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Current Opinion in Pharmacology

Natália do Carmo Ferreira, Byron Caughey
The search for medications to treat prion diseases has lasted more than 30 years but no clinically validated treatments for prion diseases of humans or livestock have been realized. A primary strategy has been to identify molecules that can inhibit the formation of pathological forms of prion protein, for example, protease-resistant forms called PrPres . Such inhibitors can prolong the lives of experimental animals inoculated peripherally with prions, but the practical therapeutic efficacy of known inhibitors against ongoing brain infections has so far been limited by toxicity, insufficient bioavailability to the CNS, and/or strain specificities...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Ren-Jay Shei, Jacelyn E Peabody, Niroop Kaza, Steven M Rowe
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR dysfunction is characterized by abnormal mucociliary transport due to a dehydrated airway surface liquid (ASL) and hyperviscous mucus, among other pathologies of host defense. ASL depletion is caused by the absence of CFTR mediated chloride secretion along with continued activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, which can also be affected by CFTR mediated anion conductance...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Conor J McCann, Osvaldo Borrelli, Nikhil Thapar
Pediatric gastrointestinal motility disorders represent a range of severe developmental or acquired conditions that disrupt enteric neuromuscular function. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options are very limited but recent advances have highlighted the possibility of improved or curative stem cell-based treatments. Not only has the ability to harvest, propagate and transplant human-derived enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) been demonstrated but recent in vivo transplantation studies have confirmed that ENSCs are capable of engraftment within recipient intestine of animal models of enteric neuropathy and effecting functional rescue...
October 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Luc Biedermann, Alex Straumann
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) refers to a relatively new chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus, which according to the current understanding underlies an immune-mediated pathogenesis driven by exposure to allergens. While several open questions remain regarding ethiopathogenesis as well as treatment options and their positioning, one thing has increasingly been recognized. The disease is on the rise and will increasingly be of importance in everyday's clinical practice, not only in expert physicians but also gastroenterologists with a broad clinical spectrum, allergologists and even general practitioners...
October 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Lauren P Manning, Jessica R Biesiekierski
The role of food in the development of symptoms experienced within functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is well recognised. This review aims to describe the evidence base for dietary interventions in the different functional esophageal, duodenal and bowel disorders. Randomised controlled trials are lacking for many of the FGIDs, with the exception of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Restricting rapidly fermentable, short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) provides an evidence based dietary approach for the management of symptoms of IBS...
October 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Rosario Cuomo, Martina Cargiolli, Sara Cassarano, Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale
Diverticular disease (DD) is a highly prevalent disease in western industrialized countries that encompasses a complex set of disorders. Because of its complexity and heterogeneity, both from a pathogenic and a clinical point of view, the management of this disease represent a challenge in clinical practice. This review aims to analyze and summarize the most recent evidence on the medical strategies for DD, considering separately the different stages of the disease, from prevention of diverticula formation to treatment of acute diverticulitis and prevention of recurrences...
October 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Lucas Wauters, Tim Vanuytsel
Dumping syndrome is a common and debilitating complication of upper gastrointestinal surgery. Accelerated gastric emptying and dysregulated secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are involved in its pathophysiology. Pasireotide, a novel somatostatin analogue, improved dumping in a phase-2 study. Preliminary data suggest that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide can also improve dumping. Short bowel syndrome is the most common cause of intestinal failure and involves not only a loss of mucosal absorptive area but also hypersecretion and accelerated transit...
September 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Jan Tack, Michael Camilleri
Functional dyspepsia (FD) and gastroparesis are frequent causes of upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain or burning, upper abdominal bloating, bothersome belching, nausea and vomiting. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are heterogeneous and involved mechanisms such as abnormal gastric motility (accommodation, emptying), visceral hypersensitivity, low grade mucosal inflammation and cellular changes in enteric nerves, muscle or interstitial cells of Cajal...
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Safia Costes
The islet in type 2 diabetes is characterized by beta-cell dysfunction and deficit, increased beta-cell apoptosis and amyloid deposits that derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). In species such as humans that are vulnerable to developing type 2 diabetes, IAPP has the propensity to form toxic oligomers that contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, defining type 2 diabetes as a protein misfolding disorder. In this report, we review mechanisms known to contribute to protein misfolding and formation of toxic oligomers, and the deleterious consequences of these oligomers on beta-cell function and survival...
