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BMC Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645318/detecting-consistent-patterns-of-directional-adaptation-using-differential-selection-codon-models
#1
Sahar Parto, Nicolas Lartillot
BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic codon models are often used to characterize the selective regimes acting on protein-coding sequences. Recent methodological developments have led to models explicitly accounting for the interplay between mutation and selection, by modeling the amino acid fitness landscape along the sequence. However, thus far, most of these models have assumed that the fitness landscape is constant over time. Fluctuations of the fitness landscape may often be random or depend on complex and unknown factors...
June 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645244/evolution-of-the-vertebrate-insulin-receptor-substrate-irs-gene-family
#2
Ahmad Al-Salam, David M Irwin
BACKGROUND: Insulin receptor substrate (Irs) proteins are essential for insulin signaling as they allow downstream effectors to dock with, and be activated by, the insulin receptor. A family of four Irs proteins have been identified in mice, however the gene for one of these, IRS3, has been pseudogenized in humans. While it is known that the Irs gene family originated in vertebrates, it is not known when it originated and which members are most closely related to each other. A better understanding of the evolution of Irs genes and proteins should provide insight into the regulation of metabolism by insulin...
June 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641575/phylogenetic-and-paleobotanical-evidence-for-late-miocene-diversification-of-the-tertiary-subtropical-lineage-of-ivies-hedera-l-araliaceae
#3
V Valcárcel, B Guzmán, N G Medina, P Vargas, J Wen
BACKGROUND: Hedera (ivies) is one of the few temperate genera of the primarily tropical Asian Palmate group of the Araliaceae, which extends its range out of Asia to Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic results suggested Asia as the center of origin and the western Mediterranean region as one of the secondary centers of diversification. The bird-dispersed fleshy fruits of ivies suggest frequent dispersal over long distances (e.g. Macaronesian archipelagos), although reducing the impact of geographic barriers to gene flow in mainland species...
June 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637425/the-colonization-and-divergence-patterns-of-brandt-s-vole-lasiopodomys-brandtii-populations-reveal-evidence-of-genetic-surfing
#4
Ke Li, Michael H Kohn, Songmei Zhang, Xinrong Wan, Dazhao Shi, Deng Wang
BACKGROUND: The colonial habit of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) differs from that of most other species of the genus Microtus. The demographic history of this species and the patterns shaping its current genetic structure remain unknown. Here, we explored patterns of genetic differentiation and infered the demographic history of Brandt's vole populations through analyses of nuclear microsatellite and D-loop sequences. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses divided the sampled populations into three main clusters, which represent the southeastern, northeastern and western parts of the total range in Mongolia and China...
June 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629327/female-begging-calls-reflect-nutritional-need-of-nestlings-in-the-hen-harrier-circus-cyaneus
#5
Steve Redpath, Alex Thompson, Arjun Amar
BACKGROUND: Most birds exhibit bi-parental care with both sexes providing food for their young. Nestling signal food needs through begging. However, for some species, males rarely visit the nest, so have limited opportunity for gaining information directly from the chicks. Instead, females beg when males deliver food. We tested whether this calling signalled nutritional need and specifically the needs of the female (Breeder Need hypothesis) or that of their chicks (Offspring Need hypothesis)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623896/with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-cooperation-can-accelerate-the-rate-of-adaptive-valley-crossing
#6
Uri Obolski, Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Eran Even-Tov, Yoav Ram, Lilach Hadany
BACKGROUND: Natural selection favors changes that lead to genotypes possessing high fitness. A conflict arises when several mutations are required for adaptation, but each mutation is separately deleterious. The process of a population evolving from a genotype encoding for a local fitness maximum to a higher fitness genotype is termed an adaptive peak shift. RESULTS: Here we suggest cooperative behavior as a factor that can facilitate adaptive peak shifts. We model cooperation in a public goods scenario, wherein each individual contributes resources that are later equally redistributed among all cooperating individuals...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623893/evolutionary-origin-of-type-iv-classical-cadherins-in-arthropods
#7
Mizuki Sasaki, Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Hiroki Oda
BACKGROUND: Classical cadherins are a metazoan-specific family of homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecules that regulate morphogenesis. Type I and type IV cadherins in this family function at adherens junctions in the major epithelial tissues of vertebrates and insects, respectively, but they have distinct, relatively simple domain organizations that are thought to have evolved by independent reductive changes from an ancestral type III cadherin, which is larger than derived paralogs and has a complicated domain organization...
