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BMC Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463209/characterisation-of-zika-virus-infection-in-primary-human-astrocytes
#1
Michal Stefanik, Petra Formanova, Tomas Bily, Marie Vancova, Ludek Eyer, Martin Palus, Jiri Salat, Carla Torres Braconi, Paolo M de A Zanotto, Ernest A Gould, Daniel Ruzek
BACKGROUND: The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has linked ZIKV with microcephaly and other central nervous system pathologies in humans. Astrocytes are among the first cells to respond to ZIKV infection in the brain and are also targets for virus infection. In this study, we investigated the interaction between ZIKV and primary human brain cortical astrocytes (HBCA). RESULTS: HBCAs were highly sensitive to representatives of both Asian and African ZIKV lineages and produced high viral yields...
February 20, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390963/evaluation-of-reference-genes-for-gene-expression-studies-in-mouse-and-n2a-cell-ischemic-stroke-models-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#2
Yingbo Kang, Zhuomin Wu, De Cai, Binger Lu
BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a critical tool for evaluating the levels of mRNA transcribed from genes. Reliable RT-qPCR results largely depend on normalization to suitable reference genes. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) are models that are commonly used to study ischemic stroke. However, the proper reference genes for RNA analysis in these two models have not yet been determined...
February 1, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370749/intraventricular-infusion-of-clusterin-ameliorated-cognition-and-pathology-in-tg6799-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Xue-Mei Qi, Cheng Wang, Xing-Kun Chu, Gen Li, Jian-Fang Ma
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Clusterin, a chaperon protein associated with Aβ aggregation, toxicity and transport through blood-brain barrier, may play a key role in the development of AD. Recently, clusterin peptide D-[113-122] was shown to mimic clusterin's function and exerted therapeutic effect in atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether this clusterin peptide also affected (Aβ) deposition in AD transgenic mouse...
January 25, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338692/emerging-roles-for-microrna-in-the-regulation-of-drosophila-circadian-clock
#4
REVIEW
Yongbo Xue, Yong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock, which operates within an approximately 24-h period, is closely linked to the survival and fitness of almost all living organisms. The circadian clock is generated through a negative transcription-translation feedback loop. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs comprised of approximately 22 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally regulate target mRNA by either inducing mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. RESULTS: In recent years, miRNAs have been found to play important roles in the regulation of the circadian clock, especially in Drosophila...
January 16, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281977/n-n-disubstituted-azines-attenuate-lps-mediated-neuroinflammation-in-microglia-and-neuronal-apoptosis-via-inhibiting-mapk-signaling-pathways
#5
Lalita Subedi, Oh Wook Kwon, Chaeho Pak, Goeun Lee, Kangwoo Lee, Hakwon Kim, Sun Yeou Kim
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia interact with astrocytes and neuronal cells to induce neuroinflammation, which can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. To identify the most effective anti-neuroinflammatory agent, we designed and synthesized a family of 13 new azine derivatives and investigated their anti-neuroinflammatory activities in LPS-activated BV-2 microglial cells. RESULTS: Out of 13 derivatives, compound 3 [4,4'-(1E,1'E,3E,3'E)-3,3'-(hydrazine-1,2-diylidene) bis-(prop-1-ene-1-yl-3-ylidene) bis-(2-methoxyphenol)] exhibited excellent anti-neuroinflammatory activities (IC50 = 12...
December 28, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281967/the-effects-of-vitamin-d-administration-on-brain-inflammatory-markers-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#6
Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi, Ghazaleh Nameni, Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Parviz Shahabi
BACKGROUND: Obesity induced brain inflammation is associated with cognitive disorders. We aimed to investigate the influence of vitamin D on hypothalamus and hippocampus inflammatory response in high-fat diet induced obese rats. METHODS: In the beginning of the study, 40 rats were divided into two groups: control diet and high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks; then each group subdivided into two groups including: N, ND + vitamin D, HFD and HFD + vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation was done for 5 weeks at 500 IU/kg dosage...
