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Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030492/comparative-analysis-of-activins-a-and-b-in-the-adult-mouse-epididymis-and-vas-deferens
#1
Rukmali Wijayarathna, David de Kretser, Rajini Sreenivasan, Helen Ludlow, Ralf Middendorff, Andreas Meinhardt, Kate L Loveland, Mark P Hedger
Activin A regulates testicular and epididymal development, but the role of activin B in the epididymis and vas deferens is unknown. Mouse models with reduced activin A (Inhba(+/-) and Inhba(BK/+)), or its complete absence (Inhba(BK/BK)), were investigated to identify specific roles of activins in the male reproductive tract. In 8 week old Inhba(+/-) mice, serum activin A decreased by 70%, with a 50% reduction of gene expression and protein in the testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Activin B and the activin-binding protein, follistatin, were similar to wild-type...
October 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030491/autophagy-is-activated-in-the-ovarian-tissue-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
Da Li, Yue You, Fang-Fang Bi, Tie-Ning Zhang, Jiao Jiao, Tian-Ren Wang, Yi-Ming Zhou, Zi-Qi Shen, Xiu-Xia Wang, Qing Yang
The importance of autophagy in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-related metabolic disorders is increasingly being recognized, but few studies have investigated the role of autophagy in PCOS. Here, transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that autophagy was enhanced in the ovarian tissue from both humans and rats with PCOS. Consistent with this, ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS rats showed increases in the autophagy marker protein light chain 3B (LC3B), whereas levels of the autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 were decreased...
October 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030490/early-sex-dependent-differences-in-response-to-environmental-stress
#3
Serafin Pérez-Cerezales, Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Dimitrios Rizos, Pat Lonergan, Pablo Bermejo-Alvarez, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan
Developmental plasticity enables the appearance of long-term effects in offspring caused by exposure to environmental stressors during embryonic and foetal life. These long-term effects can be traced to pre- and post-implantation development, and in both cases the effects are usually sex-specific. During preimplantation development, male and female embryos exhibit an extensive transcriptional dimorphism mainly driven by incomplete X-chromosome inactivation. These early developmental stages are crucial for the establishment of epigenetic marks that will be conserved throughout development, making it a particularly susceptible period for the appearance of long-term epigenetic-based phenotypes...
October 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018059/involvement-of-leptin-in-the-molecular-physiology-of-the-placenta
#4
Malena Schanton, Julieta Lorena Maymó, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Victor Sanchez-Margalet, Cecilia Varone
Leptin is a homeostatic regulator in the placenta where it promotes proliferation, protein synthesis and the expression of tolerogenic maternal response molecules such as HLA-G. Leptin also exerts an anti-apoptotic action in placenta controlling the expression of p53 master cell cycle regulator under different stress conditions. On the other hand, leptin is an integrative target of different placental stimuli. The expression of leptin in placenta is regulated by hCG, insulin, steroids, hypoxia, and many other growth hormones, suggesting that it might have an important endocrine function in the trophoblastic cells...
October 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993454/dynamics-of-cytoplasm-and-cleavage-divisions-correlates-with-preimplantation-embryo-development
#5
Robert Milewski, Marcin Szpila, Anna Maria Ajduk
In vitro fertilization has become increasingly popular as an infertility treatment. In order to improve efficiency of this procedure, there is a strong need for a refinement of existing embryo assessment methods and development of novel, robust and non-invasive selection protocols. Studies conducted on animal models can be extremely helpful here, as they allow for more extensive research on the potential biomarkers of embryo quality. In the present paper we subjected mouse embryos to non-invasive time-lapse imaging and combine the Particle Image Velocimetry analysis of cytoplasmic dynamics in freshly fertilized oocytes with the morphokinetic analysis of recordings covering 5 days of preimplantation development...
