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BMC Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340454/retention-of-fatty-acyl-desaturase-1-fads1-in-elopomorpha-and-cyclostomata-provides-novel-insights-into-the-evolution-of-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-biosynthesis-in-vertebrates
#1
Mónica Lopes-Marques, Naoki Kabeya, Yu Qian, Raquel Ruivo, Miguel M Santos, Byrappa Venkatesh, Douglas R Tocher, L Filipe C Castro, Óscar Monroig
BACKGROUND: Provision of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in vertebrates occurs through the diet or via endogenous production from C18 precursors through consecutive elongations and desaturations. It has been postulated that the abundance of LC-PUFA in the marine environment has remarkably modulated the gene complement and function of Fads in marine teleosts. In vertebrates two fatty acyl desaturases, namely Fads1 and Fads2, encode ∆5 and ∆6 desaturases, respectively...
October 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326845/hampered-motility-promotes-the-evolution-of-wrinkly-phenotype-in-bacillus-subtilis
#2
Anne Richter, Theresa Hölscher, Patrick Pausch, Tim Sehrt, Franziska Brockhaus, Gert Bange, Ákos T Kovács
BACKGROUND: Selection for a certain trait in microbes depends on the genetic background of the strain and the selection pressure of the environmental conditions acting on the cells. In contrast to the sessile state in the biofilm, various bacterial cells employ flagellum-dependent motility under planktonic conditions suggesting that the two phenotypes are mutually exclusive. However, flagellum dependent motility facilitates the prompt establishment of floating biofilms on the air-medium interface, called pellicles...
October 16, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326836/nunataks-or-massif-de-refuge-a-phylogeographic-study-of-rhodiola-crenulata-crassulaceae-on-the-world-s-highest-sky-islands
#3
Yuan-Zhen Zhang, Ruo-Wei Zhu, Da-Lv Zhong, Jian-Qiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Quaternary climatic oscillations had tremendous effects on the current distribution of species. Here, we aim to elucidate the glacial history of Rhodiola crenulata, a perennial herb almost exclusively restricted to rock crevices on mountain peaks, and to test whether the nunatak or massif de refuge hypotheses could explain its distribution pattern. RESULTS: Six haplotypes and six ribotypes were detected in the cpDNA data set and the ITS data set, respectively...
October 16, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314447/factors-driving-effective-population-size-and-pan-genome-evolution-in-bacteria
#4
Louis-Marie Bobay, Howard Ochman
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of population-level processes is essential to understanding the efficacy of selection operating within a species. However, attempts at estimating effective population sizes (Ne) are particularly challenging in bacteria due to their extremely large census populations sizes, varying rates of recombination and arbitrary species boundaries. RESULTS: In this study, we estimated Ne for 153 species (152 bacteria and one archaeon) defined under a common framework and found that ecological lifestyle and growth rate were major predictors of Ne; and that contrary to theoretical expectations, Ne was unaffected by recombination rate...
October 12, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314450/multiple-refugia-from-penultimate-glaciations-in-east-asia-demonstrated-by-phylogeography-and-ecological-modelling-of-an-insect-pest
#5
Wei Song, Li-Jun Cao, Bing-Yan Li, Ya-Jun Gong, Ary Anthony Hoffmann, Shu-Jun Wei
BACKGROUND: Refugial populations in Quaternary glaciations are critical to understanding the evolutionary history and climatic interactions of many extant species. Compared with the well-studied areas of Europe and Northern America, refugia of species in eastern Asia remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the phylogeographic history of a globally important insect pest, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, in its native range of China. RESULTS: Genetic structure analyses unveiled three distinct groups and a set of populations with admixture...
October 11, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314458/comparative-analysis-reveals-the-complex-role-of-histoblast-nest-size-in-the-evolution-of-novel-insect-abdominal-appendages-in-sepsidae-diptera
#6
Dacotah Melicher, Kathy F Y Su, Rudolf Meier, Julia H Bowsher
BACKGROUND: The males of some sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera) have abdominal appendages that are remarkable in several ways. They are sexually dimorphic, have a complex evolutionary history of gain and loss, and can be jointed and thus highly mobile. The sternite brushes are used extensively in complex courtship behaviors that differ considerably between species and during mating. The abdominal appendages have a novel developmental pathway developing from histoblast nests rather than imaginal discs...
October 10, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286712/oldest-ctenodactyloid-tarsals-from-the-eocene-of-china-and-evolution-of-locomotor-adaptations-in-early-rodents
#7
Łucja Fostowicz-Frelik, Qian Li, Xijun Ni
BACKGROUND: Tamquammys has been considered one of the basal ctenodactyloid rodents, which has been documented in the earliest to middle Eocene (~ 56.0-48.5 Ma) in China. It was the most abundant and widespread rodent genus in the Erlian Basin (Nei Mongol, China) and dominated Arshantan small-mammal faunas of that region. Here for the first time we describe the morphology of the astragalocalcaneal complex in Tamquammys robustus (larger) and T. wilsoni, and interpret it against the background of locomotor adaptations of basal Euarchontoglires (rodents, lagomorphs, tree shrews, and primates)...
