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Trends in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319012/the-expanding-world-of-human-leishmaniasis
#1
James A Cotton
New Leishmania isolates form a novel group of human parasites related to Leishmania enrietti, with cases in Ghana, Thailand, and Martinique; other relatives infect Australian and South American wildlife. These parasites apparently cause both cutaneous and visceral disease, and may have evolved a novel transmission mechanism exploiting blood-feeding midges.
March 16, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319011/resequencing-helminth-genomes-for-population-and-genetic-studies
#2
REVIEW
Janneke Wit, John S Gilleard
Next-generation sequencing has become increasingly accessible and economical, making genome-wide studies routine for many species, including humans, model organisms, and domestic livestock. However, in the case of helminth parasites, there are still major practical challenges to the application of these approaches for genetic and population studies. Dozens to hundreds of individual parasites from multiple populations may need to be re-sequenced which, together with the relatively large size of helminth genomes, can still make whole-genome resequencing of individual parasites unfeasible for many studies...
March 16, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285851/ivermectin-old-drug-new-tricks
#3
REVIEW
Roz Laing, Victoria Gillan, Eileen Devaney
Ivermectin is one of the most important drugs in veterinary and human medicine for the control of parasitic infection and was the joint focus of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, some 35 years after its remarkable discovery. Although best described for its activity on glutamate-gated chloride channels in parasitic nematodes, understanding of its mode of action remains incomplete. In the field of veterinary medicine, resistance to ivermectin is now widespread, but the mechanisms underlying resistance are unresolved...
March 9, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279627/making-new-connections-insights-from-primate-parasite-networks
#4
REVIEW
Julie Rushmore, Donal Bisanzio, Thomas R Gillespie
Social interactions are important in everyday life for primates and many other group-living animals; however, these essential exchanges also provide opportunities for parasites to spread through social groups. Network analysis is a unique toolkit for studying pathogen transmission in a social context, and recent primate-parasite network studies shed light on linkages between behavior and infectious disease dynamics, providing insights for conservation and public health. We review existing literature on primate-parasite networks, examining determinants of infection risk, issues of network scale and temporal dynamics, and applications for disease control...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274802/how-can-we-understand-the-genomic-basis-of-nematode-parasitism
#5
REVIEW
Mark Viney
Nematodes are very common animals and they have repeatedly evolved parasitic lifestyles during their evolutionary history. Recently, the genomes of many nematodes, especially parasitic species, have been determined, potentially giving an insight into the genetic and genomic basis of nematodes' parasitism. But, to achieve this, phylogenetically appropriate comparisons of genomes of free-living and parasitic species are needed. Achieving this has often been hampered by the relative lack of information about key free-living species...
March 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274801/promoting-science-in-secondary-school-education
#6
Anthony Chiovitti, Jacinta C Duncan, Abdul Jabbar
Engaging secondary school students with science education is crucial for a society that demands a high level of scientific literacy in order to deal with the economic and social challenges of the 21st century. Here we present how parasitology could be used to engage and promote science in secondary school students under the auspice of a 'Specialist Centre' model for science education.
March 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254492/lu%C3%A3-sa-figueiredo-the-parasite-in-the-fat-a-serendipitous-finding
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236522/lifelong-persistence-of-toxoplasma-cysts-a-questionable-dogma-trends-in-parasitology-33-93-101-2017
#8
Solène Rougier, Jose G Montoya, François Peyron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236521/designing-a-minimal-intervention-strategy-to-control-taenia-solium
#9
REVIEW
Marshall W Lightowlers, Meritxell Donadeu
Neurocysticercosis is an important cause of epilepsy in many developing countries. The disease is a zoonosis caused by the cestode parasite Taenia solium. Many potential intervention strategies are available, however none has been able to be implemented and sustained. Here we predict the impact of some T. solium interventions that could be applied to prevent transmission through pigs, the parasite's natural animal intermediate host. These include minimal intervention strategies that are predicted to be effective and likely to be feasible...
