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BMC Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709398/cannibalism-and-activity-rate-in-larval-damselflies-increase-along-a-latitudinal-gradient-as-a-consequence-of-time-constraints
#1
Szymon Sniegula, Maria J Golab, Frank Johansson
BACKGROUND: Predation is ubiquitous in nature. One form of predation is cannibalism, which is affected by many factors such as size structure and resource density. However, cannibalism may also be influenced by abiotic factors such as seasonal time constraints. Since time constraints are greater at high latitudes, cannibalism could be stronger at such latitudes, but we know next to nothing about latitudinal variation in cannibalism. In this study, we examined cannibalism and activity in larvae of the damselfly Lestes sponsa along a latitudinal gradient across Europe...
July 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709396/rapid-diversification-of-homothorax-expression-patterns-after-gene-duplication-in-spiders
#2
Natascha Turetzek, Sara Khadjeh, Christoph Schomburg, Nikola-Michael Prpic
BACKGROUND: Gene duplications provide genetic material for the evolution of new morphological and physiological features. One copy can preserve the original gene functions while the second copy may evolve new functions (neofunctionalisation). Gene duplications may thus provide new genes involved in evolutionary novelties. RESULTS: We have studied the duplicated homeobox gene homothorax (hth) in the spider species Parasteatoda tepidariorum and Pholcus phalangioides and have compared these data with previously published data from additional spider species...
July 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705202/the-influence-of-molecular-markers-and-methods-on-inferring-the-phylogenetic-relationships-between-the-representatives-of-the-arini-parrots-psittaciformes-determined-on-the-basis-of-their-complete-mitochondrial-genomes
#3
Adam Dawid Urantowka, Aleksandra Kroczak, Paweł Mackiewicz
BACKGROUND: Conures are a morphologically diverse group of Neotropical parrots classified as members of the tribe Arini, which has recently been subjected to a taxonomic revision. The previously broadly defined Aratinga genus of this tribe has been split into the 'true' Aratinga and three additional genera, Eupsittula, Psittacara and Thectocercus. Popular markers used in the reconstruction of the parrots' phylogenies derive from mitochondrial DNA. However, current phylogenetic analyses seem to indicate conflicting relationships between Aratinga and other conures, and also among other Arini members...
July 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693418/phylogenetic-conservatism-in-skulls-and-evolutionary-lability-in-limbs-morphological-evolution-across-an-ancient-frog-radiation-is-shaped-by-diet-locomotion-and-burrowing
#4
Marta Vidal-García, J Scott Keogh
BACKGROUND: Quantifying morphological diversity across taxa can provide valuable insight into evolutionary processes, yet its complexities can make it difficult to identify appropriate units for evaluation. One of the challenges in this field is identifying the processes that drive morphological evolution, especially when accounting for shape diversification across multiple structures. Differential levels of co-varying phenotypic diversification can conceal selective pressures on traits due to morphological integration or modular shape evolution of different structures, where morphological evolution of different modules is explained either by co-variation between them or by independent evolution, respectively...
July 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683754/physiological-mechanisms-of-adaptive-developmental-plasticity-in-rana-temporaria-island-populations
#5
Pablo Burraco, Ana Elisa Valdés, Frank Johansson, Ivan Gomez-Mestre
BACKGROUND: Adaptive plasticity is essential for many species to cope with environmental heterogeneity. In particular, developmental plasticity allows organisms with complex life cycles to adaptively adjust the timing of ontogenetic switch points. Size at and time to metamorphosis are reliable fitness indicators in organisms with complex cycles. The physiological machinery of developmental plasticity commonly involves the activation of alternative neuroendocrine pathways, causing metabolic alterations...
July 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683816/uncovering-missing-pieces-duplication-and-deletion-history-of-arrestins-in-deuterostomes
#6
Henrike Indrischek, Sonja J Prohaska, Vsevolod V Gurevich, Eugenia V Gurevich, Peter F Stadler
BACKGROUND: The cytosolic arrestin proteins mediate desensitization of activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) via competition with G proteins for the active phosphorylated receptors. Arrestins in active, including receptor-bound, conformation are also transducers of signaling. Therefore, this protein family is an attractive therapeutic target. The signaling outcome is believed to be a result of structural and sequence-dependent interactions of arrestins with GPCRs and other protein partners...
