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Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30521482/my-womban-s-life-understanding-human-endometrial-function
#1
REVIEW
Lois Salamonsen
The focus of my life in science, has been to improve reproductive health for women, with an emphasis on the endometrium, the most dynamic tissue in the human body: its remarkable cyclical remodelling is essential for establishment of pregnancy. The most notable events in a woman's endometrial cycle are menstruation and endometrial repair, regeneration of the endometrium during the proliferative phase, attainment of receptivity by the mid-secretory phase of the cycle and the embryo-maternal interactions that initiate peri-implantation events within the microenvironment of the uterine cavity...
December 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500775/estradiol-promotes-emt-in-endometriosis-via-malat1-mir200s-sponge-function
#2
Yu Du, Zhibing Zhang, Wenqian Xiong, Na Li, Hengwei Liu, Haitang He, Qi Li, Yi Liu, Ling Zhang
Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent benign gynecological disease that shares some common features of malignancy. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been recognized as a core mechanism of endometriosis. MALAT1 is widely known as EMT promoter, while miR200 family members (miR200s) are considered as EMT inhibitors. Previous studies have reported that MALAT1 up-regulation and miR200s down-regulation are observed in endometriosis. MiR200c has been regarded as the strongest member of miR200s to interact with MALAT1...
November 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496124/it-takes-two-centrioles-to-tango
#3
REVIEW
Tomer Avidor-Reiss, Emily Lillian Fishman
Cells that divide during embryo development require precisely two centrioles during interphase and four centrioles during mitosis. This precise number is maintained by allowing each centriole to nucleate only one centriole per cell cycle (i.e. centriole duplication). Yet, how the first cell of the embryo, the zygote, obtains two centrioles has remained a mystery in most mammals and insects. The mystery arose because the female gamete (oocyte) is thought to have no functional centrioles and the male gamete (spermatozoon) is thought to have only one functional centriole, resulting in a zygote with a single centriole...
November 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444719/inhibition-of-rna-synthesis-during-scriptaid-exposure-enhances-gene-reprogramming-in-scnt-embryos
#4
Vitor B Rissi, Werner Giehl Glanzner, Mariana Priotto de Macedo, Lady Katerine Serrano Mujica, Karine Campagnolo, Karina Gutierrez, Alessandra Bridi, Hernan Baldassarre, Paulo Bayard Gonçalves, Vilceu Bordignon
Insufficient epigenetic reprogramming is incompatible with normal development of embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), but treatment with histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi) enhance development of SCNT embryos. However, the mechanisms underpinning HDACi benefits in SCNT embryos remain largely uncharacterized. We hypothesized that, in addition to enhancing reprogramming, HDACi treatment may promote expression of genes not required for early development of SCNT embryos. To test this hypothesis, RNA synthesis was inhibited by treating bovine SCNT embryos with 5,6-Dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DBR), which were concomitantly treated or not with Scriptaid (Scrip; an HDACi)...
November 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444718/different-pre-implantation-phenotypes-of-bovine-blastocysts-produced-in-vitro
#5
Isabelle Hue, Isabelle Dufort, Anaïs Vitorino Carvalho, Denis Laloe, Nathalie Peynot, Severine A Degrelle, Christoph Viebahn, Marc-Andre Sirard
Embryo transfer in cattle is performed with blastocysts produced in vivo or in vitro using defined media. However, outdated systems such as those that use serum and co-culture remain of interest for research purposes. Here, we investigated the effect of additional culture time on in vitro-produced embryos. Specifically, we compared embryos that formed a blastocoel at different times after fertilisation to those that stayed in culture for up to two additional days with respect to their development in vivo after temporary transfer to oestrus-synchronised recipients...
November 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407918/identification-and-characterization-of-erv-transcripts-in-goat-embryos
#6
Ruizhi Deng, Chengquan Han, Lu Zhao, Qing Zhang, Beifen Yan, Rui Cheng, Biao Wei, Peng Meng, Tingchao Mao, Yong Zhang, Jun Liu
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are abundant in mammalian genomes, can modulate the expression of nearby genes, and their expression is dynamic and stage specific during early embryonic development in mice and humans. However, the functions and mechanisms of ERV elements in regulating embryonic development remain unclear. Here, we utilized several methods to determine the contribution of ERVs to the makeup and regulation of transcripts during embryonic genome activation (EGA). We constructed an ERV library and embryo RNA-seq library (IVF_2c and IVF_8c) of goat to serve as our research basis...
November 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390611/primordial-germ-cells-do-not-migrate-along-nerve-fibres-in-marmoset-monkey-and-mouse-embryos
#7
Eva Wolff, Maria Magdalena Suplicki, Ruediger Behr
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of spermatozoa and eggs. In mammals, PGCs arise early in embryonic development and migrate from their tissue of specification over a significant distance to reach their destinations, the genital ridges. However, the exact mechanism of translocation is still debated. A study on human embryos demonstrated a very close spatial association between migrating PGCs and developing peripheral nerves. Thus, it was proposed that peripheral nerves act as guiding structures for migrating PGCs...
