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BMC Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431496/the-phylogeny-of-fossil-whip-spiders
#1
Russell J Garwood, Jason A Dunlop, Brian J Knecht, Thomas A Hegna
BACKGROUND: Arachnids are a highly successful group of land-dwelling arthropods. They are major contributors to modern terrestrial ecosystems, and have a deep evolutionary history. Whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi), are one of the smaller arachnid orders with ca. 190 living species. Here we restudy one of the oldest fossil representatives of the group, Graeophonus anglicus Pocock, 1911 from the Late Carboniferous (Duckmantian, ca. 315 Ma) British Middle Coal Measures of the West Midlands, UK...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427346/karyotypic-evolution-of-the-medicago-complex-sativa-caerulea-falcata-inferred-from-comparative-cytogenetic-analysis
#2
Feng Yu, Haiqing Wang, Yanyan Zhao, Ruijuan Liu, Quanwen Dou, Jiangli Dong, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy plays an important role in the adaptation and speciation of plants. The alteration of karyotype is a significant event during polyploidy formation. The Medicago sativa complex includes both diploid (2n = 2× = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 2× = 32) subspecies. The tetraploid M. ssp. sativa was regarded as having a simple autopolyploid origin from diploid ssp. caerulea, whereas the autopolyploid origin of tetraploid ssp. falcata from diploid form ssp. falcata is still in doubt...
April 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427326/no-evidence-for-strong-cytonuclear-conflict-over-sex-allocation-in-a-simultaneously-hermaphroditic-flatworm
#3
Nikolas Vellnow, Dita B Vizoso, Gudrun Viktorin, Lukas Schärer
BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic sex allocation distorters, which arise from cytonuclear conflict over the optimal investment into male versus female reproductive function, are some of the best-researched examples for genomic conflict. Among hermaphrodites, many such distorters have been found in plants, while, to our knowledge, none have been clearly documented in animals. METHODS: Here we provide a quantitative test for cytonuclear conflict over sex allocation in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano...
April 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424048/phylogeny-divergence-time-and-historical-biogeography-of-laetiporus-basidiomycota-polyporales
#4
Jie Song, Bao-Kai Cui
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular relationship, origin and historical biogeography of the species in important brown rot fungal genus Laetiporus from East Asia, Europe, Pan-America, Hawaii and South Africa. We used six genetic markers to estimate a genus-level phylogeny including (1) the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), (2) nuclear large subunit rDNA (nrLSU), (3) nuclear small subunit rDNA (nrSSU), (4) translation elongation factor 1-α (EF-1α), (5) DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (RPB2), and (6) mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412935/fitness-costs-of-symbiont-switching-using-entomopathogenic-nematodes-as-a-model
#5
John G McMullen, Brittany F Peterson, Steven Forst, Heidi Goodrich Blair, S Patricia Stock
BACKGROUND: Steinernematid nematodes form obligate symbioses with bacteria from the genus Xenorhabdus. Together Steinernema nematodes and their bacterial symbionts successfully infect, kill, utilize, and exit their insect hosts. During this process the nematodes and bacteria disassociate requiring them to re-associate before emerging from the host. This interaction can be complicated when two different nematodes co-infect an insect host. RESULTS: Non-cognate nematode-bacteria pairings result in reductions for multiple measures of success, including total progeny production and virulence...
April 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412929/testosterone-territorial-response-and-song-in-seasonally-breeding-tropical-and-temperate-stonechats
#6
Beate Apfelbeck, Kim G Mortega, Heiner Flinks, Juan Carlos Illera, Barbara Helm
BACKGROUND: Testosterone facilitates physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes required for breeding in male vertebrates. However, testosterone concentrations and the link between its seasonal changes and those in reproductive behaviors vary greatly among species. To better understand the impact of tropical and temperate environments and life history factors on this variation, we have compared testosterone, territorial behavior and song performance across sequential stages of the breeding season in males of 16 closely related taxa of East African tropical and West European temperate stonechats (Saxicola spp), which all breed during a short breeding season, but differ in migratory behavior, seasonal territory-acquisition and pace of life...
