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BMC Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905881/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-mediated-pain-and-inflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-posterolateral-arthrodesis
#1
Kendall Mitchell, Jill P Shah, Clifton L Dalgard, Lyubov V Tsytsikova, Ashley C Tipton, Anton E Dmitriev, Aviva J Symes
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a pleiotropic, secreted molecule with diverse effects. The potent ability of BMP-2 to stimulate bone growth prompted its widespread clinical use for arthrodesis (spine fusion). However, elevated post-operative pain in patients treated with BMP-2 has been increasingly reported. Determining whether BMP-2 induces pain directly or whether it induces neuroinflammation, which could lower the threshold for pain, is important for developing therapeutic interventions...
December 1, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903258/catwalk-gait-analysis-in-a-rat-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Sabine Herold, Prateek Kumar, Klaus Jung, Irina Graf, Henrike Menkhoff, Xenia Schulz, Mathias Bähr, Katharina Hein
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis. The characteristic feature of the MOG-EAE model in Brown Norway rats is consistent involvement of the spinal cord resulting in limb paresis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether early subclinical gait abnormalities are present in this animal model and can be detected by CatWalk XT, a fully automated gait analysis system...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903255/epigenetic-evidence-for-involvement-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#3
Carolina Cappi, Juliana Belo Diniz, Guaraci L Requena, Tiaya Lourenço, Bianca Cristina Garcia Lisboa, Marcelo Camargo Batistuzzo, Andrea H Marques, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Carlos A Pereira, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Helena Brentani
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 3% of the general population. Although epigenetic mechanisms play a role in neurodevelopment disorders, epigenetic pathways associated with OCD have rarely been investigated. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide involved in neurobehavioral functions. Oxytocin has been shown to be associated with the regulation of complex socio-cognitive processes such as attachment, social exploration, and social recognition, as well as anxiety and other stress-related behaviors...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903237/leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-lrrk2-regulates-%C3%AE-synuclein-clearance-in-microglia
#4
Tatsunori Maekawa, Toshikuni Sasaoka, Sadahiro Azuma, Takafumi Ichikawa, Heather L Melrose, Matthew J Farrer, Fumiya Obata
BACKGROUND: α-Synuclein (αSYN) has been genetically implicated in familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and is associated with disease susceptibility, progression and pathology. Excess amounts of αSYN are toxic to neurons. In the brain, microglial αSYN clearance is closely related to neuronal survival. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the one of the other genes implicated in familial and sporadic PD. While LRRK2 is known to be expressed in microglia, its true function remains to be elucidated...
November 30, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887593/expression-of-barhl2-and-its-relationship-with-pax6-expression-in-the-forebrain-of-the-mouse-embryo
#5
Elisa V Parish, John O Mason, David J Price
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Barhl2 is an antiproneural transcription factor with roles in neuronal differentiation. The functions of its homologue in Drosophila development are better understood than its functions in mammalian brain development. Existing evidence suggests that its expression in the embryonic forebrain of the mouse is regional and may complement that of another transcription factor that is important for forebrain development, Pax6. The aim of this study is to provide a more detailed description of the Barhl2 expression pattern in the embryonic forebrain than is currently available, to relate its expression domains to those of Pax6 and to examine the effects of Pax6 loss on Barhl2 expression...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881080/genotypic-differences-in-intruder-evoked-immediate-early-gene-activation-in-male-but-not-female-vasopressin-1b-receptor-knockout-mice
#6
Shannah K Witchey, Erica L Stevenson, Heather K Caldwell
BACKGROUND: The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (Avp) modulates social behaviors via its two centrally expressed receptors, the Avp 1a receptor and the Avp 1b receptor (Avpr1b). Recent work suggests that, at least in mice, Avp signaling through Avpr1b within the CA2 region of the hippocampus is critical for normal aggressive behaviors and social recognition memory. However, this brain area is just one part of a larger neural circuit that is likely to be impacted in Avpr1b knockout (-/-) mice...
