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BMC Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111276/generation-of-renewable-mouse-intestinal-epithelial-cell-monolayers-and-organoids-for-functional-analyses
#1
Emily C Moorefield, R Eric Blue, Nancy L Quinney, Martina Gentzsch, Shengli Ding
BACKGROUND: Conditional reprogramming has enabled the development of long-lived, normal epithelial cell lines from mice and humans by in vitro culture with ROCK inhibitor on a feeder layer. We applied this technology to mouse small intestine to create 2D mouse intestinal epithelial monolayers (IEC monolayers) from genetic mouse models for functional analysis. RESULTS: IEC monolayers form epithelial colonies that proliferate on a feeder cell layer and are able to maintain their genotype over long-term passage...
August 15, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086712/novel-roles-for-scleraxis-in-regulating-adult-tenocyte-function
#2
Anne E C Nichols, Robert E Settlage, Stephen R Werre, Linda A Dahlgren
BACKGROUND: Tendinopathies are common and difficult to resolve due to the formation of scar tissue that reduces the mechanical integrity of the tissue, leading to frequent reinjury. Tenocytes respond to both excessive loading and unloading by producing pro-inflammatory mediators, suggesting that these cells are actively involved in the development of tendon degeneration. The transcription factor scleraxis (Scx) is required for the development of force-transmitting tendon during development and for mechanically stimulated tenogenesis of stem cells, but its function in adult tenocytes is less well-defined...
August 7, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012091/cyclic-amp-signaling-in-dictyostelium-promotes-the-translocation-of-the-copine-family-of-calcium-binding-proteins-to-the-plasma-membrane
#3
April N Ilacqua, Janet E Price, Bria N Graham, Matthew J Buccilli, Dexter R McKellar, Cynthia K Damer
BACKGROUND: Copines are calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins found in many eukaryotic organisms and are thought to be involved in signaling pathways that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. Copines are characterized by having two C2 domains at the N-terminus accompanied by an A domain at the C-terminus. Six copine genes have been identified in the Dictyostelium genome, cpnA - cpnF. RESULTS: Independent cell lines expressing CpnA, CpnB, CpnC, CpnE, or CpnF tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were created as tools to study copine protein membrane-binding and localization...
July 16, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980168/mtor-and-ros-regulation-by-anethole-on-adipogenic-differentiation-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Yun-Hee Rhee, Jeong Hwan Moon, Ji-Hun Mo, Tiffany Pham, Phil-Sang Chung
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is dependent on mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to initiate adipocyte differentiation. Although anethole has been known as an anti-oxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibitor, there is little investigated about its role in adipogenic differentiation. METHODS: The effects on cytotoxicity and proliferation of anethole in hMSCs were measured by the MTT assay. The anti-adipogenic effect of anethole on hMSCs was analyzed by Oil Red O staining and western blot analysis...
July 6, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973136/caspase-independent-cell-death-does-not-elicit-a-proliferative-response-in-melanoma-cancer-cells
#5
Ahlima Roumane, Kevin Berthenet, Chaïmaa El Fassi, Gabriel Ichim
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis, the most well-known type of programmed cell death, can induce in a paracrine manner a proliferative response in neighboring surviving cells called apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP). While having obvious benefits when triggered in developmental processes, AiP is a serious obstacle in cancer therapy, where apoptosis is frequently induced by chemotherapy. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the capacity of an alternative type of cell death, called caspase-independent cell death, to promote proliferation...
July 4, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954317/establishment-and-comparison-of-air-liquid-interface-culture-systems-for-primary-and-immortalized-swine-tracheal-epithelial-cells
#6
Haiyan Wang, Lina He, Beibei Liu, Yanyan Feng, Hao Zhou, Zhenzhen Zhang, Yuzi Wu, Jia Wang, Yuan Gan, Ting Yuan, Meng Wu, Xing Xie, Zhixin Feng
BACKGROUND: Air-liquid interface (Ali) systems allow the establishment of a culture environment more representative of that in vivo than other culture systems. They are useful for performing mechanistic studies of respiratory epithelial cells as drug permeation barriers and can be used to study the interactions between hosts and respiratory pathogens. However, there have been few studies concerning Ali cultures of primary swine tracheal epithelial cells (STECs) and an immortalized STEC line, and the differences between these two systems remain poorly defined...
