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BMC Neuroscience

Saeedeh Asadi, Ali Roohbakhsh, Ali Shamsizadeh, Masoud Fereidoni, Elham Kordijaz, Ali Moghimi
BACKGROUND: Current antiepileptic drugs are not able to prevent recurrent seizures in all patients. Orexins are excitatory hypothalamic neuropeptides that their receptors (Orx1R and Orx2R) are found almost in all major regions of the brain. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling is a known experimental model for epileptic seizures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Orx2 receptor antagonist (TCS OX2 29) on seizures and anxiety of PTZ-kindled rats. RESULTS: Our results revealed that similar to valproate, administration of 7 µg/rat of TCS OX2 29 increased the latency period and decreased the duration time of 3rd and 4th stages of epileptiform seizures...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Mushfiquddin Khan, Tajinder S Dhammu, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the leading causes of disability and chronic pain. In SCI-induced pathology, homeostasis of the nitric oxide (NO) metabolome is lost. Major NO metabolites such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and peroxynitrite are reported to play pivotal roles in regulating the activities of key cysteine proteases, calpains. While peroxynitrite (a metabolite of NO and superoxide) up regulates the activities of calpains leading to neurodegeneration, GSNO (a metabolite of NO and glutathione) down regulates the activities of calpains leading to neuroprotection...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Elisabet Kádár, Eva Vico Varela, Laura Aldavert-Vera, Gemma Huguet, Ignacio Morgado-Bernal, Pilar Segura-Torres
BACKGROUND: Intracranial Self-Stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is a deep brain stimulation procedure, which has a powerful enhancement effect on explicit and implicit memory. However, the downstream synaptic plasticity events of MFB-ICSS in memory related areas have not been described thoroughly. This study complements previous work studying the effect of MFB-ICSS on the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein, which has been widely established as a synaptic plasticity marker...
August 8, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Lenin David Ochoa-de la Paz, Martin González-Andrade, Herminia Pasantes-Morales, Rodrigo Franco, Rubén Zamora-Alvarado, Edgar Zenteno, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado, Roberto Gonzales-Salinas, Rosario Gulias-Cañizo
BACKGROUND: The amino acid taurine (2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid) modulates inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. This study aimed to determine if the dual action of taurine on GABAC -ρ1R relates to its structure. To address this, we tested the ability of the structurally related compounds homotaurine, hypotaurine, and isethionic acid to modulate GABAC -ρ1R. RESULTS: In Xenopus laevis oocytes, hypotaurine and homotaurine partially activate heterologously expressed GABAC -ρ1R, showing an increment in its deactivation time with no changes in channel permeability, whereas isethionic acid showed no effect...
August 3, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Yasufumi Sakakibara, Michiko Sekiya, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C Saido, Koichi M Iijima
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is characterized by the progressive deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles. Mouse models of Aβ amyloidosis generated by knock-in (KI) of a humanized Aβ sequence provide distinct advantages over traditional transgenic models that rely on overexpression of amyloid precursor protein (APP). In App-KI mice, three familial AD-associated mutations were introduced into the endogenous mouse App locus to recapitulate Aβ pathology observed in AD: the Swedish (NL) mutation, which elevates total Aβ production; the Beyreuther/Iberian (F) mutation, which increases the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio; and the Arctic (G) mutation, which promotes Aβ aggregation...
July 28, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Hye Joo Son, Young Jin Jeong, Hyun Jin Yoon, Sang Yoon Lee, Go-Eun Choi, Ji-Ae Park, Min Hwan Kim, Kyo Chul Lee, Yong Jin Lee, Mun Ki Kim, Kook Cho, Do-Young Kang
BACKGROUND: Although amyloid beta (Aβ) imaging is widely used for diagnosing and monitoring Alzheimer's disease in clinical fields, paralleling comparison between 18 F-flutemetamol and 18 F-florbetaben was rarely attempted in AD mouse model. We performed a comparison of Aβ PET images between 18 F-flutemetamol and 18 F-florbetaben in a recently developed APPswe mouse model, C57BL/6-Tg (NSE-hAPPsw) Korl. RESULTS: After an injection (0.23 mCi) of 18 F-flutemetamol and 18 F-florbetaben at a time interval of 2-3 days, we compared group difference of SUVR and kinetic parameters between the AD (n = 7) and control (n = 7) mice, as well as between 18 F-flutemetamol and 18 F-florbetaben image...
