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Trends in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709825/the-ambiguous-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-lymphocytes-in-antitumor-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Guranda Chitadze, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Daniela Wesch, Dieter Kabelitz
γδ T cells play a role in immune surveillance because they recognize stress-induced surface molecules and metabolic intermediates that are frequently dysregulated in transformed cells. Hence, γδ T cells have attracted much interest as effector cells in cell-based immunotherapy. Recently, however, it has been realized that γδ T cells can also promote tumorigenesis through various mechanisms including regulatory activity and IL-17 production. In this review we outline both the pathways involved in cancer cell recognition and killing by γδ T cells as well as current evidence for their protumorigenic activity in various models...
July 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697966/themis-two-models-different-thresholds
#2
REVIEW
Seeyoung Choi, Richard Cornall, Renaud Lesourne, Paul E Love
THEMIS, a recently identified T-lineage-restricted protein, is the founding member of a large metazoan protein family. Gene inactivation studies have revealed a critical requirement for THEMIS during thymocyte positive selection, implicating THEMIS in signaling downstream of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR), but the mechanistic underpinnings of THEMIS function have remained elusive. A previous model posited that THEMIS prevents thymocytes from inappropriately crossing the positive/negative selection threshold by dampening TCR signaling...
July 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688841/how-mr1-presents-a-pathogen-metabolic-signature-to-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-mait-cells
#3
REVIEW
Hamish E G McWilliam, Jose A Villadangos
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes restricted by the antigen (Ag)-presenting molecule MHC class I (MHC I)-related protein 1 (MR1). The Ags presented by MR1 are vitamin B-related Ags (VitBAgs), 'building-block' metabolites of riboflavin that are synthesized by a range of microbes. MR1 presentation is thus a unique mechanism for the immune detection of a pathogen metabolic signature. While the full picture of how MR1 accomplishes this remains incomplete, recent data show that, unlike other MHC molecules, MR1 operates by a presentation-on-demand mechanism...
July 5, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684208/mucosal-bioengineering-gut-in-a-dish
#4
Ivaylo I Ivanov
Studying the interactions between commensal microbes and host intestinal tissue networks is challenging due to the complexity and inaccessibility of the system. A recent study reports a novel organ culture system that will enhance our ability to dissect these interactions.
July 3, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684207/regulation-of-the-immune-system-by-laminins
#5
REVIEW
Thomas Simon, Jonathan S Bromberg
Laminins are trimeric proteins that are major components of the basement membranes that separate endothelia and epithelia from the underlying tissue. Sixteen laminin isoforms have been described, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions. While laminins have a critical structural role, recent evidence also indicates that they also impact the migration and functions of immune cells. Laminins are differentially expressed upon immunity or tolerance and orientate the immune response. This review will summarize the structure of laminins, the modulation of their expression, and their interactions with the immune system...
July 3, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669638/host-genetics-and-gut-microbiome-challenges-and-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Alexander Kurilshikov, Cisca Wijmenga, Jingyuan Fu, Alexandra Zhernakova
The mammalian gut is colonized by trillions of microorganisms collectively called the microbiome. It is increasingly clear that this microbiome has a critical role of in many aspects of health including metabolism and immunity. While environmental factors such as diet and medications have been shown to influence the microbiome composition, the role of host genetics has only recently emerged in human studies and animal models. In this review, we summarize the current state of microbiome research with an emphasis on the effect of host genetics on the gut microbiome composition...
June 29, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666937/re-evaluating-strategies-to-define-the-immunoregulatory-roles-of-mirnas
#7
REVIEW
Adriana Forero, Lomon So, Ram Savan
miRNAs play an important role in fine-tuning host immune homeostasis and responses through the regulation of mRNA stability and translation. Studies have demonstrated that miRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression has a profound impact on immune cell development, function, and response to invading pathogens. As we continue to examine the mechanisms by which miRNAs maintain the balance between robust protective host immune responses and dysregulated responses that promote immune pathology, careful consideration of the complexity of post-transcriptional immune regulation is needed...
June 27, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662970/molecular-dissection-of-cd8-t-cell-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Chao Wang, Meromit Singer, Ana C Anderson
Chronic viral infections and cancer often lead to the emergence of dysfunctional or 'exhausted' CD8(+) T cells, and the restoration of their functions is currently the focus of therapeutic interventions. In this review, we detail recent advances in the annotation of the gene modules and the epigenetic landscape associated with T-cell dysfunction. Together with analysis of single-cell transcriptomes, these findings have enabled a deeper and more precise understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms that induce and maintain the dysfunctional state and highlight the heterogeneity of CD8(+) T-cell phenotypes present in chronically inflamed tissue...
June 26, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642066/dying-for-a-cause-regulated-necrosis-of-tissue-resident-macrophages-upon-infection
#9
Florent Ginhoux, Camille Bleriot, Marc Lecuit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610825/integrating-next-generation-dendritic-cell-vaccines-into-the-current-cancer-immunotherapy-landscape
#10
REVIEW
Abhishek D Garg, Pierre G Coulie, Benoit J Van den Eynde, Patrizia Agostinis
Cancer immunotherapy is experiencing a renaissance spearheaded by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). This has spurred interest in 'upgrading' existing immunotherapies that previously experienced only sporadic success, such as dendritic cells (DCs) vaccines. In this review, we discuss the major molecular, immunological, and clinical determinants of existing first- and second-generation DC vaccines. We also outline the future trends for next-generation DC vaccines and describe their major hallmarks and prerequisites necessary for high anticancer efficacy...
June 10, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602618/heavy-metal-to-rock-the-immune-infiltrate
#11
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Takahiro Yamazaki, Sandra Demaria
Two resource articles recently published in Cell demonstrate that the elevated phenotypic complexity of the immune infiltrate in human lung adenocarcinomas and renal cell carcinomas can be reliably dissected with mass cytometry. These findings may pave the way to a new era of precision cancer immunotherapy.
