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BMC Immunology

Qin Chen, Shengping Qiu, Huanhuan Li, Chaolong Lin, Yong Luo, Wenfeng Ren, Yidi Zou, Yale Wang, Ninghshao Xia, Chenghao Huang
BACKGROUND: Most monoclonal antibodies against mouse antigens have been derived from rat spleen-mouse myeloma fusions, which are valuable tools for purposes ranging from general laboratory reagents to therapeutic drugs, and yet selecting and expressing them remains a time-consuming and inefficient process. Here, we report a novel approach for the rapid high-throughput selection and expression of recombinant functional rat monoclonal antibodies with different isotypes. RESULTS: We have developed a robust system for generating rat monoclonal antibodies through several processes involving simultaneously immunizing rats with three different antigens expressing in a mixed cell pools, preparing hybridoma cell pools, in vitro screening and subsequent cloning of the rearranged light and heavy chains into a single expression plasmid using a highly efficient assembly method, which can decrease the time and effort required by multiple immunizations and fusions, traditional clonal selection and expression methods...
December 4, 2018: BMC Immunology
L E Amoah, H B Abagna, K Akyea-Mensah, A C Lo, K A Kusi, B A Gyan
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against Region III-V of the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) 175 (EBA175RIII-V) have been suggested to provide protection from malaria in a natural infection. However, the quality and quantity of naturally induced antibodies to EBA175RIII-V has not been fully characterized in different cohorts of Ghanaians. This study sought to determine the characteristics of antibodies against EBA175RIII-V in asymptomatic adults and children living in two communities of varying P...
November 19, 2018: BMC Immunology
Elaheh Movahed, Yi Ying Cheok, Grace Min Yi Tan, Chalystha Yie Qin Lee, Heng Choon Cheong, Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Sun Tee Tay, Pei Pei Chong, Won Fen Wong, Chung Yeng Looi
BACKGROUND: IL-17A has emerged as a key player in the pathologies of inflammation, autoimmune disease, and immunity to microbes since its discovery two decades ago. In this study, we aim to elucidate the activity of IL-17A in the protection against Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic fungus that causes fatal meningoencephalitis among AIDS patients. For this purpose, we examined if C. neoformans infection triggers IL-17A secretion in vivo using wildtype C57BL/6 mice. In addition, an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter and a knockout (KO) mouse models were used to track the source of IL-17A secretion and explore the protective function of IL-17A, respectively...
November 8, 2018: BMC Immunology
Karima Sahmoudi, Hassan Abbassi, Nada Bouklata, Mohamed Nouredine El Alami, Abderrahmane Sadak, Christopher Burant, W Henry Boom, Rajae El Aouad, David H Canaday, Fouad Seghrouchni
BACKGROUND: Lymph node tuberculosis (LNTB) is the most frequent extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis (TB). Studies of human tuberculosis at sites of disease are limited. LNTB provides a unique opportunity to compare local in situ and peripheral blood immune response in active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disease. The present study analysed T regulatory cells (Treg) frequency and activation along with CD4+ T cell function in lymph nodes from LNTB patients. RESULTS: Lymph node mononuclear cells (LNMC) were compared to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
November 8, 2018: BMC Immunology
Dean Huggard, Fiona McGrane, Niamh Lagan, Edna Roche, Joanne Balfe, Timothy Ronan Leahy, Orla Franklin, Ana Moreno, Ashanty M Melo, Derek G Doherty, Eleanor J Molloy
BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common syndromic immunodeficiency with an increased risk of infection, mortality from sepsis, and autoinflammation. Innate immune function is altered in DS and therefore we examined responses in CD11b and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4), which are important immune cell surface markers upregulated in response to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, and the immunomodulator melatonin. Neutrophil and monocyte responses to LPS and melatonin in children with Down syndrome (DS) who were clinically stable were compared to age-matched controls...
November 3, 2018: BMC Immunology
Brittany A Goods, Jacqueline M Vahey, Arthur S Steinschneider, Michael H Askenase, Lauren Sansing, J Christopher Love
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional profiling with ultra-low input methods can yield valuable insights into disease, particularly when applied to the study of immune cells using RNA-sequencing. The advent of these methods has allowed for their use in profiling cells collected in clinical trials and other studies that involve the coordination of human-derived material. To date, few studies have sought to quantify what effects that collection and handling of this material can have on resulting data...
October 30, 2018: BMC Immunology
Wei Pan, Hui-Wen Xu, Wen-Ting Hao, Fen-Fen Sun, Yan-Fang Qin, Shan-Shan Hao, Hua Liu, Jian-Ping Cao, Yu-Juan Shen, Kui-Yang Zheng
BACKGROUND: Excretory-secretory products released by Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces (EgPSC-ESPs) are well-known to regulate T cell responses. However, their direct influence on the differentiation of B cell subsets remains largely elusive. This study investigated the effects of EgPSC-ESPs on the differentiation of IL-10-producing B cells (B10), and explored the possible role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) signaling in this process. RESULTS: In comparison to phosphate buffered saline (PBS), B cells exposed to the excretory-secretory products (ESPs) generated higher percentages of B10 cells, with higher expression of IL-10 mRNA, and larger amount of IL-10 production, which were in a dose dependent way...