April 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410570/natural-selection-drove-metabolic-specialization-of-the-chromatophore-in-paulinella-chromatophora
#7
Cecilio Valadez-Cano, Roberto Olivares-Hernández, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio, Alexander DeLuna, Luis Delaye
BACKGROUND: Genome degradation of host-restricted mutualistic endosymbionts has been attributed to inactivating mutations and genetic drift while genes coding for host-relevant functions are conserved by purifying selection. Unlike their free-living relatives, the metabolism of mutualistic endosymbionts and endosymbiont-originated organelles is specialized in the production of metabolites which are released to the host. This specialization suggests that natural selection crafted these metabolic adaptations...
April 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399796/tripartite-species-interaction-eukaryotic-hosts-suffer-more-from-phage-susceptible-than-from-phage-resistant-bacteria
#8
Carolin C Wendling, Agnes Piecyk, Dominik Refardt, Cynthia Chibani, Robert Hertel, Heiko Liesegang, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Olivia Roth
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary shifts in bacterial virulence are often associated with a third biological player, for instance temperate phages, that can act as hyperparasites. By integrating as prophages into the bacterial genome they can contribute accessory genes, which can enhance the fitness of their prokaryotic carrier (lysogenic conversion). Hyperparasitic influence in tripartite biotic interactions has so far been largely neglected in empirical host-parasite studies due to their inherent complexity...
April 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388891/eobowenia-gen-nov-from-the-early-cretaceous-of-patagonia-indication-for-an-early-divergence-of-bowenia
#9
Mario Coiro, Christian Pott
BACKGROUND: Even if they are considered the quintessential "living fossils", the fossil record of the extant genera of the Cycadales is quite poor, and only extends as far back as the Cenozoic. This lack of data represents a huge hindrance for the reconstruction of the recent history of this important group. Among extant genera, Bowenia (or cuticles resembling those of extant Bowenia) has been recorded in sediments from the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene of Australia, but its phylogenetic placement and the inference from molecular dating still imply a long ghost lineage for this genus...
April 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381207/microbial-composition-of-spiny-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-polyrhachis-across-their-geographic-range
#10
Manuela Oliveira Ramalho, Odair Correa Bueno, Corrie Saux Moreau
BACKGROUND: Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits...
April 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376755/reconstruction-of-the-evolution-of-microbial-defense-systems
#11
Pere Puigbò, Kira S Makarova, David M Kristensen, Yuri I Wolf, Eugene V Koonin
BACKGROUND: Evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes is a highly dynamic process that involves intensive loss of genes as well as gene gain via horizontal transfer, with a lesser contribution from gene duplication. The rates of these processes can be estimated by comparing genomes that are linked by an evolutionary tree. These estimated rates of genome dynamics events substantially differ for different functional classes of genes. The genes involved in defense against viruses and other invading DNA are among those that are gained and lost at the highest rates...
April 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376717/fossils-matter-improved-estimates-of-divergence-times-in-pinus-reveal-older-diversification
#12
Bianca Saladin, Andrew B Leslie, Rafael O Wüest, Glenn Litsios, Elena Conti, Nicolas Salamin, Niklaus E Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: The taxonomy of pines (genus Pinus) is widely accepted and a robust gene tree based on entire plastome sequences exists. However, there is a large discrepancy in estimated divergence times of major pine clades among existing studies, mainly due to differences in fossil placement and dating methods used. We currently lack a dated molecular phylogeny that makes use of the rich pine fossil record, and this study is the first to estimate the divergence dates of pines based on a large number of fossils (21) evenly distributed across all major clades, in combination with applying both node and tip dating methods...
April 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359299/adaptive-differentiation-coincides-with-local-bioclimatic-conditions-along-an-elevational-cline-in-populations-of-a-lichen-forming-fungus
#13
Francesco Dal Grande, Rahul Sharma, Anjuli Meiser, Gregor Rolshausen, Burkhard Büdel, Bagdevi Mishra, Marco Thines, Jürgen Otte, Markus Pfenninger, Imke Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Many fungal species occur across a variety of habitats. Particularly lichens, fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic partners, have evolved remarkable tolerances for environmental extremes. Despite their ecological importance and ubiquity, little is known about the genetic basis of adaption in lichen populations. Here we studied patterns of genome-wide differentiation in the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata along an altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region...