June 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622761/dated-tribe-wide-whole-chloroplast-genome-phylogeny-indicates-recurrent-hybridizations-within-triticeae
#8
Nadine Bernhardt, Jonathan Brassac, Benjamin Kilian, Frank R Blattner
BACKGROUND: Triticeae, the tribe of wheat grasses, harbours the cereals barley, rye and wheat and their wild relatives. Although economically important, relationships within the tribe are still not understood. We analysed the phylogeny of chloroplast lineages among nearly all monogenomic Triticeae taxa and polyploid wheat species aiming at a deeper understanding of the tribe's evolution. We used on- and off-target reads of a target-enrichment experiment followed by Illumina sequencing...
June 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619047/environmental-isolation-explains-iberian-genetic-diversity-in-the-highly-homozygous-model-grass-brachypodium-distachyon
#9
Isabel Marques, Valeriia Shiposha, Diana López-Alvarez, Antonio J Manzaneda, Pilar Hernandez, Marina Olonova, Pilar Catalán
BACKGROUND: Brachypodium distachyon (Poaceae), an annual Mediterranean Aluminum (Al)-sensitive grass, is currently being used as a model species to provide new information on cereals and biofuel crops. The plant has a short life cycle and one of the smallest genomes in the grasses being well suited to experimental manipulation. Its genome has been fully sequenced and several genomic resources are being developed to elucidate key traits and gene functions. A reliable germplasm collection that reflects the natural diversity of this species is therefore needed for all these genomic resources...
June 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619023/potential-for-adaptation-to-climate-change-family-level-variation-in-fitness-related-traits-and-their-responses-to-heat-waves-in-a-snail-population
#10
Katja Leicht, Katri Seppälä, Otto Seppälä
BACKGROUND: On-going global climate change poses a serious threat for natural populations unless they are able to evolutionarily adapt to changing environmental conditions (e.g. increasing average temperatures, occurrence of extreme weather events). A prerequisite for evolutionary change is within-population heritable genetic variation in traits subject to selection. In relation to climate change, mainly phenological traits as well as heat and desiccation resistance have been examined for such variation...
June 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610604/age-and-environment-dependent-changes-in-chemical-defences-of-larval-and-post-metamorphic-toads
#11
Bálint Üveges, Gábor Fera, Ágnes M Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, Veronika Bókony, Attila Hettyey
BACKGROUND: Chemical defences are widespread in animals, but how their production is adjusted to ecological conditions is poorly known. Optimal defence theory predicts that inducible defences are favoured over constitutive defences when toxin production is costly and the need for it varies across environments. However, if some environmental changes occur predictably (e.g. coupled to transitions during ontogeny), whereas others are unpredictable (e.g. predation, food availability), changes in defences may have constitutive as well as plastic elements...
June 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610555/indication-for-selfing-in-geographically-separated-populations-and-evidence-for-pleistocene-survival-within-the-alps-the-case-of-cylindrus-obtusus-pulmonata-helicidae
#12
Luise Kruckenhauser, Elisabeth Haring, Barbara Tautscher, Luis Cadahía, Laura Zopp, Michael Duda, Josef Harl, Helmut Sattmann
BACKGROUND: Cylindrus obtusus is one of the most prominent endemic snail species of the Eastern Alps. It is restricted to alpine meadows and calcareous rocky habitats above 1500 m. Peculiar intraspecific differences have been observed in its genital tract in the eastern populations the two mucus glands associated with the love dart sac are highly variable, while almost no variation was observed in the western populations. This raises the question whether the mode and success of reproduction of the respective populations are different...
June 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606137/male-benefit-sexually-antagonistic-genotypes-show-elevated-vulnerability-to-inbreeding
#13
Karl Grieshop, David Berger, Göran Arnqvist
BACKGROUND: There is theoretical and empirical evidence for strong sexual selection in males having positive effects on population viability by serving to purify the genome of its mutation load at a low demographic cost. However, there is also theoretical and empirical evidence for negative effects of sexual selection on female fitness, and therefore population viability, known as the gender load. This can take the form of sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation where alleles with a selective advantage in males pose a detriment to female fitness, and vice versa...
