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Trends in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642066/dying-for-a-cause-regulated-necrosis-of-tissue-resident-macrophages-upon-infection
#1
Florent Ginhoux, Camille Bleriot, Marc Lecuit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610825/integrating-next-generation-dendritic-cell-vaccines-into-the-current-cancer-immunotherapy-landscape
#2
REVIEW
Abhishek D Garg, Pierre G Coulie, Benoit J Van den Eynde, Patrizia Agostinis
Cancer immunotherapy is experiencing a renaissance spearheaded by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). This has spurred interest in 'upgrading' existing immunotherapies that previously experienced only sporadic success, such as dendritic cells (DCs) vaccines. In this review, we discuss the major molecular, immunological, and clinical determinants of existing first- and second-generation DC vaccines. We also outline the future trends for next-generation DC vaccines and describe their major hallmarks and prerequisites necessary for high anticancer efficacy...
June 10, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602618/heavy-metal-to-rock-the-immune-infiltrate
#3
Lorenzo Galluzzi, Takahiro Yamazaki, Sandra Demaria
Two resource articles recently published in Cell demonstrate that the elevated phenotypic complexity of the immune infiltrate in human lung adenocarcinomas and renal cell carcinomas can be reliably dissected with mass cytometry. These findings may pave the way to a new era of precision cancer immunotherapy.
June 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601415/brain-autoimmunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-100-trillion-game-changers
#4
REVIEW
Hartmut Wekerle
T cells play a critical role in autoimmune diseases in the brain, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). Since T cells are normally prevented from crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), autoimmunity requires prior activation of naturally occurring autoreactive T cells in peripheral tissue. Recently, a critical role for the microbiota in this activation process has emerged. Here, we review the role of gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as a major site for the phenotypic changes that allow the migration of autoreactive T cells to the brain...
June 7, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579320/t-cell-immunity-and-zika-virus-vaccine-development
#5
REVIEW
Noemia S Lima, Morgane Rolland, Kayvon Modjarrad, Lydie Trautmann
The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has created an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. There is still a dearth of knowledge about ZIKV immunity, but years of investigation into the immunobiology of other flaviviruses has helped to accelerate the development of a ZIKV vaccine. Although the humoral immune response generates the primary correlate of protection from disease, robust T cell responses could enhance ZIKV vaccine efficacy. Additionally, pre-existing immunity to related flaviviruses could generate cross-reactive T cells that may affect immune responses upon vaccination...
June 1, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579324/evolutionary-convergence-and-divergence-in-nlr-function-and-structure
#6
REVIEW
Etienne Meunier, Petr Broz
The recognition of cellular damage caused by either pathogens or abiotic stress is essential for host defense in all forms of life in the plant and animal kingdoms. The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) represent a large family of multidomain proteins that were initially discovered for their role in host defense in plants and vertebrates. Over recent years the wide distribution of NLRs among metazoans has become apparent and their origins have begun to emerge. Moreover, intense study of NLR function has shown that they play essential roles beyond pathogen recognition - in the regulation of antigen presentation, cell death, inflammation, and even in embryonic development...
May 31, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579323/type-i-interferon-in-chronic-virus-infection-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Laura M Snell, Tracy L McGaha, David G Brooks
Type I interferons (IFN-Is) are emerging as key drivers of inflammation and immunosuppression in chronic infection. Control of these infections requires IFN-I signaling; however, prolonged IFN-I signaling can lead to immune dysfunction. IFN-Is are also emerging as double-edged swords in cancer, providing necessary inflammatory signals, while initiating feedback suppression in both immune and cancer cells. Here, we review the proinflammatory and suppressive mechanisms potentiated by IFN-Is during chronic virus infections and discuss the similar, newly emerging dichotomy in cancer...
May 31, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559148/leukocyte-breaching-of-endothelial-barriers-the-actin-link
#8
REVIEW
Ronen Alon, Jaap D van Buul
Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) takes place across micron-wide gaps in specific post-capillary venules generated by the transmigrating leukocyte. Because endothelial cells contain a dense cytoskeletal network, transmigrating leukocytes must overcome these mechanical barriers as they squeeze their nuclei through endothelial gaps and pores. Recent findings suggest that endothelial cells are not a passive barrier, and upon engagement by transmigrating leukocytes trigger extensive dynamic modifications of their actin cytoskeleton...
May 27, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566130/novel-approaches-to-analyze-immunoglobulin-repertoires
#9
REVIEW
Hedda Wardemann, Christian E Busse
Analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoires aims to comprehend Ig diversity with the goal of predicting humoral immune responses in the context of infection, vaccination, autoimmunity, and malignancies. The first next-generation sequencing (NGS) analyses of bulk B cell populations dramatically advanced sampling depth over previous low-throughput single-cell-based protocols, albeit at the expense of accuracy and loss of chain-pairing information. In recent years the field has substantially differentiated, with bulk analyses becoming more accurate while single-cell approaches have gained in throughput...