October 4, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286711/developmental-studies-provide-new-insights-into-the-evolution-of-sense-organs-in-sabellariidae-annelida
#8
Conrad Helm, Michael J Bok, Pat Hutchings, Elena Kupriyanova, María Capa
BACKGROUND: Sabellarids, also known as honeycomb or sandcastle worms, when building their tubes, produce chemical signals (free fatty acids) that are responsible for larval settlement and the formation of three-dimensional aggregations. The larval palps and the dorsal hump (becoming the median organ in adults) are presumed to participate in such a substrate selection during settlement. Notably, the sabellariid median organ is an apparently unique organ among annelids that has been attributed with a sensory function and perhaps with some affinities to the nuchal organs of other polychaetes...
October 4, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285626/environmentally-driven-gene-content-convergence-and-the-bacillus-phylogeny
#9
Ismael L Hernández-González, Gabriel Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriela Olmedo-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Members of the Bacillus genus have been isolated from a variety of environments. However, the relationship between potential metabolism and the niche from which bacteria of this genus have been isolated has not been extensively studied. The existence of a monophyletic aquatic Bacillus group, composed of members isolated from both marine and fresh water has been proposed. Here, we present a phylogenetic/phylogenomic analysis to investigate the potential relationship between the environment from which group members have been isolated and their evolutionary origin...
October 3, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268090/anamorphic-development-and-extended-parental-care-in-a-520-million-year-old-stem-group-euarthropod-from-china
#10
Dongjing Fu, Javier Ortega-Hernández, Allison C Daley, Xingliang Zhang, Degan Shu
BACKGROUND: Extended parental care is a complex reproductive strategy in which progenitors actively look after their offspring up to - or beyond - the first juvenile stage in order to maximize their fitness. Although the euarthropod fossil record has produced several examples of brood-care, the appearance of extended parental care within this phylum remains poorly constrained given the scarcity of developmental data for Palaeozoic stem-group representatives that would link juvenile and adult forms in an ontogenetic sequence...
September 29, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241462/chromosomal-variation-among-populations-of-a-fungus-farming-ant-implications-for-karyotype-evolution-and-potential-restriction-to-gene-flow
#11
Danon Clemes Cardoso, Jürgen Heinze, Mariana Neves Moura, Maykon Passos Cristiano
BACKGROUND: Intraspecific variation in chromosome structure may cause genetic incompatibilities and thus provides the first step in the formation of species. In ants, chromosome number varies tremendously from 2n = 2 to 2n = 120, and several studies have revealed considerable variation in karyotype within species. However, most previous studies were limited to the description of chromosome number and morphology, and more detailed karyomorphometric analyses may reveal additional, substantial variation...
September 21, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236059/transcriptomic-response-of-female-adult-moths-to-host-and-non-host-plants-in-two-closely-related-species
#12
M Orsucci, P Audiot, S Nidelet, F Dorkeld, A Pommier, M Vabre, D Severac, M Rohmer, B Gschloessl, R Streiff
BACKGROUND: Divergent selection has been shown to promote speciation in many taxa and especially in phytophagous insects. In the Ostrinia species complex, the European corn borer (ECB) and adzuki bean borer (ABB) are two sibling species specialized to different host plants. The first is a well-known maize pest, whereas the second is a polyphagous species associated with various dicotyledons. Their specialization to host plants is driven by morphological, behavioral and physiological adaptations...
September 20, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236055/positive-selection-at-sites-of-chemosensory-genes-is-associated-with-the-recent-divergence-and-local-ecological-adaptation-in-cactophilic-drosophila
#13
Fernando Diaz, Carson W Allan, Luciano M Matzkin
BACKGROUND: Adaptation to new hosts in phytophagous insects often involves mechanisms of host recognition by genes of sensory pathways. Most often the molecular evolution of sensory genes has been explained in the context of the birth-and-death model. The role of positive selection is less understood, especially associated with host adaptation and specialization. Here we aim to contribute evidence for this latter hypothesis by considering the case of Drosophila mojavensis, a species with an evolutionary history shaped by multiple host shifts in a relatively short time scale, and its generalist sister species, D...
September 20, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231935/is-sperm-morphology-functionally-related-to-sperm-swimming-ability-a-case-study-in-a-wild-passerine-bird-with-male-hierarchies
#14
Alfonso Rojas Mora, Magali Meniri, Sabrina Ciprietti, Fabrice Helfenstein
BACKGROUND: Sexual selection continues after copulation via either sperm competition or cryptic female choice, and favors sperm traits that maximize sperm competitiveness. Both sperm swimming velocity and longevity are important determinants of the outcome of sperm competition. Theoretically, sperm morphology can influence sperm velocity at least in three different non-exclusive ways: (i) longer sperm may generate more propelling thrust, (ii) bigger midpieces may produce more energy, and/or (iii) larger flagella or mid-pieces relative to the head size may compensate for the drag forces around the head...