July 27, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Hirofumi Hirakawa, Takeshi Terao, Koji Hatano, Kentaro Kohno, Nobuyoshi Ishii
BACKGROUND: Given the reported inverse association between light and depressive mood, ambient light may also be associated with some of the brain regions in healthy subjects. The present study aims to investigate the effects of ambient light on glucose metabolism in the brain. We used the data of 28 healthy participants of the no intervention group from our previous randomized controlled trial and analyzed the association between ambient light and [18 F]-FDG uptake in the brain. RESULTS: A whole brain analysis revealed a cluster of [18 F]-FDG uptake that was significantly and inversely associated with log-transformed ambient light in the left culmen of the left cerebellum vermis...
July 24, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Hana Hall, Jingqun Ma, Sudhanshu Shekhar, Walter D Leon-Salas, Vikki M Weake
BACKGROUND: Light exposure induces oxidative stress, which contributes to ocular diseases of aging. Blue light provides a model for light-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast to mature adults, which undergo retinal degeneration when exposed to prolonged blue light, newly-eclosed flies are resistant to blue light-induced retinal degeneration. Here, we sought to characterize the gene expression programs induced by blue light in flies of different ages to identify neuroprotective pathways utilized by photoreceptors to cope with light-induced oxidative stress...
July 20, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Ernesto Alberto Rendón-Ochoa, Teresa Hernández-Flores, Victor Hugo Avilés-Rosas, Verónica Alejandra Cáceres-Chávez, Mariana Duhne, Antonio Laville, Dagoberto Tapia, Elvira Galarraga, José Bargas
BACKGROUND: Striatal fast-spiking interneurons (FSI) are a subset of GABAergic cells that express calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). They provide feed-forward inhibition to striatal projection neurons (SPNs), receive cortical, thalamic and dopaminergic inputs and are coupled together by electrical and chemical synapses, being important components of the striatal circuitry. It is known that dopamine (DA) depolarizes FSI via D1 -class DA receptors, but no studies about the ionic mechanism of this action have been reported...
July 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Yosuke Matsumoto, Motoi Okamoto, Shozo Aoki, Takeshi Ishihara
BACKGROUND: Many neuropsychiatric disorders develop in early life. Although the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated, it is possible that functional abnormalities of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV neurons) are present. Several previous studies have shown that juvenile stress is implicated in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. We aimed to clarify the effects of juvenile stress on behavior and on the central nervous system. We investigated behavioral abnormalities of chronically-stressed mice during juvenilehood and the effect of juvenile stress on PV neurons and WFA-positive perineuronal nets (PNNs), which are associated with vulnerability and plasticity in the mouse brain...
July 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Katrin Giglhuber, Stefanie Maurer, Claus Zimmer, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: Visuospatial attention is executed by the frontoparietal cortical areas of the brain. Damage to these areas can result in visual neglect. We therefore aimed to assess a combination of the greyscales task and repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to identify cortical regions involved in visuospatial attention processes. This pilot study was designed to evaluate an approach in a cohort of healthy volunteers, with the future aim of using this technique to map brain tumor patients before surgery...
July 11, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Martin Palus, Yahya Sohrabi, Karl W Broman, Hynek Strnad, Matyáš Šíma, Daniel Růžek, Valeriya Volkova, Martina Slapničková, Jarmila Vojtíšková, Lucie Mrázková, Jiří Salát, Marie Lipoldová
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the main tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia. Its manifestations range from inapparent infections and fevers with complete recovery to debilitating or fatal encephalitis. The basis of this heterogeneity is largely unknown, but part of this variation is likely due to host genetic. We have previously found that BALB/c mice exhibit intermediate susceptibility to the infection of TBE virus (TBEV), STS mice are highly resistant, whereas the recombinant congenic strain CcS-11, carrying 12...
July 6, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Bombi Lee, Insop Shim, Hyejung Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important psychological disease that can develop following the physical experience or witnessing of traumatic events. The psychopathological response to traumatic stressors increases inflammation in the hippocampus and induces memory deficits. Melatonin (MTG) plays critical roles in circadian rhythm disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurological disorders. However, the cognitive efficiency of MTG and its mechanisms of action in the treatment of PTSD remain unclear...
