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Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330882/adiponectin-and-resistin-a-role-in-the-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#1
Agnieszka Rak, Namya Mellouk, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Adipokines, including adiponectin and resistin, are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue. They play a significant role in the metabolic functions that regulate insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Alteration of adiponectin and resistin plasma levels, or their expression in metabolic and gonadal tissue, are observed in some metabolic pathologies, such as obesity. Several studies have shown that these two hormones and the receptors for adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are present in various reproductive tissues in both sexes of different species...
March 22, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314792/comparative-profiling-of-small-rnas-of-pig-seminal-plasma-and-ejaculated-and-epididymal-sperm
#2
Cai Chen, Han Wu, Dan Shen, Saisai Wang, Li Zhang, Xiaoyan Wang, Bo Gao, Tianwen Wu, Bichun Li, Kui Li, Chengyi Song
The similarities and differences of small RNAs in seminal plasma, epididymal sperm and ejaculated sperm remain largely undefined. We conducted a systematic comparative analysis of small RNA profiles in pig ejaculated sperm, epididymal sperm and seminal plasma and found that the diversity distribution of small RNA species was generally similar, whereas the abundance of small RNAs is dramatically different across the three libraries; miRNAs and small RNAs derived from rRNA, tRNA, small nuclear RNA, 7SK RNA, NRON RNA and cis-regulatory RNA were enriched in the three libraries, but piRNA was absent...
March 17, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289071/disorganization-of-the-germ-cell-pool-leads-to-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#3
Ikko Kawashima, Kazuhiro Kawamura
The mammalian ovary is an organ that controls female germ cell development, storing them and releasing mature oocytes for transporting to the oviduct. During the fetal stage, female germ cells change from a proliferative state to meiosis before forming follicles with the potential for growth of surrounding somatic cells. Understanding of molecular and physiological bases of germ cell development in the fetal ovary contributed not only to the elucidation of genetic disorders in primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), but also advancement of novel treatments for patients with POI...
March 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283674/endometrial-transcriptome-in-recurrent-miscarriage-and-recurrent-implantation-failure
#4
Jin Huang, Hao Qin, Yihua Yang, Xiaoyan Chen, Jiamiao Zhang, Susan Laird, Chi Chiu Wang, Ting Fung Chan, Tin Chiu Li
The endometrium becomes receptive to the embryo only in the mid-luteal phase, but not other stages of the menstrual cycle. Endometrial factors play an important role in implantation. Women with recurrent miscarriage and recurrent implantation failure have both been reported to have altered expression of receptivity markers during the window of implantation. We aimed to compare the gene expression profiles of the endometrium in the window of implantation among women with unexplained recurrent implantation failures (RIF) and unexplained recurrent miscarriages (RM) by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)...
March 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283673/evaluation-of-equine-oocyte-developmental-competence-using-polarized-light-microscopy
#5
Alessia Bertero, Francesca Ritrovato, Francesca Evangelista, Veronica Stabile, Riccardo Fortina, Alessandro Ricci, A Revelli, Leila Vincenti, Tiziana Nervo
The purpose of this study was to observe in vitro matured equine oocytes with an objective computerized technique which involve the use of a polarized light microscope (PLM) in addition to the subjective morphological evaluation obtained using a classic light microscope (LM). Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs, n=922) were subjected to different in vitro maturation times (24, 36, or 45 h), but only 36-h matured oocytes were analyzed using PLM. The 36-h matured oocytes that reached maturity were parthenogenetically activated to evaluate quality and meiotic competence...
March 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283672/the-role-of-notch-signaling-in-the-mammalian-ovary
#6
Dallas Vanorny, Kelly Mayo
The Notch pathway is a contact-dependent, or juxtacrine, signaling system that is conserved in metazoan organisms and is important in many developmental processes. Recent investigations have demonstrated that the Notch pathway is active in both the embryonic and postnatal ovary and plays important roles in events including follicle assembly and growth, meiotic maturation, ovarian vasculogenesis, and steroid hormone production. Ovarian pathologies resulting from disruption of the Notch pathway in mice affect meiotic spindle assembly, follicle histogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival, corpora luteal function, and ovarian neovascularization...
March 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283671/obesity-energy-balance-and-spermatogenesis
#7
Pedro Fontes Oliveira, Mario Sousa, Branca M Silva, Mariana P Monteiro, Marco G Alves
Obesity has grown to pandemic proportions. It affects an increasing number of children, adolescents and young adults exposed to the silent co-morbidities of this disorder for a longer period. Infertility has arisen as one important comorbidity associated with the energy dysfunction promoted by obesity. Spermatogenesis is a highly regulated process that is determined by specific energetic requirements. The reproductive potential of males relies on hormonal-dependent and independent stimuli that control sperm quality...
