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Trends in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779985/systems-biology-based-investigation-of-host-plasmodium-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Maren L Smith, Mark P Styczynski
Malaria is a serious, complex disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium parasites affect multiple tissues as they evade immune responses, replicate, sexually reproduce, and transmit between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The explosion of omics technologies has enabled large-scale collection of Plasmodium infection data, revealing systems-scale patterns, mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the ways that host and pathogen affect each other. Here, we provide an overview of recent efforts using systems biology approaches to study host-Plasmodium interactions and the biological themes that have emerged from these efforts...
May 18, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759934/parasite-collections-overlooked-resources-for-integrative-research-and-conservation
#2
Kayce C Bell, Colin J Carlson, Anna J Phillips
Parasite natural history collections form vital scientific infrastructure that play a substantial role in increasing awareness of the importance of parasites to ecosystems, conservation assessments, science, and society. These collections support novel investigations that integrate across taxa, time, and space, and should be cultivated to advance organismal-based science. Promoting and supporting parasite collections will ensure their ongoing stability and accessibility.
May 11, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752147/sex-in-plasmodium-falciparum-silence-play-between-gdv1-and-hp1
#3
Edward Rea, Karine G Le Roch, Rita Tewari
Understanding how malaria parasites commit to sexual development is key to the development of transmission-blocking strategies. Recent work by Filarsky and colleagues extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving this process by characterizing an early factor in gametocytogenesis, and showing how this fits neatly into our current knowledge of sexual commitment.
May 8, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705579/melarsoprol-resistance-in-african-trypanosomiasis
#4
REVIEW
Alan H Fairlamb, David Horn
Arsenicals were introduced as monotherapies for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, over 100 years ago. Toxicity has always been an issue but these drugs have proven to be both effective and quite durable. Unfortunately, melarsoprol-resistant parasites emerged as early as the 1970s and were widespread by the late 1990s. Resistance was due to mutations affecting an aquaglyceroporin (AQP2), a parasite solute and drug transporter. This is the only example of widespread drug resistance in trypanosomiasis patients for which the genetic basis is known...
April 25, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703586/exosome-mediated-pathogen-transmission-by-arthropod-vectors
#5
Michael Hackenberg, Michail Kotsyfakis
Recent molecular and cellular studies have highlighted a potentially important role for tick exosomes in parasite transmission. Here we summarize evolving hypotheses about the largely unknown cellular events that may take place at the tick-host-pathogen interface, focusing on a potential role for arthropod exosomes in this tripartite interaction.
April 24, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661654/the-tick-project-testing-environmental-methods-of-preventing-tick-borne-diseases-trends-in-parasitology-vol-page-range-2018
#6
Felicia Keesing, Richard S Ostfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650366/mannose-receptor-and-the-mystery-of-nonhealing-leishmania-major-infection
#7
Yahya Sohrabi, Marie Lipoldová
Scientists have long puzzled over the ability of Leishmania major Seidman (LmSd) to form nonhealing cutaneous lesions in the face of a strong Th1 response. A recent study identified a population of dermal macrophages that are preferentially infected by LmSd in a mannose receptor 1-, C-type 1 (MRC1/CD206)-dependent manner.
April 10, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627269/diversity-and-compatibility-of-human-schistosomes-and-their-intermediate-snail-hosts
#8
REVIEW
Benjamin Sanogo, Dongjuan Yuan, Xin Zeng, Yanhua Zhang, Zhongdao Wu
Human schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease that remains endemic in numerous countries of the tropics and subtropics. Controlling the transmission of schistosomes in their intermediate snail hosts remains a key challenge in the fight against schistosomiasis. Divergence in species, biogeography, and genotype in schistosomes and their intermediate hosts has resulted in diverse parasite-host interactions. This review focuses on recent insights in the biogeography and diversity of schistosome species and their snail hosts, and the molecular basis of compatibility polymorphism between them...
April 4, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605546/trypanosomatids-are-much-more-than-just-trypanosomes-clues-from-the-expanded-family-tree
#9
REVIEW
Julius Lukeš, Anzhelika Butenko, Hassan Hashimi, Dmitri A Maslov, Jan Votýpka, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
Trypanosomes and leishmanias are widely known parasites of humans. However, they are just two out of several phylogenetic lineages that constitute the family Trypanosomatidae. Although dixeny - the ability to infect two hosts - is a derived trait of vertebrate-infecting parasites, the majority of trypanosomatids are monoxenous. Like their common ancestor, the monoxenous Trypanosomatidae are mostly parasites or commensals of insects. This review covers recent advances in the study of insect trypanosomatids, highlighting their diversity as well as genetic, morphological and biochemical complexity, which, until recently, was underappreciated...
March 28, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580663/asian-fish-tapeworm-the-most-successful-invasive-parasite-in-freshwaters
#10
REVIEW
Roman Kuchta, Anindo Choudhury, Tomáš Scholz
The Asian fish tapeworm (AFT), Schyzocotyle acheilognathi, is a notorious and highly successful invasive parasite reported in a wide spectrum of freshwater fishes, and new reports of its spread continue to emerge. To date, no thorough review of its worldwide distribution and host associations is available. In the present work, we collected information from 651 articles up until 2017, from which we updated the number of the hosts to 312 fish species and 11 non-fish species, which is quite unusual among helminths...
March 23, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551358/anticipating-emerging-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses-in-the-usa-what-comes-after-zika
#11
Michelle V Evans, Courtney C Murdock, John M Drake
New mosquito-borne diseases have emerged on multiple occasions over the last several decades, raising fears that there are yet more poorly understood viruses that may emerge in the USA. Here, we provide a data-driven 'watch list' of viruses in the Flaviviridae family with high potential to emerge in the USA, identified using statistical techniques, to enable the public health community to better target surveillance. We suggest that public health authorities further incorporate predictive modeling techniques into disease-prevention strategies...
