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Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196493/intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-in-domestic-and-wild-mammals
#1
Daniel Felipe Salamone, Natalia G Canel, Maria Belén Rodriguez
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a useful technique for clinical applications in the horse breeding industry. However, both ICSI blastocyst and offspring production continues to be limited for most farm and wild species. This article reviews technical differences of ICSI performance among species, possible biological and methodological reasons for the variable efficiency and potential strategies to improve the outcomes. One of the major applications of ICSI in animal production is the reproduction of high value specimens...
December 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196492/high-fat-diet-exposure-from-pre-pubertal-age-induces-pcos-in-rats
#2
Roshni S Patel, Gaurang B Shah
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, polycystic ovaries and metabolic syndrome. Many researchers reported that PCOS often starts with menarche in adolescents. Presently available animal models focuses on ovarian but not metabolic features of PCOS. Therefore, we hypothesized that high fat diet feeding to pre-pubertal female rats results in both reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. Pre-pubertal female rats were divided into two groups: group I received normal pellet diet and group II received high fat diet (HFD)...
December 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170164/kirrel-is-differentially-expressed-in-adipose-cells-in-fertil-and-fertil-cows-role-in-ovary
#3
Stephanie Coyral-Castel, Christelle Ramé, Juliette Cognié, Jerome Lecardonnel, Sylvain Marthey, Diane Esquerré, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Sebastien Elis, Sebastien Fritz, Mekki Boussaha, Florence Jaffrezic, Joëlle Dupont
We have previously shown that dairy cows carrying the "fertil-" haplotype for one quantitative trait locus affecting female fertility located on the bovine chromosome three (QTL-F-Fert-BTA3) have a significantly lower conception rate and body weight after calving than cows carrying the "fertil+" haplotype. Here, we compared by tiling array the expression of genes included in the QTL-F-Fert-BTA3 in "fertil+" and "fertil-" adipose tissue one week after calving when plasma non esterified fatty acid concentrations were greater in "fertil-" animals...
November 23, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170163/micrornas-tiny-molecules-with-significant-role-in-mammalian-follicular-and-oocyte-development
#4
Dawit Tesfaye, Samuel Gebremedhn, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Tsige Hailay, Michael Hoelker, Christine Grosse-Brinkhaus, Karl Schellander
The genetic regulation of female fertility (follicular development, oocyte maturation, and early preimplantation embryo development) involves the spatio-temporal regulation of those genes that play key roles in various stages of the female reproductive axis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA, are known to regulate the expression of a large proportion of such genes. In recent decades, multiple studies have aimed to determine the roles of these non-coding RNAs in mammalian follicular development, oocyte growth, and embryo development...
November 23, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162649/effects-of-sympathectomy-on-ovarian-follicular-development-and-steroid-secretion
#5
Maritza Paola Garrido, Daniela Fernandois, Mauricio Venegas, Alfonso Paredes
Recently, the influence of adrenergic activity over ovarian function, and thus fertility, has begun to gain importance. Previous studies have shown that adrenergic activity through norepinephrine (NE) participates in the control of follicular development and steroidal secretion from the ovary, among other functions. To examine this phenomenon, the denervation of the gonad has been widely used to observe changes in the ovary's performance. Nevertheless, the effect of the absence of adrenergic nerves in the ovary has only been studied in short times periods...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162648/biological-age-of-the-endometrium-using-dna-methylation
#6
Mia S Olesen, Anna Starnawska, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Alexandra P Bielfeld, Inge E Agerholm, Axel Forman, Michael T Overgaard, Mette Nyegaard
Age has a detrimental effect on reproduction and as an increasing number of women postpone motherhood, it is imperative to assess biological age in terms of fertility prognosis and optimizing fertility treatment individually. Horvath's epigenetic clock is a mathematical algorithm that calculates the biological age of human cells, tissues or organs based on DNA methylation levels. The clock however, was previously shown to be highly inaccurate for the human endometrium, most likely because of the hormonal responsive nature of this tissue...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158352/intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-state-of-the-art-in-humans
#7
Gianpiero D Palermo, Claire L O'Neill, Stephen Chow, Stephanie Cheung, Alessandra Parrella, Nigel Pereira, Zev Rosenwaks
Amongst infertile couples, 25% involve both male and female factors, while male factor alone accounts for another 25% due to oligo-, astheno-, terato-zoospermia, a combination of the three, or even a complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate and can lead to a poor prognosis even with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been with us now for a quarter of a century and in spite of the controversy generated since its inception, it remains in the forefront of the techniques utilized in ART...
