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Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899720/luteal-function-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-arginine-treated-ewes-fed-different-planes-of-nutrition
#1
Casie S Bass, Dale A Redmer, Samantha L Kaminski, Anna T Grazul-Bilska
Corpus luteum (CL) functions are influenced by numerous factors including hormones, growth and angiogenic factors, nutritional plane, and dietary supplements such as arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid and precursor for proteins, polyamines, and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to determine if Arg supplementation to ewes fed different planes of nutrition impacts 1) progesterone (P4) concentrations in serum and luteal tissue, 2) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and receptor (R) soluble guanylate cyclase β protein and mRNA expression, and 3) luteal mRNA expression for selected angiogenic factors during the estrous cycle...
November 29, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899719/a-novel-hypothesis-for-histone-to-protamine-transition-in-bos-taurus-spermatozoa
#2
Gerly Sillaste, Lauris Kaplinski, Riho Meier, Ülle Jaakma, Elo Eriste, Andres Salumets
DNA compaction with protamines in sperm is essential for successful fertilization. However, a portion of sperm chromatin remains less tightly packed with histones, which genomic location and function remain unclear. We extracted and sequenced histone-associated DNA from sperm of nine ejaculates from three bulls. We found that the fraction of retained histones varied between samples but the variance was similar between samples from the same and different individuals. The most conserved regions showed similar abundance across all samples, while in other regions their presence correlated with the size of histone fraction...
November 29, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888198/ovarian-follicular-characteristics-in-sheep-with-multiple-fecundity-genes
#3
Kenneth P McNatty, Derek A Heath, Zaramasina Clark, Karen Lee Reader, Jennifer L Juengel, Janet Pitman
Ewes heterozygous for combinations of the Inverdale (FecXI; I+), Booroola (FecB; B+) and Woodlands (FecX2W; W+) mutations have ovulation rates higher than each mutation separately. The aims of the experiments described herein were to examine the ovarian phenotypes in I+B+ and I+B+W+ ewes and to compare these with the appropriate ++ (controls), I+ and BB animals available for this study. The mean±S.E.M. ovulation rates in the ++ (n=23), I+ (10), I+B+ (7), I+B+W+ (10) and BB (3) animals were 1.8±0.1, 2.5±0...
November 25, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879344/failure-to-launch-aberrant-cumulus-gene-expression-during-oocyte-in-vitro-maturation
#4
Hannah Mary Brown, Kylie Dunning, Melanie Sutton-McDowall, Rob B Gilchrist, Jeremy G Thompson, Darryl L Russell
In vitro maturation (IVM) offers significant benefits for human infertility treatment and animal breeding, but this potential is yet to be fully realised due to reduced oocyte developmental competence in comparison with in vivo matured oocytes. Cumulus cells occupy an essential position in determining oocyte developmental competence. Here we have examined the areas of deficient gene expression, as determined within microarrays primarily from cumulus cells of mouse COCs, but also other species, between in vivo matured and in vitro matured oocytes...
November 22, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879343/strap-regulates-early-follicle-development-in-the-mouse-ovary
#5
Isam B Sharum, Sofia Granados-Aparici, Fiona C Warrander, Felicity P Tournant, Mark Fenwick
The molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the development of small, gonadotrophin-independent follicles are poorly understood; however, many studies have highlighted an essential role for TGFB ligands. Canonical TGFB signalling is dependent upon intracellular Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Strap has been identified in other tissues as an inhibitor of the TGFB-Smad signalling pathway. Therefore, in this study we aimed to determine the expression and role of Strap in the context of early follicle development...
November 22, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864335/effects-of-maternal-obesity-on-placental-function-and-fetal-development
#6
Kristy R Howell, Theresa Powell
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and pregnancies in obese mothers have increased risk for complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, preterm birth and caesarian section. Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease and are susceptible to develop neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. Changes in placental function not only play a critical role in the development of pregnancy complications but may also be involved in linking maternal obesity to long-term health risks in the infant...
November 18, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845691/non-invasive-evaluation-of-placental-blood-flow-lessons-from-animal-models
#7
Eve Mourier, Anne Tarrade, Jie Duan, Christophe Richard, Charline Bertholdt, Marine Beaumont, Olivier Morel, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
In human obstetrics, placental vascularisation impairment is frequent as well as linked to severe pathological events (preeclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction) and there is a need for reliable methods allowing non-invasive evaluation of placental blood flow. Uteroplacental vascularisation is complex and animal models are essential for the technical development and safety assessment of these imaging tools for human clinical use but these techniques can also be applied in the veterinary context. This paper reviews how ultrasound based imaging methods such as 2D and 3D Doppler can provide valuable insight for the exploration of placental blood flow both in humans and animals and how new approaches such as the use of ultrasound contrast agents or ultrafast Doppler may allow to discriminate between maternal (non-pulsatile) and fetal (pulsatile) blood flow in the placenta...