October 24, 2018: BMC Immunology
Li-Rong Lin, Wei Liu, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Yu-Yan Chen, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Yao Xiao, Wen-Dong Li, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Li-Li Liu, Zan-Xi Fang, Jian-Jun Niu, Yong Lin, Tian-Ci Yang
BACKGROUND: The involvement of inflammasome activation and macrophage polarization during the process of syphilis infection remains unknown. In this study, A series of experiments were performed using human macrophages to research the role of NLRP3 inflammasome regulation in interleukin (IL)-1β production and its influence on macrophage polarization triggered by T. pallidum. RESULTS: The results showed that in M0 macrophages treated with T. pallidum, the M1-associated markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β and TNF-α were upregulated, and the M2-associated markers CD206 and IL-10 were downregulated...
September 14, 2018: BMC Immunology
Masayuki Shiozawa, Chuan-Hsin Chang, Yi-Chun Huang, Yi-Ching Chen, Mau-Shin Chi, Hsu-Chao Hao, Yue-Cune Chang, Satoru Takeda, Kwan-Hwa Chi, Yu-Shan Wang
BACKGROUND: The natural killer cell line, NK-92MI, is cytotoxic against various types of cancer. The aim of this study was to develop chimeric antigen receptor-modified (CAR) NK-92MI cells targeting carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing (CEA) tumours and increase killing efficacy by pharmacologically modifying CEA-expression. RESULT: We generated anti-CEA-CAR NK-92MI cells by retroviral vector transduction. This genetically-modified cell line recognised and lysed high CEA-expressing tumour cell lines (LS174T) at 47...
August 3, 2018: BMC Immunology
Xiaojia Xu, Yulian Li, Yaping Liang, Mingjuan Yin, Zuwei Yu, Yan Zhang, Lingfeng Huang, Jindong Ni
BACKGROUND: While vaccination remains the most effective method to control hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 5-10% of recipients exhibit non-responsiveness to the HB vaccine. Immunological analysis of strong, weak or absent protective antibody responses to the HB vaccine should provide insights into the mechanisms that contribute to non-responsiveness. RESULTS: We investigated the potential involvement of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells in the immune response to HB vaccine, and associations between the miR-17-92 cluster and Tfh cells...
July 28, 2018: BMC Immunology
Ekaterina Lebedeva, Alexander Bagaev, Alexey Pichugin, Marina Chulkina, Andrei Lysenko, Irina Tutykhina, Maxim Shmarov, Denis Logunov, Boris Naroditsky, Ravshan Ataullakhanov
BACKGROUND: Agonists of TLR3 and TLR4 are effective immunoadjuvants for different types of vaccines. The mechanisms of their immunostimulatory action differ significantly; these differences are particularly critical for immunization with non-replicating adenovirus vectors (rAds) based vaccines. Unlike traditional vaccines, rAd based vaccines are not designed to capture vaccine antigens from the external environment by antigen presenting cells (APCs), but rather they are targeted to the de novo synthesis of vaccine antigens in APCs transfected with rAd...
July 28, 2018: BMC Immunology
Sofia Pavlou, Jaime Lindsay, Rebecca Ingram, Heping Xu, Mei Chen
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are tissue resident immune cells important for host defence and homeostasis. During diabetes, macrophages and other innate immune cells are known to have a pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications. However, diabetic patients are highly susceptible to bacterial infections, and often have impaired wound healing. The molecular mechanism underlying the paradox of macrophage function in diabetes is not fully understood...
July 11, 2018: BMC Immunology
Andrey V Elchaninov, Timur Kh Fatkhudinov, Natalia Y Usman, Evgeniya Y Kananykhina, Irina V Arutyunyan, Andrey V Makarov, Anastasia V Lokhonina, Irina Z Eremina, Viktor V Surovtsev, Dmitry V Goldshtein, Galina B Bolshakova, Valeria V Glinkina, Gennady T Sukhikh
BACKGROUND: In many clinical cases of extensive liver resection (e.g. due to malignancy), the residual portion is too small to maintain the body homeostasis. The resulting acute liver failure is associated with the compensatory growth inhibition, which is a typical manifestation of the 'small for size' liver syndrome. The study investigates possible causes of the delayed onset of hepatocyte proliferation after subtotal hepatectomy (80% liver resection) in rats. RESULTS: The data indicate that the growth inhibition correlates with delayed upregulation of the Tnf gene expression and low content of the corresponding Tnfα protein within the residual hepatic tissue...