July 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683774/phylogenetic-classification-of-bony-fishes
#7
Ricardo Betancur-R, Edward O Wiley, Gloria Arratia, Arturo Acero, Nicolas Bailly, Masaki Miya, Guillaume Lecointre, Guillermo Ortí
BACKGROUND: Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings...
July 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683762/segmental-duplications-evolution-and-impact-among-the-current-lepidoptera-genomes
#8
Qian Zhao, Dongna Ma, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: Structural variation among genomes is now viewed to be as important as single nucleoid polymorphisms in influencing the phenotype and evolution of a species. Segmental duplication (SD) is defined as segments of DNA with homologous sequence. RESULTS: Here, we performed a systematic analysis of segmental duplications (SDs) among five lepidopteran reference genomes (Plutella xylostella, Danaus plexippus, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta and Heliconius melpomene) to understand their potential impact on the evolution of these species...
July 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679381/does-genetic-structure-reflect-differences-in-non-breeding-movements-a-case-study-in-small-highly-mobile-seabirds
#9
Petra Quillfeldt, Yoshan Moodley, Henri Weimerskirch, Yves Cherel, Karine Delord, Richard A Phillips, Joan Navarro, Luciano Calderón, Juan F Masello
BACKGROUND: In seabirds, the extent of population genetic and phylogeographic structure varies extensively among species. Genetic structure is lacking in some species, but present in others despite the absence of obvious physical barriers (landmarks), suggesting that other mechanisms restrict gene flow. It has been proposed that the extent of genetic structure in seabirds is best explained by relative overlap in non-breeding distributions of birds from different populations. We used results from the analysis of microsatellite DNA variation and geolocation (tracking) data to test this hypothesis...
July 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679358/extreme-mhc-class-i-diversity-in-the-sedge-warbler-acrocephalus-schoenobaenus-selection-patterns-and-allelic-divergence-suggest-that-different-genes-have-different-functions
#10
Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Emily O'Connor, Alvaro Sebastian, Magdalena Migalska, Jacek Radwan, Tadeusz Zając, Wojciech Bielański, Wojciech Solarz, Adam Ćmiel, Helena Westerdahl
BACKGROUND: Recent work suggests that gene duplications may play an important role in the evolution of immunity genes. Passerine birds, and in particular Sylvioidea warblers, have highly duplicated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which are key in immunity, compared to other vertebrates. However, reasons for this high MHC gene copy number are yet unclear. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) allows MHC genotyping even in individuals with extremely duplicated genes. This HTS data can reveal evidence of selection, which may help to unravel the putative functions of different gene copies, i...
July 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676046/retention-of-functional-variation-despite-extreme-genomic-erosion-mhc-allelic-repertoires-in-the-lynx-genus
#11
Elena Marmesat, Krzysztof Schmidt, Alexander P Saveljev, Ivan V Seryodkin, José A Godoy
BACKGROUND: Demographic bottlenecks erode genetic diversity and may increase endangered species' extinction risk via decreased fitness and adaptive potential. The genetic status of species is generally assessed using neutral markers, whose dynamic can differ from that of functional variation due to selection. The MHC is a multigene family described as the most important genetic component of the mammalian immune system, with broad implications in ecology and evolution. The genus Lynx includes four species differing immensely in demographic history and population size, which provides a suitable model to study the genetic consequences of demographic declines: the Iberian lynx being an extremely bottlenecked species and the three remaining ones representing common and widely distributed species...
July 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673261/paternal-personality-and-social-status-influence-offspring-activity-in-zebrafish
#12
Susanne Zajitschek, James E Herbert-Read, Nasir M Abbasi, Felix Zajitschek, Simone Immler
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the transmission of non-genetic information from father to offspring is rapidly accumulating. While the impact of chemical and physical factors such as toxins or diet on the fitness of the parents and their offspring have been studied extensively, the importance of behavioural and social circumstances has only recently been recognised. Behavioural traits such as personality characteristics can be relatively stable, and partly comprise a genetic component but we know little about the non-genetic transmission of plastic behavioural traits from parents to offspring...
July 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673239/erratum-to-impact-of-e-publication-changes-in-the-international-code-of-nomenclature-for-algae-fungi-and-plants-melbourne-code-2012-did-we-need-to-run-for-our-lives
#13
Nicky Nicolson, Katherine Challis, Allan Tucker, Sandra Knapp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673235/comparative-analysis-of-lincrna-in-insect-species
#14
Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Mark C Harrison, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
BACKGROUND: The ever increasing availability of genomes makes it possible to investigate and compare not only the genomic complements of genes and proteins, but also of RNAs. One class of RNAs, the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and, in particular, their subclass of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have recently gained much attention because of their roles in regulation of important biological processes such as immune response or cell differentiation and as possible evolutionary precursors for protein coding genes...