June 12, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606132/erratum-to-surface-layer-proteins-from-virulent-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-exhibit-signatures-of-positive-selection-with-consequences-for-innate-immune-response
#14
Mark Lynch, Thomas A Walsh, Izabela Marszalowska, Andrew E Webb, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Thomas R Rogers, Henry Windle, Dermot Kelleher, Mary J O'Connell, Christine E Loscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606055/improved-mitochondrial-amino-acid-substitution-models-for-metazoan-evolutionary-studies
#15
Vinh Sy Le, Cuong Cao Dang, Quang Si Le
BACKGROUND: Amino acid substitution models play an essential role in inferring phylogenies from mitochondrial protein data. However, only few empirical models have been estimated from restricted mitochondrial protein data of a hundred species. The existing models are unlikely to represent appropriately the amino acid substitutions from hundred thousands metazoan mitochondrial protein sequences. RESULTS: We selected 125,935 mitochondrial protein sequences from 34,448 species in the metazoan kingdom to estimate new amino acid substitution models targeting metazoa, vertebrates and invertebrate groups...
June 12, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599641/morphological-modularity-in-the-vertebral-column-of-felidae-mammalia-carnivora
#16
Marcela Randau, Anjali Goswami
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that the clear morphological differences among vertebrae across the presacral column are accompanied by heterogeneous functional signals in vertebral shape. Further, several lines of evidence suggest that the mammalian axial skeleton is a highly modular structure. These include its composition of serial units, a trade-off between high shape variance and strong conservation of vertebral count, and direct association of regions with anterior expression sites of Hox genes...
June 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599627/pre-quaternary-divergence-and-subsequent-radiation-explain-longitudinal-patterns-of-genetic-and-morphological-variation-in-the-striped-skink-heremites-vittatus
#17
Felix Baier, Andreas Schmitz, Hedwig Sauer-Gürth, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: Many animal and plant species in the Middle East and northern Africa have a predominantly longitudinal distribution, extending from Iran and Turkey along the eastern Mediterranean coast into northern Africa. These species are potentially characterized by longitudinal patterns of biological diversity, but little is known about the underlying biogeographic mechanisms and evolutionary timescales. We examined these questions in the striped skink, Heremites vittatus, one such species with a roughly longitudinal distribution across the Middle East and northern Africa, by analyzing range-wide patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and multi-trait morphological variation...
June 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592249/ixora-rubiaceae-on-the-philippines-crossroad-or-cradle
#18
Cecilia I Banag, Arnaud Mouly, Grecebio Jonathan D Alejandro, Birgitta Bremer, Ulrich Meve, Guido W Grimm, Sigrid Liede-Schumann
BACKGROUND: The Philippine archipelago is globally one of the most important model island systems for studying evolutionary processes. However, most plant species on this archipelago have not yet been studied in sufficient detail. The main aim of this study is to unravel the evolutionary history and biogeographic relationships of the Philippine members of the pantropical genus Ixora. RESULTS: The complex plastid and nuclear divergence patterns in Philippine Ixora, documented using tree and network approaches, reveal a highly dynamic evolution in Ixora, involving several phases of radiation and recolonization...
June 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587671/integrative-taxonomy-by-molecular-species-delimitation-multi-locus-data-corroborate-a-new-species-of-balkan-drusinae-micro-endemics
#19
Simon Vitecek, Mladen Kučinić, Ana Previšić, Ivana Živić, Katarina Stojanović, Lujza Keresztes, Miklós Bálint, Felicitas Hoppeler, Johann Waringer, Wolfram Graf, Steffen U Pauls
BACKGROUND: Taxonomy offers precise species identification and delimitation and thus provides basic information for biological research, e.g. through assessment of species richness. The importance of molecular taxonomy, i.e., the identification and delimitation of taxa based on molecular markers, has increased in the past decade. Recently developed exploratory tools now allow estimating species-level diversity in multi-locus molecular datasets. RESULTS: Here we use molecular species delimitation tools that either quantify differences in intra- and interspecific variability of loci, or divergence times within and between species, or perform coalescent species tree inference to estimate species-level entities in molecular genetic datasets...
June 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587639/unravelling-mummies-cryptic-diversity-host-specificity-trophic-and-coevolutionary-interactions-in-psyllid-parasitoid-food-webs
#20
Aidan A G Hall, Martin J Steinbauer, Gary S Taylor, Scott N Johnson, James M Cook, Markus Riegler
BACKGROUND: Parasitoids are hyperdiverse and can contain morphologically and functionally cryptic species, making them challenging to study. Parasitoid speciation can arise from specialisation on niches or diverging hosts. However, which process dominates is unclear because cospeciation across multiple parasitoid and host species has rarely been tested. Host specificity and trophic interactions of the parasitoids of psyllids (Hemiptera) remain mostly unknown, but these factors are fundamentally important for understanding of species diversity, and have important applied implications for biological control...
June 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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