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Current Opinion in Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30639950/clinical-effectiveness-of-novel-rosacea-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Brittany Feaster, Abigail Cline, Steven R Feldman, Sarah Taylor
Rosacea is a common inflammatory skin disease that is difficult to manage because of the unknown etiology and due to its variable manifestations. These facts and the few new available treatment options make it difficult to select a really effective treatment. This review aims to assess the efficacy and safety of novel treatment options for rosacea. The topical alpha adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline reduces rosacea-related erythema. Topical ivermectin improves lesion count, inflammation, and maintenance of remission of rosacea compared to topical metronidazole...
January 10, 2019: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30611103/current-pharmaceutical-developments-in-atopic-dermatitis
#2
REVIEW
Laurent Misery, Flavien Huet, Olivier Gouin, Sonja Ständer, Mette Deleuran
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory, pruritic, chronic or chronically relapsing skin disease that typically begins in early childhood and is occurring frequently in families with other atopic diseases (bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhino-conjunctivitis). Thanks to immunological and neurobiological research, the era of new treatments is coming as well as it occurred with psoriasis 15 years ago. Many treatments targeting cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, TSLP) or neurotransmitters (substance P, opioids) or their respective receptors as well as phosphodiesterase-4 or the Jak/Stat pathways are under development...
January 2, 2019: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530232/current-treatment-strategies-in-refractory-chronic-pruritus
#3
REVIEW
Manuel Pedro Pereira, Asit Mittal, Sonja Ständer
Chronic pruritus is a highly prevalent, debilitating disease, which is often refractory to conventional therapies. A step-wise, guideline-driven approach should be adopted in the management of these patients. Emollients as well as topical corticosteroids if appropriate should be initiated whilst looking for the cause underlying the pruritus. If these measures fail, and the origin of the pruritus remains unknown, cannot be treated or does not respond to therapy, systemic therapies as for example gabapentinoids, antidepressants, mu-opioid-receptor antagonists or, in case of inflammatory conditions, immunosuppressive drugs should be recommended...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508662/therapeutic-strategies-for-prion-disease-a-practical-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Brian S Appleby, Allyson Connor, Han Wang
Human prion diseases are usually rapid neurodegenerative illnesses that are invariably fatal. Despite several clinical trials, no effective treatment has been discovered in humans. Although prior clinical trials have not been successful, they provided information that is vital for the formation of future clinical trials. Among these findings is the realization that there are several prion disease-specific aspects that must be considered when conducting clinical trials. The rarity, rapidity, and clinical heterogeneity of prion disease affect study enrollment and the ability to measure treatment effects...
November 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502742/impact-of-currently-used-anti-diabetic-drugs-on-myoendothelial-communication
#5
REVIEW
Hong Ding, Kevin Ye, Chris R Triggle
Diabetes is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular complications and ideally anti-diabetic drugs should not only reduce metabolic abnormalities but also reduce the negative impact of diabetes on vascular function; however, lowering blood glucose levels does not necessarily reduce cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction, defined as a reduction in endothelium-dependent vasodilation, is the earliest indicator of vascular disease and this raises the question: Do the currently used anti-diabetic drugs protect endothelial function? Metformin, in use for 60 years, is the first choice drug for type 2 diabetes and based on pre-clinical and clinical data metformin has proven cardiovascular protective actions; in contrast SGLT2 inhibitors were only introduced in 2013 but show great promise...
November 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502022/editorial
#6
EDITORIAL
David Trist, Mike Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502021/editorial
#7
EDITORIAL
David Trist, Mike Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482447/editorial-overview
#8
EDITORIAL
Jan Tack, Giovanni Sarnelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472550/cell-based-therapy-against-prion-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Aroa Relaño-Ginés, Sylvain Lehmann, Carole Crozet
Despite multiple efforts to find treatments, prion diseases are still incurable. The currently available therapeutic strategies are mostly based on compounds to inhibit pathological PrP (PrPSc) accumulation, and cellular PrP (PrPC ) conversion into PrPSc . However, they cannot reverse the pathological changes already present in the brain. Cell-based therapeutic strategies could promote the repair of the pre-existing brain damage. The few available data come mostly from preclinical studies using neural stem cells, bone marrow-derived microglia and mesenchymal stem cells, as cell sources...
