-water-as-determinant-of-bottled-water-use-in-the-city-of-barcelona
#14
Laia Font-Ribera, Jordi Colomer Cotta, Anna Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina M Villanueva
Bottled water consumption is increasing worldwide, despite its huge economic and environmental cost. We aim to describe personal and tap water quality determinants of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona. This cross-sectional study used data from the Health Survey of Barcelona in 2006 (N=5417 adults). The use of bottled water to drink and to cook was evaluated in relation to age, gender, educational level, district and levels of trihalomethanes (THMs), free chlorine, conductivity, chloride, sodium, pH, nitrate and aluminium in municipal tap water using Robust Poisson Regression...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774627/cho-cell-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-analyses-of-disinfection-by-products-an-updated-review
#15
REVIEW
Elizabeth D Wagner, Michael J Plewa
The disinfection of drinking water is an important public health service that generates high quality, safe and palatable tap water. The disinfection of drinking water to reduce waterborne disease was an outstanding public health achievement of the 20th century. An unintended consequence is the reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants and bromide/iodide to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). A large number of DBPs are cytotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774626/formation-and-control-of-disinfection-byproducts-and-toxicity-during-reclaimed-water-chlorination-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Ye Du, Xiao-Tong Lv, Qian-Yuan Wu, Da-Yin Zhang, Yu-Ting Zhou, Lu Peng, Hong-Ying Hu
Chlorination is essential to the safety of reclaimed water; however, this process leads to concern regarding the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and toxicity. This study reviewed the formation and control strategies for DBPs and toxicity in reclaimed water during chlorination. Both regulated and emerging DBPs have been frequently detected in reclaimed water during chlorination at a higher level than those in drinking water, indicating they pose a greater risk to humans. Luminescent bacteria and Daphnia magna acute toxicity, anti-estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity generally increased after chlorination because of the formation of DBPs...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774625/halogen-specific-total-organic-halogen-analysis-assessment-by-recovery-of-total-bromine
#17
Markus Langsa, Sebastien Allard, Ina Kristiana, Anna Heitz, Cynthia A Joll
Determination of halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX) is vital for studies of disinfection of waters containing bromide, since total organic bromine (TOBr) is likely to be more problematic than total organic chlorine. Here, we present further halogen-specific TOX method optimisation and validation, focusing on measurement of TOBr. The optimised halogen-specific TOX method was validated based on the recovery of model compounds covering different classes of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, halophenols and halogenated benzenes) and the recovery of total bromine (mass balance of TOBr and bromide concentrations) during disinfection of waters containing dissolved organic matter and bromide...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774624/capability-of-cation-exchange-technology-to-remove-proven-n-nitrosodimethylamine-precursors
#18
Shixiang Li, Xulan Zhang, Er Bei, Huihui Yue, Pengfei Lin, Jun Wang, Xiaojian Zhang, Chao Chen
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors consist of a positively charged dimethylamine group and a non-polar moiety, which inspired us to develop a targeted cation exchange technology to remove NDMA precursors. In this study, we tested the removal of two representative NDMA precursors, dimethylamine (DMA) and ranitidine (RNTD), by strong acidic cation exchange resin. The results showed that pH greatly affected the exchange efficiency, with high removal (DMA>78% and RNTD>94%) observed at pH<pka-1 when the molar ratio of exchange capacity to precursor was 4...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774623/control-of-aliphatic-halogenated-dbp-precursors-with-multiple-drinking-water-treatment-processes-formation-potential-and-integrated-toxicity
#19
Yimeng Zhang, Wenhai Chu, Dechang Yao, Daqiang Yin
The comprehensive control efficiency for the formation potentials (FPs) of a range of regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (including carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), and iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs)) with the multiple drinking water treatment processes, including pre-ozonation, conventional treatment (coagulation-sedimentation, pre-sand filtration), ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) advanced treatment, and post-sand filtration, was investigated. The potential toxic risks of DBPs by combing their FPs and toxicity values were also evaluated...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774622/method-to-assess-component-contribution-to-toxicity-of-complex-mixtures-assessment-of-puberty-acquisition-in-rats-exposed-to-disinfection-byproducts
#20
Shahid Parvez, Glenn E Rice, Linda K Teuschler, Jane Ellen Simmons, Thomas F Speth, Susan D Richardson, Richard J Miltner, E Sidney Hunter, Jonathan G Pressman, Lillian F Strader, Gary R Klinefelter, Jerome M Goldman, Michael G Narotsky
A method based on regression modeling was developed to discern the contribution of component chemicals to the toxicity of highly complex, environmentally realistic mixtures of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Chemical disinfection of drinking water forms DBP mixtures. Because of concerns about possible reproductive and developmental toxicity, a whole mixture (WM) of DBPs produced by chlorination of a water concentrate was administered as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats in a multigenerational study...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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