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Trends in Parasitology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890329/caroline-buckee-using-cell-phones-to-fight-infectious-disease
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889370/malaria-parasites-distribute-subversive-messages-across-enemy-lines
#2
Anna Rivkin, Sharon Ben-Hur, Neta Regev-Rudzki
During its life cycle, the malaria parasite must cope with a set of diverse environments and institute strategies to alter its host's responses. A recent study remarkably demonstrates how these parasites exploit red blood cell products, loading them into 'armed' secreted vesicles sent to manipulate their host's 'endothelium battlefront', thereby promoting malaria infection.
November 23, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865741/seasonal-population-movements-and-the-surveillance-and-control-of-infectious-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Caroline O Buckee, Andrew J Tatem, C Jessica E Metcalf
National policies designed to control infectious diseases should allocate resources for interventions based on regional estimates of disease burden from surveillance systems. For many infectious diseases, however, there is pronounced seasonal variation in incidence. Policy-makers must routinely manage a public health response to these seasonal fluctuations with limited understanding of their underlying causes. Two complementary and poorly described drivers of seasonal disease incidence are the mobility and aggregation of human populations, which spark outbreaks and sustain transmission, respectively, and may both exhibit distinct seasonal variations...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865740/sm-p80-based-schistosomiasis-vaccine-preparation-for-human-clinical-trials
#4
REVIEW
Afzal A Siddiqui, Sabrina Z Siddiqui
Mass antiparasitic drug administration programs and other control strategies have made important contributions in reducing the global prevalence of helminths. Schistosomiasis, however, continues to spread to new geographic areas. The advent of a viable vaccine and its deployment, coupled with existing control efforts, is expected to make significant headway towards sustained schistosomiasis control. In 2016, Science ranked the schistosomiasis vaccine as one of the top 10 vaccines that needs to be urgently developed...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863902/prediction-and-prevention-of-parasitic-diseases-using-a-landscape-genomics-framework
#5
REVIEW
Philipp Schwabl, Martin S Llewellyn, Erin L Landguth, Björn Andersson, Uriel Kitron, Jaime A Costales, Sofía Ocaña, Mario J Grijalva
Substantial heterogeneity exists in the dispersal, distribution and transmission of parasitic species. Understanding and predicting how such features are governed by the ecological variation of landscape they inhabit is the central goal of spatial epidemiology. Genetic data can further inform functional connectivity among parasite, host and vector populations in a landscape. Gene flow correlates with the spread of epidemiologically relevant phenotypes among parasite and vector populations (e.g., virulence, drug and pesticide resistance), as well as invasion and re-invasion risk where parasite transmission is absent due to current or past intervention measures...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863903/tryptag-org-a-trypanosome-genome-wide-protein-localisation-resource
#6
Samuel Dean, Jack D Sunter, Richard J Wheeler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856180/sometimes-scientists-get-the-flu-wrong%C3%A2
#7
Matteo Marcantonio, Emily L Pascoe, Frédéric Baldacchino
In an international research environment, accurate communication is vital. However, the scientific literature does not always utilise consistent terminology and the misuse of some expressions in epidemiology is rife. We encourage the correct terms to be used appropriately to avoid confusion between scientists, policy makers, and members of the public.
November 14, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843019/the-trypanosoma-cruzi-surface-a-nanoscale-patchwork-quilt
#8
REVIEW
Juan Mucci, Andrés B Lantos, Carlos A Buscaglia, María Susana Leguizamón, Oscar Campetella
The Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote membrane provides a major protective role against mammalian host-derived defense mechanisms while allowing the parasite to interact with different cell types and trigger pathogenesis. This surface has been historically appreciated as a rather unstructured 'coat', mainly consisting of a continuous layer of glycolipids and heavily O-glycosylated mucins, occasionally intercalated with different developmentally regulated molecules displaying adhesive and/or enzymatic properties...
November 11, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810464/defensive-symbionts-mediate-host-parasite-interactions-at-multiple-scales
#9
REVIEW
Skylar R Hopkins, Jeremy M Wojdak, Lisa K Belden
In protection mutualisms, defensive symbionts protect their hosts from natural enemies, including parasites. Protection mutualisms were historically considered rare ecological relationships, but recent examples demonstrate that defensive symbionts are both quite common and diverse. Defensive symbionts can have surprisingly large effects on host and parasite ecology at the individual, population, guild, and community scales. However, the highly context-dependent nature of protection mutualisms makes it difficult to identify and quantify the roles that defensive symbionts play in host-parasite systems...
October 31, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793563/targeting-protein-translation-in-organelles-of-the-apicomplexa
#10
REVIEW
Christopher D Goodman, Charisse Flerida A Pasaje, Kit Kennedy, Geoffrey I McFadden, Stuart A Ralph
Antibiotics inhibiting protein translation have long been used to treat and prevent infections by apicomplexan parasites. These compounds kill parasites by inhibiting organellar translation, and most act specifically against the apicoplast, a relict plastid in apicomplexans. Drug resistance in Plasmodium and other apicomplexans dictates a need for development of novel targets. Some apicoplast inhibitors have a delayed onset of action, so they cannot replace fast-acting drugs, although they still fulfil important roles in treating and preventing infections...
October 25, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793562/time-for-genome-editing-next-generation-attenuated-malaria-parasites
#11
REVIEW
Mirko Singer, Friedrich Frischknecht
Immunization with malaria parasites that developmentally arrest in or immediately after the liver stage is the only way currently known to confer sterilizing immunity in both humans and rodent models. There are various ways to attenuate parasite development resulting in different timings of arrest, which has a significant impact on vaccination efficiency. To understand what most impacts vaccination efficiency, newly developed gain-of-function methods can now be used to generate a wide array of differently attenuated parasites...
