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BMC Neuroscience

Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
E Schepers, L Bodar, J van Os, R Lousberg
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that experimentally elicited auditory illusions in the general population index risk for psychotic symptoms. As little is known about underlying cortical mechanisms of auditory illusions, an experiment was conducted to analyze processing of auditory illusions in a general population sample. In a follow-up design with two measurement moments (baseline and 6 months), participants (n = 83) underwent the White Noise task under simultaneous recording with a 14-lead EEG...
October 18, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
Linqiang Huang, Wei Cao, Yiyu Deng, Gaofeng Zhu, Yongli Han, Hongke Zeng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood-brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are important blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability regulatory factors. Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 are also the key components of BBB. Hypertonic saline is widely used to alleviate cerebral oedema. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying hypertonic saline that ameliorates cerebral oedema effectively...
October 13, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
Yiming Bai, Harrison Liu, Bo Huang, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo
BACKGROUND: Larval zebrafish, with a simple and transparent vertebrate brain composed of ~100 K neurons, is well suited for deciphering entire neural circuit activity underlying behavior. Moreover, their small body size (~4-5 mm in length) is compatible with 96-well plates, making larval zebrafish amenable to high content screening. Despite these attractive features, there is a scarcity of behavioral characterizations in larval zebrafish compared to other model organisms as well as adult zebrafish...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Carolyn E Schwartz, Bruce D Rapkin, Brian C Healy
BACKGROUND: The concept of Cognitive Reserve has great appeal and has led to an interesting and important body of research. We believe, however, that it is unnecessarily limited by 'habits' of measurement, nomenclature, and intra-disciplinary thinking. MAIN BODY: A broader, more comprehensive way of conceptualizing Reserve is proposed that invokes a broader measurement approach, nomenclature that uses specific terms embedded in a theoretical model, and crosses disciplines...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Naserddine Hamadi, Azimullah Sheikh, Nather Madjid, Loai Lubbad, Naheed Amir, Safa Al-Deen Saudi Shehab, Fatima Khelifi-Touhami, Abdu Adem
BACKGROUND: Bilateral adrenalectomy has been shown to damage the hippocampal neurons. Although the effects of long-term adrenalectomy have been studied extensively there are few publications on the effects of short-term adrenalectomy. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of short-term bilateral adrenalectomy on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; the response of microglia and astrocytes to neuronal cell death as well as oxidative stress markers GSH, SOD and MDA over the course of time (4 h, 24 h, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks) in the hippocampus of Wistar rats...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Mingkun Zhang, Zhenwen Cui, Hua Cui, Yang Cao, Chunlong Zhong, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that possesses potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that astaxanthin displays potential neuroprotective properties for the treatment of central nervous system diseases, such as ischemic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study explored whether astaxanthin is neuroprotective and ameliorates neurological deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Qiufang Liu, Xiujuan Zheng, Panli Li, Lian Xu, Longwen He, Zhao Mei, Yinyan Zhu, Gang Huang, Chunlong Zhong, Shaoli Song
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation, which is essential for amputees with myoelectric hands, can improve the quality of daily life by remodeling the neuron network. In our study, we aim to develop a cerebral blood perfusion (CBF) single-photon emission computed tomography computer-aided (SPECT-CA) detection scheme to automatically locate the brain's activated regions after rehabilitation. RESULTS: Five participants without forearms (three male, two female, mean age 51 ± 12...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Hayate Javed, Sheikh Azimullah, Salema B Abul Khair, Shreesh Ojha, M Emdadul Haque
BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) is a movement disorder affecting 1 % of people over the age of 60. The etiology of the disease is unknown; however, accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial defects, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation play important roles in developing the disease. Current medications for PD can only improve its symptoms, but are unable to halt its progressive nature. Although many therapeutic approaches are available, new drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PD...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
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2016: BMC Neuroscience
Shani E Ross, Zachariah J Sperry, Colin M Mahar, Tim M Bruns
BACKGROUND: Mechanosensitive afferents innervating the bladder increase their firing rate as the bladder fills and pressure rises. However, the relationship between afferent firing rates and intravesical pressure is not a simple linear one. Firing rate responses to pressure can differ depending on prior activity, demonstrating hysteresis in the system. Though this hysteresis has been commented on in published literature, it has not been quantified. RESULTS: Sixty-six bladder afferents recorded from sacral dorsal root ganglia in five alpha-chloralose anesthetized felines were identified based on their characteristic responses to pressure (correlation coefficient ≥ 0...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Liqun Liu, Lingjuan Liu, Jiayun Shi, Menglin Tan, Jie Xiong, Xingfang Li, Qingpeng Hu, Zhuwen Yi, Ding'an Mao
