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BMC Cell Biology

Yvette Lahbib-Mansais, Harmonie Barasc, Maria Marti-Marimon, Florence Mompart, Eddie Iannuccelli, David Robelin, Juliette Riquet, Martine Yerle-Bouissou
BACKGROUND: To explore the relationship between spatial genome organization and gene expression in the interphase nucleus, we used a genomic imprinting model, which offers parental-specific gene expression. Using 3D FISH in porcine fetal liver cells, we compared the nuclear organization of the two parental alleles (expressed or not) of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), a paternally imprinted gene located on chromosome 2. We investigated whether its nuclear positioning favors specific locus associations...
October 1, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
Christine Péladeau, Allan Heibein, Melissa T Maltez, Sarah J Copeland, John W Copeland
BACKGROUND: Formins are a highly conserved family of cytoskeletal remodeling proteins. A growing body of evidence suggests that formins play key roles in the progression and spread of a variety of cancers. There are 15 human formin proteins and of these the Diaphanous-Related Formins (DRFs) are the best characterized. Included in the DRFs are the Formin-Like proteins, FMNL1, 2 & 3, each of which have been strongly implicated in driving tumorigenesis and metastasis of specific tumors. In particular, increased FMNL2 expression correlates with increased invasiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) in vivo and for a variety of CRC cell-lines in vitro...
August 30, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
Muntasir Kamal, Dayana R D'Amora, Terrance J Kubiseski
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the leading causes of neurological disorders in humans. Mitochondrial perturbations lead to adaptive mechanisms that include HIF-1 stabilization, though the consequences of increased levels of HIF-1 following mitochondrial stress remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that a hif-1 loss-of-function mutation confers resistance towards the mitochondrial toxin ethidium bromide (EtBr) and suppresses EtBr-induced production of ROS...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
David Dickerson, Marek Gierliński, Vijender Singh, Etsushi Kitamura, Graeme Ball, Tomoyuki U Tanaka, Tom Owen-Hughes
BACKGROUND: Genomes of eukaryotes exist as chromatin, and it is known that different chromatin states can influence gene regulation. Chromatin is not a static structure, but is known to be dynamic and vary between cells. In order to monitor the organisation of chromatin in live cells we have engineered fluorescent fusion proteins which recognize specific operator sequences to tag pairs of syntenic gene loci. The separation of these loci was then tracked in three dimensions over time using fluorescence microscopy...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Alan Hammer, Maria Diakonova
BACKGROUND: The serine/threonine kinase PAK1 is an important regulator of cell motility. Both PAK1 and the hormone/cytokine prolactin (PRL) have been implicated in breast cancer cell motility, however, the exact mechanisms guiding PRL/PAK1 signaling in breast cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Our lab has previously demonstrated that PRL-activated tyrosine kinase JAK2 phosphorylates PAK1 on tyrosines 153, 201, and 285, and that tyrosyl phosphorylated PAK1 (pTyr-PAK1) augments migration and invasion of breast cancer cells...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Gemma F Codner, Loic Lindner, Adam Caulder, Marie Wattenhofer-Donzé, Adam Radage, Annelyse Mertz, Benjamin Eisenmann, Joffrey Mianné, Edward P Evans, Colin V Beechey, Martin D Fray, Marie-Christine Birling, Yann Hérault, Guillaume Pavlovic, Lydia Teboul
BACKGROUND: Karyotypic integrity is essential for the successful germline transmission of alleles mutated in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Classical methods for the identification of aneuploidy involve cytological analyses that are both time consuming and require rare expertise to identify mouse chromosomes. RESULTS: As part of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium, we gathered data from over 1,500 ES cell clones and found that the germline transmission (GLT) efficiency of clones is compromised when over 50 % of cells harbour chromosome number abnormalities...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Erika J Tomei, Stephen M Wolniak
BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis in the semi-aquatic fern, Marsilea vestita, is a rapid, synchronous process that is initiated when dry microspores are placed in water. Development is post-transcriptionally driven and can be divided into two phases. The first phase consists of nine mitotic division cycles that produce 7 sterile cells and 32 spermatids. During the second phase, each spermatid differentiates into a corkscrew-shaped motile spermatozoid with ~140 cilia. RESULTS: Analysis of the transcriptome from the male gametophyte of Marsilea revealed that one kinesin-2 (MvKinesin-2) and two kinesin-9 s (MvKinesin-9A and MvKinesin-9B) are present during spermatid differentiation and ciliogenesis...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Clemens Cammann, Alexander Rath, Udo Reichl, Holger Lingel, Monika Brunner-Weinzierl, Luca Simeoni, Burkhart Schraven, Jonathan A Lindquist
BACKGROUND: Antigenic stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) initiates a change from a resting state into an activated one, which ultimately results in proliferation and the acquisition of effector functions. To accomplish this task, T cells require dramatic changes in metabolism. Therefore, we investigated changes of metabolic intermediates indicating for crucial metabolic pathways reflecting the status of T cells. Moreover we analyzed possible regulatory molecules required for the initiation of the metabolic changes...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Zoe J Golder, Fiona E Karet Frankl
BACKGROUND: Vacuolar-type proton pumps help maintain acid-base homeostasis either within intracellular compartments or at specialised plasma membranes. In mammals they are made up of 13 subunits, which form two functional domains. A number of the subunits have variants that display tissue restricted expression patterns such that in specialised cell types they replace the generic subunits at some sub-cellular locations. The tissue restricted a4 subunit has previously been reported at the plasma membrane in the kidney, inner ear, olfactory epithelium and male reproductive tract...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Ian Holt, Nguyen Thuy Duong, Qiuping Zhang, Le Thanh Lam, Caroline A Sewry, Kamel Mamchaoui, Catherine M Shanahan, Glenn E Morris
