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Trends in Parasitology

Carlos Lanusse, Candela Canton, Guillermo Virkel, Luis Alvarez, Livio Costa-Junior, Adrian Lifschitz
Anthelmintic resistance in human and animal pathogenic helminths has been spreading in prevalence and severity. Multidrug resistance is a widespread problem in livestock animals. The use of available pharmacology-based information is critical to the design of successful future approaches for parasite control. Relevant scientific work supporting the main strategies to optimize anthelmintic therapy in ruminants under the current drug-resistance scenario is described here. We emphasize the need for further integrated pharmaco-parasitological knowledge to extend the lifespan of both traditional and novel anthelmintic compounds, and to progress in the identification of complementary/alternative measures of parasite control in livestock animals...
June 27, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Louise A Kelly-Hope, Harriet J Blundell, Cara L Macfarlane, David H Molyneux
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are two neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of public health significance targeted for global elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) African Region is a priority region, with the highest collective burden of LF and onchocerciasis globally. Coendemic loiasis further complicates elimination due to the risk of adverse events associated with ivermectin treatment. A public health framework focusing on health-related data, systematic collection of data, and analysis and interpretation of data is used to highlight the range of innovative surveillance strategies required for filariasis elimination...
June 26, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Janina Kahl, Norbert Brattig, Eva Liebau
The dramatic rise in immunological disorders that occurs with socioeconomic development is associated with alterations in microbial colonization and reduced exposure to helminths. Excretory-secretory (E/S) helminth products contain a mixture of proteins and low-molecular-weight molecules representing the primary interface between parasite and host. Research has shown great pharmacopeic potential for helminth-derived products in animal disease models and even in clinical trials. Although in its infancy, the translation of worm-derived products into therapeutics is highly promising...
June 25, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Sarah E Reece, Petra Schneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Alba Cortés, Rafael Toledo, Cinzia Cantacessi
Whilst a wealth of data indicate that infections by gastrointestinal helminths are accompanied by significant alterations in the composition of the vertebrate gut flora, little is known of the immune-molecular mechanisms that regulate host-parasite-microbiota interactions. 'Traditional' experimental models of gastrointestinal helminthiases, in which the role(s) of each of the components of this triad can be tested, provide an opportunity to advance research in this area. In this article, we propose the Echinostoma caproni-mouse system as a potentially useful tool for studies of the role of the host gut microbiota in preventing pathology and inducing parasite clearance via interleukin (IL)-25, an epithelial-derived alarmin with key roles in antihelminth immunity and maintenance of gut homeostasis...
June 22, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Ana Rivero, Sylvain Gandon
Avian malaria is the oldest experimental system for investigating the biology and transmission of Plasmodium parasites. Recent molecular protocols for detecting and characterizing avian malaria lineages in the field are providing an ever-growing picture of the prevalence, distribution, host range, and diversity hotspots of avian malaria across the world. The unparalleled genetic diversity uncovered rivals anything that has been found in other vertebrate malarias and seems to be matched by an equally rich phenotypic diversity, providing endless opportunities for exploring the selective pressures under which hosts and parasites evolve...
June 21, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Kayleigh Chalkowski, Christopher A Lepczyk, Sarah Zohdy
Biological invasions have the potential to influence parasite dynamics by altering ecological interactions. Similarly, parasitism can influence invasion by aiding or limiting expansion. While many parasite-invasion relationships have been evaluated, many have not been described. Here, we present a conceptual framework of potential interactions, and introduce two new concepts. The first, disease facilitation, nested within the parasite spillback hypothesis, is when invasive species facilitate parasite transmission through habitat alteration or physical transfer...
June 20, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Matthew R Hassett, Paul D Roepe
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinases (PIKs) regulate cell proliferation, survival, membrane trafficking, and other processes. PIK classes are distinguished by substrate preference and their distinct phosphorylated PI products. Recently two Plasmodium falciparum PIKs (PfPIKs) have been recognized as attractive new drug targets. Here we briefly summarize PIK biochemistry and recent progress with PfPIKs.
June 19, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Lucy J Robertson, Paul R Torgerson, Joke van der Giessen
Social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) can be used to evaluate the benefit to society as a whole of a particular intervention. Describing preliminary steps of an SCBA for two foodborne parasitic diseases, echinococcosis and cryptosporidiosis, indicates where data are needed in order to identify those interventions of greatest benefit.
