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BMC Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549413/external-magnetic-field-promotes-homing-of-magnetized-stem-cells-following-subcutaneous-injection
#1
Yu Meng, Changzhen Shi, Bo Hu, Jian Gong, Xing Zhong, Xueyin Lin, Xinju Zhang, Jun Liu, Cong Liu, Hao Xu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and migrate to sites of pathology. In vivo tracking of MSCs provides insights into both, the underlying mechanisms of MSC transformation and their potential as gene delivery vehicles. The aim of our study was to assess the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs)-labeled Wharton's Jelly of the human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) to carry the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to cutaneous injury sites in a murine model...
May 26, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545392/adenylyl-cyclase-mrna-localizes-to-the-posterior-of-polarized-dictyostelium-cells-during-chemotaxis
#2
Satarupa Das, Joshua M Parker, Can Guven, Weiye Wang, Paul W Kriebel, Wolfgang Losert, Daniel R Larson, Carole A Parent
BACKGROUND: In Dictyostelium discoideum, vesicular transport of the adenylyl cyclase A (ACA) to the posterior of polarized cells is essential to relay exogenous 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signals during chemotaxis and for the collective migration of cells in head-to-tail arrangements called streams. RESULTS: Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we discovered that the ACA mRNA is asymmetrically distributed at the posterior of polarized cells...
May 25, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486929/ulk1-phosphorylates-sec23a-and-mediates-autophagy-induced-inhibition-of-er-to-golgi-traffic
#3
Wenjia Gan, Caiyun Zhang, Ka Yu Siu, Ayano Satoh, Julian A Tanner, Sidney Yu
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is an inducible autodigestive process that allows cells to recycle proteins and other materials for survival during stress and nutrient deprived conditions. The kinase ULK1 is required to activate this process. ULK1 phosphorylates a number of target proteins and regulates many cellular processes including the early secretory pathway. Recently, ULK1 has been demonstrated to phosphorylate Sec16 and affects the transport of serotonin transporter at the ER exit sites (ERES), but whether ULK1 may affect the transport of other cargo proteins and general secretion has not been fully addressed...
May 10, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427322/dental-pulp-pluripotent-like-stem-cells-dppsc-a-new-stem-cell-population-with-chromosomal-stability-and-osteogenic-capacity-for-biomaterials-evaluation
#4
Raquel Núñez-Toldrà, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Carlos Gil-Recio, Miguel Ángel Carrasco, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Sheyla Montori, Maher Atari
BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are widely used to regenerate or substitute bone tissue. In order to evaluate their potential use for clinical applications, these need to be tested and evaluated in vitro with cell culture models. Frequently, immortalized osteoblastic cell lines are used in these studies. However, their uncontrolled proliferation rate, phenotypic changes or aberrations in mitotic processes limits their use in long-term investigations. Recently, we described a new pluripotent-like subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells derived from the third molars (DPPSC) that shows genetic stability and shares some pluripotent characteristics with embryonic stem cells...
April 21, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427343/loss-of-pericyte-smoothened-activity-in-mice-with-genetic-deficiency-of-leptin
#5
Guanhua Xie, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, Mark L Jewell, Mariana Verdelho Machado, Gregory A Michelotti, Richard T Premont, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with multiple diseases, but it is unclear how obesity promotes progressive tissue damage. Recovery from injury requires repair, an energy-expensive process that is coupled to energy availability at the cellular level. The satiety factor, leptin, is a key component of the sensor that matches cellular energy utilization to available energy supplies. Leptin deficiency signals energy depletion, whereas activating the Hedgehog pathway drives energy-consuming activities...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427342/intermittent-parathyroid-hormone-pth-promotes-cementogenesis-and-alleviates-the-catabolic-effects-of-mechanical-strain-in-cementoblasts
#6
Yuyu Li, Zhiai Hu, Chenchen Zhou, Yang Xu, Li Huang, Xin Wang, Shujuan Zou
BACKGROUND: External root resorption, commonly starting from cementum, is a severe side effect of orthodontic treatment. In this pathological process and repairing course followed, cementoblasts play a significant role. Previous studies implicated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could act on committed osteoblast precursors to promote differentiation, and inhibit apoptosis. But little was known about the role of PTH in cementoblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent PTH on cementoblasts and its influence after mechanical strain treatment...