October 25, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789127/is-the-mitochondrion-a-good-malaria-drug-target
#12
REVIEW
Christopher D Goodman, Hayley D Buchanan, Geoffrey I McFadden
Rapid emergence of resistance to atovaquone, which targets electron transport in the malaria parasite mitochondrion, relegated its use to prophylaxis and even cast a shadow over the development of drugs targeting other parasite mitochondrial pathways. Here we argue for a renewed focus on the mitochondrion as a drug target, focusing particularly on the issues of resistance. We posit a hypothesis for why atovaquone resistance emerges so quickly, and we explain how facile acquisition of resistance is apparently offset by an inability of parasites to spread this resistance...
October 24, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765440/can-lymphatic-filariasis-be-eliminated-by-2020
#13
Maria P Rebollo, Moses J Bockarie
Interventions against neglected tropical diseases (NTD), including lymphatic filariasis (LF), scaled up dramatically after the signing of the London Declaration (LD) in 2012. LF is targeted for elimination by 2020, but some countries are considered not on track to meet the 2020 target using the recommended preventive chemotherapy and morbidity management strategies. In this Opinion article we review the prospects for achieving LF elimination by 2020 in the light of the renewed global action against NTDs and the global efforts to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs) by 2030...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765439/might-interspecific-interactions-between-pathogens-drive-host-evolution-the-case-of-plasmodium-species-and-duffy-negativity-in-human-populations
#14
Benjamin Roche, Virginie Rougeron, Lluis Quintana-Murci, François Renaud, Jessica Lee Abbate, Franck Prugnolle
Malarial infections have long been recognized as a driver of human evolution, as demonstrated by the influence of Plasmodium falciparum on sickle-cell anemia persistence. Duffy-negativity is another blood disorder thought to have been selected because it confers nearly complete resistance against Plasmodium vivax infection. Recent evidence suggests that the benefits of being Duffy-negative cannot be expected to play a strong selective pressure on humans, whereas its costs cannot be considered as negligible...
October 17, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743866/why-do-some-primate-malarias-relapse
#15
Nicholas J White
Relapse may have evolved in malaria as a mechanism to avoid suppression by more virulent species in mixed infections, thereby increasing transmission opportunities. Later evolution of long latency in Plasmodium vivax was a necessary adaptation as early hominins moved to colder areas with shorter mosquito breeding seasons. Genetic diversity was maintained through heterologous hypnozoite activation.
October 12, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727128/mathematical-modelling-to-guide-drug-development-for-malaria-elimination
#16
Hannah C Slater, Lucy C Okell, Azra C Ghani
Mathematical models of the dynamics of a drug within the host are now frequently used to guide drug development. These generally focus on assessing the efficacy and duration of response to guide patient therapy. Increasingly, antimalarial drugs are used at the population level, to clear infections, provide chemoprevention, and to reduce onward transmission of infection. However, there is less clarity on the extent to which different drug properties are important for these different uses. In addition, the emergence of drug resistance poses new threats to longer-term use and highlights the need for rational drug development...
October 7, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720334/extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis-in-helminths-more-than-one-route-to-the-surface
#17
Eduardo de la Torre-Escudero, Adam P S Bennett, Alexzandra Clarke, Gerard P Brennan, Mark W Robinson
The recent discovery that parasites release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can transfer a range of effector molecules to host cells has made us re-think our understanding of the host-parasite interface. In this opinion article we consider how recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies, together with ultrastructural observations, suggest that more than one mechanism of EV biogenesis can occur in helminths. We propose that distinct EV subtypes have roles in immune modulation and repair of drug-induced damage, and put forward the case for targeting EV biogenesis pathways to achieve parasite control...
October 5, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717597/the-global-synanthrome-project-a-call-for-an-exhaustive-study-of-human-associates
#18
Robert R Dunn, Charles L Nunn, Julie E Horvath
Here we coin the term synanthrome to describe all of the species we interact with. We propose that the time is now here for The Global Synanthrome Project to describe all of our interacting species and how they have changed through time and across space. This effort must involve natural history, ecology, and evolutionary biology in addition to genomics studies that are already underway.
October 4, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720141/harnessing-integrated-vector-management-for-enhanced-disease-prevention
#19
Emmanuel Chanda, Birkinesh Ameneshewa, Magaran Bagayoko, John M Govere, Michael B Macdonald
The increasing global threat of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases (VBDs) poses a serious health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integrated vector management (IVM) strategy for combating VBD transmission. An IVM approach requires entomological knowledge, technical and infrastructure capacity, and systems facilitating stakeholder collaboration. In sub-Saharan Africa, successful operational IVM experience comes from relatively few countries. This article provides an update on the extent to which IVM is official national policy, the degree of IVM implementation, the level of compliance with WHO guidelines, and concordance in the understanding of IVM, and it assesses the operational impact of IVM...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720140/disease-centered-around-calcified-taenia-solium-granuloma
#20
Theodore E Nash, Javier A Bustos, Hector H Garcia
Taenia solium (the pork tapeworm) is present in most developing countries, where it is a frequent cause of seizures and other neurological disease. Parasitic larvae invade the human brain, establish, and eventually resolve, leaving a calcified scar. While these lesions are common in endemic regions, and most of these are clinically silent, a proportion of individuals with calcified cysticerci develop seizures from these lesions, and 30-65% of these cases are associated with perilesional edema (PE), likely due to host inflammation...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
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