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BMC Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025392/co-founding-ant-queens-prevent-disease-by-performing-prophylactic-undertaking-behaviour
#1
Christopher D Pull, Sylvia Cremer
BACKGROUND: Social insects form densely crowded societies in environments with high pathogen loads, but have evolved collective defences that mitigate the impact of disease. However, colony-founding queens lack this protection and suffer high rates of mortality. The impact of pathogens may be exacerbated in species where queens found colonies together, as healthy individuals may contract pathogens from infectious co-founders. Therefore, we tested whether ant queens avoid founding colonies with pathogen-exposed conspecifics and how they might limit disease transmission from infectious individuals...
October 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927381/in-defence-of-the-three-domains-of-life-paradigm
#2
REVIEW
P T S van der Gulik, W D Hoff, D Speijer
BACKGROUND: Recently, important discoveries regarding the archaeon that functioned as the "host" in the merger with a bacterium that led to the eukaryotes, its "complex" nature, and its phylogenetic relationship to eukaryotes, have been reported. Based on these new insights proposals have been put forward to get rid of the three-domain Model of life, and replace it with a two-domain model. RESULTS: We present arguments (both regarding timing, complexity, and chemical nature of specific evolutionary processes, as well as regarding genetic structure) to resist such proposals...
September 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915788/morphogenesis-along-the-animal-vegetal-axis-fates-of-primary-quartet-micromere-daughters-in-the-gastropod-crepidula-fornicata
#3
Deirdre C Lyons, Kimberly J Perry, Jonathan Q Henry
BACKGROUND: The Spiralia are a large, morphologically diverse group of protostomes (e.g. molluscs, annelids, nemerteans) that share a homologous mode of early development called spiral cleavage. One of the most highly-conserved features of spiralian development is the contribution of the primary quartet cells, 1a-1d, to the anterior region of the embryo (including the brain, eyes, and the anterior ciliary band, called the prototroch). Yet, very few studies have analyzed the ultimate fates of primary quartet sub-lineages, or examined the morphogenetic events that take place in the anterior region of the embryo...
September 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899345/phylogeographic-structure-cryptic-speciation-and-demographic-history-of-the-sharpbelly-hemiculter-leucisculus-a-freshwater-habitat-generalist-from-southern-china
#4
Weitao Chen, Zaixuan Zhong, Wei Dai, Qi Fan, Shunping He
BACKGROUND: Species with broad distributions frequently divide into multiple genetic forms and may therefore be viewed as "cryptic species". Here, we used the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and 12 nuclear DNA loci to investigate phylogeographic structures of the sharpbelly (Hemiculter leucisculus) in rivers in southern China and explored how the geological and climatic factors have shaped the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of this species. RESULTS: Our mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis identified three major lineages (lineages A, B, and C)...
September 12, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893179/conservation-and-diversification-of-small-rna-pathways-within-flatworms
#5
Santiago Fontenla, Gabriel Rinaldi, Pablo Smircich, Jose F Tort
BACKGROUND: Small non-coding RNAs, including miRNAs, and gene silencing mediated by RNA interference have been described in free-living and parasitic lineages of flatworms, but only few key factors of the small RNA pathways have been exhaustively investigated in a limited number of species. The availability of flatworm draft genomes and predicted proteomes allowed us to perform an extended survey of the genes involved in small non-coding RNA pathways in this phylum. RESULTS: Overall, findings show that the small non-coding RNA pathways are conserved in all the analyzed flatworm linages; however notable peculiarities were identified...
September 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893176/the-path-to-re-evolve-cooperation-is-constrained-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Elisa T Granato, Rolf Kümmerli
BACKGROUND: A common form of cooperation in bacteria is based on the secretion of beneficial metabolites, shareable as public good among cells within a group. Because cooperation can be exploited by "cheating" mutants, which contribute less or nothing to the public good, there has been great interest in understanding the conditions required for cooperation to remain evolutionarily stable. In contrast, much less is known about whether cheats, once fixed in the population, are able to revert back to cooperation when conditions change...
September 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893173/appropriate-homoplasy-metrics-in-linked-ssrs-to-predict-an-underestimation-of-demographic-expansion-times
#7
Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Daniel Piñero, Lev Jardón-Barbolla, Joost van Heerwaarden
BACKGROUND: Homoplasy affects demographic inference estimates. This effect has been recognized and corrective methods have been developed. However, no studies so far have defined what homoplasy metrics best describe the effects on demographic inference, or have attempted to estimate such metrics in real data. Here we study how homoplasy in chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) affects inference of population expansion time. cpSSRs are popular markers for inferring historical demography in plants due to their high mutation rate and limited recombination...
