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BMC Neuroscience

Michela Balconi, Maria Elide Vanutelli
BACKGROUND: Social behavior and interactions pervasively shape and influence our lives and relationships. Competition, in particular, has become a core topic in social neuroscience since it stresses the relevance and salience of social comparison processes between the inter-agents that are involved in a common task. The majority of studies, however, investigated such kind of social interaction via one-person individual paradigms, thus not taking into account relevant information concerning interdependent participants' behavioral and neural responses...
October 18, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Osman Shabir, Jason Berwick, Sheila E Francis
Efficient blood supply to the brain is of paramount importance to its normal functioning and improper blood flow can result in potentially devastating neurological consequences. Cerebral blood flow in response to neural activity is intrinsically regulated by a complex interplay between various cell types within the brain in a relationship termed neurovascular coupling. The breakdown of neurovascular coupling is evident across a wide variety of both neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
October 17, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Sheng Wei, Zifa Li, Meng Ren, Jieqiong Wang, Jie Gao, Yinghui Guo, Kaiyong Xu, Fang Li, Dehao Zhu, Hao Zhang, Rongju Lv, Mingqi Qiao
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological surveys and studies with animal models have established a relationship between maternal stress and affective disorders in their offspring. However, whether maternal depression before pregnancy influences behaviour and related neurobiological mechanisms in the offspring has not been studied. RESULTS: A social defeat stress (SDS) maternal rat model was established using the resident-intruder paradigm with female specific pathogen-free Wistar rats and evaluated with behavioural tests...
October 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Ping Xie, Sa Zhou, Xingran Wang, Yibo Wang, Yi Yuan
BACKGROUND: Pulsed transcranial ultrasound stimulation (pTUS) can modulate the neuronal activity of motor cortex and elicit muscle contractions. Cortico-muscular coupling (CMC) can serve as a tool to identify interaction between the oscillatory activity of the motor cortex and effector muscle. This research aims to explore the neuromodulatory effect of low-intensity, pTUS with different number of tone burst to neural circuit of motor-control system by analyzing the coupling relationship between motor cortex and tail muscle in mouse...
October 3, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Noushin Nikray, Isaac Karimi, Zahraminoosh Siavashhaghighi, Lora A Becker, Mohammad Mehdi Mofatteh
BACKGROUND: Environmental uncertainty, such as food deprivation, may alter internal milieu of nervous system through various mechanisms. In combination with circumstances of stress or aging, high consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and oxygen can make neural tissues sensitive to oxidative stress (OS). For adult rats, diminished level of gonadal steroid hormones accelerates OS and may result in special behavioral manifestations. This study was aimed to partially answer the question whether OS mediates trade-off between food hoarding and food intake (fat hoarding) in environmental uncertainty (e...
September 24, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Vera Clemens, Francesca Regen, Nathalie Le Bret, Isabella Heuser, Julian Hellmann-Regen
BACKGROUND: Minocycline is a lipophilic tetracycline of increasing appeal in neuroscience as it inhibits microglial activation, a mechanism involved in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Own data point towards retinoid-mediated effects of minocycline in murine brain and skin, and towards a vicious cycle of neuroinflammation which is driven by microglial activation-induced breakdown of local retinoids such as retinoic acid (RA). We therefore sought to study minocycline's anti-inflammatory effects on human microglial-like monocyte-derived cells in the context of retinoid signaling...
September 21, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Wonhye Lee, Phillip Croce, Ryan W Margolin, Amanda Cammalleri, Kyungho Yoon, Seung-Schik Yoo
BACKGROUND: Low-intensity transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) has emerged as a new non-invasive modality of brain stimulation with the potential for high spatial selectivity and penetration depth. Anesthesia is typically applied in animal-based tFUS brain stimulation models; however, the type and depth of anesthesia are known to introduce variability in responsiveness to the stimulation. Therefore, the ability to conduct sonication experiments on awake small animals, such as rats, is warranted to avoid confounding effects of anesthesia...
