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Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053048/brain-oscillations-as-biomarkers-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-following-an-interactive-panel-discussion-and-synopsis
#1
REVIEW
Görsev G Yener, Erol Başar
This survey covers the potential use of neurophysiological changes as a biomarker in four neuropsychiatric diseases (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ)). Great developments have been made in the search of biomarkers in these disorders, especially in AD. Nevertheless, there is a tremendous need to develop an efficient, low-cost, potentially portable, non-invasive biomarker in the diagnosis, course, or treatment of the above-mentioned disorders...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053047/review-of-delta-theta-alpha-beta-and-gamma-response-oscillations-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Erol Başar, Bahar Güntekin
Method and concepts of brain oscillations pervade the neuroscience literature, especially in cognitive processes. Electrophysiological changes in patients with cognitive impairment will provide fundamental knowledge, not only for clinical studies but also, in turn, for understanding cognitive processes in healthy subjects. This review includes description of brain oscillations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The reviewed publications include several methodological approaches: analysis of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra, evoked oscillations, event-related oscillations, and coherences both in spontaneous EEG and event-related oscillations...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053046/event-related-oscillations-reflect-functional-asymmetry-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Juliana Yordanova, Vasil Kolev, Aribert Rothenberger
Previous studies have found that event-related theta and gamma oscillations elicited in an auditory selective attention task are deviant in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been suggested that these deviations are associated with deficient motor inhibition in ADHD, which may lead to increased excitability of not only the motor generation networks but also the networks involved in sensory and cognitive processing of the stimulus requiring motor response. Within this suggestion, the present study used the same experimental database to compare the motor cortical activation of healthy controls and children with ADHD during the performance of the auditory selective attention task...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053045/resting-state-brain-oscillations-and-symptom-profiles-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Robert J Barry, Adam R Clarke
Our perspective on resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) is that it provides a window into the substrate of cognitive and perceptual processing, reflecting the dynamic potential of the brain's current functional state. In an extended research program into the electrophysiology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), we have examined resting-state EEG power and coherence, and event-related potentials (ERPs), in children, adolescents, and adults with the disorder. We sought initially to identify consistent AD/HD anomalies in these measures, relative to normal control subjects, and then to understand how these differences related to existing models of AD/HD...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053044/biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-a-special-emphasis-on-event-related-oscillatory-responses
#5
REVIEW
Görsev G Yener, Erol Başar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative dementing illness. Early diagnosis at the prodromal stage is an important topic of current research. Significant advances were recently made in the validation process of several biomarkers, including structural/amyloid imaging, cerebrospinal fluid measurements, and glucose positron emission tomography. Nevertheless, there remains a need to develop an efficient, low cost, potentially portable, noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis, course, or treatment of AD...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053043/resting-state-cortical-eeg-rhythms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-toward-eeg-markers-for-clinical-applications-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Fabrizio Vecchio, Claudio Babiloni, Roberta Lizio, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani, Katarzyna Blinowska, Giulio Verrienti, Giovanni Frisoni, Paolo M Rossini
The human brain contains an intricate network of about 100 billion neurons. Aging of the brain is characterized by a combination of synaptic pruning, loss of cortico-cortical connections, and neuronal apoptosis that provoke an age-dependent decline of cognitive functions. Neural/synaptic redundancy and plastic remodeling of brain networking, also secondary to mental and physical training, promote maintenance of brain activity and cognitive status in healthy elderly subjects for everyday life. However, age is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) that impact on cognition...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053042/brain-oscillations-in-bipolar-disorder-in-search-of-new-biomarkers
#7
REVIEW
Ayşegül Ozerdema, Bahar Güntekind, M Ilhan Atagüne, Erol Başar