December 28, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268696/stereoscopic-processing-of-crossed-and-uncrossed-disparities-in-the-human-visual-cortex
#7
Yuan Li, Chuncheng Zhang, Chunping Hou, Li Yao, Jiacai Zhang, Zhiying Long
BACKGROUND: Binocular disparity provides a powerful cue for depth perception in a stereoscopic environment. Despite increasing knowledge of the cortical areas that process disparity from neuroimaging studies, the neural mechanism underlying disparity sign processing [crossed disparity (CD)/uncrossed disparity (UD)] is still poorly understood. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to explore different neural features that are relevant to disparity-sign processing...
December 21, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233091/a-gradient-of-frequency-dependent-synaptic-properties-along-the-longitudinal-hippocampal-axis
#8
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, George Trompoukis, Andriana Koutsoumpa, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous brain structure and specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network may crucially support the functional segregation along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. Short-term synaptic plasticity plays fundamental roles in information processing and may be importantly involved in diversifying the properties of local neuronal network along the hippocampus long axis. Therefore, we aimed to examine the properties of the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) synapses along the entire dorsoventral axis of the rat hippocampus using field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from transverse rat hippocampal slices and a frequency stimulation paradigm...
December 12, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207951/downstream-mediators-of-ten-m3-signalling-in-the-developing-visual-pathway
#9
Kelly A Glendining, Sam C Liu, Marvin Nguyen, Nuwan Dharmaratne, Rajini Nagarajah, Miguel A Iglesias, Atomu Sawatari, Catherine A Leamey
BACKGROUND: The formation of visuotopically-aligned projections in the brain is required for the generation of functional binocular circuits. The mechanisms which underlie this process are unknown. Ten-m3 is expressed in a broad high-ventral to low-dorsal gradient across the retina and in topographically-corresponding gradients in primary visual centres. Deletion of Ten-m3 causes profound disruption of binocular visual alignment and function. Surprisingly, one of the most apparent neuroanatomical changes-dramatic mismapping of ipsilateral, but not contralateral, retinal axons along the representation of the nasotemporal retinal axis-does not correlate well with Ten-m3's expression pattern, raising questions regarding mechanism...
December 6, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197324/altered-phosphorylation-electrophysiology-and-behavior-on-attenuation-of-pde4b-action-in-hippocampus
#10
Susan L Campbell, Thomas van Groen, Inga Kadish, Lisa High Mitchell Smoot, Graeme B Bolger
BACKGROUND: PDE4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases regulate 3', 5' cAMP abundance in the CNS and thereby regulate PKA activity and phosphorylation of CREB, which has been implicated in learning and memory, depression and other functions. The PDE4 isoform PDE4B1 also interacts with the DISC1 protein, implicated in neural development and behavioral disorders. The cellular functions of PDE4B1 have been investigated extensively, but its function(s) in the intact organism remained unexplored...
December 2, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078760/in-silico-repurposing-of-antipsychotic-drugs-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Shivani Kumar, Suman Chowdhury, Suresh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia and represents one of the highest unmet requirements in medicine today. There is shortage of novel molecules entering into market because of poor pharmacokinetic properties and safety issues. Drug repurposing offers an opportunity to reinvigorate the slowing drug discovery process by finding new uses for existing drugs. The major advantage of the drug repurposing approach is that the safety issues are already investigated in the clinical trials and the drugs are commercially available in the marketplace...
October 27, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073893/activity-dependent-formation-of-a-vesicular-inhibitory-amino-acid-transporter-gradient-in-the-superior-olivary-complex-of-nmri-mice
#12
Lena Ebbers, Maren Weber, Hans Gerd Nothwang
BACKGROUND: In the mammalian superior olivary complex (SOC), synaptic inhibition contributes to the processing of binaural sound cues important for sound localization. Previous analyses demonstrated a tonotopic gradient for postsynaptic proteins mediating inhibitory neurotransmission in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a major nucleus of the SOC. To probe, whether a presynaptic molecular gradient exists as well, we investigated immunoreactivity against the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in the mouse auditory brainstem...
October 26, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041906/from-provocation-to-aggression-the-neural-network
#13
Jonathan Repple, Christina M Pawliczek, Bianca Voss, Steven Siegel, Frank Schneider, Nils Kohn, Ute Habel
BACKGROUND: In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings. RESULTS: Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents...