July 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668078/population-genetic-structure-in-sabatieria-nematoda-reveals-intermediary-gene-flow-and-admixture-between-distant-cold-seeps-from-the-mediterranean-sea
#15
Annelies De Groote, Freija Hauquier, Ann Vanreusel, Sofie Derycke
BACKGROUND: There is a general lack of information on the dispersal and genetic structuring for populations of small-sized deep-water taxa, including free-living nematodes which inhabit and dominate the seafloor sediments. This is also true for unique and scattered deep-sea habitats such as cold seeps. Given the limited dispersal capacity of marine nematodes, genetic differentiation between such geographically isolated habitat patches is expected to be high. Against this background, we examined genetic variation in both mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (18S and 28S ribosomal) DNA markers of 333 individuals of the genus Sabatieria, abundantly present in reduced cold-seep sediments...
July 1, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655293/plant-manipulation-through-gall-formation-constrains-amino-acid-transporter-evolution-in-sap-feeding-insects
#16
Chaoyang Zhao, Paul D Nabity
BACKGROUND: The herbivore lifestyle leads to encounters with plant toxins and requires mechanisms to overcome suboptimal nutrient availability in plant tissues. Although the evolution of bacterial endosymbiosis alleviated many of these challenges, the ability to manipulate plant nutrient status has evolved in lineages with and without nutritional symbionts. Whether and how these alternative nutrient acquisition strategies interact or constrain insect evolution is unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of galling and free-living aphidomorphs to characterize how amino acid transporter evolution is influenced by the ability to manipulate plant resource availability...
June 27, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651571/expression-and-phylogenetic-analyses-reveal-paralogous-lineages-of-putatively-classical-and-non-classical-mhc-i-genes-in-three-sparrow-species-passer
#17
Anna Drews, Maria Strandh, Lars Råberg, Helena Westerdahl
BACKGROUND: The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a central role in immunity and has been given considerable attention by evolutionary ecologists due to its associations with fitness-related traits. Songbirds have unusually high numbers of MHC class I (MHC-I) genes, but it is not known whether all are expressed and equally important for immune function. Classical MHC-I genes are highly expressed, polymorphic and present peptides to T-cells whereas non-classical MHC-I genes have lower expression, are more monomorphic and do not present peptides to T-cells...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651535/molecular-phylogeny-reveals-food-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-true-ladybird-beetles-coleoptera-coccinellidae-coccinellini
#18
Hermes E Escalona, Andreas Zwick, Hao-Sen Li, Jiahui Li, Xingmin Wang, Hong Pang, Diana Hartley, Lars S Jermiin, Oldřich Nedvěd, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Adam Ślipiński, Wioletta Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas))...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651518/further-study-of-late-devonian-seed-plant-cosmosperma-polyloba-its-reconstruction-and-evolutionary-significance
#19
Le Liu, Deming Wang, Meicen Meng, Jinzhuang Xue
BACKGROUND: The earliest seed plants in the Late Devonian (Famennian) are abundant and well known. However, most of them lack information regarding the frond system and reconstruction. Cosmosperma polyloba represents the first Devonian ovule in China and East Asia, and its cupules, isolated synangiate pollen organs and pinnules have been studied in the preceding years. RESULTS: New fossils of Cosmosperma were obtained from the type locality, i.e. the Leigutai Member of the Wutong Formation in Fanwan Village, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, South China...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651517/evolving-mutation-rate-advances-the-invasion-speed-of-a-sexual-species
#20
Marleen M P Cobben, Oliver Mitesser, Alexander Kubisch
BACKGROUND: Many species are shifting their ranges in response to global climate change. Range expansions are known to have profound effects on the genetic composition of populations. The evolution of dispersal during range expansion increases invasion speed, provided that a species can adapt sufficiently fast to novel local conditions. Genetic diversity at the expanding range border is however depleted due to iterated founder effects. The surprising ability of colonizing species to adapt to novel conditions while being subjected to genetic bottlenecks is termed 'the genetic paradox of invasive species'...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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