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BMC Cell Biology

Sarah R Alaei, Charles K Abrams, J Chloë Bulinski, Elliot L Hertzberg, Mona M Freidin
BACKGROUND: The gap junction protein, Connexin32 (Cx32), is expressed in various tissues including liver, exocrine pancreas, gastrointestinal epithelium, and the glia of the central and peripheral nervous system. Gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication and channel-independent processes of Cx32 contribute to the regulation of physiological and cellular activities such as glial differentiation, survival, and proliferation; maintenance of the hepatic epithelium; and axonal myelination...
September 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Honghua Zhu, Wei Liu, Hao Fang
BACKGROUND: Disruption to the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a leading factor associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Despite this, the underlying mechanism by which BBB disruption promotes POCD in the elderly population has not yet been not fully elucidated. RESULTS: In this study, we established a POCD mice model using isoflurane, and observed the highly expressed occludin and claudin 5 in brain tissues concomitant with the increased enrichment of CD4 positive cells and NK cells in the hippocampus of POCD mice compared to normal and non-POCD control...
September 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Sayilaxi Jieensinue, Hong Zhu, Guangcheng Li, Keli Dong, Meiting Liang, Yayue Li
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial homeostasis has been increasingly viewed as a potential target of cancer therapy, and mitochondrial fission is a novel regulator of mitochondrial function and apoptosis. The aim of our study was to determine the detailed role of mitochondrial fission in SW837 colorectal cancer cell viability, mobility and proliferation. In addition, the current study also investigated the therapeutic impact of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), a type of anticancer adjuvant drug, on cancer mitochondrial homeostasis...
September 25, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Rémy Beaujois, Elizabeth Ottoni, Xin Zhang, Christina Gagnon, Sami Hassine, Stéphanie Mollet, Wildriss Viranaicken, Luc DesGroseillers
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported a change to one of the author names.
September 10, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Cassiano Martin Batista, Rafael Luis Kessler, Iriane Eger, Maurilio José Soares
BACKGROUND: The palmitate analogue 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) is a non-selective membrane tethered cysteine alkylator of many membrane-associated enzymes that in the last years emerged as a general inhibitor of protein S-palmitoylation. Palmitoylation is a post-translational protein modification that adds palmitic acid to a cysteine residue through a thioester linkage, promoting membrane localization, protein stability, regulation of enzymatic activity, and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression...
August 31, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Kanako Hagio-Izaki, Madoka Yasunaga, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kajiya, Hiromitsu Morita, Masahiro Yoneda, Takao Hirofuji, Jun Ohno
BACKGROUND: Interactions of resident bacteria and/or their producing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with sulcular epithelial keratinocytes may be regulated by autophagy in the gingival sulcus. In this study, we investigated an induction of bacterial autophagy in exfoliative sulcular keratinocytes of the gingival sulcus and cultured keratinocytes treated with Porphyromonas gingivalis-originated LPS (PgLPS). RESULTS: Exfoliative sulcular keratinocytes showed an induction of autophagy, in addition to increased expression of LPS-mediated factors including lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and toll-like receptors (TLRs), leading to co-localization of bacteria with autophagosomes...
August 30, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Venla Mustonen, Jenni Kesäniemi, Anton Lavrinienko, Eugene Tukalenko, Tapio Mappes, Phillip C Watts, Jaana Jurvansuu
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of environmental ionizing radiation can be a selective pressure for wildlife by producing reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that are affected are not known. RESULTS: We isolated skin fibroblasts from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) inhabiting the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident site where background radiation levels are about 100 times greater than in uncontaminated areas. After a 10 Gy dose of gamma radiation fibroblasts from Chernobyl animals recovered faster than fibroblasts isolated from bank voles living in uncontaminated control area...
August 29, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Nan Kang, Yu Wang, Shichao Guo, Yunwei Ou, Guangchao Wang, Jie Chen, Dan Li, Qimin Zhan
BACKGROUND: TP53 gene mutations occur in more than 50% of human cancers and the vast majority of these mutations in human cancers are missense mutations, which broadly occur in DNA binding domain (DBD) (Amino acids 102-292) and mainly reside in six "hotspot" residues. TP53 G245C and R273H point mutations are two of the most frequent mutations in tumors and have been verified in several different cancers. In the previous study of the whole genome sequencing (WGS), we found some mutations of TP53 DBD in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) clinical samples...
August 20, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Emily C Moorefield, R Eric Blue, Nancy L Quinney, Martina Gentzsch, Shengli Ding
BACKGROUND: Conditional reprogramming has enabled the development of long-lived, normal epithelial cell lines from mice and humans by in vitro culture with ROCK inhibitor on a feeder layer. We applied this technology to mouse small intestine to create 2D mouse intestinal epithelial monolayers (IEC monolayers) from genetic mouse models for functional analysis. RESULTS: IEC monolayers form epithelial colonies that proliferate on a feeder cell layer and are able to maintain their genotype over long-term passage...
August 15, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Anne E C Nichols, Robert E Settlage, Stephen R Werre, Linda A Dahlgren
BACKGROUND: Tendinopathies are common and difficult to resolve due to the formation of scar tissue that reduces the mechanical integrity of the tissue, leading to frequent reinjury. Tenocytes respond to both excessive loading and unloading by producing pro-inflammatory mediators, suggesting that these cells are actively involved in the development of tendon degeneration. The transcription factor scleraxis (Scx) is required for the development of force-transmitting tendon during development and for mechanically stimulated tenogenesis of stem cells, but its function in adult tenocytes is less well-defined...