November 24, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875989/interleukin-1-receptor-il-1r-mediates-epilepsy-induced-sleep-disruption
#7
Tzu-Rung Huang, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yu-Ju Chou, Pei-Lu Yi, Chun-Jen Chen, Fang-Chia Chang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disruptions are common in epilepsy patients. Our previous study demonstrates that homeostatic factors and circadian rhythm may mediate epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances when epilepsy occurs at different zeitgeber hours. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is a somnogenic cytokine and may also be involved in epileptogenesis; however, few studies emphasize the effect of IL-1 in epilepsy-induced sleep disruption. We herein hypothesized that IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) mediates the pathogenesis of epilepsy and epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855659/mtor-and-mapk-from-localized-translation-control-to-epilepsy
#8
REVIEW
Helena F Pernice, Rico Schieweck, Michael A Kiebler, Bastian Popper
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases characterized by excessive hyperexcitability of neurons. Molecular mechanisms of epilepsy are diverse and not really understood. All in common is the misregulation of proteins that determine excitability such as potassium and sodium channels as well as GABA receptors; which are all known as biomarkers for epilepsy. Two recently identified key pathways involve the kinases mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)...
November 17, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829368/tfap-2-is-required-for-night-sleep-in-drosophila
#9
Mariya M Kucherenko, Vinodh Ilangovan, Bettina Herzig, Halyna R Shcherbata, Henrik Bringmann
BACKGROUND: The AP-2 transcription factor APTF-1 is crucially required for developmentally controlled sleep behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans larvae. Its human ortholog, TFAP-2beta, causes Char disease and has also been linked to sleep disorders. These data suggest that AP-2 transcription factors may be highly conserved regulators of various types of sleep behavior. Here, we tested the idea that AP-2 controls adult sleep in Drosophila. RESULTS: Drosophila has one AP-2 ortholog called TfAP-2, which is essential for viability...
November 9, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821066/a-method-for-isolation-of-cone-photoreceptors-from-adult-zebrafish-retinae
#10
Antonino Glaviano, Andrew J Smith, Alfonso Blanco, Sarah McLoughlin, Maria L Cederlund, Theresa Heffernan, Beata Sapetto-Rebow, Yolanda Alvarez, Jun Yin, Breandán N Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Cone photoreceptors are specialised sensory retinal neurons responsible for photopic vision, colour perception and visual acuity. Retinal degenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases in which the most severe vision loss typically arises from cone photoreceptor dysfunction or degeneration. Establishing a method to purify cone photoreceptors from retinal tissue can accelerate the identification of key molecular determinants that underlie cone photoreceptor development, survival and function...
November 7, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793099/severe-respiratory-changes-at-end-stage-in-a-fus-induced-disease-state-in-adult-rats
#11
Kasey L Jackson, Hemangini A Dhaibar, Robert D Dayton, Sergio G Cananzi, William G Mayhan, Edward Glasscock, Ronald L Klein
BACKGROUND: Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is an RNA-binding protein associated with the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. ALS manifests in patients as a progressive paralysis which leads to respiratory dysfunction and failure, the primary cause of death in ALS. We expressed human FUS in rats to determine if FUS would induce ALS relevant respiratory changes to serve as an early stage disease indicator. The FUS expression was initiated in adult rats by way of an intravenously administered adeno-associated virus vector serotype 9 (AAV9) providing an adult onset model...
October 28, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793098/-proactive-use-of-cue-context-congruence-for-building-reinforcement-learning-s-reward-function
#12
Judit Zsuga, Klara Biro, Gabor Tajti, Magdolna Emma Szilasi, Csaba Papp, Bela Juhasz, Rudolf Gesztelyi
BACKGROUND: Reinforcement learning is a fundamental form of learning that may be formalized using the Bellman equation. Accordingly an agent determines the state value as the sum of immediate reward and of the discounted value of future states. Thus the value of state is determined by agent related attributes (action set, policy, discount factor) and the agent's knowledge of the environment embodied by the reward function and hidden environmental factors given by the transition probability...
October 28, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784293/simultaneous-acoustic-stimulation-of-human-primary-and-secondary-somatosensory-cortices-using-transcranial-focused-ultrasound
#13
Wonhye Lee, Yong An Chung, Yujin Jung, In-Uk Song, Seung-Schik Yoo
BACKGROUND: Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is gaining momentum as a novel non-invasive brain stimulation method, with promising potential for superior spatial resolution and depth penetration compared to transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation. We examined the presence of tactile sensations elicited by FUS stimulation of two separate brain regions in humans-the primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory areas of the hand, as guided by individual-specific functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
October 26, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776478/results-on-the-spatial-resolution-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-cortical-language-mapping-during-object-naming-in-healthy-subjects
#14
Nico Sollmann, Theresa Hauck, Lorena Tussis, Sebastian Ille, Stefanie Maurer, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Florian Ringel, Bernhard Meyer, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: The spatial resolution of repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for language mapping is largely unknown. Thus, to determine a minimum spatial resolution of rTMS for language mapping, we evaluated the mapping sessions derived from 19 healthy volunteers for cortical hotspots of no-response errors. Then, the distances between hotspots (stimulation points with a high error rate) and adjacent mapping points (stimulation points with low error rates) were evaluated...
