journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Trends in Molecular Medicine

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162418/nerve-stimulation-immunomodulation-and-control-of-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Luis Ulloa, Salvador Quiroz-Gonzalez, Rafael Torres-Rosas
Neuronal stimulation is an emerging field in modern medicine to control organ function and re-establish physiological homeostasis during illness. Transdermal nerve stimulation with electroacupuncture is currently endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and is used by millions of people to control pain and inflammation. Recent advances in electroacupuncture may permit activation of specific neuronal networks to prevent organ damage in inflammatory and infectious disorders...
November 18, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150361/post-translational-mechanisms-of-host-subversion-by-bacterial-effectors
#2
REVIEW
Nichollas E Scott, Elizabeth L Hartland
Bacterial effector proteins are a specialized class of secreted proteins that are translocated directly into the host cytoplasm by bacterial pathogens. Effector proteins have diverse activities and targets, and many mediate post-translational modifications of host proteins. Effector proteins offer potential in novel biotechnological and medical applications as enzymes that may modify human proteins. Here, we discuss the mechanisms used by effectors to subvert the human host through blocking, blunting, or subverting immune mechanisms...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137933/cd4-t-cell-differentiation-in-chronic-viral-infections-the-tfh-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Laura A Vella, Ramin S Herati, E John Wherry
CD4(+) T cells play a critical role in the response to chronic viral infections during the acute phase and in the partial containment of infections once chronic infection is established. As infection persists, the virus-specific CD4(+) T cell response begins to shift in phenotype. The predominant change described in both mouse and human studies of chronic viral infection is a decrease in detectable T helper type (Th)1 responses. Some Th1 loss is due to decreased proliferative potential and decreased cytokine production in the setting of chronic antigen exposure...
November 11, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133135/characterization-detection-and-treatment-approaches-for-homologous-recombination-deficiency-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Grainne M O'Kane, Ashton A Connor, Steven Gallinger
Investigations of carcinogenesis have evolved from the identification of clonal driver mutations in candidate genes to the integration of large volumes of genomic and transcriptomic data revealing recurrently altered pathways and signatures of mutational processes. Inactivation of BRCA1, BRCA2, or PALB2 impairs efficient double-strand break repair (DSBR), giving rise to a spectrum of homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) cancer phenotypes. Harnessing HRD therapeutically has been promising in a number of tumors; these approaches include leveraging synthetic lethality by targeting alternative repair pathways via PARP inhibition, inducing HRD to modulate potential tumor vulnerabilities, and preventing mechanisms of drug resistance...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133134/sensing-the-breaks-cytosolic-chromatin-in-senescence-and-cancer
#5
Raffaella Di Micco
Cellular senescence constitutes a stable growth arrest characterized by DNA damage response (DDR) activation and by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP, through its paracrine effects, stimulates the immune system for senescence eradication. Similarly, chemotherapy-treated cancers activate an interferon-mediated response to induce anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies now uncover a new role for the innate DNA sensing pathway in the recognition of cytosolic chromatin in senescence and cancer...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133133/boosting-natural-killer-cell-based-immunotherapy-with-anticancer-drugs-a-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Loredana Cifaldi, Franco Locatelli, Emiliano Marasco, Lorenzo Moretta, Vito Pistoia
Natural killer (NK) cells efficiently recognize and kill tumor cells through several mechanisms including the expression of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors on target cells. Different clinical trials indicate that NK cell-based immunotherapy represents a promising antitumor treatment. However, tumors develop immune-evasion strategies, including downregulation of ligands for NK cell-activating receptors, that can negatively affect antitumor activity of NK cells, which either reside endogenously, or are adoptively transferred...
November 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129392/targeting-obesity-and-cachexia-identification-of-the-gfral-receptor-mic-1-gdf15-pathway
#7
Samuel N Breit, Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai, David A Brown
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1/growth differentiation factor 15 (MIC-1/GDF15) is a divergent transforming growth factor (TGFβ) superfamily cytokine implicated in biological and disease processes including metabolism, cancer, and chronic inflammation, but whose receptor has remained elusive. Four laboratories have recently identified GFRAL, an orphan receptor of the glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor α family, as the receptor for MIC-1/GDF15, signaling though the coreceptor Ret. These data identify a new systemic to central nervous system (CNS) circuit that regulates metabolism in response to stress and which could be targeted to treat both severe obesity and anorexia/cachexia syndrome...
