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Trends in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187990/how-to-contain-artemisinin-and-multidrug-resistant-falciparum-malaria
#1
REVIEW
Arjen M Dondorp, Frank M Smithuis, Charley Woodrow, Lorenz von Seidlein
In the Greater Mekong subregion (GMS), artemisinin resistance is increasingly compounded by partner drug resistance, causing high failure rates of artemisinin combination therapies in some areas. For its containment, an accelerated elimination strategy will be needed. This includes high-quality implementation of conventional malaria control measures: early case management with quality artemisinin combination therapies (avoiding artesunate monotherapies) and single gametocytocidal low dose of primaquine, vector control and surveillance...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187989/economic-considerations-for-moving-beyond-the-kato-katz-technique-for-diagnosing-intestinal-parasites-as-we-move-towards-elimination
#2
REVIEW
Hugo C Turner, Alison A Bettis, Julia C Dunn, Jane M Whitton, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Fiona M Fleming, Roy M Anderson
While the need for more sensitive diagnostics for intestinal helminths is well known, the cost of developing and implementing new tests is considered relatively high compared to the Kato-Katz technique. Here, we review the reported costs of performing the Kato-Katz technique. We also outline several economic arguments we believe highlight the need for further investment in alternative diagnostics, and considerations that should be made when comparing their costs. In our opinion, we highlight that, without new diagnostic methods, it will be difficult for policy makers to make the most cost-effective decisions and that the potentially higher unit costs of new methods can be outweighed by the long-term programmatic benefits they have (such as the ability to detect the interruption of transmission)...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187988/a-student-centered-framework-for-teaching-undergraduate-parasitology
#3
Andrew A David
Many biology subdisciplines are re-evaluating their undergraduate curriculum amid changing student attitudes towards education. However, a modern framework for undergraduate parasitology has yet to be formally outlined. We present a student-centered approach to teaching parasitology, which diminishes the power of the lectern and emphasizes the use of active learning techniques.
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179067/karine-le-roch-taking-a-closer-look-at-nuclear-architecture
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169113/parasites-and-their-social-hosts
#5
REVIEW
Paul Schmid-Hempel
The study of parasitism in socially living organisms shows that social group size correlates with the risk of infection, but group structure - and thus differences in contact networks - is generally more important. Also, genetic makeup or environmental conditions have effects. 'Social immunity' focuses on defence against parasites that are particular to social living. Recently, the role of socially transmitted microbiota for defence has become a focus, too. But whether and how parasites adapt to social organisms - beyond adaptation to solitary hosts - is poorly understood...
February 3, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169112/the-economics-of-malaria-vaccine-development
#6
Magdalena Plebanski, Katie L Flanagan
Vaccines that do not take a comprehensive endpoint view of the pathogen population they want to tackle early in their developmental process, may find it financially prohibitive to redesign them once they have progressed down a costly regulatory and human trial pathway. Specifically, the lead malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S has limited ability to tackle parasite polymorphism and may induce sex-specific nonspecific effects (NSEs).
February 3, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162935/parasite-killers
#7
EDITORIAL
Ana Camejo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153740/stress-hormones-bring-birds-pathogens-and-mosquitoes-together
#8
André A Dhondt, Andrew P Dobson
Do stress hormones, such as corticosterone, enhance bird susceptibility to mosquitoes in ways that enhance rates of co-infection? Does this then enhance pathogen emergence?
January 30, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117140/defensive-symbionts-mediate-host-parasite-interactions-at-multiple-scales-trends-in-parasitology-33-53-64-2017
#9
Skylar R Hopkins, Jeremy M Wojdak, Lisa K Belden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109696/three-rosetting-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#10
REVIEW
Xue Yan Yam, Makhtar Niang, Kripa Gopal Madnani, Peter R Preiser
The intracellular malaria parasites extensively modify host erythrocytes to allow nutrient uptake, ensure homeostasis, and evade the host's immune response. To achieve this, the parasite exports several proteins to the erythrocyte surface. In Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most severe form of human malaria, three major variant surface antigen families - PfEMP1, STEVOR, and RIFIN - have been implicated in contributing to immune evasion, parasite sequestration, and parasite-mediated rosetting of uninfected erythrocytes...
January 18, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108199/freedom-from-infection-confirming-interruption-of-malaria-transmission
#11
REVIEW
Gillian Stresman, Angus Cameron, Chris Drakeley
The global reductions in disease burden and the continued spread of drug and insecticide resistance make malaria elimination both viable and imperative, although this may be more easily achieved in some settings compared to others. Whilst the focus has been on optimal approaches to achieve elimination, less attention has been paid to how to measure the absence of malaria. Measuring the absence of transmission poses a specific challenge in that it involves proving a negative. The concept of freedom from infection, routinely used in veterinary epidemiology, can provide quantitative and reproducible estimates that, if infections were present above a predefined (low) threshold, they would be detected with a known uncertainty...
