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BMC Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610558/the-many-faces-of-pluripotency-in-vitro-adaptations-of-a-continuum-of-in-vivo-states
#1
REVIEW
Sophie Morgani, Jennifer Nichols, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis
Pluripotency defines the propensity of a cell to differentiate into, and generate, all somatic, as well as germ cells. The epiblast of the early mammalian embryo is the founder population of all germ layer derivatives and thus represents the bona fide in vivo pluripotent cell population. The so-called pluripotent state spans several days of development and is lost during gastrulation as epiblast cells make fate decisions towards a mesoderm, endoderm or ectoderm identity. It is now widely recognized that the features of the pluripotent population evolve as development proceeds from the pre- to post-implantation period, marked by distinct transcriptional and epigenetic signatures...
June 13, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446132/pcsk5-is-required-in-the-early-cranio-cardiac-mesoderm-for-heart-development
#2
Dorota Szumska, Milena Cioroch, Angela Keeling, Annik Prat, Nabil G Seidah, Shoumo Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Loss of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (Pcsk5) results in multiple developmental anomalies including cardiac malformations, caudal regression, pre-sacral mass, renal agenesis, anteroposterior patterning defects, and tracheo-oesophageal and anorectal malformations, and is a model for VACTERL/caudal regression/Currarino syndromes (VACTERL association - Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheoesophageal fistula and/or Esophageal atresia, Renal & Radial anomalies and Limb defects)...
April 26, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407732/transcriptome-profiling-reveals-expression-signatures-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-arising-from-different-axial-levels
#3
Rachael Lumb, Sam Buckberry, Genevieve Secker, David Lawrence, Quenten Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are a unique embryonic cell type which give rise to a diverse array of derivatives extending from neurons and glia through to bone and cartilage. Depending on their point of origin along the antero-posterior axis cranial NCCs are rapidly sorted into distinct migratory streams that give rise to axial specific structures. These migratory streams mirror the underlying segmentation of the brain with NCCs exiting the diencephalon and midbrain following distinct paths compared to those exiting the hindbrain rhombomeres (r)...
April 13, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193178/nodal-and-bmp-expression-during-the-transition-to-pentamery-in-the-sea-urchin-heliocidaris-erythrogramma-insights-into-patterning-the-enigmatic-echinoderm-body-plan
#4
Demian Koop, Paula Cisternas, Valerie B Morris, Dario Strbenac, Jean Yee Hwa Yang, Gregory A Wray, Maria Byrne
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the unusual echinoderm pentameral body plan and their likeness to mechanisms underlying the development of the bilateral plans of other deuterostomes are of interest in tracing body plan evolution. In this first study of the spatial expression of genes associated with Nodal and BMP2/4 signalling during the transition to pentamery in sea urchins, we investigate Heliocidaris erythrogramma, a species that provides access to the developing adult rudiment within days of fertilization...
February 13, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158974/a-compendium-of-developmental-gene-expression-in-lake-malawi-cichlid-fishes
#5
R F Bloomquist, T E Fowler, J B Sylvester, R J Miro, J T Streelman
BACKGROUND: Lake Malawi cichlids represent one of a growing number of vertebrate models used to uncover the genetic and developmental basis of trait diversity. Rapid evolutionary radiation has resulted in species that share similar genomes but differ markedly in phenotypes including brains and behavior, nuptial coloration and the craniofacial skeleton. Research has begun to identify the genes, as well as the molecular and developmental pathways that underlie trait divergence. RESULTS: We assemble a compendium of gene expression for Lake Malawi cichlids, across pharyngula (the phylotypic stage) and larval stages of development, encompassing hundreds of gene transcripts...
February 3, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077087/embryogenesis-in-the-parasitic-nematode-heterodera-glycines-is-independent-of-host-derived-hatching-stimulation
#6
Sita Thapa, Jayna A Patel, Ursula Reuter-Carlson, Nathan E Schroeder
BACKGROUND: Many parasites regulate their development to synchronize their life cycle with a compatible host. The parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines displays incomplete host-mediated hatching behavior wherein some H. glycines individuals hatch only in the presence of a host-derived cue while others hatch in water alone. Furthermore, H. glycines shows variable hatching behavior based on oviposition location. The mechanisms regulating this hatching variability are unknown. In this study, we established a detailed timeline of the H...