November 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390610/meiotic-nondisjunction-and-sperm-aneuploidy-in-humans
#8
Dimitrios Ioannou, Jenny Fortun, Helen Tempest
Infertility is relatively common affecting approximately 1-in-6 couples. Although the genetic basis of infertility is increasingly being uncovered, the contribution of male infertility often remains unexplained. The leading cause of pregnancy loss and cognitive impairment in humans is chromosome aneuploidy. Sperm aneuploidy is routinely evaluated by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. The majority of studies have reported similar findings, namely: 1) all men produce aneuploid sperm; 2) certain chromosomes are more prone to undergo chromosome nondisjunction; 3) infertile men typically have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to controls; and 4) the level of aneuploidy is often correlated with the severity of the infertility...
November 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328351/inhibition-of-tmem16a-impedes-embryo-implantation-and-decidualization-in-mice
#9
Qianrong Qi, Yifan Yang, Kailin Wu, Qingzhen Xie
Recent studies revealed that TMEM16A is involved in several reproductive processes, including ovarian estrogen secretion and ovulation, sperm motility and acrosome reaction, fertilization and myometrium contraction. However, little is known about the expression and function of TMEM16A in embryo implantation and decidualization. In this study, we focused on the expression and regulation of TMEM16A in mouse uterus during early pregnancy. We found that TMEM16A is upregulated in uterine endometrium in response to embryo implantation and decidualization...
October 2, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394708/versican-v1-in-human-endometrial-epithelial-cells-promotes-bewo-spheroid-adhesion-in-vitro
#10
Yumiko Miyazaki, Akihito Horie, Hirohiko Tani, Masashi Ueda, Asuka Okunomiya, Koh Suginami, Eiji Kondoh, Tsukasa Baba, Ikuo Konishi, Tamayuki Shinomura, Yukiyasu Sato
The endometrium extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for embryo implantation. Versican, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that binds hyaluronan and forms large ECM aggregates, can influence fundamental physiological phenomena, such as cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. The present study investigated the possible role of versican in human embryo implantation. Versican V1 expression and secretion in human endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) was most prominent in the mid-secretory phase. Versican expression in EECs significantly increased after treatment with estrogen and progesterone, but not by estrogen alone...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394707/sertoli-immature-spermatids-disengagement-during-testis-regression-in-the-armadillo
#11
Valeria Merico, Juan Pablo Luaces, Luis F Rossi, Paola Rebuzzini, Maria Susana Merani, Maurizio Zuccotti, Silvia Garagna
In Nature, mammalian seasonal breeders undergo spermatogenetic arrest during the non-breeding season. In the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus, testis regression initiates with immature post-meiotic germ cells sloughing into the tubule lumen and continues with the death of the remaining spermatocytes. At the end of the regression period, only spermatogonia and Sertoli cells persist in the seminiferous epithelium. It has been suggested that cell sloughing is determined by changes in the adhesion complexes between Sertoli cells and spermatids, which are mediated by low intra-testicular testosterone levels...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394706/modification-of-sperm-fatty-acid-composition-during-epididymal-maturation-in-bats
#12
Nicolas Fasel, Kevin McMillian, Ulrike Jakop, Laurent Méné-Saffrané, Kathrin Engel, Michel Genoud, Karin Muller, Philippe Christe
Biochemical properties of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fundamental to sperm movements. Amongst all adjustments operated during epididymal maturation, sperm membrane lipid composition is remodelled. Specifically, the proportion of PUFAs usually increases from the caput towards the cauda epididymidis. In mammals, PUFAs are predominantly acquired through the diet, which can consequently impact male fertility. We aimed at analysing to what extent n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are incorporated into sperm in the Seba's short tailed bat (Carollia perspicillata), and at demonstrating the effect of the sperm fatty acid composition on sperm mobility...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394705/how-does-chemotherapy-treatment-damage-the-prepubertal-testis
#13
REVIEW
Caroline M Allen, Federica Lopes, Rod Mitchell, Norah Spears
Chemotherapy treatment is a mainstay of anticancer regimens, significantly contributing to the recent increase in childhood cancer survival rates. Conventional cancer therapy not only targets malignant but also healthy cells resulting in side effects including infertility. For prepubertal boys, there are currently no fertility preservation strategies in use, although several potential methods are under investigation. Most of the current knowledge in relation to prepubertal gonadotoxicity has been deduced from adult studies, however the prepubertal testis is relatively quiescent in comparison to the adult...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394704/gene-expression-in-sheep-fetal-ovaries-exposed-to-gestational-under-nutrition
#14
Peter Smith, Jennifer L Juengel, Paul Maclean, Christy Rand, Jo-Ann Stanton
