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Trends in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438422/next-generation-parasitologists-structured-training-programs-meet-educational-challenges
#1
Juliane Kofer, Heribert Hofer, Susanne Hartmann
Parasite infections are diverse, complex and widespread, and they represent major health threats to people and animals alike. Topics such as vaccine development, drug resistance, immune regulation, vector-borne parasitic diseases, and wildlife parasitology are key issues. Here, we discuss the need and direction of structured educational programs for graduates in modern parasitology.
April 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433502/una-ryan-on-the-importance-of-clean-potable-water
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385423/new-technologies-for-detection-of-enteric-parasites
#3
REVIEW
Una Ryan, Andrea Paparini, Charlotte Oskam
Enteric parasites are major contributors to the global diarrhoeal disease load, infecting >67.2 million people. Their prevalence and clinical impact, however, are underestimated due to lack of adequate detection, which is largely still based on microscopy, particularly in developing countries. New commercially available enteric panel assays, which detect parasites (as well as bacteria and/or viruses) using multiplex PCR, offer enhanced sensitivity and specificity as well as the ability to detect mixed infections, and will play an important role in epidemiological surveillance and outbreak investigations...
April 3, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366603/malaria-eradication-and-the-hidden-parasite-reservoir
#4
Miles B Markus
Accumulation of erythrocytic parasites in bone marrow and the spleen has been reported in cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria. If this occurs commonly, these stages represent a possible source of early, relapse-like homologous recurrences. Moreover, they might hinder the elimination of malaria from human populations. Pertinent research suggestions have been made.
March 30, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365087/salivary-prostaglandin-e2-role-in-tick-induced-allergy-to-red-meat
#5
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Jindri Ch Chmelař, Margarita Villar, José de la Fuente
Tick-induced allergy to red meat is associated with anti-α-Gal IgE antibody levels. We propose that tick salivary prostaglandin E2 triggers antibody class switching in mature B cells, increasing the levels of anti-α-Gal IgE antibodies. Immune tolerance to α-Gal in blood type B individuals might reduce the risk to this allergy.
March 29, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359609/pregnant-women-an-overlooked-asset-to-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-elimination-campaigns
#6
REVIEW
Bronner P Gonçalves, Patrick G Walker, Matthew Cairns, Alfred B Tiono, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Community chemotherapy campaigns to reduce malaria transmission often exclude pregnant women due to safety concerns related to the drugs. However, pregnant women might represent an important source of human-to-mosquito infection due to frequent parasite carriage with higher densities of parasites (often detectable by microscopy), attractiveness to mosquitoes, and modified sleeping behaviour. Accumulating evidence of the safety of artemisinin-based combination therapies for the treatment of malaria during gestation suggests that malaria elimination programmes should reconsider this exclusion...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336218/malaria-altering-host-attractiveness-and-mosquito-feeding
#7
Lauren Cator
Several studies have suggested that malaria parasites stack the odds of transmission in their favour by manipulating the attraction profiles of their hosts. A recent study provides evidence that a specific parasite factor, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate, may increase both the attractiveness of infected vertebrates and the susceptibility of mosquitoes to infection.
March 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336217/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia
#8
REVIEW
Gabriela Certad, Eric Viscogliosi, Magali Chabé, Simone M Cacciò
Intestinal protozoa are important etiological agents of diarrhea, particularly in children, yet the public health risk they pose is often neglected. Results from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) showed that Cryptosporidium is among the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children under 2 years. Likewise, Giardia infects approximately 200 million individuals worldwide, and causes acute diarrhea in children under 5 years. Despite this recognized role as pathogens, the question is why and how these parasites cause disease in some individuals but not in others...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330745/the-toxoplasma-parasitophorous-vacuole-an-evolving-host-parasite-frontier
#9
REVIEW
Barbara Clough, Eva-Maria Frickel
The parasitophorous vacuole is a unique replicative niche for apicomplexan parasites, including Toxoplasma gondii. Derived from host plasma membrane, the vacuole is rendered nonfusogenic with the host endolysosomal system. Toxoplasma secretes numerous proteins to modify the forming vacuole, enable nutrient uptake, and set up mechanisms of host subversion. Here we describe the pathways of host-parasite interaction at the parasitophorous vacuole employed by Toxoplasma and host, leading to the intricate balance of host defence versus parasite survival...
March 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319012/the-expanding-world-of-human-leishmaniasis
#10
James A Cotton
New Leishmania isolates form a novel group of human parasites related to Leishmania enrietti, with cases in Ghana, Thailand, and Martinique; other relatives infect Australian and South American wildlife. These parasites apparently cause both cutaneous and visceral disease, and may have evolved a novel transmission mechanism exploiting blood-feeding midges.
March 16, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319011/resequencing-helminth-genomes-for-population-and-genetic-studies
#11
REVIEW
Janneke Wit, John S Gilleard
Next-generation sequencing has become increasingly accessible and economical, making genome-wide studies routine for many species, including humans, model organisms, and domestic livestock. However, in the case of helminth parasites, there are still major practical challenges to the application of these approaches for genetic and population studies. Dozens to hundreds of individual parasites from multiple populations may need to be re-sequenced which, together with the relatively large size of helminth genomes, can still make whole-genome resequencing of individual parasites unfeasible for many studies...