January 11, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077066/the-essential-requirement-of-an-animal-heme-peroxidase-protein-during-the-wing-maturation-process-in-drosophila
#7
Dondra Bailey, Mohammed Abul Basar, Sanjay Nag, Nivedita Bondhu, Shaloei Teng, Atanu Duttaroy
BACKGROUND: Thus far, a handful of genes have been shown to be related to the wing maturation process in insects. A novel heme peroxidase enzyme known as curly suppressor (Cysu)(formerly CG5873), have been characterized in this report because it is involved in wing morphogenesis. Using bioinformatics tools we found that Cysu is remarkably conserved in the genus Drosophila (>95%) as well as in invertebrates (>70%), although its vertebrate orthologs show poor homology. Time-lapse imaging and histochemical analyses have confirmed that the defective wing phenotype of Cysu is not a result of any underlying cellular alterations; instead, its wings fail to expand in mature adults...
January 11, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881074/changes-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2-during-the-anadromous-spawning-migration-in-coilia-nasus
#8
Jin-Rong Duan, Di-An Fang, Min-Ying Zhang, Kai Liu, Yan-Feng Zhou, Dong-Po Xu, Pao Xu, Da-Peng Li
BACKGROUND: An increase in the activity of the pituitary-gonad axis (PG-axis) and gonad development are essential for the onset of spawning migration in teleosts. In the fish Coilia nasus, gonad development and spawning migration up the Yangtze River occurs by the end of each summer. We hypothesized that gonadotropin releasing hormones receptor 2 (GnRH-R2), which together produce a signal that interacts with the PG-axis, may help to regulate spawning migration processes. RESULTS: In this regard, we (1) characterized the gonadosomatic index (GSI) in the anadromous fish C...
November 24, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863467/microarray-analysis-reveals-a-potential-role-of-lncrnas-expression-in-cardiac-cell-proliferation
#9
Jue Wang, Zhimin Geng, Jiakan Weng, Longjie Shen, Ming Li, Xueli Cai, Chengchao Sun, Maoping Chu
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been identified to play important roles in epigenetic processes that underpin organogenesis. However, the role of LncRNAs in the regulation of transition from fetal to adult life of human heart has not been evaluated. METHODS: Immunofiuorescent staining was used to determine the extent of cardiac cell proliferation. Human LncRNA microarrays were applied to define gene expression signatures of the fetal (13-17 weeks of gestation, n = 4) and adult hearts (30-40 years old, n = 4)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809766/diversity-of-human-and-mouse-homeobox-gene-expression-in-development-and-adult-tissues
#10
Thomas L Dunwell, Peter W H Holland
BACKGROUND: Homeobox genes encode a diverse set of transcription factors implicated in a vast range of biological processes including, but not limited to, embryonic cell fate specification and patterning. Although numerous studies report expression of particular sets of homeobox genes, a systematic analysis of the tissue specificity of homeobox genes is lacking. RESULTS: Here we analyse publicly-available transcriptome data from human and mouse developmental stages, and adult human tissues, to identify groups of homeobox genes with similar expression patterns...
November 3, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793090/left-right-axis-asymmetry-determining-human-cryptic-gene-is-transcriptionally-repressed-by-snail
#11
Kartik Gupta, Vijaya Satish Sekhar Pilli, Gopala Krishna Aradhyam
BACKGROUND: Establishment of the left-right axis is important for positioning organs asymmetrically in the developing vertebrate-embryo. A number of factors like maternally deposited molecules have emerged essential in initiating the specification of the axis; the downstream events, however, are regulated by signal-transduction and gene-expression changes identifying which remains a crucial challenge. The EGF-CFC family member Cryptic, that functions as a co-receptor for some TGF-beta ligands, is developmentally expressed in higher mammals and mutations in the gene cause loss or change in left-right axis asymmetry...
October 28, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784267/expression-of-ribosomopathy-genes-during-xenopus-tropicalis-embryogenesis
#12
Andrew Robson, Nick D L Owens, Susan J Baserga, Mustafa K Khokha, John N Griffin
BACKGROUND: Because ribosomes are ubiquitously required for protein production, it was long assumed that any inherited defect in ribosome manufacture would be embryonically lethal. However, several human congenital diseases have been found to be associated with mutations in ribosome biogenesis factors. Surprisingly, despite the global requirement for ribosomes, these "ribosomopathies" are characterized by distinct and tissue specific phenotypes. The reasons for such tissue proclivity in ribosomopathies remain mysterious but may include differential expression of ribosome biogenesis factors in distinct tissues...
October 26, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756203/mice-lacking-the-conserved-transcription-factor-grainyhead-like-3-grhl3-display-increased-apposition-of-the-frontal-and-parietal-bones-during-embryonic-development
#13
Stephen J Goldie, Benedicta D Arhatari, Peter Anderson, Alana Auden, Darren D Partridge, Stephen M Jane, Sebastian Dworkin
BACKGROUND: Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Therefore, the identification of novel genes which contribute to normal skull patterning, morphology and premature suture apposition is imperative, in order to fully understand the genetic regulation of cranial development...