March 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258156/maternal-metabolic-stress-may-affect-oviduct-gatekeeper-function
#8
Lies Jordaens, Veerle Van Hoeck, Veronica Maillo, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Waleed Fawzy A Marei, Bruno Vlaeminck, Sofie Thys, Roger G S Sturmey, Peter Bols, Jo Leroy
We hypothesized that elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) modify in vitro bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) metabolism and barrier function. Hereto, BOECs were studied in a polarized system with 24h-treatments at day 9: 1) CONTROL (0µM NEFA + 0%EtOH), 2) SOLVENT CONTROL (0µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH), 3) BASAL NEFA (720µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH in the basal compartment), 4) APICAL NEFA (720µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH in the apical compartment). FITC-albumin was used for monolayer permeability assessment, and related to Transepithelial Electric Resistance (TER)...
March 3, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258155/doxorubicin-and-vincristine-affect-undifferentiated-rat-spermatogonia
#9
Hermance Beaud, Ans M M van Pelt, Géraldine Delbes
Anticancer drugs such as alkylating agents, can affect male fertility by targeting the DNA of proliferative spermatogonial stem cells (SSC). Therefore, to reduce such side effects, other chemotherapeutics are used. But less is known about their potential genotoxicity on SSC. Moreover, DNA repair mechanisms in SSC are poorly understood. To model treatments deprived of alkylating agents that are commonly used in cancer treatment, we tested the impact of exposure to doxorubicin and vincristine, alone or in combination (MIX), on a rat spermatogonial cell line with SSC characteristics (GC-6spg)...
March 3, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250242/itgav-alpha-v-integrins-bind-spp1-osteopontin-to-support-trophoblast-cell-adhesion
#10
James W Frank, Heewon Seo, Robert C Burghardt, Kayla J Bayless, Gregory A Johnson
Attachment of the conceptus trophoblast (Tr) to the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) is critical for successful implantation. This study determined whether alpha v (av) integrins (ITGAV) directly mediate porcine trophoblast cell adhesion to secreted phosphoprotein 1 [SPP1, also known as osteopontin (OPN)], and examined the temporal/spatial expression of ITGAV, beta 3 (b3, ITGB3) and beta 6 (b6, ITGB6) integrin subunits, and SPP1, at the uterine-placental interface of pigs. Knockdown of ITGAV in a porcine Tr (pTr2) cells by siRNA reduced pTr2 attachment to SPP1...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250241/stimulation-of-ovarian-follicle-growth-following-ampk-inhibition
#11
Xiaowei Lu, Song Guo, Yuan Cheng, Jae-Hong Kim, Yi Feng, Yun Feng
Previous studies showed that the protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Hippo signaling-Yes associated protein (YAP) pathways play important roles in promoting follicle growth. Additionally, other studies demonstrated that 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an upstream regulatory element of mTOR and YAP. Here, we used AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) to in vitro culture ovaries from 10-day-old mice followed by in vivo grafting into adult hosts, or to in situ treat ovaries of 3-week-old mice by intrabursal injection followed by gonadotropin stimulation...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250240/atrx-a-novel-progesterone-regulated-biomarker-of-mammalian-oocyte-developmental-potential
#12
Lynne Clare O'Shea, Edward Daly, Carmel Hensey, Trudee Fair
A multi-species meta-analysis of published transcriptomic data from models of oocyte competence identified the chromatin remodelling factor ATRX, as a putative biomarker of oocyte competence. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that ATRX protein expression by cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) reflects their intrinsic quality and developmental potential. In excess of 10,000 bovine COCs were utilized to test our hypothesis. COCs were in vitro matured (IVM) under conditions associated with reduced developmental potential: IVM in the presence or absence of (1) progesterone synthesis inhibitor (Trilostane); (2) nuclear progesterone receptor inhibitor (Aglepristone) or (3) an inducer of DNA damage (Staurosporine)...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250239/src-family-kinases-in-hamster-spermatozoa-evidence-for-the-presence-of-lck
#13
Durgesh Kumar Singh, Rohit Kumar Deshmukh, Praveen Kumar Narayanan, Shivaji Sisinthy, Archana Bharadwaj Siva
Sperm capacitation is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Increase in tyrosine phosphorylation is considered the hallmark of capacitation and attempts to understand its regulation are ongoing. In this regard, we attempted to study the role of SRC family kinases (SFKs) in the hamster sperm functions. Interestingly, we found the presence of the lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase, LCK in mammalian spermatozoa and further characterized it in terms of its localization and function. LCK was found in spermatozoa of several species and its transcript was identified in the hamster testis...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250238/a-study-on-regional-differences-in-decidualization-of-the-mouse-uterus
#14
Miao Zhao, Wen-Qian Zhang, Ji-Long Liu
Although regional differences in mouse decidualization have been recognized for decades, the molecular mechanisms remain under-studied. In the present study, by using RNA-seq, we compared transcriptomic differences between the anti-mesometrial (AM) region and the mesometrial (M) region of mouse uterus on day 8 of pregnancy. A total of 1423 differentially expressed genes were identified, of which 811 genes were up-regulated and 612 genes were down-regulated in the AM region compared to the M region. Gene ontology analysis showed that up-regulated genes were generally involved in cell metabolism and differentiation, whereas down-regulated genes were associated with lymphocyte themes and immune response...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250237/bovine-embryo-oviduct-interaction-in-vitro-reveals-an-early-crosstalk-mediated-by-bmp-signaling