July 4, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Hong-Lin Su, Chien-Yi Chiang, Zong-Han Lu, Fu-Chou Cheng, Chun-Jung Chen, Meei-Ling Sheu, Jason Sheehan, Hung-Chuan Pan
BACKGROUND: High-frequency transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is currently used for the administration of electrical current in denervated muscle to alleviate muscle atrophy and enhance motor function; however, the time window (i.e. either immediate or delayed) for achieving benefit is still undetermined. In this study, we conducted an intervention of sciatic nerve crush injury using high-frequency TENS at different time points to assess the effect of motor and sensory functional recovery...
June 25, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Yu San Chang, Yu Hsuan Wu, Chin Jen Wang, Shu Hui Tang, Hsiang Lan Chen
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic hypothesis has been advanced as an etiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) on the basis of the presynaptic deficit found in the diseased brains, and cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the treatment of choice for these patients. However, only about half of treatment efficacy was found. Because increasing evidence supports an extensive interrelationship between thyroid hormones (THs), cortisol level and the cholinergic system, the aim of the present study was to evaluate thyroid function and cortisol level in patients with mild to moderate AD before and after ChEIs treatment, and to identify possible variations in response...
June 22, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Thorsten Fehr, Angelica Staniloiu, Hans J Markowitsch, Peter Erhard, Manfred Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Memory performance of an individual (within the age range: 50-55 years old) showing superior memory abilities (protagonist PR) was compared to an age- and education-matched reference group in a historical facts ("famous events") retrieval task. RESULTS: Contrasting task versus baseline performance both PR and the reference group showed fMRI activation patterns in parietal and occipital brain regions. The reference group additionally demonstrated activation patterns in cingulate gyrus, whereas PR showed additional widespread activation patterns comprising frontal and cerebellar brain regions...
June 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Enrico Premi, Alberto Benussi, Antonio La Gatta, Stefano Visconti, Angelo Costa, Nicola Gilberti, Valentina Cantoni, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni, Mauro Magoni
BACKGROUND: Non-depolarizing magnetic fields, like low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) have shown the ability to modulate living structures, principally by influencing synaptic activity and ion channels on cellular membranes. Recently, the CTU Mega 20 device was presented as a molecular accelerator, using energy up to 200 J and providing high-power (2 Tesla) pulsating fields with a water-repulsive (diamagnetic) action and tissue biostimulation. We tested the hypothesis that LF-PEMFs could modulate long-term corticospinal excitability in healthy brains by applying CTU Mega 20® ...
June 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Kenji Ishibashi, Keita Sakurai, Keigo Shimoji, Aya M Tokumaru, Kenji Ishii
BACKGROUND: The functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) decreases in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Altered functional connectivity of the DMN is associated with cognitive impairment. T2DM is a known cause of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in the elderly, and studies have established that T2DM is a risk factor for AD. In addition, recent studies with positron emission tomography demonstrated that increased plasma glucose levels decrease neuronal activity, especially in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PC/PCC), which is the functional core of the DMN...
May 31, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Jesús Martínez-Sámano, Alan Flores-Poblano, Leticia Verdugo-Díaz, Marco Antonio Juárez-Oropeza, Patricia V Torres-Durán
BACKGROUND: Exposure to electromagnetic fields can affect human health, damaging tissues and cell homeostasis. Stress modulates neuronal responses and composition of brain lipids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure, restraint stress (RS) or both (RS + ELF-EMF) on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in Wistar rat brain. METHODS: Twenty-four young male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: control, RS, ELF-EMF exposure, and RS + ELF-EMF for 21 days...
May 21, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Lisa Fellner, Edith Buchinger, Dominik Brueck, Regina Irschick, Gregor K Wenning, Nadia Stefanova
BACKGROUND: The progressive neurodegenerative disorder multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized by α-synuclein-positive (oligodendro-) glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs). A connection between the abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein in GCIs and disease initiation and progression has been postulated. Mechanisms involved in the formation of GCIs are unclear. Abnormal uptake of α-synuclein from extracellular space, oligodendroglial overexpression of α-synuclein, and/or dysfunctional protein degradation including macroautophagy have all been discussed...
May 21, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
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