June 16, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Esteban D Erben, Christine Clayton
Translation and RNA decay, two processes in which all mRNAs are engaged, are intimately related processes. Two new studies demonstrate that, in trypanosomatids, codon usage largely shapes mRNA abundance in a translation-dependent manner. The findings indicate that mRNA decay control by codon choice is an ancient and conserved mechanism.
June 14, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Christopher Nötzel, Asaf Poran, Björn F C Kafsack
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) technologies are changing the way we study populations of cells by allowing for an unbiased characterization of the composition of these populations. This Forum article highlights outstanding questions in parasitology that could benefit from scRNAseq and provides guiding thoughts for planning such experiments.
May 25, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Frederic Bartumeus, Aitana Oltra, John R B Palmer
Traditional methods for tracking disease-carrying mosquitoes are hitting budget constraints as the scales over which they must be implemented grow exponentially. Citizen science offers a novel solution to this problem but requires new models of innovation in the public health sector.
May 21, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Kayce C Bell, Colin J Carlson, Anna J Phillips
Parasite natural history collections form vital scientific infrastructure that play a substantial role in increasing awareness of the importance of parasites to ecosystems, conservation assessments, science, and society. These collections support novel investigations that integrate across taxa, time, and space, and should be cultivated to advance organismal-based science. Promoting and supporting parasite collections will ensure their ongoing stability and accessibility.
May 11, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Michael Hackenberg, Michail Kotsyfakis
Recent molecular and cellular studies have highlighted a potentially important role for tick exosomes in parasite transmission. Here we summarize evolving hypotheses about the largely unknown cellular events that may take place at the tick-host-pathogen interface, focusing on a potential role for arthropod exosomes in this tripartite interaction.
April 24, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Hillery C Metz, Carolyn S McBride
Several studies have demonstrated that malaria parasites can render vertebrate hosts - including humans - more attractive to biting mosquitoes. A recent study provides evidence that Plasmodium falciparum infection alters the aldehyde composition of human foot odor, and suggests that this may be the proximate cause of increased attraction.
July 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Jessica D Schulz, Wendelin Moser, Eveline Hürlimann, Jennifer Keiser
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are endemic in more than half of the world's countries. The World Health Organization has advocated targeted preventive chemotherapy (PC) to control STH infections by distributing albendazole or mebendazole to at-risk populations. While the overall impact and sustainability of this strategy is disputed, a decrease in moderate and heavy STH infections can be largely attributed to a scale-up of drug distribution. Two factors might jeopardise the success of PC programs. First, the benzimidazoles possess unsatisfactory efficacy against Trichuris trichiura infections...
July 2018: Trends in Parasitology
David Leitsch, Catrin F Williams, Ivan Hrdý
The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia jointly cause hundreds of millions of infections in humans every year. Other microaerophilic parasites such as Tritrichomonas foetus and Spironucleus spp. pose a relevant health problem in veterinary medicine. Unfortunately, vaccines against these pathogens are unavailable, but their microaerophilic lifestyle opens opportunities for specifically developed chemotherapeutics. In particular, their high sensitivity towards oxygen can be exploited by targeting redox enzymes...
July 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Nicholas C Sangster, Ann Cowling, Robert G Woodgate
Fifty years after anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites was first reported, the prevalence of resistance has increased globally, and is of increasing significance in animal industries. It is now timely to reflect on what we have learnt, how research has unfolded, and what we hope to learn in the future. This Opinion paper examines ten important research events that were pivotal in resistance research. The moments include the discovery, description, and diagnosis of parasite resistance, as well as important physiological and genetic findings, and the development of online tools to help manage resistance...
July 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Sandra Duffy, Vicky M Avery
The advent of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) in vitro culturing opened the door for malaria research, yielding dramatic advancements in our understanding of the parasite. However, fundamental foundations taken for granted in our research endeavors can unknowingly be an Achilles heel, resulting in potential misdirection. In relation to malaria research, this could be our nonquestioning acceptance of routine in vitro culture of Pf. There is nothing routine or straightforward regarding the dynamic and intimate relationship between the parasite and the in vitro environment...
July 2018: Trends in Parasitology
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