November 14, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799629/oxidative-stress-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-evaluation-during-ovarian-stimulation-for-icsi
#8
Anderson Sanches de Melo, Jhenifer Kliemchen, Alceu Afonso Jordão Junior, Rui A Ferriani, Paula Andrea Navarro
Oxidative stress (OS) may affect natural fertility and the results of assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs). Subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be related to OS. This process may intensify during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for ARTs because of increased ovarian metabolic activity and hypoestrogenism with the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHas). The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of systemic OS in non-stimulated cycles and to determine OS markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], advanced oxidation protein products [AOPP], hydroperoxides [FOX], glutathione [GSH], and vitamin E) during COS in non-obese infertile women with and without PCOS who were subjected to ARTs...
October 31, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799627/common-and-specific-transcriptional-signatures-in-mouse-embryos-and-adult-tissues-induced-by-in-vitro-procedures
#9
Sky Feuer, Xiaowei Liu, Annemarie Donjacour, Rhodel Simbulan, Emin Maltepe, Paolo Rinaudo
Stressful environmental exposures incurred early in development can affect postnatal metabolic health and susceptibility to non-communicable diseases in adulthood, although the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs have yet to be elucidated. Here we use a mouse model to investigate how assorted in vitro exposures restricted exclusively to the preimplantation period affect transcription both acutely in embryos and long-term in subsequent offspring adult tissues, to determine if reliable transcriptional markers of in vitro stress are present at specific developmental time points and throughout development...
October 31, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799625/impact-of-hypocaloric-dietary-intervention-on-ovulation-in-obese-women-with-pcos
#10
Brittany Y Jarrett, Marla E Lujan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of ovulatory dysfunction impacting women of reproductive age. Obesity and insulin resistance are thought to potentiate disruptions in antral follicle development that result in chronic anovulation, and as such, have become important therapeutic targets of dietary interventions aimed at weight loss. Caloric restriction has been shown to promote sporadic ovulation in obese women with PCOS, but improvements have occurred across a wide range of patients and little has been garnered about the factors that distinguish responders from non-responders...
October 31, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780883/human-umbilical-perivascular-cells-a-novel-source-of-mscs-to-support-testicular-niche-regeneration
#11
Leila Maghen, Ekaterina Shlush, Itai Gat, Melissa Filice, Tanya Barretto, Keith Jarvi, Kirk Lo, Andree S Gauthier-Fisher, Clifford L Librach
The expansion of functional testicular biopsy-derived human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSC) ex-vivo may enable the restoration of fertility in pre-pubertal males having undergone gonadotoxic therapies or men with severe male factor infertility. Various somatic cells are known to regulate SSC homeostasis and spermatogenesis in the developing and adult testis. Prior attempts to recapitulate this niche demonstrated the requirement of feeder cells, such as endogenous testicular somatic cells, for germ cell expansion ex-vivo...
October 25, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777323/a-single-dose-of-allopregnanolone-affects-the-ovarian-morphology-and-steroidogenesis
#12
Laura T Pelegrina, Antonella Rr Cáceres, Fernando A Giuliani, Joana A Asensio, Fernanda Parborell, Myriam Raquel Laconi
Allopregnanolone, a progesterone metabolite, is one of the best characterized neurosteroids. In a dose that mimics serum levels during stress, allopregnanolone inhibits sexual receptivity and ovulation and induces a decrease in luteinizing hormone levels. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of an intracerebroventricular administration of allopregnanolone on ovarian morphophysiology, serum and tissue levels of progesterone and estrogen, and enzymatic activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3α-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase in the ovary and in the medial basal hypothalamus on the morning of estrus...
October 24, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756810/mir-375-mediates-crh-signaling-pathway-in-inhibiting-e2-synthesis-in-porcine-ovary
#13
Chulin Yu, Meiling Li, Yue Wang, Ying Liu, Chengzhi Yan, Jirong Pan, Jiali Liu, Sheng Cui
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling system is involved in numbers of stress-related physiological and pathological responses,including its inhibiting effects on estradiol (E2) synthesis and follicular development in the ovary. In addition, there are reports that microRNAs (miRNAs) can control the function of animal reproductive system. The aim of present study was to investigate the functions of miR-375 and the relationship between miR-375 and CRH signaling molecules in the porcine ovary. First, our common PCR results show that miR-375 and the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) are expressed in porcine ovary, whereas CRH receptor 2 (CRHR2) is not detected...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754873/dynamic-remodeling-of-endometrial-extracellular-matrix-regulates-embryo-receptivity-in-cattle
#14
Saara Carollina Scolari, Guilherme Pugliesi, Ricardo de Francisco Strefezzi, Sónia Cristina Andrade, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho, Mario Binelli
We aimed to evaluate in the bovine endometrium whether (1) key genes involved in endometrial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling are regulated by the endocrine peri-ovulatory milieu; and (2) specific endometrial ECM-related transcriptome can be linked to pregnancy outcome. In Experiment 1, pre-ovulatory follicle growth of cows was manipulated to obtain two groups with specific endocrine peri-ovulatory profiles: the Large Follicle-Large CL group (LF-LCL) served as a paradigm for greater receptivity and fertility and showed greater plasma pre-ovulatory estradiol and post-ovulatory progesterone concentrations when compared to the Small Follicle-Small CL group (SF-SCL)...