March 15, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548888/the-tick-project-testing-environmental-methods-of-preventing-tick-borne-diseases
#12
Felicia Keesing, Richard S Ostfeld
Prevention of tick-borne diseases in humans is challenging. To date, no prevention strategies have been shown to be consistently effective. Here, we describe the design of a new large-scale study, involving hundreds of households in Dutchess County, New York, testing whether environmental interventions, applied intensively and over 4 years, can prevent human cases.
March 13, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526403/schistosome-induced-fibrotic-disease-the-role-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#13
REVIEW
Jack P Carson, Grant A Ramm, Mark W Robinson, Donald P McManus, Geoffrey N Gobert
Hepatic fibrosis is a common pathology in various liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main cell type responsible for collagen deposition and fibrosis formation in the liver. Schistosomiasis is characterised by granulomatous fibrosis around parasite eggs trapped within the liver and other host tissues. This response is facilitated by the recruitment of immune cells and the activation of HSCs. The interactions between HSCs and schistosome eggs are complex and diverse, and a better understanding of these interactions could lead to improved resolution of fibrotic liver disease, including that associated with schistosomiasis...
March 8, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526402/transgenic-mosquitoes-fact-or-fiction
#14
REVIEW
André B B Wilke, John C Beier, Giovanni Benelli
Technologies for controlling mosquito vectors based on genetic manipulation and the release of genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are gaining ground. However, concrete epidemiological evidence of their effectiveness, sustainability, and impact on the environment and nontarget species is lacking; no reliable ecological evidence on the potential interactions among GMMs, target populations, and other mosquito species populations exists; and no GMM technology has yet been approved by the WHO Vector Control Advisory Group...
March 8, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526401/parasites-and-their-impact-on-ecosystem-nutrient-cycling
#15
J Trevor Vannatta, Dennis J Minchella
Consumer species alter nutrient cycling through nutrient transformation, transfer, and bioturbation. Parasites have rarely been considered in this framework despite their ability to indirectly alter the cycling of nutrients via their hosts. A simple mathematical framework can be used to assess the relative importance of parasite-derived nutrients in an ecosystem.
March 8, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567298/associations-between-gut-microbiota-and-common-luminal-intestinal-parasites
#16
REVIEW
Christen Rune Stensvold, Mark van der Giezen
The development and integration of DNA-based methods in research and clinical microbiology laboratories have enabled standardised and comprehensive detection and differentiation of the microbes colonising our guts. For instance, the single-celled parasites Blastocystis and Dientamoeba appear to be much more common than previously thought, especially so in healthy individuals. While increasing evidence appears to suggest limited pathogenicity of these parasites, next-generation-sequencing-based studies have helped us to appreciate links between parasite colonisation and certain host phenotypical characteristics and gut microbial profiles...
May 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544966/plasmodium-gametocytes-in-field-studies-do-we-measure-commitment-to-transmission-or-detectability
#17
REVIEW
Cristian Koepfli, Guiyun Yan
The proportion of Plasmodium spp. infections carrying gametocytes, and gametocyte densities, are often reported as surrogate markers for transmission potential. It remains unclear whether parasites under natural conditions adjust commitment to transmission depending on external factors. Population-based surveys comprising mostly asymptomatic low-density infections are always impacted by the sensitivity of the assays used to diagnose infections and detect gametocytes. Asexual parasite density is an important predictor for the probability of detecting gametocytes, and in many cases it can explain patterns in gametocyte carriage without the need for an adjustment of the gametocyte conversion rate...
May 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530446/plasmodium-vivax-infections-of-duffy-negative-erythrocytes-historically-undetected-or-a-recent-adaptation
#18
REVIEW
Karthigayan Gunalan, Amadou Niangaly, Mahamadou A Thera, Ogobara K Doumbo, Louis H Miller
Plasmodium vivax is the main cause of malarial disease in Asia and South America. Plasmodium vivax infection was thought to be absent in African populations who are Duffy blood group antigen negative (Duffy-negative). However, many cases of P. vivax infection have recently been observed in Duffy-negative Africans. This raises the question: were P. vivax infections in Duffy-negative populations previously missed or has P. vivax adapted to infect Duffy-negative populations? This review focuses on recent P. vivax findings in Africa and reports views on the parasite ligands that may play a role in Duffy-negative P...
May 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500034/revamping-mosquito-borne-disease-control-to-tackle-future-threats
#19
REVIEW
Jill N Fernandes, Imelda K Moise, Gina L Maranto, John C Beier
The global approach to mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) is in need of critical re-evaluation. Although there have been dramatic reductions in malaria incidence since 2000, malaria elimination from high-transmission settings remains problematic. At the same time, arbovirus outbreaks have increased in their frequency and impact. The 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic exposed the dire state of MBD control in many countries, calling for united global action. Despite international resolve to prevent future epidemics, current practices in MBD control are mostly reactive and of limited efficacy...
May 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422444/opportunistic-but-lethal-the-mystery-of-paramoebae
#20
REVIEW
Barbara F Nowak, John M Archibald
Paramoebae are enigmatic single-celled eukaryotes that can be opportunistic pathogens of marine animals. For example, amoebic gill disease ravages farmed salmonids worldwide, causing tens of millions of dollars in losses annually. Although paramoebae can be found associated with animals ranging from fish and lobster to molluscs and sea urchins, how and how often they actually cause disease is unknown. Here we review recent progress towards understanding the biology and ecology of paramoebid species and the eukaryotic endosymbionts that live inside them...
May 2018: Trends in Parasitology
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