November 20, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133304/stem-cells-in-vitro-gametogenesis-and-male-fertility
#8
Go Nagamatsu, Katsuhiko Hayashi
Reconstitution in culture of biological processes, such as differentiation and organization, is a key challenge in regenerative medicine, and one in which stem cell technology plays a central role. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are useful materials for reconstitution of germ cell development in vitro, as they are capable of differentiating into gametes. Reconstitution of germ cell development, termed in vitro gametogenesis, will provide an experimental platform for a better understanding of germ cell development, as well as an alternative source of gametes for reproduction, with the potential to cure infertility...
November 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122969/single-ca-2-transients-versus-oscillatory-ca-2-signalling-limitations-and-benefits
#9
Minerva Ferrer-Buitrago, Davina Bonte, Petra De Sutter, Luc Leybaert, Bjorn Heindryckx
Oocyte activation is a calcium (Ca(2+)) dependent process that has been investigated in depth, in particular regarding its impact in assisted reproduction technology (ART). Following a standard model of signal transduction, Ca(2+) drives the meiotic progression upon fertilization in all species studied to date. However, Ca(2+) changes during oocyte activation are species specific and they can be classified in two modalities based on the pattern defined by the Ca(2+) signature: a single Ca(2+) transient (e.g...
November 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109119/causes-and-consequences-of-chromosome-segregation-error-in-preimplantation-embryos
#10
Cayetana Vázquez-Diez, Greg FitzHarris
Errors in chromosome segregation are common during the mitotic divisions of preimplantation development in mammalian embryos, giving rise to so-called 'mosaic' embryos possessing a mixture of euploid and aneuploid cells. Mosaicism is widely considered to be detrimental to embryo quality, and is frequently used as criteria to select embryos for transfer in human fertility clinics. However, despite the clear clinical importance, the underlying defects in cell division that result in mosaic aneuploidy remain elusive...
November 6, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101268/disturbed-spermatogenic-signaling-in-pacap-deficient-mice
#11
Dora Reglodi, Sandor Cseh, Bence Somoskoi, Balazs Fulop, Eszter Szentleleky, Vince Szegeczki, Anna Kovacs, Andrea Varga, Peter Kiss, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Andrea Tamas, Attila Bardosi, Sridharan Manavalan, Eva Bako, Roza Zakany, Tamas Juhasz
PACAP is a neuropeptide with diverse functions in various organs, including reproductive system. It is present in the testis in high concentrations, and in addition to the stage-specific expression within the seminiferous tubules, PACAP affects spermatogenesis and the functions of Leydig and Sertoli cells. Mice lacking endogenous PACAP show reduced fertility, but the possibility of abnormalities in spermatogenic signaling has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of spermatozoa, sperm motility, and investigated signaling pathways that play a role during spermatogenesis in knockout mice...
November 3, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101267/identification-and-verification-of-potential-pirnas-from-domesticated-yak-testis
#12
Jishang Gong, Quanwei Zhang, Qi Wang, Youji Ma, Jiaxiang Du, Yong Zhang, Xingxu Zhao
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNA) are small non-coding RNA molecules expressed in animal germ cells that interact with PIWI family proteins to form RNA- protein complexes involved in epigenetic and post- transcriptional gene silencing of retrotransposons and other genetic elements in germ line cells, including reproductive stem cell self- sustainment, differentiation, meiosis and spermatogenesis. In the present study, weperformed high- throughput sequencing of piRNAs in testis samples from yaks in different stages of sexual maturity...
November 3, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074615/estrogen-is-an-important-mediator-of-mast-cell-activation-in-ovarian-endometriomas
#13
Tianhong Zhu, Shaojie Ding, Tiantian Li, Libo Zhu, Xiufeng Huang, Xinmei Zhang
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease. Previous research has shown that abnormal enzymes associated with estrogen (E2) metabolism and an increased number of mast cells (MCs) in endometriomas are implicated in pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, it remains unclear how MCs mediate the role of E2 in endometriosis. Accordingly, we investigated whether E2 was associated with the number of MCs, and the rate of degranulation, in local ovarian endometriomas, as well as the role of E2 on MCs during the pathogenesis of endometriosis...