September 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231868/evolution-in-chronic-cold-varied-loss-of-cellular-response-to-heat-in-antarctic-notothenioid-fish
#15
Kevin T Bilyk, Luis Vargas-Chacoff, C-H Christina Cheng
BACKGROUND: Confined within the freezing Southern Ocean, the Antarctic notothenioids have evolved to become both cold adapted and cold specialized. A marked signature of cold specialization is an apparent loss of the cellular heat shock response (HSR). As the HSR has been examined in very few notothenioid species to-date, it remains unknown whether HSR loss pervades the Antarctic radiation, or whether the broader cellular responses to heat stress has sustained similar loss. Understanding the evolutionary status of these responses in this stenothermal taxon is crucial for evaluating its adaptive potential to ocean warming under climate change...
September 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231864/microhabitat-change-drives-diversification-in-pholcid-spiders
#16
Jonas Eberle, Dimitar Dimitrov, Alejandro Valdez-Mondragón, Bernhard A Huber
BACKGROUND: Microhabitat changes are thought to be among the main drivers of diversification. However, this conclusion is mostly based on studies on vertebrates. Here, we investigate the influence of microhabitat on diversification rates in pholcid spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae). Diversification analyses were conducted in the framework of the largest molecular phylogeny of pholcid spiders to date based on three nuclear and three mitochondrial loci from 600 species representing more than 85% of the currently described pholcid genera...
September 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219030/selection-at-a-genomic-region-of-major-effect-is-responsible-for-evolution-of-complex-life-histories-in-anadromous-steelhead
#17
Steven J Micheletti, Jon E Hess, Joseph S Zendt, Shawn R Narum
BACKGROUND: Disparity in the timing of biological events occurs across a variety of systems, yet the understanding of genetic basis underlying diverse phenologies remains limited. Variation in maturation timing occurs in steelhead trout, which has been associated with greb1L, an oestrogen target gene. Previous techniques that identified this gene only accounted for about 0.5-2.0% of the genome and solely investigated coastal populations, leaving uncertainty on the genetic basis of this trait and its prevalence across a larger geographic scale...
September 15, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208843/a-genome-wide-survey-reveals-multiple-nematocyst-specific-genes-in-myxozoa
#18
Erez Shpirer, Arik Diamant, Paulyn Cartwright, Dorothée Huchon
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa represents a diverse group of microscopic endoparasites whose life cycle involves two hosts: a vertebrate (usually a fish) and an invertebrate (usually an annelid worm). Despite lacking nearly all distinguishing animal characteristics, given that each life cycle stage consists of no more than a few cells, molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that myxozoans belong to the phylum Cnidaria, which includes corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish. Myxozoa, however, do possess a polar capsule; an organelle that is homologous to the stinging structure unique to Cnidaria: the nematocyst...
September 12, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208839/genome-wide-markers-reveal-a-complex-evolutionary-history-involving-divergence-and-introgression-in-the-abert-s-squirrel-sciurus-aberti-species-group
#19
Jeremy M Bono, Helen K Pigage, Peter J Wettstein, Stephanie A Prosser, Jon C Pigage
BACKGROUND: Genetic introgression between divergent lineages is now considered more common than previously appreciated, with potentially important consequences for adaptation and speciation. Introgression is often asymmetric between populations and patterns can vary for different types of loci (nuclear vs. organellar), complicating phylogeographic reconstruction. The taxonomy of the ecologically specialized Abert's squirrel species group has been controversial, and previous studies based on mitochondrial data have not fully resolved the evolutionary relationships among populations...
September 12, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30200892/the-linear-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-quarantine-chytrid-synchytrium-endobioticum-insights-into-the-evolution-and-recent-history-of-an-obligate-biotrophic-plant-pathogen
#20
Bart T L H van de Vossenberg, Balázs Brankovics, Hai D T Nguyen, Marga P E van Gent-Pelzer, Donna Smith, Kasia Dadej, Jarosław Przetakiewicz, Jan F Kreuze, Margriet Boerma, Gerard C M van Leeuwen, C André Lévesque, Theo A J van der Lee
BACKGROUND: Chytridiomycota species (chytrids) belong to a basal lineage in the fungal kingdom. Inhabiting terrestrial and aquatic environments, most are free-living saprophytes but several species cause important diseases: e.g. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, responsible for worldwide amphibian decline; and Synchytrium endobioticum, causing potato wart disease. S. endobioticum has an obligate biotrophic lifestyle and isolates can be further characterized as pathotypes based on their virulence on a differential set of potato cultivars...
September 10, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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