October 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993453/antidiabetic-therapies-and-male-reproductive-function-where-do-we-stand
#6
Renata Santos Tavares, Sara Escada-Rebelo, Andreia F Silva, Maria Inês Sousa, Joao Ramalho-Santos, Sandra Amaral
Diabetes mellitus has been increasing at alarming rates in recent years, thus jeopardizing human health worldwide. Several antidiabetic drugs have been introduced in the market to manage glycemic levels, proven effective in avoiding, minimizing or preventing the appearance or development of diabetes mellitus-related complications. However, and despite the established association between such pathology and male reproductive dysfunction, the influence of these therapeutic interventions on such topic have been scarcely explored...
October 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971897/subcellular-localization-of-ms4a13-isoform-2-in-mouse-spermatozoa
#7
Takane Kaneko, Kiyotaka Toshimori, Hiroshi Iida
To identify up-regulated genes during the development of spermatozoa, we performed PCR-selected subtraction analysis of testes RNA samples from 10-day-old and 12-week-old shrews. A transcript, highly homologous to two mouse transcripts, Ms4a13-1 and Ms4a13-2, was differentially regulated. Ms4a13-2, but not Ms4a13-1, was shown to be primarily expressed in mouse testes in an age-dependent manner. Ms4a13-2 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 522 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 174 amino acids, with predicted molecular mass, 19,345 Da...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971896/in-vitro-maturation-impacts-cumulus-oocyte-complex-metabolism-and-stress-in-cattle
#8
Maite Del Collado, Juliano Coelho da Silveira, Marcelo Luna Freire Oliveira, Barbara Monteiro da Silva Marques Alves, Rosineide Costa Simas, Adriana Teixeira Godoy, Mirela Batista Coelho, Lygia Azevedo Marques, Mateus Maldonado Carriero, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia Nogueira, Marcos Nogueira Eberlin, Luciano A Silva, Flávio Vieira Meirelles, Felipe Perecin
The influence of in vitro maturation (IVM) in oocytes is still not totally understood. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of IVM on the metabolism and homeostasis of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes. In the present study, we demonstrated that IVM leads to accumulation of neutral lipids associated with differential levels of the mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols in both cumulus cells and oocytes. We observed that in vitro-matured oocytes exhibited decreased glutathione and reactive oxygen species levels and a lower ATP/ADP ratio when compared to in vivo-matured oocytes, with no significant differences in metabolism and stress related mRNA or miRNA levels...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971895/dyslipidemia-alters-sperm-maturation-and-capacitation-in-lxr-null-mice
#9
Marjorie Whitfield, Rachel Guiton, Jeremie Rispal, Niyazi Acar, Ayhan Kocer, Joël R Drevet, Fabrice Saez
Lipid metabolism disorders (dyslipidemia) are causes of male infertility, but little is known about their impact on male gametes when considering post-testicular maturation events, given that studies concentrate most often on endocrine dysfunctions and testicular consequences. In this study, three-month-old wild type (wt) and Liver-X-Receptors knock out (Lxrα;β-/-) males were fed four weeks with a control or a lipid-enriched diet containing 1.25% cholesterol (High Cholesterol Diet - HCD). The HCD triggered a dyslipidemia leading to sperm post-testicular alterations and infertility...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971894/clusterin-in-the-mouse-epididymis-possible-roles-in-sperm-maturation-and-capacitation
#10
Arpornrad Saewu, Suraj Kadunganattil, Riya Raghupathy, Kessiri Kongmanas, Pamela Diaz Astudillo, Louis Hermo, Nongnuj Tanphaichitr
Clusterin (CLU) is known as an extracellular chaperone for proteins under stress, thus preventing them from aggregation and precipitation. We showed herein that CLU, expressed by principal cells of the mouse caput epididymis, was present in high amounts in the lumen. In the cauda epididymis, CLU bound tightly to the sperm head surface and its amount on total sperm was similar to that in the bathing luminal fluid. In both immotile and motile caudal epididymal sperm, CLU was localized over the entire sperm head except at the convex ridge, although in the motile sperm population the CLU immunofluorescence pattern was distinctively mottled with a lower intensity...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971893/the-crosstalk-between-esc-and-m%C3%AF-impairs-cytotoxicity-of-nk-cell-by-secreting-il-10-and-tgf-%C3%AE-in-ems