October 26, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066531/extracellular-matrix-ecm-activates-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-uterine-fibroids
#14
Yi-An Ko, Muhammad Jamaluddin, Mariam Adebayo, Preety Bajwa, Rodney Scott, Arunasalam Dharmarajan, Pravin Nahar, Pradeep Singh Tanwar
Recent studies showed that genetic aberrations in the MED12 gene, probably through the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway, lead to the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. However, a comprehensive analysis of the WNT pathway in MED12-mutated and MED12-wild type fibroids has not been performed. The objective of this study was to determine the status of the WNT pathway in human fibroids. We performed Sanger sequencing to define the MED12 mutational status of fibroids and normal myometrium samples. qPCR arrays were carried out to determine the status of the WNT signaling pathway in MED12-mutated and MED12-wild type fibroids...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066530/regulation-of-porcupine-dependent-wnt-signaling-is-essential-for-uterine-development-and-fertility
#15
Omar Farah, Steffen Biechele, Janet Rossant, Daniel Dufort
Six members of the Wnt family are expressed in the female reproductive tract. Their collective function ensures proper development of the uterus, preparing it for pregnancy during adulthood. Here we take advantage of the fact that Porcn, a prerequisite for all Wnt secretion, is located on the X chromosome to generate females that were mosaic for Porcn throughout the reproductive tract. Porcnflox/x females were mated with progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre males (PgrCre/+) to generate females that were heterozygous for Porcupine in all tissues of the female reproductive tract, which resulted in mosaicism due to random X-inactivation...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066529/steroidogenic-enzyme-activities-in-the-pre-and-post-parturient-equine-placenta
#16
Erin Lea Legacki, Cynthia Jo Corbin, Barry A Ball, Kirsten Scoggin, Scott D Stanley, Alan Conley
Steroidogenic enzymes in placentas shape steroid hormone profiles in the maternal circulation of each mammalian species. These include 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3βHSD) and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) crucial for progesterone and androgen synthesis, respectively, as well as aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) that converts Δ4-androgens to estrogens. 5α-reductase is another important enzyme in equine placentas because 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) sustains pregnancy in the absence of progesterone in the second half of equine pregnancy...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066528/acute-nutrient-treatment-causes-alterations-in-intra-follicular-antioxidation-and-akt-signaling
#17
Haitao Nie, Yixuan Guo, Xiaolei Yao, Tiewei Ma, KaiPing Deng, Zheng Wang, Guomin Zhang, Lingwei Sun, Zi Yu Wang, HengChang Wang, Feng Wang
This study aimed to determine if short-term nutrient alteration affects 1) ovary morphology, 2) plasma and ovarian antioxidant capability, and 3) cell apoptosis and Akt signaling within the ovary. After estrus synchronization, 24 Hu sheep were assigned to three groups based on the nutrient requirement recommended for maintenance (M): 1×M (Control), 1.5×M (S), and 0.5×M (R) during day 7 to 14 of their estrous cycle. The results indicated that undernourishment significantly increased the counts and volume of follicles <2...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066527/the-endoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-signaling-and-junction-turnover-in-sertoli-cells
#18
A Wayne Vogl, Kevin Lyon, Arlo Adams, Matthew Piva, Vanessa Nassour
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms a continuous network throughout morphologically differentiated Sertoli cells. It is an integral component of intercellular adhesion junctions in this cell type, as well as forming membrane contact sites with the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. One of the major functions of the ER in cells generally is maintaining calcium homeostasis and generating calcium signals. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the overall pattern of distribution of the ER in Sertoli cells and the location of calcium regulatory machinery in the various subdomains of the organelle...
October 24, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046342/the-pioneering-of-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-historical-perspectives
#19
Zev Rosenwaks, Nigel Pereira
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has often been heralded as a ground-breaking technique that has transformed the treatment of couples with infertility. By injecting a single spermatozoon into the cytoplasm of the oocyte, ICSI bypasses the zona pellucida and increases the chances of fertilization and subsequent embryo development, independent of semen parameters. Ever since the first live births using ICSI were reported 1992, ICSI has become the mainstay of treating male factor infertility as well as overcoming fertilization failure associated with conventional in vitro insemination...
October 18, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038333/germ-granule-mediated-rna-regulation-in-male-germ-cells
#20
Tiina Lehtiniemi, Noora Kotaja
Germ cells have exceptionally diverse transcriptomes. Furthermore, the progress of spermatogenesis is accompanied by dramatic changes in gene expression patterns, the most drastic of them being near-to-complete transcriptional silencing during the final steps of differentiation. Therefore, accurate RNA regulatory mechanisms are critical for normal spermatogenesis. Cytoplasmic germ cell-specific ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, known as germ granules, participate in posttranscriptional regulation in developing male germ cells...
October 16, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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