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Trends in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734898/anopheles-vectors-in-mainland-china-while-approaching-malaria-elimination
#1
REVIEW
Shaosen Zhang, Shaohua Guo, Xinyu Feng, Aneta Afelt, Roger Frutos, Shuisen Zhou, Sylvie Manguin
China is approaching malaria elimination; however, well-documented information on malaria vectors is still missing, which could hinder the development of appropriate surveillance strategies and WHO certification. This review summarizes the nationwide distribution of malaria vectors, their bionomic characteristics, control measures, and related studies. After several years of effort, the area of distribution of the principal malaria vectors was reduced, in particular for Anopheles lesteri (synonym: An. anthropophagus) and Anopheles dirus s...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734897/exploiting-helminth-host-interactomes-through-big-data
#2
REVIEW
Javier Sotillo, Rafael Toledo, Jason Mulvenna, Alex Loukas
Helminths facilitate their parasitic existence through the production and secretion of different molecules, including proteins. Some helminth proteins can manipulate the host's immune system, a phenomenon that is now being exploited with a view to developing therapeutics for inflammatory diseases. In recent years, hundreds of helminth genomes have been sequenced, but as a community we are still taking baby steps when it comes to identifying proteins that govern host-helminth interactions. The information generated from genomic, immunomic, and proteomic studies, as well as from cutting-edge approaches such as proteogenomics, is leading to a substantial volume of big data that can be utilised to shed light on fundamental biology and provide solutions for the development of bioactive-molecule-based therapeutics...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716403/unleashing-the-potential-of-public-genomic-resources-to-find-parasite-genetic-data
#3
Ricardo Jorge Lopes, Antonio Muñoz Mérida, Miguel Carneiro
Genetic data generated by high-throughput sequencing and deposited in public databases are increasing exponentially. A substantial amount of these data is generated from wild animals, and can contain information from nontarget organisms, such as parasites. Methodologies that leverage this available information are warranted and can help to answer questions of general interest in parasitology.
July 14, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709836/rupture-and-release-a-role-for-soluble-erythrocyte-content-in-the-pathology-of-cerebral-malaria
#4
Julio Gallego-Delgado, Ana Rodriguez
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe form of malaria and causes high associated mortality. We propose a multistep process for CM pathology that is initiated by cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to the brain vasculature, followed by rupture and release of contents that complete the disruption of the blood-brain barrier.
July 11, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689776/diagnostic-challenges-in-the-era-of-canine-leishmania-infantum-vaccines
#5
REVIEW
Laia Solano-Gallego, Luís Cardoso, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Christine Petersen, Patrick Bourdeau, Gaetano Oliva, Guadalupe Miró, Lluís Ferrer, Gad Baneth
The diagnosis of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is complex due to its variable clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. The availability of vaccines to prevent CanL has increased the complexity of diagnosis, as serological tests may not distinguish between naturally infected and vaccinated dogs. Current practices of prevaccination screening are not sufficiently sensitive to detect subclinically infected dogs, resulting in the vaccination of infected animals, which may lead to disease in vaccinated dogs that are also infectious to sand flies...
July 6, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688800/protein-degradation-systems-as-antimalarial-therapeutic-targets
#6
REVIEW
Caroline L Ng, David A Fidock, Matthew Bogyo
Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapies are the most efficacious treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Alarmingly, P. falciparum strains have acquired resistance to ART across much of Southeast Asia. ART creates widespread protein and lipid damage inside intraerythrocytic parasites, necessitating macromolecule degradation. The proteasome is the main engine of Plasmodium protein degradation. Indeed, proteasome inhibition and ART have shown synergy in ART-resistant parasites. Moreover, ubiquitin modification is associated with altered parasite susceptibility to multiple antimalarials...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687476/actin-nanobodies-uncover-the-mystery-of-actin-filament-dynamics-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#7
Isabelle Tardieux
While the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma relies on a divergent actomyosin motor to support unique speeds in directional movement, the dynamics and architecture of parasite actin filaments remain a much-discussed issue. Using actin chromobodies, Periz et al. started to unveil how networks of dynamic F-actin connect Toxoplasma progeny and expand in the replicative vacuole.
July 4, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668377/priorities-for-broadening-the-malaria-vector-control-tool-kit
#8
REVIEW
Priscille Barreaux, Antoine M G Barreaux, Eleanore D Sternberg, Eunho Suh, Jessica L Waite, Shelley A Whitehead, Matthew B Thomas
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have contributed substantially to reductions in the burden of malaria in the past 15 years. Building on this foundation, the goal is now to drive malaria towards elimination. Vector control remains central to this goal, but there are limitations to what is achievable with the current tools. Here we highlight how a broader appreciation of adult mosquito behavior is yielding a number of supplementary approaches to bolster the vector-control tool kit...
June 28, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663099/microsporidia-an-emerging-threat-to-bumblebees
#9
REVIEW
M J F Brown
Microsporidia may cause emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in bumblebees. Two drivers - commercial bumblebees and managed honey bees - have been identified as possible sources of pathogen spillover. In addition, declines in bumblebee populations may have led to lower genetic diversity and subsequent higher susceptibility to infection, enabling microsporidia to increase in prevalence. There is strong evidence for relatively recent increases in the prevalence of Nosema bombi in North America. However, the lack of definitive data on spillover by microsporidia, in North America or elsewhere, makes it difficult to identify the causes of such increases...