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Sabine Roman, François Mion
Pharmacologic therapy, surgery, minimally invasive therapies, and alternative therapies are different options available for the management of refractory GERD. The choice may depend on the cause of refractoriness. Increased gastric acid suppression therapy might be useful in the rare patients with persistent elevated esophageal acid exposure on proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CAB) might induce a more important acid inhibition than PPI. Baclofen might act as a reflux inhibitor and demonstrates a significant efficacy in rumination syndrome...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Marilidia Piglionica, Marica Cariello, Antonio Moschetta
Elevated bile acid (BA) concentrations in the liver is associated with severe disease, including cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The nuclear Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is the master regulator of BAs homeostasis. In the ileum, BA-dependent FXR activation induces the production of the fibroblast growth factor FGF19, a hormone that reaches the liver through the portal system where it represses the expression of CYP7A1, the rate limiting enzyme in the process of hepatic BAs synthesis. This gut-liver FXR-FGF19 dual action is the paradigm of physiological BA regulation and it is currently targeted in the clinical practice for liver disease such as primary cholangitis...
September 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Cesare Cremon, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Marco Ventura, Giovanni Barbara
The dynamic relationship between gut microbiota and its human host is also known as a trophic association that might range from commensalism, where only the microbe enjoys a positive effect from the relationship, to intestinal symbiosis where both host and microbe benefit from their interaction. In the last years, we have started to understand how alterations of the gut microbiota composition leading to the disruption of host-microbial interactions are associated and/or predispose individuals to disease conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel diseases to allergy and functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome...
September 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Marcella Pesce, Giuseppe Esposito, Giovanni Sarnelli
The evolving policies regarding the use of therapeutic Cannabis have steadily increased the public interest in its use as a complementary and alternative medicine in several disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. Endocannabinoids represent both an appealing therapeutic strategy and a captivating scientific dilemma. Results from clinical trials have to be carefully interpreted owing to possible reporting-biases related to cannabinoids psychotropic effects. Moreover, discriminating between symptomatic improvement and the real gain on the underlying inflammatory process is often challenging...
September 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Max Schmulson, Mohammad Bashashati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysbiosis has been related to the pathophysiology of disorders of - gut-brain interaction (DGBI) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC). Accordingly, modulation of gut microbiota has been proposed as a potential treatment for these disorders. Gut microbiota modulation can be effected by probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, postbiotics, antibiotics and fecal transplantation (FMT) or bacteriotherapy. The latter is currently used for recurrent or severe Clostridium difficile colitis and has been the focus of recent research in IBS and FC...
September 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Åsa V Keita, Johan D Söderholm
The intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to harmful luminal content, and uptake is closely controlled and regulated by neuro-immune factors. If control is broken, it might lead to ongoing enhanced mucosal permeability, potentially resulting in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The importance of mast cells in the regulation of the mucosal barrier has become obvious, and increased numbers and more activated mast cells have been observed in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease...
September 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Sian Simpson, Lorna Smith, James Bowe
Pregnancy involves a progressive increase in insulin resistance and the β-cells must adapt to compensate and prevent gestational diabetes (GDM). In this review we discuss the evidence for placental peptides, including placental lactogen, hepatocyte growth factor, adiponectin and leptin, playing a role in the islet adaptation to pregnancy. The difficulties of translating data from rodent models into human pregnancy are covered and we summarise studies investigating associations between serum placental peptides and GDM risk...
September 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
J Pannemans, M Corsetti
Opioids have been used for centuries, mostly as a sedative and to treat pain. Currently, they are used on a global scale for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in diseases as osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and low back pain. Binding of opioids on opioid receptors can cause a range of different effects such as changes in stress response, analgesia, motor activity and autonomic functions. This review provide a synthetic summary of the most recent literature on the use of drugs acting on mu-receptors to treat two prevalent functional bowel disorders, presenting with opposite bowel habit...
September 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Anna Wendt, Jonathan Ls Esguerra, Lena Eliasson
Failure of the β-cell to secrete enough insulin is a major contributing factor in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes (T2D). MicroRNAs provide an extra layer in the regulation of protein expression, and are thus involved in β-cell compensation during development of the disease. In this review, we discuss how microRNAs can regulate their target protein expression and phenotypic output, present the status of nutritional regulation of microRNA expression, and summarize work on microRNA expression in human islets...
August 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Maria Lytrivi, Mariana Igoillo-Esteve, Miriam Cnop
Type 2 diabetes is a common complex disease. Relatively little is known about the underlying pathophysiology. Mild islet inflammation has been suggested to play a pathogenic role; here we review the available evidence. Mild islet inflammation is histologically detected in pancreas sections of type 2 diabetic patients. In experimental models, it can be triggered by excess nutrients, amyloid, lipopolysaccharide, and endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress. Transcriptome studies do not consistently identify pro-inflammatory gene expression signatures in type 2 diabetic islets, and genetic evidence calls into question the causality of inflammation...
August 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Timothy J Egan, Digby F Warner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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