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Trends in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549573/the-dose-makes-the-poison-nutritional-overload-determines-the-life-traits-of-blood-feeding-arthropods
#1
REVIEW
Marcos Sterkel, José Henrique M Oliveira, Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva, Pedro L Oliveira
Vertebrate blood composition is heavily biased towards proteins, and hemoglobin, which is a hemeprotein, is by far the most abundant protein. Typically, hematophagous insects ingest blood volumes several times their weight before the blood meal. This barbarian feast offers an abundance of nutrients, but the degradation of blood proteins generates toxic concentrations of amino acids and heme, along with unparalleled microbiota growth. Despite this challenge, hematophagous arthropods have successfully developed mechanisms that bypass the toxicity of these molecules...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545979/opening-the-doors-of-parasitology-journals-to-other-symbionts
#2
LETTER
Roger Jovani, Jorge Doña, María Del Mar Labrador, David Serrano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539255/emerging-schistosomiasis-in-europe-a-need-to-quantify-the-risks
#3
REVIEW
Julien Kincaid-Smith, Olivier Rey, Eve Toulza, Antoine Berry, Jérôme Boissier
The recent recurrent outbreaks of urogenital schistosomiasis in the south of Europe were unanticipated and caught scientists and health authorities unprepared. It is now time to learn lessons from these outbreaks and to implement concrete procedures in order to better quantify the risks and prevent future outbreaks of schistosomiasis in Europe. In this context, we propose a reflection on the factors that currently hamper our ability to quantify these risks and argue that we are incapable of predicting future outbreaks...
May 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529130/the-future-of-drug-development-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-how-the-european-commission-can-continue-to-make-a-difference
#4
Raymond J Pierce, Jane MacDougall, Rob Leurs, Maria Paola Costi
In this article, the four coordinators of neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug development projects funded under the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 argue that the EC should reassess their funding strategy to cover the steps necessary to translate a lead compound into a drug candidate for testing in clinical trials, and suggest ways in which this might be achieved.
May 18, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506779/this-gut-ain-t-big-enough-for-both-of-us-or-is-it-helminth-microbiota-interactions-in-veterinary-species
#5
REVIEW
Laura E Peachey, Timothy P Jenkins, Cinzia Cantacessi
Gastrointestinal helminth parasites share their habitat with a myriad of other organisms, that is, the commensal microbiota. Increasing evidence, particularly in humans and rodent models of helminth infection, points towards a multitude of interactions occurring between parasites and the gut microbiota, with a profound impact on both host immunity and metabolic potential. Despite this information, the exploration of the effects that parasite infections exert on populations of commensal gut microbes of veterinary species is a field of research in its infancy...
May 12, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499699/malaria-vector-control-still-matters-despite-insecticide-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Haoues Alout, Pierrick Labbé, Fabrice Chandre, Anna Cohuet
Mosquito vectors' resistance to insecticides is usually considered a major threat to the recent progresses in malaria control. However, studies measuring the impact of interventions and insecticide resistance reveal inconsistencies when using entomological versus epidemiological indices. First, evaluation tests that do not reflect the susceptibility of mosquitoes when they are infectious may underestimate insecticide efficacy. Moreover, interactions between insecticide resistance and vectorial capacity reveal nonintuitive outcomes of interventions...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495485/mosquito-biting-modulates-skin-response-to-virus-infection
#7
REVIEW
Marieke Pingen, Michael A Schmid, Eva Harris, Clive S McKimmie
Mosquito-borne infections are increasing in number and are spreading to new regions at an unprecedented rate. In particular, mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as those that cause Zika, dengue, West Nile encephalitis, and chikungunya, have become endemic or have caused dramatic epidemics in many parts of the world. Aedes and Culex mosquitoes are the main culprits, spreading infection when they bite. Importantly, mosquitoes do not act as simple conduits that passively transfer virus from one individual to another...
May 8, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495484/insights-on-heme-synthesis-in-the-malaria-parasite
#8
Viswanathan A Nagaraj, Govindarajan Padmanaban
The malaria parasite has a functional heme-biosynthetic pathway, although it can access host hemoglobin-heme. The heme pathway is dispensable for blood stages, but essential in the mosquito stages which do not acquire hemoglobin-heme. We propose that the blood stage parasites maintain a dynamic heme pool through multiple back-up mechanisms.
May 8, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483382/modeling-key-drivers-of-cholera-transmission-dynamics-provides-new-perspectives-for-parasitology
#9
REVIEW
Andrea Rinaldo, Enrico Bertuzzo, Melanie Blokesch, Lorenzo Mari, Marino Gatto
Hydroclimatological and anthropogenic factors are key drivers of waterborne disease transmission. Information on human settlements and host mobility on waterways along which pathogens and hosts disperse, and relevant hydroclimatological processes, can be acquired remotely and included in spatially explicit mathematical models of disease transmission. In the case of epidemic cholera, such models allowed the description of complex disease patterns and provided insight into the course of ongoing epidemics. The inclusion of spatial information in models of disease transmission can aid in emergency management and the assessment of alternative interventions...