April 20, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415963/impact-of-the-mdm2-splice-variants-mdm2-a-mdm2-b-and-mdm2-c-on-cytotoxic-stress-response-in-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Johanna Huun, Liv B Gansmo, Bård Mannsåker, Gjertrud Titlestad Iversen, Jan Inge Øvrebø, Per E Lønning, Stian Knappskog
BACKGROUND: The murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is an oncogene and a negative regulator of the tumor suppressor protein p53. MDM2 is known to be amplified in numerous human cancers, and upregulation of MDM2 is considered to be an alternative mechanism of p53 inactivation. The presence of many splice variants of MDM2 has been observed in both normal tissues and malignant cells; however their impact and functional properties in response to chemotherapy treatment are not fully understood. Here, we investigate the biological effects of three widely expressed alternatively spliced variants of MDM2; MDM2-A, MDM2-B and MDM2-C, both in unstressed MCF-7 breast cancer cells and in cells subjected to chemotherapy...
April 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335714/testis-specific-atp-synthase-peripheral-stalk-subunits-required-for-tissue-specific-mitochondrial-morphogenesis-in-drosophila
#9
Eric M Sawyer, Elizabeth C Brunner, Yihharn Hwang, Lauren E Ivey, Olivia Brown, Megan Bannon, Dennis Akrobetu, Kelsey E Sheaffer, Oshauna Morgan, Conroy O Field, Nishita Suresh, M Grace Gordon, E Taylor Gunnell, Lindsay A Regruto, Cricket G Wood, Margaret T Fuller, Karen G Hales
BACKGROUND: In Drosophila early post-meiotic spermatids, mitochondria undergo dramatic shaping into the Nebenkern, a spherical body with complex internal structure that contains two interwrapped giant mitochondrial derivatives. The purpose of this study was to elucidate genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the shaping of this structure. RESULTS: The knotted onions (knon) gene encodes an unconventionally large testis-specific paralog of ATP synthase subunit d and is required for internal structure of the Nebenkern as well as its subsequent disassembly and elongation...
March 23, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245809/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-myoblast-differentiation-under-hgf-and-igf-1-stimulation-for-3d-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#10
R Witt, A Weigand, A M Boos, A Cai, D Dippold, A R Boccaccini, D W Schubert, M Hardt, C Lange, A Arkudas, R E Horch, J P Beier
BACKGROUND: Volumetric muscle loss caused by trauma or after tumour surgery exceeds the natural regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle. Hence, the future goal of tissue engineering (TE) is the replacement and repair of lost muscle tissue by newly generating skeletal muscle combining different cell sources, such as myoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), within a three-dimensional matrix. Latest research showed that seeding skeletal muscle cells on aligned constructs enhance the formation of myotubes as well as cell alignment and may provide a further step towards the clinical application of engineered skeletal muscle...
February 28, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241740/hinokitiol-induces-dna-demethylation-via-dnmt1-and-uhrf1-inhibition-in-colon-cancer-cells
#11
Jung Seon Seo, Young Ha Choi, Ji Wook Moon, Hyeon Soo Kim, Sun-Hwa Park
BACKGROUND: DNA hypermethylation is a key epigenetic mechanism for the silencing of many genes in cancer. Hinokitiol, a tropolone-related natural compound, is known to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. However, the relationship between hinokitiol and DNA methylation is not clear. The aim of our study was to explore whether hinokitiol has an inhibitory ability on the DNA methylation in colon cancer cells. RESULTS: MTT data showed that hinokitiol had higher sensitivity in colon cancer cells, HCT-116 and SW480, than in normal colon cells, CCD18Co...
February 27, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214472/bmp-12-activates-tenogenic-pathway-in-human-adipose-stem-cells-and-affects-their-immunomodulatory-and-secretory-properties
#12
Weronika Zarychta-Wiśniewska, Anna Burdzinska, Agnieszka Kulesza, Kamila Gala, Beata Kaleta, Katarzyna Zielniok, Katarzyna Siennicka, Marek Sabat, Leszek Paczek
BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapy is a treatment method in tendon injuries. Bone morphogenic protein 12 (BMP-12) possesses tenogenic activity and was proposed as a differentiating factor for stem cells directed to transplantation. However, BMPs belong to pleiotropic TGF-β superfamily and have diverse effect on cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if BMP-12 induces tenogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and how it affects other features of this population...
February 18, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148303/variation-in-human-dental-pulp-stem-cell-ageing-profiles-reflect-contrasting-proliferative-and-regenerative-capabilities
#13
Amr Alraies, Nadia Y A Alaidaroos, Rachel J Waddington, Ryan Moseley, Alastair J Sloan
BACKGROUND: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are increasingly being recognized as a viable cell source for regenerative medicine. Although significant variations in their ex vivo expansion are well-established, DPSC proliferative heterogeneity remains poorly understood, despite such characteristics influencing their regenerative and therapeutic potential. This study assessed clonal human DPSC regenerative potential and the impact of cellular senescence on these responses, to better understand DPSC functional behaviour...