February 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187990/how-to-contain-artemisinin-and-multidrug-resistant-falciparum-malaria
#10
REVIEW
Arjen M Dondorp, Frank M Smithuis, Charley Woodrow, Lorenz von Seidlein
In the Greater Mekong subregion (GMS), artemisinin resistance is increasingly compounded by partner drug resistance, causing high failure rates of artemisinin combination therapies in some areas. For its containment, an accelerated elimination strategy will be needed. This includes high-quality implementation of conventional malaria control measures: early case management with quality artemisinin combination therapies (avoiding artesunate monotherapies) and single gametocytocidal low dose of primaquine, vector control and surveillance...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187989/economic-considerations-for-moving-beyond-the-kato-katz-technique-for-diagnosing-intestinal-parasites-as-we-move-towards-elimination
#11
REVIEW
Hugo C Turner, Alison A Bettis, Julia C Dunn, Jane M Whitton, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Fiona M Fleming, Roy M Anderson
While the need for more sensitive diagnostics for intestinal helminths is well known, the cost of developing and implementing new tests is considered relatively high compared to the Kato-Katz technique. Here, we review the reported costs of performing the Kato-Katz technique. We also outline several economic arguments we believe highlight the need for further investment in alternative diagnostics, and considerations that should be made when comparing their costs. In our opinion, we highlight that, without new diagnostic methods, it will be difficult for policy makers to make the most cost-effective decisions and that the potentially higher unit costs of new methods can be outweighed by the long-term programmatic benefits they have (such as the ability to detect the interruption of transmission)...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187988/a-student-centered-framework-for-teaching-undergraduate-parasitology
#12
Andrew A David
Many biology subdisciplines are re-evaluating their undergraduate curriculum amid changing student attitudes towards education. However, a modern framework for undergraduate parasitology has yet to be formally outlined. We present a student-centered approach to teaching parasitology, which diminishes the power of the lectern and emphasizes the use of active learning techniques.
February 7, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179067/karine-le-roch-taking-a-closer-look-at-nuclear-architecture
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169113/parasites-and-their-social-hosts
#14
REVIEW
Paul Schmid-Hempel
The study of parasitism in socially living organisms shows that social group size correlates with the risk of infection, but group structure - and thus differences in contact networks - is generally more important. Also, genetic makeup or environmental conditions have effects. 'Social immunity' focuses on defence against parasites that are particular to social living. Recently, the role of socially transmitted microbiota for defence has become a focus, too. But whether and how parasites adapt to social organisms - beyond adaptation to solitary hosts - is poorly understood...
February 3, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153740/stress-hormones-bring-birds-pathogens-and-mosquitoes-together
#15
André A Dhondt, Andrew P Dobson
Do stress hormones, such as corticosterone, enhance bird susceptibility to mosquitoes in ways that enhance rates of co-infection? Does this then enhance pathogen emergence?
January 30, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117140/defensive-symbionts-mediate-host-parasite-interactions-at-multiple-scales-trends-in-parasitology-33-53-64-2017
#16
Skylar R Hopkins, Jeremy M Wojdak, Lisa K Belden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109696/three-rosetting-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#17
REVIEW
Xue Yan Yam, Makhtar Niang, Kripa Gopal Madnani, Peter R Preiser
The intracellular malaria parasites extensively modify host erythrocytes to allow nutrient uptake, ensure homeostasis, and evade the host's immune response. To achieve this, the parasite exports several proteins to the erythrocyte surface. In Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most severe form of human malaria, three major variant surface antigen families - PfEMP1, STEVOR, and RIFIN - have been implicated in contributing to immune evasion, parasite sequestration, and parasite-mediated rosetting of uninfected erythrocytes...
January 18, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108199/freedom-from-infection-confirming-interruption-of-malaria-transmission
#18
REVIEW
Gillian Stresman, Angus Cameron, Chris Drakeley
The global reductions in disease burden and the continued spread of drug and insecticide resistance make malaria elimination both viable and imperative, although this may be more easily achieved in some settings compared to others. Whilst the focus has been on optimal approaches to achieve elimination, less attention has been paid to how to measure the absence of malaria. Measuring the absence of transmission poses a specific challenge in that it involves proving a negative. The concept of freedom from infection, routinely used in veterinary epidemiology, can provide quantitative and reproducible estimates that, if infections were present above a predefined (low) threshold, they would be detected with a known uncertainty...
January 17, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094201/diagnosing-urogenital-schistosomiasis-dealing-with-diminishing-returns
#19
REVIEW
Loc Le, Michael H Hsieh
Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma haematobium, is the most prevalent form of schistosomiasis affecting humans, and can result in severe bladder, kidney, ureteral, and genital pathologies. Chronic infection with S. haematobium has been linked with bladder cancer and increased risk for HIV infection. As mass drug administration with praziquantel increases in an attempt to transition from control to elimination of schistosomiasis, the need for updated, more sensitive diagnostic tools becomes more apparent, especially for use in areas of low infection intensity and for individuals with light infections...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094200/type-i-interferon-in-malaria-a-balancing-act
#20
Jason Paul Mooney, Samuel Crocodile Wassmer, Julius Clemence Hafalla
Type I interferons (IFN-Is) can now be considered as the wedge that balances clinical protection to malaria. New studies recently highlighted a central role for IFN-Is in orchestrating an immunoregulatory network leading to the dampening of proinflammatory responses, expansion of type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells, and restriction of humoral immunity during malaria blood stage infection. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) were identified as the major source of IFN-Is. Here, we integrate the findings and provide a model for the mechanisms involved...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
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