March 31, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356077/evolutionary-origin-and-function-of-nox4-art-an-arthropod-specific-nadph-oxidase
#14
Ana Caroline Paiva Gandara, André Torres, Ana Cristina Bahia, Pedro L Oliveira, Renata Schama
BACKGROUND: NADPH oxidases (NOX) are ROS producing enzymes that perform essential roles in cell physiology, including cell signaling and antimicrobial defense. This gene family is present in most eukaryotes, suggesting a common ancestor. To date, only a limited number of phylogenetic studies of metazoan NOXes have been performed, with few arthropod genes. In arthropods, only NOX5 and DUOX genes have been found and a gene called NOXm was found in mosquitoes but its origin and function has not been examined...
March 29, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335716/human-mfap1-is-a-cryptic-ortholog-of-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-spp381-splicing-factor
#15
Alexander K C Ulrich, Markus C Wahl
BACKGROUND: Pre-mRNA splicing involves the stepwise assembly of a pre-catalytic spliceosome, followed by its catalytic activation, splicing catalysis and disassembly. Formation of the pre-catalytic spliceosomal B complex involves the incorporation of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP and of a group of non-snRNP B-specific proteins. While in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Prp38 and Snu23 proteins are recruited as components of the tri-snRNP, metazoan orthologs of Prp38 and Snu23 associate independently of the tri-snRNP as members of the B-specific proteins...
March 24, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335725/surface-layer-proteins-from-virulent-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-exhibit-signatures-of-positive-selection-with-consequences-for-innate-immune-response
#16
Mark Lynch, Thomas A Walsh, Izabela Marszalowska, Andrew E Webb, Micheál MacAogain, Thomas R Rogers, Henry Windle, Dermot Kelleher, Mary J O'Connell, Christine E Loscher
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen prevalent in hospitals worldwide and increasingly common in the community. Sequence differences have been shown to be present in the Surface Layer Proteins (SLPs) from different C. difficile ribotypes (RT) however whether these differences influence severity of infection is still not clear. RESULTS: We used a molecular evolutionary approach to analyse SLPs from twenty-six C. difficile RTs representing different slpA sequences...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335724/a-genetic-chronology-for-the-indian-subcontinent-points-to-heavily-sex-biased-dispersals
#17
Marina Silva, Marisa Oliveira, Daniel Vieira, Andreia Brandão, Teresa Rito, Joana B Pereira, Ross M Fraser, Bob Hudson, Francesca Gandini, Ceiridwen Edwards, Maria Pala, John Koch, James F Wilson, Luísa Pereira, Martin B Richards, Pedro Soares
BACKGROUND: India is a patchwork of tribal and non-tribal populations that speak many different languages from various language families. Indo-European, spoken across northern and central India, and also in Pakistan and Bangladesh, has been frequently connected to the so-called "Indo-Aryan invasions" from Central Asia ~3.5 ka and the establishment of the caste system, but the extent of immigration at this time remains extremely controversial. South India, on the other hand, is dominated by Dravidian languages...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335721/transcriptomic-insights-into-the-genetic-basis-of-mammalian-limb-diversity
#18
Jennifer A Maier, Marcelo Rivas-Astroza, Jenny Deng, Anna Dowling, Paige Oboikovitz, Xiaoyi Cao, Richard R Behringer, Chris J Cretekos, John J Rasweiler, Sheng Zhong, Karen E Sears
BACKGROUND: From bat wings to whale flippers, limb diversification has been crucial to the evolutionary success of mammals. We performed the first transcriptome-wide study of limb development in multiple species to explore the hypothesis that mammalian limb diversification has proceeded through the differential expression of conserved shared genes, rather than by major changes to limb patterning. Specifically, we investigated the manner in which the expression of shared genes has evolved within and among mammalian species...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335715/cytotype-coexistence-in-the-field-cannot-be-explained-by-inter-cytotype-hybridization-alone-linking-experiments-and-computer-simulations-in-the-sexual-species-pilosella-echioides-asteraceae
#19
Jindřich Chrtek, Tomáš Herben, Radka Rosenbaumová, Zuzana Münzbergová, Zuzana Dočkalová, Jaroslav Zahradníček, Jana Krejčíková, Pavel Trávníček
BACKGROUND: Processes driving ploidal diversity at the population level are virtually unknown. Their identification should use a combination of large-scale screening of ploidy levels in the field, pairwise crossing experiments and mathematical modelling linking these two types of data. We applied this approach to determine the drivers of frequencies of coexisting cytotypes in mixed-ploidy field populations of the fully sexual plant species Pilosella echioides. We examined fecundity and ploidal diversity in seeds from all possible pairwise crosses among 2x, 3x and 4x plants...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#20
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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