BACKGROUND: Nesprin-1-giant (1008kD) is a protein of the outer nuclear membrane that links nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton via amino-terminal calponin homology domains. The short nesprin-1 isoform, nesprin-1-α2, is present only in skeletal and cardiac muscle and several pathogenic mutations occur within it, but the functions of this short isoform without calponin homology domains are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine mRNA levels and protein localization of nesprin-1-α2 at different stages of muscle development in order to shed light on its functions...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Qi Zhang, Man Shang, Mengxiao Zhang, Yao Wang, Yan Chen, Yanna Wu, Minglin Liu, Junqiu Song, Yanxia Liu
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial dysfunction is the closely related determinant of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Endothelial dysfunction and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) have been associated with an increase in microvesicles (MVs) in vivo. However, the potential contribution of endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) to myocardial damage is unclear. Here we aimed to investigate the role of EMVs derived from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) -treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Venkatramanan G Rao, Ruhi B Sarafdar, Twinkle S Chowdhury, Priyanka Sivadas, Pinfen Yang, Prabhakar M Dongre, Jacinta S D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Flagella and cilia are fine thread-like organelles protruding from cells that harbour them. The typical '9 + 2' cilia confer motility on these cells. Although the mechanistic details of motility remain elusive, the dynein-driven motility is regulated by various kinases and phosphatases. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are scaffolds that bind to a variety of such proteins. Usually, they are known to possess a dedicated domain that in vitro interacts with the regulatory subunits (RI and RII) present in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzyme...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Livija Zlopasa, Andreas Brachner, Roland Foisner
BACKGROUND: Ankyrin repeats and LEM domain containing protein 1 (Ankle1) belongs to the LEM protein family, whose members share a chromatin-interacting LEM motif. Unlike most other LEM proteins, Ankle1 is not an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane but shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It contains a GIY-YIG-type nuclease domain, but its function is unknown. The mammalian genome encodes only one other GIY-YIG domain protein, termed Slx1. Slx1 has been described as a resolvase that processes Holliday junctions during homologous recombination-mediated DNA double strand break repair...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Sebastian Curti, John O'Brien
Electrical synapses are an omnipresent feature of nervous systems, from the simple nerve nets of cnidarians to complex brains of mammals. Formed by gap junction channels between neurons, electrical synapses allow direct transmission of voltage signals between coupled cells. The relative simplicity of this arrangement belies the sophistication of these synapses. Coupling via electrical synapses can be regulated by a variety of mechanisms on times scales ranging from milliseconds to days, and active properties of the coupled neurons can impart emergent properties such as signal amplification, phase shifts and frequency-selective transmission...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Julie S Haas, Corey M Greenwald, Alberto E Pereda
Gap junctions mediate electrical synaptic transmission between neurons. While the actions of neurotransmitter modulators on the conductance of gap junctions have been extensively documented, increasing evidence indicates they can also be influenced by the ongoing activity of neural networks, in most cases via local interactions with nearby glutamatergic synapses. We review here early evidence for the existence of activity-dependent regulatory mechanisms as well recent examples reported in mammalian brain. The ubiquitous distribution of both neuronal connexins and the molecules involved suggest this phenomenon is widespread and represents a property of electrical transmission in general...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Leigh Anne Swayne, Steffany A L Bennett
Connexins and pannexins share very similar structures and functions; they also exhibit overlapping expression in many stages of neuronal development. Here, we review evidence implicating connexin- and pannexin-mediated communication in the regulation of the birth and development of neurons, specifically Cx26, Cx30, Cx32, Cx36, Cx43, Cx45, Panx1, and Panx2. We begin by dissecting the involvement of these proteins in the generation and development of new neurons in the embryonic, postnatal, and adult brain. Next we briefly outline common mechanisms employed by both pannexins and connexins in these roles, including modulation of purinergic receptor signalling and signalling nexus functions...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Lilian I Plotkin, Dale W Laird, Joelle Amedee
Electron micrographs revealed the presence of gap junctions in osteoblastic cells over 40 years ago. These intercellular channels formed from connexins are present in bone forming osteoblasts, bone resorbing osteoclasts, and osteocytes (mature osteoblasts embedded in the mineralized bone matrix). More recently, genetic and pharmacologic studies revealed the role of connexins, and in particular Cx43, in the differentiation and function of all bone types. Furthermore, mutations in the gene encoding Cx43 were found to be causally linked to oculodentodigital dysplasia, a condition that results in an abnormal skeleton...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Matthias M Falk, Cheryl L Bell, Rachael M Kells Andrews, Sandra A Murray
Internalization of gap junction plaques results in the formation of annular gap junction vesicles. The factors that regulate the coordinated internalization of the gap junction plaques to form annular gap junction vesicles, and the subsequent events involved in annular gap junction processing have only relatively recently been investigated in detail. However it is becoming clear that while annular gap junction vesicles have been demonstrated to be degraded by autophagosomal and endo-lysosomal pathways, they undergo a number of additional processing events...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Kristin Pogoda, Petra Kameritsch, Mauricio A Retamal, José L Vega
Post-translational modifications of connexins play an important role in the regulation of gap junction and hemichannel permeability. The prerequisite for the formation of functional gap junction channels is the assembly of connexin proteins into hemichannels and their insertion into the membrane. Hemichannels can affect cellular processes by enabling the passage of signaling molecules between the intracellular and extracellular space. For the intercellular communication hemichannels from one cell have to dock to its counterparts on the opposing membrane of an adjacent cell to allow the transmission of signals via gap junctions from one cell to the other...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Juan C Sáez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMC Cell Biology
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