September 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877669/evaluating-the-role-of-pleistocene-refugia-rivers-and-environmental-variation-in-the-diversification-of-central-african-duikers-genera-cephalophus-and-philantomba
#8
Stephan Ntie, Anne R Davis, Katrin Hils, Patrick Mickala, Henri A Thomassen, Katy Morgan, Hadrien Vanthomme, Mary K Gonder, Nicola M Anthony
BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the role that Pleistocene refugia, rivers and local habitat conditions may have played in the evolutionary diversification of three central African duiker species (Cephalophus dorsalis, C. callipygus and Philantomba monticola). Genetic data from geo-referenced feces were collected from a wide range of sites across Central Africa. Historical patterns of population genetic structure were assessed using a ~ 650 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region and contemporary patterns of genetic differentiation were evaluated using 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci...
September 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870165/myosin-repertoire-expansion-coincides-with-eukaryotic-diversification-in-the-mesoproterozoic-era
#9
Martin Kollmar, Stefanie Mühlhausen
BACKGROUND: The last eukaryotic common ancestor already had an amazingly complex cell possessing genomic and cellular features such as spliceosomal introns, mitochondria, cilia-dependent motility, and a cytoskeleton together with several intracellular transport systems. In contrast to the microtubule-based dyneins and kinesins, the actin-filament associated myosins are considerably divergent in extant eukaryotes and a unifying picture of their evolution has not yet emerged. RESULTS: Here, we manually assembled and annotated 7852 myosins from 929 eukaryotes providing an unprecedented dense sequence and taxonomic sampling...
September 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863778/gene-flow-during-glacial-habitat-shifts-facilitates-character-displacement-in-a-neotropical-flycatcher-radiation
#10
Balaji Chattopadhyay, Kritika M Garg, Chyi Yin Gwee, Scott V Edwards, Frank E Rheindt
BACKGROUND: Pleistocene climatic fluctuations are known to be an engine of biotic diversification at higher latitudes, but their impact on highly diverse tropical areas such as the Andes remains less well-documented. Specifically, while periods of global cooling may have led to fragmentation and differentiation at colder latitudes, they may - at the same time - have led to connectivity among insular patches of montane tropical habitat with unknown consequences on diversification. In the present study we utilized ~5...
September 1, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859625/plasticity-first-molecular-signatures-of-a-complex-morphological-trait-in-filamentous-cyanobacteria
#11
Robin Koch, Anne Kupczok, Karina Stucken, Judith Ilhan, Katrin Hammerschmidt, Tal Dagan
BACKGROUND: Filamentous cyanobacteria that differentiate multiple cell types are considered the peak of prokaryotic complexity and their evolution has been studied in the context of multicellularity origins. Species that form true-branching filaments exemplify the most complex cyanobacteria. However, the mechanisms underlying the true-branching morphology remain poorly understood despite of several investigations that focused on the identification of novel genes or pathways. An alternative route for the evolution of novel traits is based on existing phenotypic plasticity...
August 31, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854872/the-functional-head-of-the-cambrian-radiodontan-stem-group-euarthropoda-amplectobelua-symbrachiata
#12
Peiyun Cong, Allison C Daley, Gregory D Edgecombe, Xianguang Hou
BACKGROUND: Segmental composition and homologies of the head of stem-group Euarthropoda have been the foci of recent studies on arthropod origins. An emerging hypothesis suggests that upper-stem group euarthropods possessed a three-segmented head/brain, including an ocular segment (protocerebrum) followed by the deutocerebrum with associated antennae/raptorial limbs and the tritocerebrum, while in the lower stem, head structures of Radiodonta are wholly associated with the protocerebrum and its preceding part...
August 30, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851290/genetic-basis-of-brain-size-evolution-in-cetaceans-insights-from-adaptive-evolution-of-seven-primary-microcephaly-mcph-genes
#13
Shixia Xu, Xiaohui Sun, Xu Niu, Zepeng Zhang, Ran Tian, Wenhua Ren, Kaiya Zhou, Guang Yang
BACKGROUND: Cetacean brain size expansion is an enigmatic event in mammalian evolution, yet its genetic basis remains poorly explored. Here, all exons of the seven primary microcephaly (MCPH) genes that play key roles in size regulation during brain development were investigated in representative cetacean lineages. RESULTS: Sequences of MCPH2-7 genes were intact in cetaceans but frameshift mutations and stop codons was identified in MCPH1. Extensive positive selection was identified in four of six intact MCPH genes: WDR62, CDK5RAP2, CEP152, and ASPM...