November 9, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128367/nemo-links-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-to-human-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Gunter Maubach, Michael Naumann
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB essential modulator (NEMO) is a key regulator in NF-κB-mediated signaling. By transmitting extracellular or intracellular signals, NEMO can control NF-κB-regulated genes. NEMO dysfunction is associated with inherited diseases such as incontinentia pigmenti (IP), ectodermal dysplasia, anhidrotic, with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID), and some cancers. We focus on molecular studies, human case reports, and mouse models emphasizing the significance of NEMO molecular interactions and modifications in health and diseases...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122491/inflammation-and-autism-from-maternal-gut-to-fetal-brain
#9
Ivan Osokine, Adrian Erlebacher
Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disorders in the offspring of affected mothers. Two recent studies highlight how maternal inflammation disrupts inhibitory interneuron networks and suggest that the maternal gut microbiome may be a contributing risk factor for MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities.
November 6, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993030/a-maternal-functional-module-in-the-mammalian-oocyte-to-embryo-transition
#10
REVIEW
Xukun Lu, Zheng Gao, Dandan Qin, Lei Li
Prior to zygotic genome activation, early mammalian development relies on maternal-effect genes to orchestrate the oocyte-to-embryo transition. Recently, a subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) was identified to be essential for mouse preimplantation development. The SCMC integrates multiple proteins encoded by maternal-effect genes and appears to be functionally conserved across mammalian species. In addition, mutations in human SCMC genes are associated with certain human reproductive disorders. Here, we highlight recent advances in the biology of the SCMC and propose that this complex may be a representative example of maternal functional modules in mammalian oocyte-to-embryo transition...
October 6, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988850/biomarker-potential-of-extracellular-mirnas-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#11
REVIEW
Anna M L Coenen-Stass, Matthew J A Wood, Thomas C Roberts
miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that not only regulate gene expression within cells, but might also constitute promising extracellular biomarkers for a variety of pathologies, including the progressive muscle-wasting disorder Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). A set of muscle-enriched miRNAs, the myomiRs (miR-1, miR-133, and miR-206) are highly elevated in the serum of patients with DMD and in dystrophin-deficient animal models. Furthermore, circulating myomiRs might be used as pharmacodynamic biomarkers, given that their levels can be restored towards wild-type levels following exon skipping therapy in dystrophic mice...
October 5, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137714/checkpoint-blockade-plus-oncolytic-virus-a-hot-therapeutic-cancer-strategy
#12
Caroline Robert
How can we transform an immune desert into a 'hot tumor' that is prone to respond to anti-programmed death (PD)-1 immunotherapy? This might be possible by injecting an oncolytic virus, engineered to induce local immune stimulation, prior to anti-PD-1 therapy. A recent study demonstrated that this combination - evaluated in a Phase Ib metastatic melanoma clinical study - yields promising results.
November 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137713/trpv1-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-type-2-diabetes-and-comorbidities
#13
REVIEW
Dorte X Gram, Jens J Holst, Arpad Szallasi
With an estimated 422 million affected patients worldwide in 2016, type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached pandemic proportions and represents a major unmet medical need. T2D is a polygenic disease with a chronic, low-grade inflammatory component. Second-generation transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) antagonists are potent anti-inflammatory agents with proven clinical safety. In rodent models of T2D, TRPV1 blockade was shown to halt disease progression and improve glucose metabolism. Thus, we propose that TRPV1 antagonists merit further study as novel therapeutic approaches to potentially treat T2D and its comorbidities...