#11
Hui-Li Yang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Kai-Kai Chang, Jie Mei, Li-Qing Huang, Ming-Yan Wang, Yi Meng, Si-Yao Ha, Da-Jin Li, Ming-Qing Li
The dysfunction of NK cells in women with endometriosis (EMS) contributes to the immune escape of menstrual endometrial fragments refluxed into the peritoneal cavity. The reciprocal communications between endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and lymphocytes facilitate the development of EMS. However, the mechanism of these communications on cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells in endometriotic milieus is still larger unknown. To imitate the local immune microenvironment, the co-culture systems of ESCs from patients with EMS and monocyte-derived macrophages or of ESCs, macrophages and NK cells were constructed...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971892/production-of-cloned-mice-using-oocytes-derived-from-icr-outbred-strain
#12
Yoshiaki Tanabe, Hiroki Kuwayama, Sayaka Wakayama, Hiroaki Nagatomo, Masatoshi Ooga, Satoshi Kamimura, Satoshi Kishigami, Teruhiko Wakayama
Recently, it has become possible to generate cloned mice using a somatic cell nucleus derived from not only F1 strains but also inbred strains. However, to date, all cloned mice have been generated using F1 mouse oocytes as the recipient cytoplasm. Here, we attempted to generate cloned mice from oocytes derived from the ICR outbred mouse strain. Cumulus cell nuclei derived from BDF1 and ICR mouse strains were injected into enucleated oocytes of both strains to create four groups. Subsequently, the quality and developmental potential of the cloned embryos were examined...
October 2, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971891/embryo-cell-allocation-patterns-are-not-altered-by-biopsy-but-can-be-linked-with-further-development
#13
Lessly Pilar Sepulveda-Rincon, Nadia Islam, Peter Marsters, Bruce K Campbell, Nathalie Beaujean, Walid E Maalouf
It has been suggested that first embryo cleavage can be related with the embryonic-abembryonic axis at blastocyst stage in mice. Thus, cells of the 2 cell embryo might be already biased to form the inner cell mass or trophectoderm. This study was conducted to observe the possible effects of embryo biopsy on cell allocation patterns during embryo pre-implantation in two different mouse strains and the effects of these patterns on further development. First, one blastomere of the 2-cell embryo was injected with a lipophilic tracer and cell allocation patterns were observed at blastocyst stage...
September 29, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971890/altered-mirna-profile-dependent-on-art-outcome-in-early-pregnancy-targets-wnt-pathway
#14
Alexander Freis, Andreas Keller, Nicole Ludwig, Eckart Meese, Julia Jauckus, Julia Rehnitz, Edison Capp, Thomas Strowitzki, Ariane Germeyer
Main goal of this study is to detect possible alterations in microRNA(miRNA)-expression and the pathway targeted in plasma at the time of embryo transfer and pregnancy testing dependent on the assisted reproductive treatment (ART) outcome after ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization. Changes in miRNA-expression in plasma of women, who became pregnant (n=6) vs. women who failed implantation (n=6) following day 5 embryo transfer (ET), were investigated at day of ET and pregnancy testing (PT). Protein expression to validate the finding was performed with a sample size of n=20 (10 per group) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
September 29, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947561/profiling-of-mirnas-in-porcine-germ-cells-during-spermatogenesis
#15
Xiaoxu Chen, Dongxue Che, Pengfei Zhang, Xueliang Li, Qingqing Yuan, Tian Tian Liu, Jiayin Guo, Tongying Feng, Ligang Wu, Mingzhi Liao, Zuping He, Wen Xian Zeng
Spermatogenesis includes mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of pachytene spermatocytes and spermiogenesis of round spermatids. MiRNAs as a ~22nt small noncoding RNA are involved in regulating spermatogenesis at post-transcriptional level. However, the dynamic miRNAs expression in the developmental porcine male germ cells remains largely undefined. In this study, we purified porcine spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids using a STA-PUT apparatus. A small RNA deep sequencing and analysis were conducted to establish a miRNAs profiling in these male germ cells...