BACKGROUND: Recurrent convulsions can cause irreversible astrocyte death, impede neuron regeneration, and further aggravate brain damage. MicroRNAs have been revealed as players in the progression of numerous diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Particularly, microRNA has been found linked to seizure-induced neuronal death. In this study, a rat model of recurrent convulsions induced by flurothyl treatments was utilised to assess the alterations of microRNA expressions in hippocampus tissues...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Andreas Keller, Leslie B Vosshall
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between a stimulus and how it is perceived reveals fundamental principles about the mechanisms of sensory perception. While this stimulus-percept problem is mostly understood for color vision and tone perception, it is not currently possible to predict how a given molecule smells. While there has been some progress in predicting the pleasantness and intensity of an odorant, perceptual data for a larger number of diverse molecules are needed to improve current predictions...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Christine T Nguyen, Bryan A Stewart
BACKGROUND: Synaptic transmission requires both pre- and post-synaptic elements for neural communication. The postsynaptic structure contributes to the ability of synaptic currents to induce voltage changes in postsynaptic cells. At the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the postsynaptic structure, known as the subsynaptic reticulum (SSR), consists of elaborate membrane folds that link the synaptic contacts to the muscle, but its role in synaptic physiology is poorly understood...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Masato Asanuma, Ikuko Miyazaki
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effects of 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), a metabolite of L-DOPA which is formed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), on the uptake, metabolism, and neuroprotective effects of L-DOPA in striatal astrocytes. We examined changes in the numbers of dopaminergic neurons after treatment with L-DOPA and 3-OMD or entacapone, a peripheral COMT inhibitor, using primary cultured mesencephalic neurons and striatal astrocytes. RESULTS: The number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopaminergic neurons was not affected by L-DOPA treatment in mesencephalic neurons alone...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Rhian S Thomas, Alex Henson, Amy Gerrish, Lesley Jones, Julie Williams, Emma J Kidd
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the gene for phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM), an endocytic-related protein, are associated with a small, increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), strongly suggesting that changes in endocytosis are involved in the aetiology of the disease. We have investigated the involvement of PICALM in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to understand how PICALM could be linked to the development of AD. We used siRNA to deplete levels of PICALM, its isoforms and clathrin heavy chain in the human brain-derived H4 neuroglioma cell line that expresses endogenous levels of APP...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Ning Liu, Zhanyang Yu, Yu Xun, Miaomiao Li, Xiaoning Peng, Ye Xiao, Xiang Hu, Yi Sun, Manjun Yang, Shiquan Gan, Shishan Yuan, Xiaoying Wang, Shuanglin Xiang, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that can lead to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 1 (TNFAIP1) is an apoptotic protein that was robustly induced in the transgenic C. elegans AD brains. However, the roles of TNFAIP1 in AD have not been investigated. RESULTS: We found TNFAIP1 protein and mRNA levels were dramatically elevated in primary mouse cortical neurons and Neuro2a (N2a) cells exposed to Aβ25-35...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Kathleen K Kelly, Amber M MacPherson, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Jace W Jones, Jianshi Yu, Keely Pierzchalski, Maureen A Kane, Paco S Herson, Julie A Siegenthaler
BACKGROUND: Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) are a recently identified cell type that comprises a small percentage of the platelet derived growth factor receptor-β+ cells within the CNS perivascular space. PSCs are activated following injury to the brain or spinal cord, expand in number and contribute to fibrotic scar formation within the injury site. Beyond fibrosis, their high density in the lesion core makes them a potential significant source of signals that act on neural cells adjacent to the lesion site...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Stefan Brodoehl, Otto W Witte, Carsten M Klingner
BACKGROUND: In many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, experimental design often depends on the eye state (i.e., whether the participants had their eyes open or closed). Closed eyes during an fMRI is the general convention, particularly when patients are in a resting-state, but the eye state is difficult to verify. Although knowledge of the impact of the eye state on brain activity is steadily growing, only a few research groups have implemented standardized procedures to monitor eye movements and eye state...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Aniqa Tasnim, Zoe Rammelkamp, Amy B Slusher, Krystyna Wozniak, Barbara S Slusher, Mohamed H Farah
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is a common and dose-limiting side effect of many cancer chemotherapies. The taxane agents, including paclitaxel (Taxol(®)), are effective chemotherapeutic drugs but cause degeneration of predominantly large myelinated afferent sensory fibers of the peripheral nervous system in humans and animal models. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are sensory neurons that have unipolar axons each with two branches: peripheral and central. While taxane agents induce degeneration of peripheral axons, whether they also cause degeneration of central nervous system axons is not clear...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
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