August 29, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851272/diversification-and-spatial-structuring-in-the-mutualism-between-ficus-septica-and-its-pollinating-wasps-in-insular-south-east-asia
#14
Lillian Jennifer Rodriguez, Anthony Bain, Lien-Siang Chou, Lucie Conchou, Astrid Cruaud, Regielene Gonzales, Martine Hossaert-McKey, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Hsy-Yu Tzeng, Finn Kjellberg
BACKGROUND: Interspecific interactions have long been assumed to play an important role in diversification. Mutualistic interactions, such as nursery pollination mutualisms, have been proposed as good candidates for diversification through co-speciation because of their intricate nature. However, little is known about how speciation and diversification proceeds in emblematic nursery pollination systems such as figs and fig wasps. Here, we analyse diversification in connection with spatial structuring in the obligate mutualistic association between Ficus septica and its pollinating wasps throughout the Philippines and Taiwan...
August 29, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841842/erratum-to-phylogenomic-analyses-of-crassiclitellata-support-major-northern-and-southern-hemisphere-clades-and-a-pangaean-origin-for-earthworms
#15
Frank E Anderson, Bronwyn W Williams, Kevin M Horn, Christer Erséus, Kenneth M Halanych, Scott R Santos, Samuel W James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841819/redefining-the-extinct-orders-miomoptera-and-hypoperlida-as-stem-acercarian-insects
#16
Jakub Prokop, Martina Pecharová, Romain Garrouste, Robert Beattie, Ioana C Chintauan-Marquier, André Nel
BACKGROUND: The systematic positions of the extinct insect orders Hypoperlida, Miomoptera and Permopsocida were enigmatic and unstable for nearly a century. The recent studies based on new material, especially from the Cenomanian Burmese amber, shed light on evolutionary history of Acercaria resolving Permopsocida as the stem group of Condylognatha. However, the knowledge of the remaining two orders differs significantly. RESULTS: In this study, we describe new specimens and evaluate morphology of various structures with emphasis on the mouthparts and wing venation...
August 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836959/strategies-for-improving-approximate-bayesian-computation-tests-for-synchronous-diversification
#17
Isaac Overcast, Justin C Bagley, Michael J Hickerson
BACKGROUND: Estimating the variability in isolation times across co-distributed taxon pairs that may have experienced the same allopatric isolating mechanism is a core goal of comparative phylogeography. The use of hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) and coalescent models to infer temporal dynamics of lineage co-diversification has been a contentious topic in recent years. Key issues that remain unresolved include the choice of an appropriate prior on the number of co-divergence events (Ψ), as well as the optimal strategies for data summarization...
August 24, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835203/epigenetic-variation-between-urban-and-rural-populations-of-darwin-s-finches
#18
Sabrina M McNew, Daniel Beck, Ingrid Sadler-Riggleman, Sarah A Knutie, Jennifer A H Koop, Dale H Clayton, Michael K Skinner
BACKGROUND: The molecular basis of evolutionary change is assumed to be genetic variation. However, growing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may also be involved in rapid adaptation to new environments. An important first step in evaluating this hypothesis is to test for the presence of epigenetic variation between natural populations living under different environmental conditions. RESULTS: In the current study we explored variation between populations of Darwin's finches, which comprise one of the best-studied examples of adaptive radiation...
August 24, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835216/landscape-genomics-reveal-that-ecological-character-determines-adaptation-a-case-study-in-smoke-tree-cotinus-coggygria-scop
#19
Cai-Yun Miao, Yong Li, Jie Yang, Run-Li Mao
BACKGROUND: The adaptive evolution of species response to environment are the key issues in molecular ecology and evolutionary biology. The direction of adaptive differentiation of species in regions lacking strong selection pressure is usually diverse. However, the driving mechanism of the diverse adaptive differentiation for regional species is still undetermined to date. In this study, we used landscape genomics modelling to infer the adaptive evolution of Cotinus coggygria in China's warm-temperate zone...
August 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830359/visual-adaptation-in-lake-victoria-cichlid-fishes-depth-related-variation-of-color-and-scotopic-opsins-in-species-from-sand-mud-bottoms
#20
Yohey Terai, Ryutaro Miyagi, Mitsuto Aibara, Shinji Mizoiri, Hiroo Imai, Takashi Okitsu, Akimori Wada, Shiho Takahashi-Kariyazono, Akie Sato, Herbert Tichy, Hillary D J Mrosso, Semvua I Mzighani, Norihiro Okada
BACKGROUND: For Lake Victoria cichlid species inhabiting rocky substrates with differing light regimes, it has been proposed that adaptation of the long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene triggered speciation by sensory drive through color signal divergence. The extensive and continuous sand/mud substrates are also species-rich, and a correlation between male nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments has been reported. However, the factors driving genetic and functional diversity of LWS pigments in sand/mud habitats are still unresolved...
August 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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