October 18, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737629/lack-of-effects-of-ooplasm-transfer-on-early-development-of-interspecies-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-bison-embryos
#14
L Antonio González-Grajales, Laura A Favetta, W Allan King, Gabriela F Mastromonaco
BACKGROUND: Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear and ooplasmic components. This study investigated the effects of ooplasm transfer (OT) on cattle (Bos taurus) and plains bison (Bison bison bison) embryos produced by iSCNT and supplemented with or without ooplasm from cattle or plains bison oocytes...
October 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733125/distinct-shape-shifting-regimes-of-bowl-shaped-cell-sheets-embryonic-inversion-in-the-multicellular-green-alga-pleodorina
#15
Stephanie Höhn, Armin Hallmann
BACKGROUND: The multicellular volvocine alga Pleodorina is intermediate in organismal complexity between its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas, and its multicellular relative, Volvox, which shows complete division of labor between different cell types. The volvocine green microalgae form a group of genera closely related to the genus Volvox within the order Volvocales (Chlorophyta). Embryos of multicellular volvocine algae consist of a cellular monolayer that, depending on the species, is either bowl-shaped or comprises a sphere...
October 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724845/bmp-smad-signalling-output-is-highly-regionalized-in-cardiovascular-and-lymphatic-endothelial-networks
#16
Karen Beets, Michael W Staring, Nathan Criem, Elke Maas, Niels Schellinx, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Lieve Umans, An Zwijsen
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. To better understand the in vivo context-dependency of BMP-SMAD signalling, we investigated differences in BMP-SMAD transcriptional activity in different vascular beds during mouse embryonic and postnatal stages...
October 10, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680968/dynamics-of-nuclear-receptor-gene-expression-during-pacific-oyster-development
#17
Susanne Vogeler, Tim P Bean, Brett P Lyons, Tamara S Galloway
BACKGROUND: Nuclear receptors are a highly conserved set of ligand binding transcription factors, with essential roles regulating aspects of vertebrate and invertebrate biology alike. Current understanding of nuclear receptor regulated gene expression in invertebrates remains sparse, limiting our ability to elucidate gene function and the conservation of developmental processes across phyla. Here, we studied nuclear receptor expression in the early life stages of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to identify at which specific key stages nuclear receptors are expressed RESULTS: We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the expression profiles of 34 nuclear receptors, revealing three developmental key stages, during which nuclear receptor expression is dynamically regulated: embryogenesis, mid development from gastrulation to trochophore larva, and late larval development prior to metamorphosis...
September 29, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662828/generation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-transgenic-mouse-harboring-conditional-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-rela-knockout-alleles
#18
Talha Ijaz, Maki Wakamiya, Hong Sun, Adrian Recinos, Ronald G Tilton, Allan R Brasier
BACKGROUND: Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that are important in embryonic development, inflammation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer. The 65 kDa RelA subunit is the major transcriptional activator of the NF-kB pathways. Whole-body deficiency of RelA leads to massive apoptosis of liver hepatocytes and death in utero. To study the role of RelA in physiology and in disease states in a manner that circumvents this embryonic lethal phenotype, we have generated a mouse with RelA conditional knockout (CKO) alleles containing loxP sites that are deleted by activated Cre recombinase...
September 23, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412523/relating-proton-pumps-with-gap-junctions-colocalization-of-ductin-the-channel-forming-subunit-c-of-v-atpase-with-subunit-a-and-with-innexins-2-and-3-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#19
Julia Lautemann, Johannes Bohrmann
BACKGROUND: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions...
July 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363495/light-sheet-microscopy-for-everyone-experience-of-building-an-openspim-to-study-flatworm-development
#20
Johannes Girstmair, Anne Zakrzewski, François Lapraz, Mette Handberg-Thorsager, Pavel Tomancak, Peter Gabriel Pitrone, Fraser Simpson, Maximilian J Telford
BACKGROUND: Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM a type of light-sheet microscopy) involves focusing a thin sheet of laser light through a specimen at right angles to the objective lens. As only the thin section of the specimen at the focal plane of the lens is illuminated, out of focus light is naturally absent and toxicity due to light (phototoxicity) is greatly reduced enabling longer term live imaging. OpenSPIM is an open access platform (Pitrone et al. 2013 and OpenSPIM...
June 30, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
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