October 24, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760517/neuroprotective-effects-of-htr1a-antagonist-way-100635-on-scopolamine-induced-delirium-in-rats-and-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#15
Yimin Qiu, Dongmei Chen, Xiaojing Huang, Lina Huang, Liang Tang, Jihong Jiang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Limited surveys have assessed the performance of 5-hydroxytreptamine receptor 1A and its antagonist WAY-100635 in pharmacological manipulations targeting delirium therapies. The purpose of this paper was to assess the central pharmacological activity of WAY-100635 in a rat model of scopolamine-induced delirium and its underlying mechanism. RESULTS: A delirium rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine and behavioral changes evaluated through open field and elevated plus maze experiments...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756216/cortical-processes-of-speech-illusions-in-the-general-population
#16
E Schepers, L Bodar, J van Os, R Lousberg
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that experimentally elicited auditory illusions in the general population index risk for psychotic symptoms. As little is known about underlying cortical mechanisms of auditory illusions, an experiment was conducted to analyze processing of auditory illusions in a general population sample. In a follow-up design with two measurement moments (baseline and 6 months), participants (n = 83) underwent the White Noise task under simultaneous recording with a 14-lead EEG...
October 18, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733124/hypertonic-saline-alleviates-experimentally-induced-cerebral-oedema-through-suppression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-its-receptor-vegfr2-expression-in-astrocytes
#17
Linqiang Huang, Wei Cao, Yiyu Deng, Gaofeng Zhu, Yongli Han, Hongke Zeng
BACKGROUND: Cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of blood-brain barrier, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) all of which are important blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability regulatory factors. Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 are also the key components of BBB. Hypertonic saline is widely used to alleviate cerebral oedema. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanisms underlying hypertonic saline that ameliorates cerebral oedema effectively...
October 13, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633776/identification-of-environmental-stressors-and-validation-of-light-preference-as-a-measure-of-anxiety-in-larval-zebrafish
#18
Yiming Bai, Harrison Liu, Bo Huang, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo
BACKGROUND: Larval zebrafish, with a simple and transparent vertebrate brain composed of ~100 K neurons, is well suited for deciphering entire neural circuit activity underlying behavior. Moreover, their small body size (~4-5 mm in length) is compatible with 96-well plates, making larval zebrafish amenable to high content screening. Despite these attractive features, there is a scarcity of behavioral characterizations in larval zebrafish compared to other model organisms as well as adult zebrafish...
September 15, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831335/greater-improvement-in-lrrk2-g2019s-patients-undergoing-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-compared-to-non-mutation-carriers
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Massiva Sayad, Mohamed Zouambia, Malika Chaouch, Farida Ferrat, Mustapha Nebbal, Mohamed Bendini, Suzanne Lesage, Alexis Brice, Mohamed Brahim Errahmani, Boualem Asselah
BACKGROUND: Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) of parkinson's disease (PD) patients has demonstrated to improve motor performance and to reduce dopa-induced dyskinesia. An association between the occurrence of dyskinesias and LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) G2019S gene mutations has recently been suggested. The aim of this study is to discover the impact of the G2019S mutation (with high incidence in the authors' native Algeria) on the symptom response of PD in patients who underwent STN-DBS...
February 1, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759057/gamma-oscillation-in-functional-brain-networks-is-involved-in-the-spontaneous-remission-of-depressive-behavior-induced-by-chronic-restraint-stress-in-mice
#20
Arshi Khalid, Byung Sun Kim, Bo Am Seo, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee, Daejong Jeon
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most prevalent mood disorders, and is known to be associated with abnormal functional connectivity in neural networks of the brain. Interestingly, a significant proportion of patients with depression experience spontaneous remission without any treatment. However, the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity and the spontaneous remission in depression remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated regional and network brain activity using EEG signals from a chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced mouse model of depression...
January 12, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
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