June 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579320/t-cell-immunity-and-zika-virus-vaccine-development
#12
REVIEW
Noemia S Lima, Morgane Rolland, Kayvon Modjarrad, Lydie Trautmann
The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has created an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. There is still a dearth of knowledge about ZIKV immunity, but years of investigation into the immunobiology of other flaviviruses has helped to accelerate the development of a ZIKV vaccine. Although the humoral immune response generates the primary correlate of protection from disease, robust T cell responses could enhance ZIKV vaccine efficacy. Additionally, pre-existing immunity to related flaviviruses could generate cross-reactive T cells that may affect immune responses upon vaccination...
June 1, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579324/evolutionary-convergence-and-divergence-in-nlr-function-and-structure
#13
REVIEW
Etienne Meunier, Petr Broz
The recognition of cellular damage caused by either pathogens or abiotic stress is essential for host defense in all forms of life in the plant and animal kingdoms. The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) represent a large family of multidomain proteins that were initially discovered for their role in host defense in plants and vertebrates. Over recent years the wide distribution of NLRs among metazoans has become apparent and their origins have begun to emerge. Moreover, intense study of NLR function has shown that they play essential roles beyond pathogen recognition - in the regulation of antigen presentation, cell death, inflammation, and even in embryonic development...
May 31, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579323/type-i-interferon-in-chronic-virus-infection-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Laura M Snell, Tracy L McGaha, David G Brooks
Type I interferons (IFN-Is) are emerging as key drivers of inflammation and immunosuppression in chronic infection. Control of these infections requires IFN-I signaling; however, prolonged IFN-I signaling can lead to immune dysfunction. IFN-Is are also emerging as double-edged swords in cancer, providing necessary inflammatory signals, while initiating feedback suppression in both immune and cancer cells. Here, we review the proinflammatory and suppressive mechanisms potentiated by IFN-Is during chronic virus infections and discuss the similar, newly emerging dichotomy in cancer...
May 31, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559148/leukocyte-breaching-of-endothelial-barriers-the-actin-link
#15
REVIEW
Ronen Alon, Jaap D van Buul
Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) takes place across micron-wide gaps in specific post-capillary venules generated by the transmigrating leukocyte. Because endothelial cells contain a dense cytoskeletal network, transmigrating leukocytes must overcome these mechanical barriers as they squeeze their nuclei through endothelial gaps and pores. Recent findings suggest that endothelial cells are not a passive barrier, and upon engagement by transmigrating leukocytes trigger extensive dynamic modifications of their actin cytoskeleton...
May 27, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566130/novel-approaches-to-analyze-immunoglobulin-repertoires
#16
REVIEW
Hedda Wardemann, Christian E Busse
Analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoires aims to comprehend Ig diversity with the goal of predicting humoral immune responses in the context of infection, vaccination, autoimmunity, and malignancies. The first next-generation sequencing (NGS) analyses of bulk B cell populations dramatically advanced sampling depth over previous low-throughput single-cell-based protocols, albeit at the expense of accuracy and loss of chain-pairing information. In recent years the field has substantially differentiated, with bulk analyses becoming more accurate while single-cell approaches have gained in throughput...
May 26, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551077/lipopolysaccharide-detection-across-the-kingdoms-of-life
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan C Kagan
Studies in recent years have uncovered a diverse set of eukaryotic receptors that recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major outer-membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, Toll-like receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors, integrins, receptor-like kinases, and caspases have emerged as important LPS-interacting proteins. In this review, the mammalian receptors that detect LPS are described. I highlight how no host protein is involved in all LPS responses, but a single lipid (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) regulates many LPS responses, including endocytosis, phagocytosis, inflammation, and pyroptosis...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549714/the-enigmatic-role-of-viruses-in-multiple-sclerosis-molecular-mimicry-or-disturbed-immune-surveillance
#18
REVIEW
Jens Geginat, Moira Paroni, Massimiliano Pagani, Daniela Galimberti, Raffaele De Francesco, Elio Scarpini, Sergio Abrignani
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell driven autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite its association with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), how viral infections promote MS remains unclear. However, there is increasing evidence that the CNS is continuously surveyed by virus-specific T cells, which protect against reactivating neurotropic viruses. Here, we discuss how viral infections could lead to the breakdown of self-tolerance in genetically predisposed individuals, and how the reactivations of viruses in the CNS could induce the recruitment of both autoaggressive and virus-specific T cell subsets, causing relapses and progressive disability...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539189/the-individual-and-population-genetics-of-antibody-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Corey T Watson, Jacob Glanville, Wayne A Marasco
Antibodies (Abs) produced by immunoglobulin (IG) genes are the most diverse proteins expressed in humans. While part of this diversity is generated by recombination during B-cell development and mutations during affinity maturation, the germ-line IG loci are also diverse across human populations and ethnicities. Recently, proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated genotype-phenotype correlations between specific IG germ-line variants and the quality of Ab responses during vaccination and disease. However, the functional consequences of IG genetic variation in Ab function and immunological outcomes remain underexplored...
May 20, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511816/mechanisms-of-immune-tolerance-in-leukemia-and-lymphoma
#20
REVIEW
Emily K Curran, James Godfrey, Justin Kline
The mechanisms through which immune responses are generated against solid cancers are well characterized and knowledge of the immune evasion pathways exploited by these malignancies has grown considerably. However, for hematological cancers, which develop and disseminate quite differently than solid tumors, the pathways that regulate immune activation or tolerance are less clear. Growing evidence suggests that, while numerous immune escape pathways are shared between hematological and solid malignancies, several unique pathways are exploited by leukemia and lymphoma...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
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