November 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446351/editorial-overview-endocrine-and-metabolic-diseases-druggable-diabetes-identification-of-therapeutic-opportunities
#10
EDITORIAL
Shanta J Persaud, James E Bowe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412823/cell-free-prion-protein-conversion-assays-in-screening-for-anti-prion-drug-candidates
#11
REVIEW
Natália do Carmo Ferreira, Byron Caughey
The search for medications to treat prion diseases has lasted more than 30 years but no clinically validated treatments for prion diseases of humans or livestock have been realized. A primary strategy has been to identify molecules that can inhibit the formation of pathological forms of prion protein, for example, protease-resistant forms called PrPres . Such inhibitors can prolong the lives of experimental animals inoculated peripherally with prions, but the practical therapeutic efficacy of known inhibitors against ongoing brain infections has so far been limited by toxicity, insufficient bioavailability to the CNS, and/or strain specificities...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308416/use-of-dietary-interventions-for-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Lauren P Manning, Jessica R Biesiekierski
The role of food in the development of symptoms experienced within functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is well recognised. This review aims to describe the evidence base for dietary interventions in the different functional esophageal, duodenal and bowel disorders. Randomised controlled trials are lacking for many of the FGIDs, with the exception of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Restricting rapidly fermentable, short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) provides an evidence based dietary approach for the management of symptoms of IBS...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291995/treatment-of-diverticular-disease-targeting-symptoms-or-underlying-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Rosario Cuomo, Martina Cargiolli, Sara Cassarano, Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a highly prevalent disease in western industrialized countries that encompasses a complex set of disorders. Because of its complexity and heterogeneity, both from a pathogenic and a clinical point of view, the management of this disease represent a challenge in clinical practice. This review aims to analyze and summarize the most recent evidence on the medical strategies for DD, considering separately the different stages of the disease, from prevention of diverticula formation to treatment of acute diverticulitis and prevention of recurrences...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245474/new-developments-in-the-treatment-of-gastroparesis-and-functional-dyspepsia
#14
REVIEW
Jan Tack, Michael Camilleri
Functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastroparesis are frequent causes of upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain or burning, upper abdominal bloating, bothersome belching, nausea and vomiting. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are heterogeneous and involved mechanisms such as abnormal gastric motility (accommodation, emptying), visceral hypersensitivity, low grade mucosal inflammation and cellular changes in enteric nerves, muscle or interstitial cells of Cajal...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240968/refractory-gerd-beyond-proton-pump-inhibitors
#15
REVIEW
Sabine Roman, François Mion
Pharmacologic therapy, surgery, minimally invasive therapies, and alternative therapies are different options available for the management of refractory GERD. The choice may depend on the cause of refractoriness. Increased gastric acid suppression therapy might be useful in the rare patients with persistent elevated esophageal acid exposure on proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CAB) might induce a more important acid inhibition than PPI. Baclofen might act as a reflux inhibitor and demonstrates a significant efficacy in rumination syndrome...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218940/endocannabinoids-in-the-treatment-of-gasytrointestinal-inflammation-and-symptoms
#16
REVIEW
Marcella Pesce, Giuseppe Esposito, Giovanni Sarnelli
The evolving policies regarding the use of therapeutic Cannabis have steadily increased the public interest in its use as a complementary and alternative medicine in several disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. Endocannabinoids represent both an appealing therapeutic strategy and a captivating scientific dilemma. Results from clinical trials have to be carefully interpreted owing to possible reporting-biases related to cannabinoids psychotropic effects. Moreover, discriminating between symptomatic improvement and the real gain on the underlying inflammatory process is often challenging...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30218939/fecal-microbiota-transfer-for-bowel-disorders-efficacy-or-hype
#17
REVIEW
Max Schmulson, Mohammad Bashashati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysbiosis has been related to the pathophysiology of disorders of - gut-brain interaction (DGBI) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC). Accordingly, modulation of gut microbiota has been proposed as a potential treatment for these disorders. Gut microbiota modulation can be effected by probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, postbiotics, antibiotics and fecal transplantation (FMT) or bacteriotherapy. The latter is currently used for recurrent or severe Clostridium difficile colitis and has been the focus of recent research in IBS and FC...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189347/opioid-receptors-in-the-gi-tract-targets-for-treatment-of-both-diarrhea-and-constipation-in-functional-bowel-disorders
#18
REVIEW
J Pannemans, M Corsetti
Opioids have been used for centuries, mostly as a sedative and to treat pain. Currently, they are used on a global scale for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in diseases as osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and low back pain. Binding of opioids on opioid receptors can cause a range of different effects such as changes in stress response, analgesia, motor activity and autonomic functions. This review provide a synthetic summary of the most recent literature on the use of drugs acting on mu-receptors to treat two prevalent functional bowel disorders, presenting with opposite bowel habit...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340955/the-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-cystic-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Ren-Jay Shei, Jacelyn E Peabody, Niroop Kaza, Steven M Rowe
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR dysfunction is characterized by abnormal mucociliary transport due to a dehydrated airway surface liquid (ASL) and hyperviscous mucus, among other pathologies of host defense. ASL depletion is caused by the absence of CFTR mediated chloride secretion along with continued activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, which can also be affected by CFTR mediated anion conductance...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340053/stem-cell-therapy-in-severe-pediatric-motility-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Conor J McCann, Osvaldo Borrelli, Nikhil Thapar
Pediatric gastrointestinal motility disorders represent a range of severe developmental or acquired conditions that disrupt enteric neuromuscular function. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options are very limited but recent advances have highlighted the possibility of improved or curative stem cell-based treatments. Not only has the ability to harvest, propagate and transplant human-derived enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) been demonstrated but recent in vivo transplantation studies have confirmed that ENSCs are capable of engraftment within recipient intestine of animal models of enteric neuropathy and effecting functional rescue...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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