A number of studies have demonstrated effects of gestational undernutrition on fetal ovarian development and postnatal female fertility. However the mechanism underlying these effects remains elusive. Using a cohort of animals in which altered gestational nutrition affected indicators of postnatal fertility, this study applies RNAseq to fetal ovaries to identify affected genes and pathways that may underlie the relationship between gestational plane of nutrition and postnatal fertility. Pregnant ewes were exposed to either a maintenance diet or 0...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30394703/follicle-rupture-during-ovulation-with-an-emphasis-on-recent-progress-in-fish-models
#15
REVIEW
Takayuki Takahashi, Akane Hagiwara, Katsueki Ogiwara
Ovulation, which is induced by the ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, is a dynamic process that results in a discharge of one or more fertilizable oocytes from the ovarian follicle into the ovarian cavity or into the abdominal cavity. Follicle rupture is a core event of the ovulatory process and has been the subject of intensive investigation. Many studies have been performed in various vertebrate animals that focused on proteolysis during ovulation. Despite much effort, the proteases responsible for follicle rupture in ovulation have not yet been identified for mammalian species...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392200/endometrial-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-modulation-of-t-cell-proliferation
#16
Xiaoqing Yang, Meivita Devianti, Yuan H Yang, Yih Rue Ong, Ker Sin Tan, Shanti Gurung, Jean Tan, Dandan Zhu, Rebecca Lim, Caroline E Gargett, James Deane
Perivascular mesenchymal stem/stromal cells can be isolated from the human endometrium using the surface marker SUSD2, and are being investigated for use in tissue repair. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from other tissues modulate T cell responses via mechanisms including interleukin-10, prostaglandin E2, TGF-β1 and regulatory T cells. Animal studies demonstrate that endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells can also modify immune responses to implanted mesh, but the mechanism/s they employ have not been explored...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390615/effects-of-intravenous-infusion-of-e-coli-lipopolysaccharide-in-early-pregnant-cows
#17
Kathrin Herzog, Letizia Debertolis, John P Kastelic, Marion Schmicke, Susanne E Ulbrich, Heinrich Bollwein
The objective was to characterize effects of Escherichia coli LPS (given iv) on corpus luteum (CL) and embryonic viability in early pregnant cattle. Eight non-lactating German Holstein cows were given 0.5 µg/kg LPS on 35 ± 3 d (mean ± SEM) of pregnancy, whereas seven heifers, 41 ± 6 d pregnant, were given 10 ml saline (Control group). Transrectal B-mode examinations of the CL were done at -1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h relative to treatment. Blood samples were collected at -1, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390614/effects-of-androgen-and-oestrogen-on-the-igf-pathways-controlling-phallus-growth
#18
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Asao Fujiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Geoffrey Shaw, Marilyn Renfree
The development of the mammalian phallus involves hormone-dependent mesenchymal-epithelial signalling mechanisms that contribute to urethral closure and regulation of phallus elongation and growth. In marsupials, most differentiation and growth of the phallus occurs post-natally, making them amenable to direct hormone treatment. Expression of IGFs, FGFs, EFNB2, MAFB, DLX5 and AP-1 mRNAs in the phallus at day 50 post-partum (pp) were altered after treatment of tammar wallaby young from day 20-40 pp with androgen, oestrogen or after castration at day 25pp...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390613/driving-gonadotrophin-hormone-receptor-signalling-the-role-of-membrane-trafficking
#19
REVIEW
Silvia Sposini, Aylin Hanyaloglu
Our understanding of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling has significantly evolved over the past decade, whereby signalling not only occurs from the plasma membrane but continues, or is reactivated, following internalisation in to endosomal compartments. The spatial organisation of GPCRs is thus essential to decode dynamic and complex signals, and to activate specific downstream pathways that elicit the appropriate cellular response. For the gonadotrophin hormone receptors, membrane trafficking has been demonstrated to play a significant role in regulating its signal activity that in turn would impact at physiological and even pathophysiological level...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390612/connexin-hemichannels-and-cell-death-as-measures-of-bovine-coc-vitrification-success
#20
Katarzyna J Szymanska, Nerea Ortiz-Escribano, Etienne Van den Abbeel, Ann Van Soom, Luc Leybaert
Vitrification of immature germinal vesicle-stage oocytes is a promising method in assisted reproduction but is associated with reduced developmental potential and low birth rates. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) express several connexins that form hexameric hemichannels, which interact head-to-head to create a gap junction or exist as unopposed free hemichannels. The latter are normally closed but open under stress conditions and may exert detrimental effects. We determined whether minimizing hemichannel opening and cell death during vitrification could improve COC quality...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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