June 28, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945545/mannan-oligosaccharide-requires-functional-etc-and-tlr-for-biological-radiation-protection-to-normal-cells
#7
Sweta Sanguri, Damodar Gupta
BACKGROUND: Low LET Ionizing radiation is known to alter intracellular redox balance by inducing free radical generation, which may cause oxidative modification of various cellular biomolecules. The extent of biomolecule-modifications/ damages and changes in vital processes (viz. cellular homeostasis, inter-/intra-cellular signaling, mitochondrial physiology/dynamics antioxidant defence systems) are crucial which in turn determine fate of cells. RESULTS: In the present study, we expended TLR expressing (normal/ transformed) and TLR null cells; and we have shown that mannan pretreatment in TLR expressing normal cells offers survival advantage against lethal doses of ionizing radiation...
June 27, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925307/an-easy-to-build-and-re-usable-microfluidic-system-for-live-cell-imaging
#8
Julien Babic, Laurent Griscom, Jeremy Cramer, Damien Coudreuse
BACKGROUND: Real-time monitoring of cellular responses to dynamic changes in their environment or to specific treatments has become central to cell biology. However, when coupled to live-cell imaging, such strategies are difficult to implement with precision and high time resolution, and the simultaneous alteration of multiple parameters is a major challenge. Recently, microfluidics has provided powerful solutions for such analyses, bringing an unprecedented level of control over the conditions and the medium in which cells under microscopic observation are grown...
June 20, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921218/a-comparison-of-lkb1-ampk-mtor-metabolic-axis-response-to-global-ischaemia-in-brain-heart-liver-and-kidney-in-a-rat-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#9
Shohreh Majd, John H T Power, Timothy K Chataway, Hugh J M Grantham
BACKGROUND: Cellular energy failure in high metabolic rate organs is one of the underlying causes for many disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathies, liver and renal failures. In the past decade, numerous studies have discovered the cellular axis of LKB1/AMPK/mTOR as an essential modulator of cell homeostasis in response to energy stress. Through regulating adaptive mechanisms, this axis adjusts the energy availability to its demand by a systematized control on metabolism...
June 19, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879899/the-c-terminus-of-the-oncoprotein-tgat-is-necessary-for-plasma-membrane-association-and-efficient-rhoa-mediated-signaling
#10
J van Unen, D Botman, T Yin, Y I Wu, M A Hink, T W J Gadella, M Postma, J Goedhart
BACKGROUND: Rho guanine exchange factors (RhoGEFs) control cellular processes such as migration, adhesion and proliferation. Alternative splicing of the RhoGEF Trio produces TGAT. The RhoGEF TGAT is an oncoprotein with constitutive RhoGEF activity. We investigated whether the subcellular location of TGAT is critical for its RhoGEF activity. METHODS: Since plasma membrane associated RhoGEFs are particularly effective at activating RhoA, plasma membrane localization of TGAT was examined...
June 7, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673312/overexpression-of-contactin-1-promotes-growth-migration-and-invasion-in-hs578t-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Nan Chen, Sai He, Jie Geng, Zhang-Jun Song, Pi-Hua Han, Juan Qin, Zheng Zhao, Yong-Chun Song, Hu-Xia Wang, Cheng-Xue Dang
BACKGROUND: Contactin1 (CNTN1) has been shown to play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of several tumors; however, the role of CNTN1 in breast cancer has not been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of CNTN1 in regulating tumor growth, migration and invasion in breast cancer. RESULTS: To investigate its function, CNTN1 was expressed in Hs578T cells. CNTN1 expression was confirmed by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR...
April 19, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625551/foreskin-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-with-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-isolation-and-gene-profiling
#12
Mehdi Najar, Emerence Crompot, Leo A van Grunsven, Laurent Dollé, Laurence Lagneaux
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) become an attractive research topic because of their crucial roles in tissue repair and regenerative medicine. Foreskin is considered as a valuable tissue source containing immunotherapeutic MSCs (FSK-MSCs). RESULTS: In this work, we used aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH) assay (ALDEFLUOR™) to isolate and therefore characterize subsets of FSK-MSCs. According to their ALDH activity, we were able to distinguish and sort by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) two subsets of FSK-MSCs (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH- )...
April 6, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544440/role-of-the-hiv-1-envelope-transmembrane-domain-in-intracellular-sorting
#13
Jackie Perrin, Aurélie Bary, Alexandre Vernay, Pierre Cosson
BACKGROUND: The envelope protein of lentiviruses are type I transmembrane proteins, and their transmembrane domain contains conserved potentially charged residues. This highly unusual feature would be expected to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization. The aim of this study was to determine by which means the HIV-1 Env protein is transported to the cell surface although its transmembrane domain contains a conserved arginine residue. RESULTS: We expressed various chimeric proteins and analyzed the influence of their transmembrane domain on their intracellular localization...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523096/separation-of-functionally-divergent-muscle-precursor-cell-populations-from-porcine-juvenile-muscles-by-discontinuous-percoll-density-gradient-centrifugation
#14
Claudia Miersch, Katja Stange, Monika Röntgen
BACKGROUND: Satellite cells (SC) and their descendants, muscle precursor cells (MPC), play a key role in postnatal muscle development, regeneration, and plasticity. Several studies have provided evidence that SC and MPC represent a heterogeneous population differing in their biochemical and functional properties. The identification and characterization of functionally divergent SC subpopulations should help to reveal the precise involvement of SC/MPC in these myogenic processes. The aim of the present work was therefore to separate SC subpopulations by using Percoll gradients and to characterize their myogenic marker profiles and their functional properties (adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation)...