June 26, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648798/zoonotic-parasites-of-sheltered-and-stray-dogs-in-the-era-of-the-global-economic-and-political-crisis
#10
REVIEW
Domenico Otranto, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Andrei D Mihalca, Rebecca J Traub, Michael Lappin, Gad Baneth
Sheltered and stray dogs, exposed to zoonotic parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods, may represent a major threat to public health. Resources for addressing health problems in these animals are not on the priority list of veterinary and public health authorities. Thus, dogs continue to represent an important reservoir for zoonotic parasites. In this article, we review the importance of sheltered and stray dogs as reservoirs of zoonotic parasites in different parts of the world, especially in the context of the current global political and economic crisis...
June 22, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647171/worm-control-in-livestock-bringing-science-to-the-field
#11
REVIEW
Fiona Kenyon, Fiona Hutchings, Claire Morgan-Davies, Jan van Dijk, Dave J Bartley
Parasitic roundworm infections are ubiquitous in grazing livestock. Chemical control through the frequent 'blanket' administration of anthelmintics (wormers) has been, and remains, the cornerstone in controlling these infections, but this practice is unsustainable. Alternative strategies are available but, even with the plethora of best practice advice available, have yet to be integrated into routine farming practice. This is probably due to a range of factors, including contradictory advice from different sources, changes to advice following increased scientific understanding, and top-down knowledge exchange patterns...
June 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634004/minyoo-matata-the-vicious-worm-a-taenia-solium-computer-based-health-education-tool-in-swahili
#12
Chiara Trevisan, Eric M Fèvre, Maurice Owiny, Isaac Ngere, Maria Vang Johansen
Lack of knowledge is one of the main risk factors for the spread of the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium. The computer-based health-education tool 'The Vicious Worm' was developed to create awareness and provide evidence-based health education as a specific measure in control strategies. To increase the reach of the tool, a new version in Swahili was developed and can now be downloaded for free from http://theviciousworm.sites.ku.dk.
June 17, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625886/zoonotic-and-vector-borne-diseases-in-urban-slums-opportunities-for-intervention
#13
Federico Costa, Ticiana Carvalho-Pereira, Mike Begon, Lee Riley, James Childs
Urban slums provide conditions that increase the risk of exposure to vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. Large interventions, such as social and sanitary changes, are a priority but their implementation is challenging. Integration between the multidisciplinary understanding of pathogens' dynamics and community participatory approaches is a key prevention strategy.
June 15, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624159/from-the-laboratory-to-the-field-updating-capacity-building-in-medical-entomology
#14
Antonio Paulo Gouveia Almeida, Florence Fouque, Pascal Launois, Carla A Sousa, Henrique Silveira
Training and innovation in the field of medical entomology are essential to mitigate the burden of vector-borne diseases globally. However, there is a shortage of medical entomologists worldwide, and there are large discrepancies in capacity building in this field. In this article, we discuss the current situation, what is needed from the medical entomologist of today, and how we can bridge this gap.
June 14, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610799/anna-cohuet-studying-mosquitoes-to-stop-malaria-transmission
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606411/can-parasitic-worms-cure-the-modern-world-s-ills
#16
REVIEW
Margaret M Harnett, William Harnett
There has been increasing recognition that the alarming surge in allergy and autoimmunity in the industrialised and developing worlds shadows the rapid eradication of pathogens, such as parasitic helminths. Appreciation of this has fuelled an explosion in research investigating the therapeutic potential of these worms. This review considers the current state-of-play with a particular focus on exciting recent advances in the identification of potential novel targets for immunomodulation that can be exploited therapeutically...
June 9, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601528/novel-areas-for-prevention-and-control-of-canine-leishmaniosis
#17
REVIEW
Guadalupe Miró, Christine Petersen, Luís Cardoso, Patrick Bourdeau, Gad Baneth, Laia Solano-Gallego, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Lluís Ferrer, Gaetano Oliva
There have been multiple recent advances regarding tools for the control and prevention of canine leishmaniosis (CanL), including new preventative vaccines. In this review, these advances are evaluated based on control targets, including vector and parasite. Leishvet recommendations are provided for control practices based on the dog's risk of infection. New topical insecticide formulations have proven to be effective in preventing sand fly bites, and subsequently infection. Parasite control occurs through chemotherapeutic or immunologic means, which decrease or prevent transmission to other animals, including humans...
June 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566191/th2-and-th1-responses-clear-and-hidden-sides-of-immunity-against-intestinal-helminths
#18
REVIEW
Alba Cortés, Carla Muñoz-Antoli, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
Intestinal helminthiases affect millions of people worldwide, mainly in developing regions, where they cause a significant negative impact on human health and socioeconomic growth of affected populations. However, intestinal helminthiases are still among the most neglected tropical diseases. Protective immunity against intestinal helminths is associated with development of type 2 responses. Nevertheless, in some host-intestinal helminth combinations, local Th1 responses are initiated, inducing chronicity. The usage of helminth-mouse models is useful for elucidating the mechanisms behind the initiation of each type of response...
May 26, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549573/the-dose-makes-the-poison-nutritional-overload-determines-the-life-traits-of-blood-feeding-arthropods
#19
REVIEW
Marcos Sterkel, José Henrique M Oliveira, Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva, Pedro L Oliveira
Vertebrate blood composition is heavily biased towards proteins, and hemoglobin, which is a hemeprotein, is by far the most abundant protein. Typically, hematophagous insects ingest blood volumes several times their weight before the blood meal. This barbarian feast offers an abundance of nutrients, but the degradation of blood proteins generates toxic concentrations of amino acids and heme, along with unparalleled microbiota growth. Despite this challenge, hematophagous arthropods have successfully developed mechanisms that bypass the toxicity of these molecules...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545979/opening-the-doors-of-parasitology-journals-to-other-symbionts
#20
LETTER
Roger Jovani, Jorge Doña, María Del Mar Labrador, David Serrano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
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