This report presents six cardinal results obtained with methods of oscillatory brain dynamics in euthymic and manic bipolar patients in comparison to healthy controls. Measurements include changes in oscillatory response activities in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency ranges. The analysis shows that spontaneous and response activities in the alpha range are highly reduced in euthymic and manic patients, respectively; conversely, beta responses are increased in euthymic and manic patients. Lithium use seems to be associated with further and significant increase in the beta frequency range in euthymic patients...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053041/neurophysiological-findings-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Toshiaki Onitsuka, Naoya Oribe, Shigenobu Kanba
The present article reviews findings from measuring evoked and event-related responses, neural oscillation and synchronization, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies in patients with bipolar disorder. Studies of evoked responses have indicated that the P50 suppression deficits may be related to the generation of psychosis and may constitute an endophenotype of bipolar disorder patients with psychotic features. The N100 may be intact in patients with bipolar disorder, and the N100 might be a biological index to distinguish bipolar disorder and schizophrenia...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053040/connectivity-and-local-activity-within-the-fronto-posterior-brain-network-in-schizophrenia
#9
Anuradha Sharma, Matthias Weisbrod, Stephan Bender
BACKGROUND: Fronto-posterior networks have been implicated in cognitive control and understanding the detailed functional dynamics within this network is important to understand the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In a previous study (Sharma et al., 2011), we found reduced event-related coherence between frontal and posterior electrode sites in delta and theta frequencies during cognitive control in schizophrenia. The current study aimed to look at the relationship between locally evoked frontal and posterior activity (measured by event-related potentials (ERPs)) and long-range coherence within the fronto-posterior network in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053039/converging-evidence-for-gamma-synchrony-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#10
B J Roach, J M Ford, R E Hoffman, D H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: In electroencephalogram (EEG) studies of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), patients with schizophrenia show a deficit in power and/or phase-locking, particularly at the 40 Hz frequency where these responses resonate. In addition, studies of the transient gamma-band response (GBR) elicited by single tones have revealed deficits in gamma power and phase-locking in schizophrenia. We examined the degree to which the 40 Hz ASSR and the transient GBR to single tones are correlated and whether they assess overlapping or distinct gamma-band abnormalities in schizophrenia...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053038/early-auditory-gamma-band-responses-in-patients-at-clinical-high-risk-for-schizophrenia
#11
Veronica B Perez, Brian J Roach, Scott W Woods, Vinod H Srihari, Thomas H McGlashan, Judith M Ford, Daniel H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: Gamma-band oscillations and their synchronization have been implicated in the coordination of activity between distributed neuronal assemblies in the service of sensory registration of stimuli and perceptual binding of their features. Prior electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of chronic schizophrenia patients have documented deficits in the magnitude and/or phase synchrony of stimulus-evoked gamma oscillations, findings that have been linked to neurotransmission abnormalities involving GABA and NMDA-glutamate receptors...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053037/early-auditory-gamma-band-response-abnormalities-in-first-hospitalized-schizophrenia
#12
REVIEW
Grantley W Taylor, Robert W McCarley, Dean F Salisbury
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in coherent cortical circuit functioning, reflected in gamma band activity (to approximately 40 Hz), may be a core deficit in schizophrenia. The early auditory gamma band response (EAGBR) is a neurophysiologically simple probe of circuit functioning in primary auditory cortex. We examined the EAGBR in first hospitalized schizophrenia to assess whether it was reduced at first hospitalization. METHOD: Wavelet evoked power and intertrial phase locking of the EAGBR at Fz to standard tones during an oddball target detection task were examined in 28 first hospitalized schizophrenia patients (10 female) and 44 control subjects (17 female)...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053036/auditory-evoked-alpha-oscillations-imply-reduced-anterior-and-increased-posterior-amplitudes-in-schizophrenia
#13
Canan Başar-Eroğlu, Christina Schmiedt-Fehr, Birgit Mathes
OBJECTIVE: Most of the work on disturbed oscillatory activity during auditory tasks in schizophrenia has focused on reduced gamma oscillations at fronto-central sites. Recent studies of our group, however, indicate a more general disturbance affecting the spatial distribution of oscillatory brain activity of gamma as well as slow frequencies, such as alpha oscillations. METHODS: During a passive auditory listening task, electroencephalography was recorded from healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053035/clinical-relevance-of-animal-models-of-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Michael Koch