May 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483381/brains-and-brawn-toxoplasma-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-and-skeletal-muscle
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Wohlfert, Ira J Blader, Emma H Wilson
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasitic pathogen that infects over a third of the world's population. Following an acute infection, the parasite can persist within its mammalian host as intraneuronal or intramuscular cysts. Cysts will occasionally reactivate, and - depending on the host's immune status and site of reactivation - encephalitis or myositis can develop. Because these diseases have high levels of morbidity and can be lethal, it is important to understand how Toxoplasma traffics to these tissues, how the immune response controls parasite burden and contributes to tissue damage, and what mechanisms underlie neurological and muscular pathologies that toxoplasmosis patients present with...
May 5, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456474/developing-a-progressive-control-pathway-for-african-animal-trypanosomosis
#11
REVIEW
Oumar Diall, Giuliano Cecchi, Gift Wanda, Rafael Argilés-Herrero, Marc J B Vreysen, Giovanni Cattoli, Gerrit J Viljoen, Raffaele Mattioli, Jérémy Bouyer
Progressive control pathways (PCPs) are stepwise approaches for the reduction, elimination, and eradication of human and animal diseases. They provide systematic frameworks for planning and evaluating interventions. Here we outline a PCP for tsetse-transmitted animal trypanosomosis, the scourge of poor livestock keepers in tropical Africa. Initial PCP stages focus on the establishment of national coordination structures, engagement of stakeholders, development of technical capacities, data collection and management, and pilot field interventions...
April 26, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433502/una-ryan-on-the-importance-of-clean-potable-water
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385423/new-technologies-for-detection-of-enteric-parasites
#13
REVIEW
Una Ryan, Andrea Paparini, Charlotte Oskam
Enteric parasites are major contributors to the global diarrhoeal disease load, infecting >67.2 million people. Their prevalence and clinical impact, however, are underestimated due to lack of adequate detection, which is largely still based on microscopy, particularly in developing countries. New commercially available enteric panel assays, which detect parasites (as well as bacteria and/or viruses) using multiplex PCR, offer enhanced sensitivity and specificity as well as the ability to detect mixed infections, and will play an important role in epidemiological surveillance and outbreak investigations...
April 3, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366603/malaria-eradication-and-the-hidden-parasite-reservoir
#14
Miles B Markus
Accumulation of erythrocytic parasites in bone marrow and the spleen has been reported in cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria. If this occurs commonly, these stages represent a possible source of early, relapse-like homologous recurrences. Moreover, they might hinder the elimination of malaria from human populations. Pertinent research suggestions have been made.
March 30, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365087/salivary-prostaglandin-e2-role-in-tick-induced-allergy-to-red-meat
#15
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Jindri Ch Chmelař, Margarita Villar, José de la Fuente
Tick-induced allergy to red meat is associated with anti-α-Gal IgE antibody levels. We propose that tick salivary prostaglandin E2 triggers antibody class switching in mature B cells, increasing the levels of anti-α-Gal IgE antibodies. Immune tolerance to α-Gal in blood type B individuals might reduce the risk to this allergy.
March 29, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359609/pregnant-women-an-overlooked-asset-to-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-elimination-campaigns
#16
REVIEW
Bronner P Gonçalves, Patrick G Walker, Matthew Cairns, Alfred B Tiono, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley
Community chemotherapy campaigns to reduce malaria transmission often exclude pregnant women due to safety concerns related to the drugs. However, pregnant women might represent an important source of human-to-mosquito infection due to frequent parasite carriage with higher densities of parasites (often detectable by microscopy), attractiveness to mosquitoes, and modified sleeping behaviour. Accumulating evidence of the safety of artemisinin-based combination therapies for the treatment of malaria during gestation suggests that malaria elimination programmes should reconsider this exclusion...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336217/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia
#17
REVIEW
Gabriela Certad, Eric Viscogliosi, Magali Chabé, Simone M Cacciò
Intestinal protozoa are important etiological agents of diarrhea, particularly in children, yet the public health risk they pose is often neglected. Results from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) showed that Cryptosporidium is among the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children under 2 years. Likewise, Giardia infects approximately 200 million individuals worldwide, and causes acute diarrhea in children under 5 years. Despite this recognized role as pathogens, the question is why and how these parasites cause disease in some individuals but not in others...
March 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279627/making-new-connections-insights-from-primate-parasite-networks
#18
REVIEW
Julie Rushmore, Donal Bisanzio, Thomas R Gillespie
Social interactions are important in everyday life for primates and many other group-living animals; however, these essential exchanges also provide opportunities for parasites to spread through social groups. Network analysis is a unique toolkit for studying pathogen transmission in a social context, and recent primate-parasite network studies shed light on linkages between behavior and infectious disease dynamics, providing insights for conservation and public health. We review existing literature on primate-parasite networks, examining determinants of infection risk, issues of network scale and temporal dynamics, and applications for disease control...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473241/biology-of-parasitism-a-broad-and-deep-parasitology-discovery-course
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438422/next-generation-parasitologists-structured-training-programs-meet-educational-challenges
#20
Juliane Kofer, Heribert Hofer, Susanne Hartmann
Parasite infections are diverse, complex and widespread, and they represent major health threats to people and animals alike. Topics such as vaccine development, drug resistance, immune regulation, vector-borne parasitic diseases, and wildlife parasitology are key issues. Here, we discuss the need and direction of structured educational programs for graduates in modern parasitology.
April 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
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