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BMC Developmental Biology

Stephen J Goldie, Benedicta D Arhatari, Peter Anderson, Alana Auden, Darren D Partridge, Stephen M Jane, Sebastian Dworkin
BACKGROUND: Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Therefore, the identification of novel genes which contribute to normal skull patterning, morphology and premature suture apposition is imperative, in order to fully understand the genetic regulation of cranial development...
October 18, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
L Antonio González-Grajales, Laura A Favetta, W Allan King, Gabriela F Mastromonaco
BACKGROUND: Successful development of iSCNT (interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer) embryos depends on complex interactions between ooplasmic and nuclear components, which can be compromised by genetic divergence. Transfer of ooplasm matching the genetic background of the somatic cell in iSCNT embryos is a valuable tool to study the degree of incompatibilities between nuclear and ooplasmic components. This study investigated the effects of ooplasm transfer (OT) on cattle (Bos taurus) and plains bison (Bison bison bison) embryos produced by iSCNT and supplemented with or without ooplasm from cattle or plains bison oocytes...
October 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Stephanie Höhn, Armin Hallmann
BACKGROUND: The multicellular volvocine alga Pleodorina is intermediate in organismal complexity between its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas, and its multicellular relative, Volvox, which shows complete division of labor between different cell types. The volvocine green microalgae form a group of genera closely related to the genus Volvox within the order Volvocales (Chlorophyta). Embryos of multicellular volvocine algae consist of a cellular monolayer that, depending on the species, is either bowl-shaped or comprises a sphere...
October 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Karen Beets, Michael W Staring, Nathan Criem, Elke Maas, Niels Schellinx, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Lieve Umans, An Zwijsen
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. To better understand the in vivo context-dependency of BMP-SMAD signalling, we investigated differences in BMP-SMAD transcriptional activity in different vascular beds during mouse embryonic and postnatal stages...
October 10, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Susanne Vogeler, Tim P Bean, Brett P Lyons, Tamara S Galloway
BACKGROUND: Nuclear receptors are a highly conserved set of ligand binding transcription factors, with essential roles regulating aspects of vertebrate and invertebrate biology alike. Current understanding of nuclear receptor regulated gene expression in invertebrates remains sparse, limiting our ability to elucidate gene function and the conservation of developmental processes across phyla. Here, we studied nuclear receptor expression in the early life stages of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to identify at which specific key stages nuclear receptors are expressed RESULTS: We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the expression profiles of 34 nuclear receptors, revealing three developmental key stages, during which nuclear receptor expression is dynamically regulated: embryogenesis, mid development from gastrulation to trochophore larva, and late larval development prior to metamorphosis...
September 29, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Talha Ijaz, Maki Wakamiya, Hong Sun, Adrian Recinos, Ronald G Tilton, Allan R Brasier
BACKGROUND: Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-kB) is a family of transcription factors that are important in embryonic development, inflammation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer. The 65 kDa RelA subunit is the major transcriptional activator of the NF-kB pathways. Whole-body deficiency of RelA leads to massive apoptosis of liver hepatocytes and death in utero. To study the role of RelA in physiology and in disease states in a manner that circumvents this embryonic lethal phenotype, we have generated a mouse with RelA conditional knockout (CKO) alleles containing loxP sites that are deleted by activated Cre recombinase...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Akira Iimura, Fuhito Yamazaki, Toshiyasu Suzuki, Tatsuya Endo, Eisuke Nishida, Morioh Kusakabe
BACKGROUND: HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HACE1) regulates a wide variety of cellular processes. It has been shown that one of the targets of HACE1 is the GTP-bound form of the small GTPase Rac1. However, the role of HACE1 in early development remains unknown. RESULTS: In situ hybridization revealed that Xenopus laevis hace1 is specifically expressed in the ectoderm at the blastula and gastrula stages and in the epidermis, branchial arch, kidney, and central nervous system at the tailbud stage...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Irina I Nagy, Qi Xu, Florence Naillat, Nsrein Ali, Ilkka Miinalainen, Anatoly Samoylenko, Seppo J Vainio
BACKGROUND: Wnt11 is a member of the Wnt family of secreted signals controlling the early steps in ureteric bud (UB) branching. Due to the reported lethality of Wnt11 knockout embryos in utero, its role in later mammalian kidney organogenesis remains open. The presence of Wnt11 in the emerging tubular system suggests that it may have certain roles later in the development of the epithelial ductal system. RESULTS: The Wnt11 knockout allele was backcrossed with the C57Bl6 strain for several generations to address possible differences in penetrance of the kidney phenotypes...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Daniel Silberschmidt, Alina Rodriguez-Mallon, Prathiba Mithboakar, Gaetano Calì, Elena Amendola, Remo Sanges, Mariastella Zannini, Marzia Scarfò, Pasquale De Luca, Lucio Nitsch, Roberto Di Lauro, Mario De Felice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Matthias Tisler, Franziska Wetzel, Sabrina Mantino, Stanislav Kremnyov, Thomas Thumberger, Axel Schweickert, Martin Blum, Philipp Vick
BACKGROUND: Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages. Conservation of LRO and flow beyond the vertebrates has not been reported yet. RESULTS: Here we study sea urchin embryos, which use nodal to establish larval LR asymmetry as well...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Joel Vincent Fair, Anastassia Voronova, Neven Bosiljcic, Rashida Rajgara, Alexandre Blais, Ilona Sylvia Skerjanc
BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (HH) signalling pathway regulates cardiomyogenesis in vivo and in differentiating P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, a mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell model. To further assess the transcriptional role of HH signalling during cardiomyogenesis in stem cells, we studied the effects of overexpressing GLI2, a primary transducer of the HH signalling pathway, in mES cells. RESULTS: Stable GLI2 overexpression resulted in an enhancement of cardiac progenitor-enriched genes, Mef2c, Nkx2-5, and Tbx5 during mES cell differentiation...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Baoli Yu, Rui Lu, Yuguo Yuan, Ting Zhang, Shaozheng Song, Zhengqiang Qi, Bin Shao, Mengmin Zhu, Fei Mi, Yong Cheng
BACKGROUND: Myostatin (MSTN) encodes a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass that might have applications for promoting muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we aimed to test whether targeted MSTN editing, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), is a viable approach to create myostatin-modified goats (Capra hircus). RESULTS: We obtained a pair of TALENs (MTAL-2) that could recognize and cut the targeted MSTN site in the goat genome...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Monica F Solberg, Tom Hansen, Tone Vågseth, Kevin Alan Glover, Harald Kryvi
BACKGROUND: There is a gap in knowledge regarding the cardiovascular system in fish conjoined twins, and regarding the cardiovascular morphogenesis of conjoined twins in general. We examined the cardiovascular system in a pair of fully developed ventrally conjoined salmonid twins (45.5 g body weight), and the arrangement of the blood vessels during early development in ventrally conjoined yolk sac larvae salmonid twins (<0.5 g body weight). RESULTS: In the fully developed twins, one twin was normal, while the other was small and severely malformed...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Julia Lautemann, Johannes Bohrmann
BACKGROUND: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Emma J Kenyon, Monique N H Luijten, Harmeet Gill, Nan Li, Matthew Rawlings, James C Bull, Yavor Hadzhiev, Maurice A M van Steensel, Eamonn Maher, Ferenc Mueller
BACKGROUND: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome characterised by the development of benign skin fibrofolliculomas, multiple lung and kidney cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax and susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma. BHD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Folliculin (FLCN). Little is known about what FLCN does in a healthy individual and how best to treat those with BHD. As a first approach to developing a vertebrate model for BHD we aimed to identify the temporal and spatial expression of flcn transcripts in the developing zebrafish embryo...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Johannes Girstmair, Anne Zakrzewski, François Lapraz, Mette Handberg-Thorsager, Pavel Tomancak, Peter Gabriel Pitrone, Fraser Simpson, Maximilian J Telford
BACKGROUND: Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM a type of light-sheet microscopy) involves focusing a thin sheet of laser light through a specimen at right angles to the objective lens. As only the thin section of the specimen at the focal plane of the lens is illuminated, out of focus light is naturally absent and toxicity due to light (phototoxicity) is greatly reduced enabling longer term live imaging. OpenSPIM is an open access platform (Pitrone et al. 2013 and OpenSPIM...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Inga Langner, Thomas Stahnke, Oliver Stachs, Tobias Lindner, Jens-Peter Kühn, Simon Kim, Andreas Wree, Soenke Langner
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge of the human fetal and embryonic development relies on early descriptive studies of humans and from experimental studies of laboratory animals and embryos. Taking the upper extremity as an example, this study explores the potential of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) for the assessment of the development of the fetal upper extremity and discusses its correlation with histological findings. METHODS: Ex vivo MRM at 7.1 T (Clin Scan, Bruker Biospin, Germany) was performed in 10 human specimens at 8 to 12 weeks of gestational age (GA)...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Birgit Lengerer, Elise Hennebert, Patrick Flammang, Willi Salvenmoser, Peter Ladurner
BACKGROUND: Flatworms possess pluripotent stem cells that can give rise to all cell types, which allows them to restore lost body parts after injury or amputation. This makes flatworms excellent model systems for studying regeneration. In this study, we present the adhesive organs of a marine flatworm as a simple model system for organ regeneration. Macrostomum lignano has approximately 130 adhesive organs at the ventral side of its tail plate. One adhesive organ consists of three interacting cells: one adhesive gland cell, one releasing gland cell, and one modified epidermal cell, called an anchor cell...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Soichiro Ogaki, Hisayoshi Omori, Mayu Morooka, Nobuaki Shiraki, Seiichi Ishida, Shoen Kume
BACKGROUND: Definitive endoderm (DE) gives rise to the respiratory apparatus and digestive tract. Sox17 and Cxcr4 are useful markers of the DE. Previously, we identified a novel DE marker, Decay accelerating factor 1(Daf1/CD55), by identifying DE specific genes from the expression profile of DE derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by microarray analysis, and in situ hybridization of early embryos. Daf1 is expressed in a subpopulation of E-cadherin + Cxcr4+ DE cells. The characteristics of the Daf1-expressing cells during DE differentiation has not been examined...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Melissa D Clarkson
BACKGROUND: A large number of online atlases and databases have been developed to mange the rapidly growing amount of data describing embryogenesis. As these community resources continue to evolve, it is important to understand how representations of anatomy can facilitate the sharing and integration of data. In addition, attention to the design of the interfaces is critical to make online resources useful and usable. RESULTS: I first present a survey of online atlases and gene expression resources for model organisms, with a focus on methods of semantic and spatial representation of anatomy...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
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