March 16, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285851/ivermectin-old-drug-new-tricks
#12
REVIEW
Roz Laing, Victoria Gillan, Eileen Devaney
Ivermectin is one of the most important drugs in veterinary and human medicine for the control of parasitic infection and was the joint focus of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, some 35 years after its remarkable discovery. Although best described for its activity on glutamate-gated chloride channels in parasitic nematodes, understanding of its mode of action remains incomplete. In the field of veterinary medicine, resistance to ivermectin is now widespread, but the mechanisms underlying resistance are unresolved...
March 9, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279627/making-new-connections-insights-from-primate-parasite-networks
#13
REVIEW
Julie Rushmore, Donal Bisanzio, Thomas R Gillespie
Social interactions are important in everyday life for primates and many other group-living animals; however, these essential exchanges also provide opportunities for parasites to spread through social groups. Network analysis is a unique toolkit for studying pathogen transmission in a social context, and recent primate-parasite network studies shed light on linkages between behavior and infectious disease dynamics, providing insights for conservation and public health. We review existing literature on primate-parasite networks, examining determinants of infection risk, issues of network scale and temporal dynamics, and applications for disease control...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274802/how-can-we-understand-the-genomic-basis-of-nematode-parasitism
#14
REVIEW
Mark Viney
Nematodes are very common animals and they have repeatedly evolved parasitic lifestyles during their evolutionary history. Recently, the genomes of many nematodes, especially parasitic species, have been determined, potentially giving an insight into the genetic and genomic basis of nematodes' parasitism. But, to achieve this, phylogenetically appropriate comparisons of genomes of free-living and parasitic species are needed. Achieving this has often been hampered by the relative lack of information about key free-living species...
March 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274801/promoting-science-in-secondary-school-education
#15
Anthony Chiovitti, Jacinta C Duncan, Abdul Jabbar
Engaging secondary school students with science education is crucial for a society that demands a high level of scientific literacy in order to deal with the economic and social challenges of the 21st century. Here we present how parasitology could be used to engage and promote science in secondary school students under the auspice of a 'Specialist Centre' model for science education.
March 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236522/lifelong-persistence-of-toxoplasma-cysts-a-questionable-dogma-trends-in-parasitology-33-93-101-2017
#16
Solène Rougier, Jose G Montoya, François Peyron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236521/designing-a-minimal-intervention-strategy-to-control-taenia-solium
#17
REVIEW
Marshall W Lightowlers, Meritxell Donadeu
Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of epilepsy in many developing countries. The disease is a zoonosis caused by the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Many potential intervention strategies are available, however none has been able to be implemented and sustained. Here we predict the impact of some T. solium interventions that could be applied to prevent transmission through pigs, the parasite's natural animal intermediate host. These include minimal intervention strategies that are predicted to be effective and likely to be feasible...
February 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187990/how-to-contain-artemisinin-and-multidrug-resistant-falciparum-malaria
#18
REVIEW
Arjen M Dondorp, Frank M Smithuis, Charley Woodrow, Lorenz von Seidlein
In the Greater Mekong subregion (GMS), artemisinin resistance is increasingly compounded by partner drug resistance, causing high failure rates of artemisinin combination therapies in some areas. For its containment, an accelerated elimination strategy will be needed. This includes high-quality implementation of conventional malaria control measures: early case management with quality artemisinin combination therapies (avoiding artesunate monotherapies) and single gametocytocidal low dose of primaquine, vector control and surveillance...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187989/economic-considerations-for-moving-beyond-the-kato-katz-technique-for-diagnosing-intestinal-parasites-as-we-move-towards-elimination
#19
REVIEW
Hugo C Turner, Alison A Bettis, Julia C Dunn, Jane M Whitton, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Fiona M Fleming, Roy M Anderson
While the need for more sensitive diagnostics for intestinal helminths is well known, the cost of developing and implementing new tests is considered relatively high compared to the Kato-Katz technique. Here, we review the reported costs of performing the Kato-Katz technique. We also outline several economic arguments we believe highlight the need for further investment in alternative diagnostics, and considerations that should be made when comparing their costs. In our opinion, we highlight that, without new diagnostic methods, it will be difficult for policy makers to make the most cost-effective decisions and that the potentially higher unit costs of new methods can be outweighed by the long-term programmatic benefits they have (such as the ability to detect the interruption of transmission)...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187988/a-student-centered-framework-for-teaching-undergraduate-parasitology
#20
Andrew A David
Many biology subdisciplines are re-evaluating their undergraduate curriculum amid changing student attitudes towards education. However, a modern framework for undergraduate parasitology has yet to be formally outlined. We present a student-centered approach to teaching parasitology, which diminishes the power of the lectern and emphasizes the use of active learning techniques.
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
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