September 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Leo Ai, Priya Bansal, Jerel K Mueller, Wynn Legon
BACKGROUND: Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is a new non-invasive neuromodulation technique that uses mechanical energy to modulate neuronal excitability with high spatial precision. tFUS has been shown to be capable of modulating EEG brain activity in humans that is spatially restricted, and here, we use 7T MRI to extend these findings. We test the effect of tFUS on 7T BOLD fMRI signals from individual finger representations in the human primary motor cortex (M1) and connected cortical motor regions...
September 14, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Magdalena Zygmunt, Dżesika Hoinkis, Jacek Hajto, Marcin Piechota, Bożena Skupień-Rabian, Urszula Jankowska, Sylwia Kędracka-Krok, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna, Michał Korostyński
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of psychotropic drugs are associated with the reversal of disease-related alterations through the reorganization and normalization of neuronal connections. Molecular factors that trigger drug-induced brain plasticity remain only partly understood. Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) possesses microtubule-polymerizing activity during synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. However, the Dclk1 gene shows a complex profile of transcriptional regulation, with two alternative promoters and exon splicing patterns that suggest the expression of multiple isoforms with different kinase activities...
September 12, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Angelo Pirrone, Wen Wen, Sheng Li
BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported or predicted, on the basis of theoretical and computational work, magnitude sensitive reaction times. Magnitude sensitivity can arise (1) as a function of single-trial dynamics and/or (2) as recent computational work has suggested, while single-trial dynamics may be magnitude insensitive, magnitude sensitivity could arise as a function of overall reward received which in turn affects the speed at which decision boundaries collapse, allowing faster responses as the overall reward received increases...
September 10, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
YiLong Dong, KangJing Pu, WenJing Duan, HuiCheng Chen, LiXing Chen, YanMei Wang
BACKGROUND: Our published data have indicated that the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provides beneficial effects by attenuating neuronal damage induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and up-regulation of the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) represents a crucial part in the neuroprotective effect of EPA. However, the mechanisms of how EPA regulates BDNF expression remains incompletely understood. The present study investigated the role of Akt/CREB signaling in the effect of EPA on BDNF expression and its neuroprotective effect...
September 6, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Bijun Tang, Sarah C R Lummis
BACKGROUND: Cys-loop receptors play important roles in fast neuronal signal transmission. Functional receptors are pentamers, with each subunit having an extracellular, transmembrane (TM) and intracellular domain. Each TM domain contains 4 α-helices (M1-M4) joined by loops of varying lengths. Many of the amino acid residues that constitute these α-helices are hydrophobic, and there has been particular interest in aromatic residues, especially those in M4, which have the potential to contribute to the assembly and function of the receptor via a range of interactions with nearby residues...
September 6, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Laura Mora-Muñoz, Alejandro Guerrero-Naranjo, Elisa Angélica Rodríguez-Jimenez, Claudio Alberto Mastronardi, Alberto Velez-van-Meerbeke
Adipose tissue is a dynamic organ with different effects on the body. Many of these effects are mediated by leptin, a hormone strongly involved in regulation of feeding and energy metabolism. It has an important role as a mediator of neuronal excitatory activity and higher brain functions. The aim of this study was to review the association between leptin and cerebral neuronal function, in particular its anticonvulsant or convulsant effects and the possible therapeutic role for treating epilepsy. For this purpose, the databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Elsevier, ResearchGate and Scielo were searched to identify experimental studies, reviews and systematic review articles, published in English, Spanish or Portuguese...
September 5, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Saeedeh Asadi, Ali Roohbakhsh, Ali Shamsizadeh, Masoud Fereidoni, Elham Kordijaz, Ali Moghimi
BACKGROUND: Current antiepileptic drugs are not able to prevent recurrent seizures in all patients. Orexins are excitatory hypothalamic neuropeptides that their receptors (Orx1R and Orx2R) are found almost in all major regions of the brain. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling is a known experimental model for epileptic seizures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Orx2 receptor antagonist (TCS OX2 29) on seizures and anxiety of PTZ-kindled rats. RESULTS: Our results revealed that similar to valproate, administration of 7 µg/rat of TCS OX2 29 increased the latency period and decreased the duration time of 3rd and 4th stages of epileptiform seizures...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Mushfiquddin Khan, Tajinder S Dhammu, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the leading causes of disability and chronic pain. In SCI-induced pathology, homeostasis of the nitric oxide (NO) metabolome is lost. Major NO metabolites such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and peroxynitrite are reported to play pivotal roles in regulating the activities of key cysteine proteases, calpains. While peroxynitrite (a metabolite of NO and superoxide) up regulates the activities of calpains leading to neurodegeneration, GSNO (a metabolite of NO and glutathione) down regulates the activities of calpains leading to neuroprotection...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Elisabet Kádár, Eva Vico Varela, Laura Aldavert-Vera, Gemma Huguet, Ignacio Morgado-Bernal, Pilar Segura-Torres
BACKGROUND: Intracranial Self-Stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is a deep brain stimulation procedure, which has a powerful enhancement effect on explicit and implicit memory. However, the downstream synaptic plasticity events of MFB-ICSS in memory related areas have not been described thoroughly. This study complements previous work studying the effect of MFB-ICSS on the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein, which has been widely established as a synaptic plasticity marker...