November 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032005/promoting-in-vitro-gametogenesis-research-with-a-social-understanding
#14
Tetsuya Ishii, Mitinori Saitou
Recent advances in in vitro gametogenesis (IVG), including in humans, have raised ethical concerns regarding the potential misuse and manipulation of 'artificial embryos'. However, basic research on IVG is expected to be of immense scientific and social value provided that the ethical, legal, and social issues are carefully considered.
November 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032004/tnfr2-a-novel-target-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Éva S Vanamee, Denise L Faustman
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer therapy but exhibit variable efficacy and relapse and can induce autoimmunity. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 2 (TNFR2) is a signaling molecule found on the surface of a subset of potent regulatory T cells (Tregs) that can activate the proliferation of these cells through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). TNFR2 is also abundantly expressed on the surface of many human tumors. We propose that blocking TNFR2 might target abundant TNFR2(+) tumor-infiltrating Tregs and directly kill TNFR2-expressing tumors...
November 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993031/targeting-atp-citrate-lyase-in-hyperlipidemia-and-metabolic-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Stephen L Pinkosky, Pieter H E Groot, Narendra D Lalwani, Gregory R Steinberg
Chronic overnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle promote imbalances in metabolism, often manifesting as risk factors for life-threating diseases such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nucleocytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) has emerged as a central signaling node used to coordinate metabolic adaptations in response to a changing nutritional status. ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) is the enzyme primarily responsible for the production of extramitochondrial acetyl-CoA and is thus strategically positioned at the intersection of nutrient catabolism and lipid biosynthesis...
November 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988849/oxygen-metabolism-and-regeneration-lessons-from-mice
#17
REVIEW
Ellen Heber-Katz
The discovery that the Murphy Roths Large (MRL) mouse strain is a fully competent, epimorphic tissue regenerator, proved that the machinery of regeneration was preserved through evolution from hydra, to salamanders, to mammals. Such concepts have allowed translation of the biology of amphibians, and their ability to regenerate, to a mammalian context. We identified the ancient hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α pathway, operating through prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), as a central player in mouse regeneration...
November 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969977/partners-in-crime-phenolic-glycolipids-and-macrophages
#18
Alok Kumar Singh, William R Bishai
Two recent articles advance our understanding of mycobacterial pathogenesis, revealing key roles for bacterially derived phenolic glycolipids (PGLs). In leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae PGL-1 uniquely subverts local macrophages to produce neurotoxic nitric oxide (NO), leading to nerve demyelination. In a related model, Mycobacterium marinum PGL stimulates the recruitment of growth-conducive monocytes to sites of initial infection as an early immune evasion strategy.
November 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899755/nad-in-aging-molecular-mechanisms-and-translational-implications
#19
REVIEW
Evandro F Fang, Sofie Lautrup, Yujun Hou, Tyler G Demarest, Deborah L Croteau, Mark P Mattson, Vilhelm A Bohr
The coenzyme NAD(+) is critical in cellular bioenergetics and adaptive stress responses. Its depletion has emerged as a fundamental feature of aging that may predispose to a wide range of chronic diseases. Maintenance of NAD(+) levels is important for cells with high energy demands and for proficient neuronal function. NAD(+) depletion is detected in major neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, cardiovascular disease and muscle atrophy. Emerging evidence suggests that NAD(+) decrements occur in various tissues during aging, and that physiological and pharmacological interventions bolstering cellular NAD(+) levels might retard aspects of aging and forestall some age-related diseases...
October 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899754/on-the-whereabouts-of-hiv-1-cellular-entry-and-its-fusion-ports
#20
REVIEW
G Maria Jakobsdottir, Maro Iliopoulou, Rory Nolan, Luis Alvarez, Alex A Compton, Sergi Padilla-Parra
HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues through different cell types and establishes long-lived reservoirs. The exact cellular compartment where fusion occurs differs depending on the cell type and mode of viral transmission. This implies that HIV-1 may modulate a number of common host cell factors in different cell types. In this review, we evaluate recent advances on the host cell factors that play an important role in HIV-1 entry and fusion. New insights from restriction factors inhibiting virus-cell fusion in vitro may contribute to the development of future therapeutic interventions...
October 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
journal
journal
35193
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"