July 9, 2018: BMC Immunology
Gerard Pasternak, Aleksandra Lewandowicz-Uszyńska, Katarzyna Pentoś
BACKGROUND: Deficits in disorders of humoral immunity associated with a deficit of antibodies are the most common primary immunodeficiency. Total IgG and IgG subclasses measurements are used to diagnose, differentiate and control in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: The purpose of the study was to analyze the structure patients group according to difference between total IgG and sum of the IgG subclasses and to determine factors affecting the level of this difference...
June 27, 2018: BMC Immunology
Sawang Petvises, Pravin Periasamy, Helen C O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Splenic stroma overlaid with hematopoietic progenitors supports in vitro hematopoiesis with production of dendritic-like cells. Co-cultures of murine lineage-depleted bone marrow over the 5G3 stromal line produce two populations of cells, characterised as CD11b+ CD11c+ MHC-II- dendritic-like 'L-DC', and CD11b+ CD11c+ MHC-II+ cells, resembling conventional dendritic cells (cDC). To date, the functional capacity of these two subsets has not been clearly distinguished. RESULTS: Here we show both the L-DC and cDC-like subsets can be activated and induce proliferation of OT-I CD8+ T cells, being strong inducers of IL-2 and IFN-γ production...
June 26, 2018: BMC Immunology
Xiaoping Zhang, Lin Zhu, Yaoyong Zhou, Aichao Shi, Hongwu Wang, Meifang Han, Xiaoyang Wan, Semvua Bukheti Kilonzo, Xiaoping Luo, Tao Chen, Qin Ning
BACKGROUND: Potassium channel tetramerisation domain containing 9 (KCTD9), a member of KCTD family with a DNA-like pentapeptide repeat domain, was found to be increased particularly in NK cells of patients with HBV-induced acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) and experimental viral fulminant hepatitis. Knockdown of KCTD9 in immortalized NK cells inhibits cytokines production and cytotoxicity. As NK cell activation was shown to exacerbate liver damage in viral fulminant hepatitis, we propose that target inhibition of KCTD9 may prohibit NK cells activity and thus ameliorate liver damage in viral fulminant hepatitis...
June 25, 2018: BMC Immunology
Zhengzhong Xu, Aihong Xia, Xin Li, Zhaocheng Zhu, Yechi Shen, Shanshan Jin, Tian Lan, Yuqing Xie, Han Wu, Chuang Meng, Lin Sun, Yuelan Yin, Xiang Chen, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires CD4+ T-cell responses and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) presentation of Mtb antigens (Ags). Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent of the Ag-presenting cells and are central to the initiation of T-cell immune responses. Much research has indicated that DCs play an important role in anti-mycobacterial immune responses at early infection time points, but the kinetics of Ag presentation by these cells during these events are incompletely understood...
June 25, 2018: BMC Immunology
Jin Dong, Tianhao Peng, Jing Gao, Xingwang Jia, Guangtao Yan, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), membranous nephropathy (MN) and minimal-change disease (MCD) are three common types of glomerulonephritis in China. Pathological diagnosis based on renal biopsy is the criterion and the golden standard for diagnosing the sub-types of primary or secondary glomerulonephritis. Immunoglobulin and complements might be used in the differential diagnosis of glomerulonephritis without renal biopsies. However, the relationship between IF intensities of immune proteins and the corresponding serum levels remained unclear, and seldom studies combine histopathological examination results and blood tests together for a predictive purpose...
June 20, 2018: BMC Immunology
Milad Sabzevary-Ghahfarokhi, Mojtaba Shohan, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Nader Bagheri, Amin Soltani, Fatemeh Deris, Mahdi Ghatreh-Samani, Ehsan Razmara
BACKGROUND: Fra-1 (fosl1) belongs to the activator protein1 (AP-1) family inducing IL-11 expression in oxidative stress condition. IL-11 plays a pivotal role in protecting epithelial barriers integrity. In this study, we investigated the Fra-1 gene expression in the inflamed mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) as well as its relation to IL-11 expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 20 patients and 20 healthy controls with definite UC based on the clinical criteria...
June 18, 2018: BMC Immunology
Arianna Palladini, Lorena Landuzzi, Pier-Luigi Lollini, Patrizia Nanni
Cancer immunoprevention is based on the fact that a functioning immune system controls tumor onset and development in humans and animals, thus leading to the idea that the enhancement of immune responses in healthy individuals could effectively reduce cancer risk later in life. Successful primary immunoprevention of tumors caused by hepatitis B and papilloma viruses is already implemented at the population level with specific vaccines. The immunoprevention of human tumors unrelated to infectious agents is an outstanding challenge...
June 15, 2018: BMC Immunology
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