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BMC Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095798/mir-27b-inhibits-fibroblast-activation-via-targeting-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#1
Xiangming Zeng, Chaoqun Huang, Lakmini Senavirathna, Pengcheng Wang, Lin Liu
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are a group of small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. They regulate almost every aspect of cellular processes. In this study, we investigated whether miR-27b regulates pulmonary fibroblast activation. RESULTS: We found that miR-27b was down-regulated in fibrotic lungs and fibroblasts from an experimental mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. The overexpression of miR-27b with a lentiviral vector inhibited TGFβ1-stimulated mRNA expression of collagens (COL1A1, COL3A1, and COL4A1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin, and protein expression of Col3A1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin in LL29 human pulmonary fibroblasts...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088180/nuclear-envelope-structural-proteins-facilitate-nuclear-shape-changes-accompanying-embryonic-differentiation-and-fidelity-of-gene-expression
#2
Elizabeth R Smith, Yue Meng, Robert Moore, Jeffrey D Tse, Arn G Xu, Xiang-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND: Nuclear size and shape are specific to a cell type, function, and location, and can serve as indicators of disease and development. We previously found that lamin A/C and associated nuclear envelope structural proteins were upregulated when murine embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiated to primitive endoderm cells. Here we further investigated the morphological changes of nuclei that accompany this differentiation. RESULTS: The nuclei of undifferentiated wild type cells were found shaped as flattened, irregular ovals, whereas nuclei of Gata4-positive endoderm cells were more spherical, less flattened, and with a slightly reduced volume...
January 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068896/erratum-to-nuclear-envelope-structural-defect-underlies-the-main-cause-of-aneuploidy-in-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#3
Callinice D Capo-Chichi, Toni M Yeasky, Elizabeth R Smith, Xiang-Xi Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955619/hierarchical-imaging-a-new-concept-for-targeted-imaging-of-large-volumes-from-cells-to-tissues
#4
Irene Wacker, Waldemar Spomer, Andreas Hofmann, Marlene Thaler, Stefan Hillmer, Ulrich Gengenbach, Rasmus R Schröder
BACKGROUND: Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. RESULTS: To ensure reliable retrieval of multiple ribbons from the boat of a diamond knife we introduce a substrate holder with 7 axes of translation or rotation specifically designed for that purpose...
December 12, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875985/nuclear-envelope-structural-defect-underlies-the-main-cause-of-aneuploidy-in-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#5
Callinice D Capo-Chichi, Toni M Yeasky, Elizabeth R Smith, Xiang-Xi Xu
BACKGROUND: The Cancer Atlas project has shown that p53 is the only commonly (96 %) mutated gene found in high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer, the major histological subtype. Another general genetic change is extensive aneuploidy caused by chromosomal numerical instability, which is thought to promote malignant transformation. Conventionally, aneuploidy is thought to be the result of mitotic errors and chromosomal nondisjunction during mitosis. Previously, we found that ovarian cancer cells often lost or reduced nuclear lamina proteins lamin A/C, and suppression of lamin A/C in cultured ovarian epithelial cells leads to aneuploidy...
November 22, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852225/a-functional-endosomal-pathway-is-necessary-for-lysosome-biogenesis-in-drosophila
#6
Anne-Claire Jacomin, Marie-Odile Fauvarque, Emmanuel Taillebourg
BACKGROUND: Lysosomes are the major catabolic compartment within eukaryotic cells, and their biogenesis requires the integration of the biosynthetic and endosomal pathways. Endocytosis and autophagy are the primary inputs of the lysosomal degradation pathway. Endocytosis is specifically needed for the degradation of membrane proteins whereas autophagy is responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic components. We previously identified the deubiquitinating enzyme UBPY/USP8 as being necessary for lysosomal biogenesis and productive autophagy in Drosophila...
November 16, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716032/expressed-alleles-of-imprinted-igf2-dlk1-and-meg3-colocalize-in-3d-preserved-nuclei-of-porcine-fetal-cells
#7
Yvette Lahbib-Mansais, Harmonie Barasc, Maria Marti-Marimon, Florence Mompart, Eddie Iannuccelli, David Robelin, Juliette Riquet, Martine Yerle-Bouissou
BACKGROUND: To explore the relationship between spatial genome organization and gene expression in the interphase nucleus, we used a genomic imprinting model, which offers parental-specific gene expression. Using 3D FISH in porcine fetal liver cells, we compared the nuclear organization of the two parental alleles (expressed or not) of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), a paternally imprinted gene located on chromosome 2. We investigated whether its nuclear positioning favors specific locus associations...