January 17, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094201/diagnosing-urogenital-schistosomiasis-dealing-with-diminishing-returns
#12
REVIEW
Loc Le, Michael H Hsieh
Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma haematobium, is the most prevalent form of schistosomiasis affecting humans, and can result in severe bladder, kidney, ureteral, and genital pathologies. Chronic infection with S. haematobium has been linked with bladder cancer and increased risk for HIV infection. As mass drug administration with praziquantel increases in an attempt to transition from control to elimination of schistosomiasis, the need for updated, more sensitive diagnostic tools becomes more apparent, especially for use in areas of low infection intensity and for individuals with light infections...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094200/type-i-interferon-in-malaria-a-balancing-act
#13
Jason Paul Mooney, Samuel Crocodile Wassmer, Julius Clemence Hafalla
Type I interferons (IFN-Is) can now be considered as the wedge that balances clinical protection to malaria. New studies recently highlighted a central role for IFN-Is in orchestrating an immunoregulatory network leading to the dampening of proinflammatory responses, expansion of type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells, and restriction of humoral immunity during malaria blood stage infection. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were identified as the major source of IFN-Is. Here, we integrate the findings and provide a model for the mechanisms involved...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089171/protease-inhibitors-of-parasitic-flukes-emerging-roles-in-parasite-survival-and-immune-defence
#14
REVIEW
Shiwanthi L Ranasinghe, Donald P McManus
Protease inhibitors play crucial roles in parasite development and survival, counteracting the potentially damaging immune responses of their vertebrate hosts. However, limited information is currently available on protease inhibitors from schistosomes and food-borne trematodes. Future characterization of these molecules is important not only to expand knowledge on parasitic fluke biology but also to determine whether they represent novel vaccine and/or drug targets. Moreover, protease inhibitors from flukes may represent lead compounds for the development of a new range of therapeutic agents against inflammatory disorders and cancer...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081985/repurposing-of-potent-drug-candidates-for-multiparasite-targeting
#15
Vitul Jain, Amit Sharma
Parasite-directed drug discovery efforts require sustained and substantial scientific resources. Many eukaryotic parasites share similarities in metabolic pathways and housekeeping genes, as evident from their underlying protein sequences. Their subsequent structural congruence within enzyme active sites can thus be leveraged for multiparasite targeting using similar or identical drug probes. This bodes well for delivering new anti-infectives.
January 9, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077251/theoretical-implications-of-a-pre-erythrocytic-plasmodium-vivax-vaccine-for-preventing-relapses
#16
Michael White, Rogerio Amino, Ivo Mueller
Preventing malaria infection through vaccination requires preventing every sporozoite inoculated by mosquito bite: a major challenge for Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium vivax sporozoites consist of tachysporozoites causing primary infection and bradysporozoites leading to relapses. We hypothesise that a candidate P. vivax vaccine with low efficacy against primary infection may substantially reduce transmission by preventing relapses.
January 8, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065670/oral-slow-release-ivermectin-biting-back-at-malaria-vectors
#17
Carlos J Chaccour, N Regina Rabinovich
Bellinger and colleagues offer an elegant twist for a promising new tool against malaria. This formulation is designed to release ivermectin, a mosquito-killing drug for 10 days after a single oral dose. This could reduce the vector population and serve as a complementary tool for malaria elimination.
January 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065669/the-role-of-chromatin-structure-in-gene-regulation-of-the-human-malaria-parasite
#18
REVIEW
Gayani Batugedara, Xueqing M Lu, Evelien M Bunnik, Karine G Le Roch
The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, depends on a coordinated regulation of gene expression for development and propagation within the human host. Recent developments suggest that gene regulation in the parasite is largely controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent advancements contributing to our understanding of the mechanisms controlling gene regulation in the parasite, including nucleosome landscape, histone modifications, and nuclear architecture. In addition, various processes involved in regulation of parasite-specific genes and gene families are examined...
January 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040375/-epi-genetic-inheritance-in-schistosoma-mansoni-a-systems-approach
#19
REVIEW
Céline Cosseau, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Gilda Padalino, Kathrin K Geyer, Karl F Hoffmann, Christoph Grunau
The G×E concept, in which genotype × environment interactions bring about the phenotype, is widely used to describe biological phenomena. We propose to extend the initial notion of the concept, replacing G by 'inheritance system'. This system, comprised of both genome and epigenome components, collectively interacts with the environment to shape the development of a phenotype. In the case of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, responsible for intestinal bilharzia, the phenotypic trait that is most relevant to global health is infection success...
December 28, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040374/the-rheopathobiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-and-other-important-primate-malaria-parasites
#20
REVIEW
Bruce M Russell, Brian M Cooke
Our current understanding of how malaria parasites remodel their host red blood cells (RBCs) and ultimately cause disease is largely based on studies of Plasmodium falciparum. In this review, we expand our knowledge to include what is currently known about pathophysiological changes to RBCs that are infected by non-falciparum malaria parasites. We highlight the potential folly of making generalizations about the rheology of malaria infection, and emphasize the need for more systematic studies into the erythrocytic biology of non-falciparum malaria parasites...
December 28, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
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