October 17, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754872/expanding-the-role-of-tachykinins-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-reproduction
#15
Chrysanthi Fergani, Victor Navarro
Reproductive function is driven by the hormonal interplay between the gonads and brain-pituitary axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is released in a pulsatile manner, which is critical for the attainment and maintenance of fertility, however, GnRH neurons lack the ability to directly respond to most regulatory factors, and a hierarchical upstream neuronal network governs its secretion. We and others proposed a model in which Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), so called KNDy neurons, release kisspeptin (a potent GnRH secretagogue) in a pulsatile manner to drive GnRH pulses under the coordinated autosynaptic action of its cotransmitters, the tachykinin neurokinin B (NKB, stimulatory) and dynorphin (inhibitory)...
October 17, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742864/deep-rna-sequencing-analysis-of-syncytialization-related-genes-during-bewo-cell-fusion
#16
Ru Zheng, Yue Li, Huiying Sun, Xiaoyin Lu, Bao-Fa Sun, Rui Wang, Lina Cui, Cheng Zhu, Hai-Yan Lin, Hongmei Wang
The syncytiotrophoblast (STB) plays a key role in maintaining the function of the placenta during human pregnancy. However, the molecular network that orchestrates STB development remains elusive. The aim of this study was to obtain broad and deep insight into human STB formation via transcriptomics. We adopted RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to investigate genes and isoforms involved in forskolin (FSK)-induced fusion of BeWo cells. BeWo cells were treated with 50 μM FSK or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control for 24 and 48 h, and the mRNAs at 0, 24 and 48 h was sequenced...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738189/modelling-oviduct-fluid-formation-in-vitro
#17
Constantine A Simintiras, Thomas Fröhlich, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Georg J Arnold, Susanne E Ulbrich, Henry J Leese, Roger G S Sturmey
Oviduct fluid is the microenvironment that supports early reproductive processes including fertilisation, embryo cleavage, and genome activation. However, the composition and regulation of this critical environment remains rather poorly defined. This study uses an in vitro preparation of the bovine oviduct epithelium, to investigate the formation and composition of in vitro derived oviduct fluid (ivDOF) within a controlled environment. We confirm the presence of oviduct specific glycoprotein 1 in ivDOF and show that the amino acid and carbohydrate content resembles that of previously reported in vivo data...
October 13, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679865/characterization-of-tetraspanin-protein-cd81-in-mouse-spermatozoa-and-bovine-gametes
#18
Jana Jankovicova, Michaela Frolikova, Natasa Sebkova, Michal Simon, Petra Cupperova, Denisa Lipcseyova, Katarina Michalkova, Lubica Horovska, Radislav Sedlacek, Pavel Stopka, Jana Antalikova, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
Sperm-egg interaction and fusion represents a key moment of fertilization and it would not happen in mammals without the interaction of the tetraspanin superfamily members including protein CD81. A detailed immunohistochemical localization of CD81 was monitored on bovine oocytes of different maturation stages, as well as during early embryogenesis. There was also a CD81characterization on bovine and mouse sperm carried out. On bovine eggs, CD81 was detected on the plasma membrane of the germinal vesicle, metaphase I and metaphase II oocytes...
September 27, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679864/a-high-fat-diet-fed-during-different-periods-of-life-impairs-steroidogenesis-of-rat-leydig-cells
#19
Maria Etelvina Pinto-Fochi, Eloísa Zanin Pytlowanciv, Vanessa Reame, Alex Rafacho, Daniele Lisboa Ribeiro, Sebastião Roberto Taboga, Rejane M Góes
This study evaluated the impact of a high-fat diet (HFD) during different stages of the rat life, associated or not with maternal obesity, on the content of sex steroid hormones and the morphophysiology of Leydig cells. The following periods of development were examined: (O1) gestation, (O2) gestation and lactation, (O3) from weaning to adulthood, (O4) from lactation to adulthood, (O5) gestation to adulthood and (O6) after sexual maturation. The HFD contained 20% unsaturated fat while the control diet was 4% fat...
September 27, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679863/sterile-inflammation-and-pregnancy-complications-a-review
#20
Mathieu Nadeau-Vallee, Dima Obari, Julia Palacios, Marie-Eve Brien, Cyntia Duval, Sylvain Chemtob, Sylvie Girard
Inflammation is central to successful reproduction. In the last decade, important advances have been made in regards to endogenous, and therefore non-infectious, initiators of inflammation which can act through the same receptors as pathogens. These molecules are referred to as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and their involvement in reproduction has only recently begun to be unraveled. Even though inflammation is necessary for successful reproduction, untimely activation of inflammatory processes can have devastating impact on pregnancy outcomes...
September 27, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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