October 1, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618966/loss-of-hif-1-promotes-resistance-to-the-exogenous-mitochondrial-stressor-ethidium-bromide-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Muntasir Kamal, Dayana R D'Amora, Terrance J Kubiseski
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the leading causes of neurological disorders in humans. Mitochondrial perturbations lead to adaptive mechanisms that include HIF-1 stabilization, though the consequences of increased levels of HIF-1 following mitochondrial stress remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that a hif-1 loss-of-function mutation confers resistance towards the mitochondrial toxin ethidium bromide (EtBr) and suppresses EtBr-induced production of ROS...
September 13, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609610/high-resolution-imaging-reveals-heterogeneity-in-chromatin-states-between-cells-that-is-not-inherited-through-cell-division
#9
David Dickerson, Marek Gierliński, Vijender Singh, Etsushi Kitamura, Graeme Ball, Tomoyuki U Tanaka, Tom Owen-Hughes
BACKGROUND: Genomes of eukaryotes exist as chromatin, and it is known that different chromatin states can influence gene regulation. Chromatin is not a static structure, but is known to be dynamic and vary between cells. In order to monitor the organisation of chromatin in live cells we have engineered fluorescent fusion proteins which recognize specific operator sequences to tag pairs of syntenic gene loci. The separation of these loci was then tracked in three dimensions over time using fluorescence microscopy...
September 8, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578625/a-specific-fmnl2-isoform-is-up-regulated-in-invasive-cells
#10
Christine Péladeau, Allan Heibein, Melissa T Maltez, Sarah J Copeland, John W Copeland
BACKGROUND: Formins are a highly conserved family of cytoskeletal remodeling proteins. A growing body of evidence suggests that formins play key roles in the progression and spread of a variety of cancers. There are 15 human formin proteins and of these the Diaphanous-Related Formins (DRFs) are the best characterized. Included in the DRFs are the Formin-Like proteins, FMNL1, 2 & 3, each of which have been strongly implicated in driving tumorigenesis and metastasis of specific tumors. In particular, increased FMNL2 expression correlates with increased invasiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) in vivo and for a variety of CRC cell-lines in vitro...
August 30, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350129/specific-localization-of-nesprin-1-%C3%AE-2-the-short-isoform-of-nesprin-1-with-a-kash-domain-in-developing-fetal-and-regenerating-muscle-using-a-new-monoclonal-antibody
#11
Ian Holt, Nguyen Thuy Duong, Qiuping Zhang, Le Thanh Lam, Caroline A Sewry, Kamel Mamchaoui, Catherine M Shanahan, Glenn E Morris
BACKGROUND: Nesprin-1-giant (1008kD) is a protein of the outer nuclear membrane that links nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton via amino-terminal calponin homology domains. The short nesprin-1 isoform, nesprin-1-α2, is present only in skeletal and cardiac muscle and several pathogenic mutations occur within it, but the functions of this short isoform without calponin homology domains are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine mRNA levels and protein localization of nesprin-1-α2 at different stages of muscle development in order to shed light on its functions...
June 27, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26964886/spatiotemporal-patterns-of-sortilin-and-sorcs2-localization-during-organ-development
#12
Simon Boggild, Simon Molgaard, Simon Glerup, Jens Randel Nyengaard
BACKGROUND: Sortilin and SorCS2 are part of the Vps10p receptor family. They have both been studied in nervous tissue with several important functions revealed, while their expression and possible functions in developing peripheral tissue remain poorly understood. Here we deliver a thorough characterization of the prenatal localization of sortilin and SorCS2 in mouse peripheral tissue. RESULTS: Sortilin is highly expressed in epithelial tissues of the developing lung, nasal cavity, kidney, pancreas, salivary gland and developing intrahepatic bile ducts...
March 10, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932661/il-27-inhibits-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#13
Zhaoxing Dong, Wenlin Tai, Wen Lei, Yin Wang, ZhenKun Li, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: IL-27 is a multifunctional cytokine that has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Although IL-27 has been shown to potently inhibit lung fibrosis, the detailed mechanism of IL-27 in this process is poorly understood. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the key mechanisms involved in pulmonary fibrosis. We assessed the effects of IL-27 on TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. METHODS: A549 cells (a human AEC cell line) were incubated with TGF-β1, IL-27, or both TGF-β1 and IL-27, and changes in E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin and a-SMA levels were measured using real-time PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy...
March 1, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831144/altered-cellular-localization-and-hemichannel-activities-of-kid-syndrome-associated-connexin26-i30n-and-d50y-mutations
#14
Hande Aypek, Veysel Bay, Gülistan Meşe
BACKGROUND: Gap junctions facilitate exchange of small molecules between adjacent cells, serving a crucial function for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Mutations in connexins, the basic unit of gap junctions, are associated with several human hereditary disorders. For example, mutations in connexin26 (Cx26) cause both non-syndromic deafness and syndromic deafness associated with skin abnormalities such as keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome. These mutations can alter the formation and function of gap junction channels through different mechanisms, and in turn interfere with various cellular processes leading to distinct disorders...