#15
Elina Vanesa García, Meriem Hamdi, Antonio Daniel Barrera, Maria-Jesús Sánchez Calabuig, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Dimitrios Rizos
Signaling components of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are expressed in an anatomically and temporally regulated fashion in bovine oviduct. However, a local response of this signaling to the presence of the embryo has yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if early embryo-oviduct interaction induces changes in the gene expression of BMP signaling components. For this purpose, we used an in vitro co-culture system to investigate the local interaction between bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) from the isthmus region with early embryos during two developmental periods: before (from the 2-cell to 8-cell stage) or during (from the 8-cell to 16-cell stage) the main phase of embryonic genome activation (EGA)...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250236/tgfb1-represses-the-expression-of-sf1-and-lrh1-to-inhibit-e2-production-in-rat-lcs
#16
Qianqian Yang, Binfang Ma, Huilian Qiao, He Ma, Yuhang Dong, Liang Cao, Jing Ma, Zhen Li
Leydig cells (LCs) in the adult testis have been identified as the major sites of oestrogen production, which is crucial for mammalian germ cell differentiation. Our previous work showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) inhibits estradiol (E2) secretion via down-regulating Cyp19 gene expression in mature rat (LCs). However, the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of TGFB1 on the expression levels of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and cAMP responsive element modulator (CREM) were evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining both in primary cultured LCs and in rat testis...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250235/methylation-dynamics-during-folliculogenesis-and-early-embryo-development-in-sheep
#17
Laura Masala, Giovanni Pietro Burrai, Emanuela Bellu, Federica Ariu, Luisa Bogliolo, Sergio Ledda, Daniela Bebbere
Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming occurs during mammalian gametogenesis and early embryogenesis. Post-fertilization demethylation of paternal and maternal genomes is considered to occur by an active and passive mechanism, respectively, in most mammals but sheep; in this species no loss of methylation was observed in either pronucleus. Post-fertilization reprogramming relies on methylating and de-methylating enzymes and co-factors that are stored during oocyte growth, concurrently with the re-methylation of the oocyte itself...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250234/apelin-apln-regulates-progesterone-secretion-and-oocyte-maturation-in-bovine-ovarian-cells
#18
Jennifer Roche, Christelle Ramé, Maxime Reverchon, Namya Mellouk, Agnieska Rak, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
APLN and its G-protein coupled receptor APLNR are expressed in the bovine ovary. However, their role in granulosa cells and oocytes is unknown. Here, we studied their expression in bovine ovarian cells and investigated their regulation in cultured luteinizing granulosa cells in response to IGF1 and FSH. We determined the effect and the molecular mechanism of APLN (isoforms 17 and 13) on bovine granulosa cell progesterone secretion and on oocyte maturation. By RT-qPCR and immunoblot, we showed that the expression of both APLN and APLNR in granulosa and oocytes significantly increased with ovarian follicles size whereas it was similar in theca interstitial cells...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246310/hyperandrogenemia-and-high-prolactin-in-congenital-utero-vaginal-aplasia-patients
#19
Patricia G Oppelt, Andreas Mueller, Liana Stephan, Ralf Dittrich, Johannes Lermann, Christian Büttner, Arif B Ekici, Gabi Conzelmann, Harald Seeger, Dorit Schöller, Katharina Rall, Matthias Wilhelm Beckmann, Pamela Lynn Strissel, Sara Brucker, Reiner Strick
Patients with the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) have a congenital utero-vaginal-cervical aplasia, but normal or hypoplastic adnexa and develop with normal female phenotype. Although reports mostly demonstrated regular steroid hormone levels in small MRKH cohorts, single MRKH patients with hyperandrogenemia and clinical presentation, like hirsutism and acne has also been shown. Genetically a correlation of WNT4 mutations with singular MRKH patients and hyperandrogenemia was noted. This present study analyzed the hormone status of 215 MRKH patients by determining the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, 17-OH progesterone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and prolactin in order to determine the incidence of hyperandrogenemia and hyperprolactinemia in MRKH patients...
February 28, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246309/ovarian-fragment-sizes-affect-viability-and-morphology-of-preantral-follicles-during-storage-at-4%C3%A2%C2%BAc
#20
Gustavo Desire Antunes Gastal, Benner G Alves, Kele Amaral Alves, Maria Eduarda Magalhães Souza, Arnaldo Diniz Vieira, Antonio Sergio Varela Junior, José Ricardo Figueiredo, Jean Feugang, Thomaz Lucia Junior, Eduardo L Gastal
The method of transportation and the conditions imposed on the ovarian tissue are pivotal aspects for the success of ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size of the ovarian tissue (e.g., whole ovary, biopsy size, and transplant size) during different times of storage (0, 6, 12, and 24 h) on the structural integrity of equine ovarian tissue transported at 4°C. Eighteen pairs of ovaries from young mares (<10 years old) were harvested in a slaughterhouse and processed to simulate the fragment sizes (biopsy and transplant size groups) or kept intact (whole ovary group), and stored at 4°C for up to 24 h in α-MEM enriched solution...
February 28, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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