February 2, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125974/nuclear-and-structural-dynamics-during-the-establishment-of-a-specialized-effector-secreting-cell-by-magnaporthe-oryzae-in-living-rice-cells
#14
Emma N Shipman, Kiersun Jones, Cory B Jenkinson, Dong Won Kim, Jie Zhu, Chang Hyun Khang
BACKGROUND: To cause an economically important blast disease on rice, the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae forms a specialized infection structure, called an appressorium, to penetrate host cells. Once inside host cells, the fungus produces a filamentous primary hypha that differentiates into multicellular bulbous invasive hyphae (IH), which are surrounded by a host-derived membrane. These hyphae secrete cytoplasmic effectors that enter host cells presumably via the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC)...
January 26, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114883/release-of-endothelial-cell-associated-vegfr2-during-tgf-%C3%AE-modulated-angiogenesis-in-vitro
#15
M Jarad, E A Kuczynski, J Morrison, A M Viloria-Petit, B L Coomber
BACKGROUND: Sprouting angiogenesis requires vascular endothelial proliferation, migration and morphogenesis. The process is regulated by soluble factors, principally vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and via bidirectional signaling through the Jagged/Notch system, leading to assignment of tip cell and stalk cell identity. The cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) can either stimulate or inhibit angiogenesis via its differential surface receptor signaling. Here we evaluate changes in expression of angiogenic signaling receptors when bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to TGF-β1 under low serum conditions...
January 23, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124626/focus-on-lens-connexins
#16
REVIEW
Viviana M Berthoud, Anaclet Ngezahayo
The lens is an avascular organ composed of an anterior epithelial cell layer and fiber cells that form the bulk of the organ. The lens expresses connexin43 (Cx43), connexin46 (Cx46) and connexin50 (Cx50). Epithelial Cx50 has critical roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, likely involving growth factor-dependent signaling pathways. Both Cx46 and Cx50 are crucial for lens transparency; mutations in their genes have been linked to congenital and age-related cataracts. Congenital cataract-associated connexin mutants can affect protein trafficking, stability and/or function, and the functional effects may differ between gap junction channels and hemichannels...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124625/gap-junctions-and-hemichannels-communicating-cell-death-in-neurodevelopment-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Andrei B Belousov, Joseph D Fontes, Moises Freitas-Andrade, Christian C Naus
Gap junctions are unique membrane channels that play a significant role in intercellular communication in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). These channels are composed of connexin proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form connexons or hemichannels. Many different connexins are expressed in the CNS, with some specificity with regard to the cell types in which distinct connexins are found, as well as the timepoints when they are expressed in the developing and mature CNS. Both the main neuronal Cx36 and glial Cx43 play critical roles in neurodevelopment...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124624/accessing-gap-junction-channel-structure-function-relationships-through-molecular-modeling-and-simulations
#18
REVIEW
F Villanelo, Y Escalona, C Pareja-Barrueto, J A Garate, I M Skerrett, T Perez-Acle
BACKGROUND: Gap junction channels (GJCs) are massive protein channels connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. These channels allow intercellular transfer of molecules up to ~1 kDa, including water, ions and other metabolites. Unveiling structure-function relationships coded into the molecular architecture of these channels is necessary to gain insight on their vast biological function including electrical synapse, inflammation, development and tissular homeostasis. From early works, computational methods have been critical to analyze and interpret experimental observations...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124623/cardiac-cx43-cx40-and-cx45-co-assembling-involvement-of-connexins-epitopes-in-formation-of-hemichannels-and-gap-junction-channels
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Desplantez
BACKGROUND: This review comes after the International Gap Junction Conference (IGJC 2015) and describes the current knowledge on the function of the specific motifs of connexins in the regulation of the formation of gap junction channels. Moreover the review is complemented by a summarized description of the distinct contribution of gap junction channels in the electrical coupling. RESULTS: Complementary biochemical and functional characterization on cell models and primary cells have improved our understanding on the oligomerization of connexins and the formation and the electrical properties of gap junction channels...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124622/intermittent-hypoxia-causes-nox2-dependent-remodeling-of-atrial-connexins
#20
Joanna Gemel, Zihan Su, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, David Gozal, Eric C Beyer
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea has been linked to the development of heart disease and arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. Since altered conduction through gap junction channels can contribute to the pathogenesis of such arrhythmias, we examined the abundance and distributions of the major cardiac gap junction proteins, connexin40 (Cx40) and connexin43 (Cx43) in mice treated with sleep fragmentation or intermittent hypoxia (IH) as animal models of the components of obstructive sleep apnea...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
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