February 2, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26817689/characterization-of-haf-4-and-haf-9-localizing-organelles-as-distinct-organelles-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-intestinal-cells
#15
Takahiro Tanji, Kenji Nishikori, Syoko Haga, Yuki Kanno, Yusuke Kobayashi, Mai Takaya, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Shohei Mitani, Hirohisa Shiraishi, Ayako Ohashi-Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: The intestinal cells of Caenorhabditis elegans are filled with heterogeneous granular organelles that are associated with specific organ functions. The best studied of these organelles are lipid droplets and acidified gut granules associated with GLO-1, a homolog of the small GTPase Rab38. In this study, we characterized a subset of the intestinal granules in which HAF-4 and HAF-9 localize on the membrane. HAF-4 and HAF-9 are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins that are homologous to the mammalian lysosomal peptide transporter TAPL (transporter associated with antigen processing-like, ABCB9)...
January 27, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26758208/the-role-of-neural-connexins-in-hela-cell-mobility-and-intercellular-communication-through-tunneling-tubes
#16
Lina Rimkutė, Vaidas Jotautis, Alina Marandykina, Renata Sveikatienė, Ieva Antanavičiūtė, Vytenis Arvydas Skeberdis
BACKGROUND: Membranous tunneling tubes (TTs) are a recently discovered new form of communication between remote cells allowing their electrical synchronization, migration, and transfer of cellular materials. TTs have been identified in the brain and share similarities with neuronal processes. TTs can be open-ended, close-ended or contain functional gap junctions at the membrane interface. Gap junctions are formed of two unapposed hemichannels composed of six connexin (Cx) subunits. There are evidences that Cxs also play channel-independent role in cell adhesion, migration, division, differentiation, formation of neuronal networks and tumorigenicity...
January 13, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26754108/long-term-recovery-from-acute-cold-shock-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Joseph D Robinson, Jennifer R Powell
BACKGROUND: Animals are exposed to a wide range of environmental stresses that can cause potentially fatal cellular damage. The ability to survive the period of stress as well as to repair any damage incurred is essential for fitness. Exposure to 2 °C for 24 h or longer is rapidly fatal to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, but the process of recovery from a shorter, initially non-lethal, cold shock is poorly understood. RESULTS: We report that cold shock of less than 12-hour duration does not initially kill C...
January 12, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26744136/direct-interaction-between-talinb-and-rap1-is-necessary-for-adhesion-of-dictyostelium-cells
#18
Katarzyna Plak, Henderikus Pots, Peter J M Van Haastert, Arjan Kortholt
BACKGROUND: The small G-protein Rap1 is an important regulator of cellular adhesion in Dictyostelium, however so far the downstream signalling pathways for cell adhesion are not completely characterized. In mammalian cells talin is crucial for adhesion and Rap1 was shown to be a key regulator of talin signalling. RESULTS: In a proteomic screen we identified TalinB as a potential Rap1 effector in Dictyostelium. In subsequent pull-down experiments we demonstrate that the Ras association (RA) domain of TalinB interacts specifically with active Rap1...
January 7, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542844/prolactin-induced-pak1-tyrosyl-phosphorylation-promotes-fak-dephosphorylation-breast-cancer-cell-motility-invasion-and-metastasis
#19
Alan Hammer, Maria Diakonova
BACKGROUND: The serine/threonine kinase PAK1 is an important regulator of cell motility. Both PAK1 and the hormone/cytokine prolactin (PRL) have been implicated in breast cancer cell motility, however, the exact mechanisms guiding PRL/PAK1 signaling in breast cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Our lab has previously demonstrated that PRL-activated tyrosine kinase JAK2 phosphorylates PAK1 on tyrosines 153, 201, and 285, and that tyrosyl phosphorylated PAK1 (pTyr-PAK1) augments migration and invasion of breast cancer cells...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496052/aneuploidy-screening-of-embryonic-stem-cell-clones-by-metaphase-karyotyping-and-droplet-digital-polymerase-chain-reaction
#20
Gemma F Codner, Loic Lindner, Adam Caulder, Marie Wattenhofer-Donzé, Adam Radage, Annelyse Mertz, Benjamin Eisenmann, Joffrey Mianné, Edward P Evans, Colin V Beechey, Martin D Fray, Marie-Christine Birling, Yann Hérault, Guillaume Pavlovic, Lydia Teboul
BACKGROUND: Karyotypic integrity is essential for the successful germline transmission of alleles mutated in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Classical methods for the identification of aneuploidy involve cytological analyses that are both time consuming and require rare expertise to identify mouse chromosomes. RESULTS: As part of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium, we gathered data from over 1,500 ES cell clones and found that the germline transmission (GLT) efficiency of clones is compromised when over 50 % of cells harbour chromosome number abnormalities...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
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