September 25, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916718/potential-sperm-contributions-to-the-murine-zygote-predicted-by-in-silico-analysis
#16
Panagiotis Ntostis, Deborah Carter, David Iles, J D Huntriss, Maria Tzetis, David Miller
Paternal contributions to the zygote are thought to extend beyond delivery of the genome and paternal RNAs have been linked to epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in different species. In addition, sperm-egg fusion activates several downstream processes that contribute to zygote formation, including PLC zeta-mediated egg activation and maternal RNA clearance. Since a third of the preimplantation developmental period in the mouse occurs prior to the first cleavage stage, there is ample time for paternal RNAs or their encoded proteins potentially to interact and participate in early zygotic activities...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916717/nlrps-the-subcortical-maternal-complex-and-genomic-imprinting
#17
David Monk, Marta Sanchez-Delgado, Rosemary Fisher
Before activation of the embryonic genome, the oocyte provides many of the RNAs and proteins required for the epigenetic reprogramming and the transition to a totipotent state. Targeted disruption of a subset of oocyte-derived transcripts in mice results in early embryonic lethality and cleavage stage embryonic arrest as highlighted by the members of the Subcortical Maternal Complex (SCMC). Maternal-effect recessive mutations of NLRP7, KHDC3L and NLRP5 in humans are associated with variable reproductive outcomes, biparental hydatidiform moles (BiHM) and widespread multi-locus imprinting disturbances...
September 15, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912304/e-cadherin-and-zeb2-modulate-trophoblast-cells-differentiation-during-placental-development-in-pigs
#18
Linjun Hong, Kun Han, Kejia Wu, Ruize Liu, Ji Huang, Joan K Lunney, Shuhong Zhao, Mei Yu
It is one of the important events that trophoblast cells within the placental folds differentiate into two types that differ in cell shape during placental development in pigs. This study showed that all the trophoblast cells were in similar shape between Yorkshire and Chinese Meishan pigs on day 26 of gestation, thereafter, the trophoblast cells located at the top of the placental folds became high columnar while those cells at the base of the placental folds were cuboidal on day 50 of gestation. Additionally, on day 95 of gestation, all the trophoblast cells in Meishan pigs became cuboidal, but the trophoblast cells located at the top of the placental folds in Yorkshire pigs still remained columnar...
September 14, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912303/gpr62-constitutively-activates-camp-signaling-but-is-dispensable-for-male-fertility-in-mice
#19
Tomoyuki Muroi, Yuri Matsushima, Ryota Kanamori, Hikari Inoue, Wataru Fujii, Keiichiro Yogo
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) participate in diverse physiological functions and are promising targets for drug discovery. However, there are still over 140 orphan GPCRs whose functions remain to be elucidated. Gpr62 is one of the orphan GPCRs that is expressed in the rat and human brain. In this study, we found that Gpr62 is also expressed in male germ cells in mice, and its expression increases along with sperm differentiation. GPR62 lacks the BBXXB and DRY motifs, which are conserved across many GPCRs, and it was able to induce cAMP signaling in the absence of a ligand...
September 14, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890443/stress-and-sex-does-cortisol-mediate-sex-change-in-fish
#20
Alexander Goikoetxea, Erica Todd, Neil Gemmell
Cortisol is the main glucocorticoid in fish and the hormone most directly associated with stress. Recent research suggests that this hormone may act as a key factor linking social environmental stimuli and the onset of sex change by initiating a shift in steroidogenesis from estrogens to androgens. For many teleost fish, sex change occurs as a usual part of the life cycle. Changing sex is known to enhance the lifetime reproductive success of these fish and the modifications involved (behavioral, gonadal, morphological) are well studied...
September 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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