March 9, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433423/microrna-17-5p-aggravates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-injury-in-nasal-epithelial-cells-by-targeting-smad7
#15
Nan Huang, Wenjing Li, Xiaolong Wang, Shanshan Qi
BACKGROUND: Globally, rhinitis is one of the most common chronic disorders. Despite availability of drugs to manage the symptomatology of rhinitis, researchers still focus on identification of novel molecular targets for better management. MicroRNAs are implicated in many biological and pathological processes. However, the role of miR-17-5p in rhinitis remains unexplored. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-17-5p in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury of nasal epithelial RPMI2650 cells and to elucidate the possible underlying molecular mechanism...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246104/mechanically-tuned-3-dimensional-hydrogels-support-human-mammary-fibroblast-growth-and-viability
#16
Kathryn Woods, Catlyn Thigpen, Jennifer Peyling Wang, Hana Park, Abigail Hielscher
BACKGROUND: Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs or myofibroblasts) are activated fibroblasts which participate in breast tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis and therapy resistance. As such, recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the factors responsible for activation of the phenotype. In this study, we have investigated how changes in the mechanical stiffness of a 3D hydrogel alter the behavior and myofibroblast-like properties of human mammary fibroblasts (HMFs)...
December 16, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216821/molecular-targets-and-signaling-pathways-regulated-by-nuclear-translocation-of-syndecan-1
#17
Tünde Szatmári, Filip Mundt, Ashish Kumar-Singh, Lena Möbus, Rita Ötvös, Anders Hjerpe, Katalin Dobra
BACKGROUND: The cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 is important for tumor cell proliferation, migration, and cell cycle regulation in a broad spectrum of malignancies. Syndecan-1, however, also translocates to the cell nucleus, where it might regulate various molecular functions. RESULTS: We used a fibrosarcoma model to dissect the functions of syndecan-1 related to the nucleus and separate them from functions related to the cell-surface. Nuclear translocation of syndecan-1 hampered the proliferation of fibrosarcoma cells compared to the mutant lacking nuclear localization signal...
December 8, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141582/a-novel-interaction-between-kinase-activities-in-regulation-of-cilia-formation
#18
Nicole DeVaul, Katerina Koloustroubis, Rong Wang, Ann O Sperry
BACKGROUND: The primary cilium is an extension of the cell membrane that encloses a microtubule-based axoneme. Primary cilia are essential for transmission of environmental cues that determine cell fate. Disruption of primary cilia function is the molecular basis of numerous developmental disorders. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms governing their assembly and disassembly are just beginning to be understood. Cilia growth and disassembly are essential events when cells exit and reenter into the cell cycle...
November 15, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137597/reduction-of-pluripotent-gene-expression-in-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-mechanical-loading-or-cyclo-rgd-peptide
#19
Olesja Hazenbiller, Neil A Duncan, Roman J Krawetz
BACKGROUND: Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is directed by biological and/or physical cues that regulate multiple signaling cascades. We have previously shown that mESCs seeded in a type I collagen matrix demonstrate a loss of pluripotent marker expression and differentiate towards an osteogenic lineage. In this study, we examined if this effect was mediated in part through Arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) dependent integrin activity and/or mechano-transduction...
November 14, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041897/small-molecule-modulation-of-splicing-factor-expression-is-associated-with-rescue-from-cellular-senescence
#20
Eva Latorre, Vishal C Birar, Angela N Sheerin, J Charles C Jeynes, Amy Hooper, Helen R Dawe, David Melzer, Lynne S Cox, Richard G A Faragher, Elizabeth L Ostler, Lorna W Harries
BACKGROUND: Altered expression of mRNA splicing factors occurs with ageing in vivo and is thought to be an ageing mechanism. The accumulation of senescent cells also occurs in vivo with advancing age and causes much degenerative age-related pathology. However, the relationship between these two processes is opaque. Accordingly we developed a novel panel of small molecules based on resveratrol, previously suggested to alter mRNA splicing, to determine whether altered splicing factor expression had potential to influence features of replicative senescence...
October 17, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
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