Animal models and endophenotypes of mental disorders are regarded as preclinical heuristic approaches aiming at understanding the etiopathogenesis of these diseases, and at developing drug treatment strategies. A frequently used translational model of sensorimotor gating and its deficits in some neuropsychiatric disorders is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is reduced in schizophrenia patients, but the exact relationship between symptoms and reduced PPI is still unclear. Recent findings suggest that the levels of PPI in humans and animals may be predictive of certain cognitive functions...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053034/the-auditory-steady-state-response-assr-a-translational-biomarker-for-schizophrenia
#15
REVIEW
Brian F O'Donnell, Jenifer L Vohs, Giri P Krishnan, Olga Rass, William P Hetrick, Sandra L Morzorati
Electrophysiological methods have demonstrated disturbances of neural synchrony and oscillations in schizophrenia which affect a broad range of sensory and cognitive processes. These disturbances may account for a loss of neural integration and effective connectivity in the disorder. The mechanisms responsible for alterations in synchrony are not well delineated, but may reflect disturbed interactions within GABAergic and glutamatergic circuits, particularly in the gamma range. Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) provide a non-invasive technique used to assess neural synchrony in schizophrenia and in animal models at specific response frequencies...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053033/the-value-of-spontaneous-eeg-oscillations-in-distinguishing-patients-in-vegetative-and-minimally-conscious-states
#16
Alexander A Fingelkurts, Andrew A Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni, Giuseppe Galardi
OBJECTIVE: The value of spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations in distinguishing patients in vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious states (MCS) was studied. METHODS: We quantified dynamic repertoire of EEG oscillations in resting condition with closed eyes in patients in VS and MCS. The exact composition of EEG oscillations was assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. RESULTS: The probability of delta, theta, and slow-alpha oscillations occurrence was smaller for patients in MCS than for VS...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053032/the-in-vivo-topography-of-cortical-changes-in-healthy-aging-and-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Annapaola Prestia, Annalisa Baglieri, Michela Pievani, Matteo Bonetti, Paul E Rasser, Paul M Thompson, Silvia Marino, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni B Frisoni
BACKGROUND: Gray matter atrophy is regarded as a valid marker of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but few studies have investigated in detail the topographic changes associated with normal aging. In addition, few studies have compared the changes in the earliest clinical stage of AD (prodromal AD (pAD)) with those of healthy aging. Here we aimed to investigate the topographical distribution of age-related cortical atrophy and to compare it with that associated with prodromal and estabilished AD...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053031/preferred-pre-stimulus-eeg-states-affect-cognitive-event-related-potentials
#18
Robert J Barry
Current views of the genesis of the event-related potential (ERP) emphasize the contribution of ongoing oscillations - the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) is recognized as much more than "background noise" to be removed by response averaging to find the ERP. Early work from Başar's group noted that repetitive stimuli led to selective phase re-ordering of activity in the delta and alpha bands, such that enhanced brain negativity occurred at the time of the regular stimulus. Other work related negativity in alpha activity at stimulus onset to improved reaction times and ERP enhancements...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053030/brain-s-alpha-beta-gamma-delta-and-theta-oscillations-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases-proposal-for-biomarker-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Erol Başar, Canan Başar-Eroğlu, Bahar Güntekin, Görsev Gülmen Yener
Brain oscillations have gained tremendous importance in neuroscience during recent decades as functional building blocks of sensory-cognitive processes. Research also shows that event-related oscillations (EROs) in "alpha," "beta," "gamma," "delta," and "theta" frequency windows are highly modified in pathological brains, especially in patients with cognitive impairment. The strategies and methods applied in the present report reflect the innate organization of the brain: "the whole brain work." The present paper is an account of methods such as evoked/event-related spectra, evoked/ERDs, coherence analysis, and phase-locking...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24053029/neurophysiological-techniques-in-the-study-of-the-excitability-connectivity-and-plasticity-of-the-human-brain
#20
REVIEW
Paolo Maria Rossinia, Florinda Ferreri
There is increasing evidence to support the concept that brain plasticity involves distinct functional and structural components, each requiring several cellular mechanisms operating at different time scales, synaptic loci, and developmental phases within an extremely complex framework. However, the precise relationship between functional and structural components of brain plasticity/connectivity phenomena is still unclear and its explanation represents a major challenge within modern neuroscience. The key feature of neurophysiological techniques described in this review paper is their pivotal role in tracking temporal dynamics and inner hierarchies of brain functional and effective connectivities, possibly clarifying some crucial issues underlying brain plasticity...
2013: Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology
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