October 17, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041904/shift-in-the-function-of-netrin-1-from-axon-outgrowth-to-axon-branching-in-developing-cerebral-cortical-neurons
#14
Hideko Matsumoto, Masabumi Nagashima
BACKGROUND: Netrin-1, a multifunctional axon guidance cue, elicits axon outgrowth via one of its receptors deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) in several types of neurons, including cerebral cortical neurons of embryonic mice. However, we and others have observed de novo formation of axon branches without axon outgrowth induced by netrin-1 in cortical culture of neonatal hamsters. These previous reports suggested the possibility that netrin-1 function might alter during development, which we here investigated using dissociated culture prepared from cerebral cortices of embryonic mice...
October 17, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037171/peakcaller-an-automated-graphical-interface-for-the-quantification-of-intracellular-calcium-obtained-by-high-content-screening
#15
Elena Artimovich, Russell K Jackson, Michaela B C Kilander, Yu-Chih Lin, Michael W Nestor
BACKGROUND: Intracellular calcium is an important ion involved in the regulation and modulation of many neuronal functions. From regulating cell cycle and proliferation to initiating signaling cascades and regulating presynaptic neurotransmitter release, the concentration and timing of calcium activity governs the function and fate of neurons. Changes in calcium transients can be used in high-throughput screening applications as a basic measure of neuronal maturity, especially in developing or immature neuronal cultures derived from stem cells...
October 16, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020944/a-convenient-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-routine-monitoring-of-plasma-and-brain-levels-of-nicotine-and-cotinine-as-a-tool-to-validate-newly-developed-preclinical-smoking-model-in-mouse
#16
Mohammad A Kaisar, Raja Reddy Kallem, Ravi K Sajja, Ali Ehsan Sifat, Luca Cucullo
BACKGROUND: A sensitive, rapid and selective UHPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of Nicotine (NT) and Cotinine (CN) using Continine-d 3 as internal standard (IS) as per FDA guidelines. Sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation of 20 µL mouse plasma or brain homogenate using acetonitrile at 1:8 ratio. Mass Spectrometer was operated in positive polarity under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using electro spray ionization technique and the transitions of m/z 163...
October 11, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985714/unhealthy-smokers-scopes-for-prophylactic-intervention-and-clinical-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Shikha Prasad, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Luca Cucullo
BACKGROUND: Globally, tobacco use causes approximately 6 million deaths per year, and predictions report that with current trends; more than 8 million deaths are expected annually by 2030. Cigarette smokings is currently accountable for more than 480,000 deaths each year in United States (US) and is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers and if smoking continues at its current proportion among adolescents, one in every 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger is expected to die prematurely from a smoking-related illness...
October 4, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946859/ppar%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE-protects-neuroblastoma-cells-against-amyloid-beta-a%C3%AE-induced-cell-death-and-neuroinflammation-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#18
Yuqin Zhang, Changchun Chen, Yanliu Jiang, Shupei Wang, Xiaoyu Wu, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Aβ is the main constituent of senile plaques and is largely involved in neuronal death and neuroinflammation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is one of the main transcriptional coactivator and has been related to many fields such as energy metabolism, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and so on...
September 25, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931376/why-to-cooperate-is-better-than-to-compete-brain-and-personality-components
#19
Michela Balconi, Davide Crivelli, Maria Elide Vanutelli
BACKGROUND: Cooperation and competition were compared in the present study. Brain correlates (electroencephalography, EEG frequency band, delta, theta, alpha, and beta) and hemodynamic measure of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, O2Hb) were acquired during a joined cooperative (Experiment 1) or competitive (Experiment 2) task. Subjects were required to match each other's cognitive performance (cooperation) or to make better than others (competition) in terms of accuracy (error rate, ER) and response time (RT)...
September 20, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886701/the-loss-of-function-disease-mutation-g301r-in-the-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-2-isoform-decreases-lesion-volume-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#20
Ditte Gry Ellman, Toke Jost Isaksen, Minna Christiansen Lund, Safinaz Dursun, Martin Wirenfeldt, Louise Helskov Jørgensen, Karin Lykke-Hartmann, Kate Lykke Lambertsen
BACKGROUND: The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps important for maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane that serve to support multiple cellular functions, such as membrane potentials, regulation of cellular volume and pH, and co-transport of signaling transmitters in all animal cells. The α2Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, which us the sharp Na(+)-gradient maintained by the sodium pump necessary for astroglial metabolism...
September 8, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
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