August 7, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
April N Ilacqua, Janet E Price, Bria N Graham, Matthew J Buccilli, Dexter R McKellar, Cynthia K Damer
BACKGROUND: Copines are calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins found in many eukaryotic organisms and are thought to be involved in signaling pathways that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. Copines are characterized by having two C2 domains at the N-terminus accompanied by an A domain at the C-terminus. Six copine genes have been identified in the Dictyostelium genome, cpnA - cpnF. RESULTS: Independent cell lines expressing CpnA, CpnB, CpnC, CpnE, or CpnF tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were created as tools to study copine protein membrane-binding and localization...
July 16, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Yun-Hee Rhee, Jeong Hwan Moon, Ji-Hun Mo, Tiffany Pham, Phil-Sang Chung
BACKGROUND: Adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is dependent on mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to initiate adipocyte differentiation. Although anethole has been known as an anti-oxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibitor, there is little investigated about its role in adipogenic differentiation. METHODS: The effects on cytotoxicity and proliferation of anethole in hMSCs were measured by the MTT assay. The anti-adipogenic effect of anethole on hMSCs was analyzed by Oil Red O staining and western blot analysis...
July 6, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Ahlima Roumane, Kevin Berthenet, Chaïmaa El Fassi, Gabriel Ichim
BACKGROUND: Apoptosis, the most well-known type of programmed cell death, can induce in a paracrine manner a proliferative response in neighboring surviving cells called apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP). While having obvious benefits when triggered in developmental processes, AiP is a serious obstacle in cancer therapy, where apoptosis is frequently induced by chemotherapy. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the capacity of an alternative type of cell death, called caspase-independent cell death, to promote proliferation...
July 4, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Haiyan Wang, Lina He, Beibei Liu, Yanyan Feng, Hao Zhou, Zhenzhen Zhang, Yuzi Wu, Jia Wang, Yuan Gan, Ting Yuan, Meng Wu, Xing Xie, Zhixin Feng
BACKGROUND: Air-liquid interface (Ali) systems allow the establishment of a culture environment more representative of that in vivo than other culture systems. They are useful for performing mechanistic studies of respiratory epithelial cells as drug permeation barriers and can be used to study the interactions between hosts and respiratory pathogens. However, there have been few studies concerning Ali cultures of primary swine tracheal epithelial cells (STECs) and an immortalized STEC line, and the differences between these two systems remain poorly defined...
June 28, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Sweta Sanguri, Damodar Gupta
BACKGROUND: Low LET Ionizing radiation is known to alter intracellular redox balance by inducing free radical generation, which may cause oxidative modification of various cellular biomolecules. The extent of biomolecule-modifications/ damages and changes in vital processes (viz. cellular homeostasis, inter-/intra-cellular signaling, mitochondrial physiology/dynamics antioxidant defence systems) are crucial which in turn determine fate of cells. RESULTS: In the present study, we expended TLR expressing (normal/ transformed) and TLR null cells; and we have shown that mannan pretreatment in TLR expressing normal cells offers survival advantage against lethal doses of ionizing radiation...
June 27, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Julien Babic, Laurent Griscom, Jeremy Cramer, Damien Coudreuse
BACKGROUND: Real-time monitoring of cellular responses to dynamic changes in their environment or to specific treatments has become central to cell biology. However, when coupled to live-cell imaging, such strategies are difficult to implement with precision and high time resolution, and the simultaneous alteration of multiple parameters is a major challenge. Recently, microfluidics has provided powerful solutions for such analyses, bringing an unprecedented level of control over the conditions and the medium in which cells under microscopic observation are grown...
June 20, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Shohreh Majd, John H T Power, Timothy K Chataway, Hugh J M Grantham
BACKGROUND: Cellular energy failure in high metabolic rate organs is one of the underlying causes for many disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathies, liver and renal failures. In the past decade, numerous studies have discovered the cellular axis of LKB1/AMPK/mTOR as an essential modulator of cell homeostasis in response to energy stress. Through regulating adaptive mechanisms, this axis adjusts the energy availability to its demand by a systematized control on metabolism...
June 19, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
J van Unen, D Botman, T Yin, Y I Wu, M A Hink, T W J Gadella, M Postma, J Goedhart
BACKGROUND: Rho guanine exchange factors (RhoGEFs) control cellular processes such as migration, adhesion and proliferation. Alternative splicing of the RhoGEF Trio produces TGAT. The RhoGEF TGAT is an oncoprotein with constitutive RhoGEF activity. We investigated whether the subcellular location of TGAT is critical for its RhoGEF activity. METHODS: Since plasma membrane associated RhoGEFs are particularly effective at activating RhoA, plasma membrane localization of TGAT was examined...
June 7, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Nan Chen, Sai He, Jie Geng, Zhang-Jun Song, Pi-Hua Han, Juan Qin, Zheng Zhao, Yong-Chun Song, Hu-Xia Wang, Cheng-Xue Dang
BACKGROUND: Contactin1 (CNTN1) has been shown to play an important role in the invasion and metastasis of several tumors; however, the role of CNTN1 in breast cancer has not been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of CNTN1 in regulating tumor growth, migration and invasion in breast cancer. RESULTS: To investigate its function, CNTN1 was expressed in Hs578T cells. CNTN1 expression was confirmed by western blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR...
April 19, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
Mehdi Najar, Emerence Crompot, Leo A van Grunsven, Laurent Dollé, Laurence Lagneaux
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) become an attractive research topic because of their crucial roles in tissue repair and regenerative medicine. Foreskin is considered as a valuable tissue source containing immunotherapeutic MSCs (FSK-MSCs). RESULTS: In this work, we used aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH) assay (ALDEFLUOR™) to isolate and therefore characterize subsets of FSK-MSCs. According to their ALDH activity, we were able to distinguish and sort by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) two subsets of FSK-MSCs (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH- )...
April 6, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
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