August 8, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Lenin David Ochoa-de la Paz, Martin González-Andrade, Herminia Pasantes-Morales, Rodrigo Franco, Rubén Zamora-Alvarado, Edgar Zenteno, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado, Roberto Gonzales-Salinas, Rosario Gulias-Cañizo
BACKGROUND: The amino acid taurine (2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid) modulates inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. This study aimed to determine if the dual action of taurine on GABAC -ρ1R relates to its structure. To address this, we tested the ability of the structurally related compounds homotaurine, hypotaurine, and isethionic acid to modulate GABAC -ρ1R. RESULTS: In Xenopus laevis oocytes, hypotaurine and homotaurine partially activate heterologously expressed GABAC -ρ1R, showing an increment in its deactivation time with no changes in channel permeability, whereas isethionic acid showed no effect...
August 3, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Yasufumi Sakakibara, Michiko Sekiya, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C Saido, Koichi M Iijima
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is characterized by the progressive deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles. Mouse models of Aβ amyloidosis generated by knock-in (KI) of a humanized Aβ sequence provide distinct advantages over traditional transgenic models that rely on overexpression of amyloid precursor protein (APP). In App-KI mice, three familial AD-associated mutations were introduced into the endogenous mouse App locus to recapitulate Aβ pathology observed in AD: the Swedish (NL) mutation, which elevates total Aβ production; the Beyreuther/Iberian (F) mutation, which increases the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio; and the Arctic (G) mutation, which promotes Aβ aggregation...
July 28, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Hye Joo Son, Young Jin Jeong, Hyun Jin Yoon, Sang Yoon Lee, Go-Eun Choi, Ji-Ae Park, Min Hwan Kim, Kyo Chul Lee, Yong Jin Lee, Mun Ki Kim, Kook Cho, Do-Young Kang
BACKGROUND: Although amyloid beta (Aβ) imaging is widely used for diagnosing and monitoring Alzheimer's disease in clinical fields, paralleling comparison between 18 F-flutemetamol and 18 F-florbetaben was rarely attempted in AD mouse model. We performed a comparison of Aβ PET images between 18 F-flutemetamol and 18 F-florbetaben in a recently developed APPswe mouse model, C57BL/6-Tg (NSE-hAPPsw) Korl. RESULTS: After an injection (0.23 mCi) of 18 F-flutemetamol and 18 F-florbetaben at a time interval of 2-3 days, we compared group difference of SUVR and kinetic parameters between the AD (n = 7) and control (n = 7) mice, as well as between 18 F-flutemetamol and 18 F-florbetaben image...
July 27, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Hirofumi Hirakawa, Takeshi Terao, Koji Hatano, Kentaro Kohno, Nobuyoshi Ishii
BACKGROUND: Given the reported inverse association between light and depressive mood, ambient light may also be associated with some of the brain regions in healthy subjects. The present study aims to investigate the effects of ambient light on glucose metabolism in the brain. We used the data of 28 healthy participants of the no intervention group from our previous randomized controlled trial and analyzed the association between ambient light and [18 F]-FDG uptake in the brain. RESULTS: A whole brain analysis revealed a cluster of [18 F]-FDG uptake that was significantly and inversely associated with log-transformed ambient light in the left culmen of the left cerebellum vermis...
July 24, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
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