May 26, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551077/lipopolysaccharide-detection-across-the-kingdoms-of-life
#10
REVIEW
Jonathan C Kagan
Studies in recent years have uncovered a diverse set of eukaryotic receptors that recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major outer-membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, Toll-like receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors, integrins, receptor-like kinases, and caspases have emerged as important LPS-interacting proteins. In this review, the mammalian receptors that detect LPS are described. I highlight how no host protein is involved in all LPS responses, but a single lipid (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) regulates many LPS responses, including endocytosis, phagocytosis, inflammation, and pyroptosis...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549714/the-enigmatic-role-of-viruses-in-multiple-sclerosis-molecular-mimicry-or-disturbed-immune-surveillance
#11
REVIEW
Jens Geginat, Moira Paroni, Massimiliano Pagani, Daniela Galimberti, Raffaele De Francesco, Elio Scarpini, Sergio Abrignani
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell driven autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite its association with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), how viral infections promote MS remains unclear. However, there is increasing evidence that the CNS is continuously surveyed by virus-specific T cells, which protect against reactivating neurotropic viruses. Here, we discuss how viral infections could lead to the breakdown of self-tolerance in genetically predisposed individuals, and how the reactivations of viruses in the CNS could induce the recruitment of both autoaggressive and virus-specific T cell subsets, causing relapses and progressive disability...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539189/the-individual-and-population-genetics-of-antibody-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Corey T Watson, Jacob Glanville, Wayne A Marasco
Antibodies (Abs) produced by immunoglobulin (IG) genes are the most diverse proteins expressed in humans. While part of this diversity is generated by recombination during B-cell development and mutations during affinity maturation, the germ-line IG loci are also diverse across human populations and ethnicities. Recently, proof-of-concept studies have demonstrated genotype-phenotype correlations between specific IG germ-line variants and the quality of Ab responses during vaccination and disease. However, the functional consequences of IG genetic variation in Ab function and immunological outcomes remain underexplored...
May 20, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511816/mechanisms-of-immune-tolerance-in-leukemia-and-lymphoma
#13
REVIEW
Emily K Curran, James Godfrey, Justin Kline
The mechanisms through which immune responses are generated against solid cancers are well characterized and knowledge of the immune evasion pathways exploited by these malignancies has grown considerably. However, for hematological cancers, which develop and disseminate quite differently than solid tumors, the pathways that regulate immune activation or tolerance are less clear. Growing evidence suggests that, while numerous immune escape pathways are shared between hematological and solid malignancies, several unique pathways are exploited by leukemia and lymphoma...
May 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511815/signature-of-the-sleeper-cell-a-biomarker-of-hiv-latency-revealed
#14
Satish K Pillai, Steven G Deeks
HIV establishes a reservoir in latently infected T cells, and this reservoir has long hampered curative approaches. A recent study by Descours et al. identifies CD32a as a marker of latently infected T cells, potentially opening the way to the development of strategies that directly target this critical HIV reservoir.
May 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499492/mechanisms-and-dynamics-of-t-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-in-vivo
#15
REVIEW
Stephan Halle, Olga Halle, Reinhold Förster
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are critical in the elimination of infected or malignant cells and are emerging as a major therapeutic target. How CTLs recognize and kill harmful cells has been characterized in vitro but little is known about these processes in the living organism. Here we review recent insights into CTL-mediated killing with an emphasis on in vivo CTL biology. Specifically, we focus on the possible rate-limiting steps determining the efficiency of CTL-mediated killing. We also highlight the need for cell-based datasets that permit the quantification of CTL dynamics, including CTL location, migration, and killing rates...
May 9, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462845/rheostatic-functions-of-mast-cells-in-the-control-of-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Frossi, Francesca Mion, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P Colombo, Carlo E Pucillo
Mast cells are evolutionarily ancient cells, endowed with a unique developmental, phenotypic, and functional plasticity. They are resident cells that participate in tissue homeostasis by constantly sampling the microenvironment. As a result of their large repertoire of receptors, they can respond to multiple stimuli and selectively release different types and amounts of mediator. Here, we present and discuss the recent mast cell literature, focusing on studies that demonstrate that mast cells are more than a switch that is turned 'off' when in the resting state and 'on' when in the degranulating state...
April 24, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438491/immunomodulatory-functions-of-neuronal-guidance-proteins
#17
REVIEW
Valbona Mirakaj, Peter Rosenberger
Neuronal guidance proteins (NGPs) were originally identified for their role during the embryonic development of the nervous system. Recent years have seen the discovery of NGP functions during immune responses. In this context, NGPs were demonstrated to control leukocyte migration and the release of cytokines during conditions of acute inflammation, such as lung injury or sepsis. However, NGPs also display potent actions in the resolution of inflammation, chronic inflammatory conditions, the development of atherosclerosis, and during ischemia followed by reperfusion...
April 21, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416448/immunological-memory-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#18
REVIEW
Itziar Martinez-Gonzalez, Laura Mathä, Catherine A Steer, Fumio Takei
Immunological memory has long been described as a property of the adaptive immune system that results in potent responses on exposure to an antigen encountered previously. While this definition appears to exclude cells that do not express antigen receptors, recent studies have shown that innate immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, and, more recently, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can record previous activations and respond more vigorously on reactivation. Here we review the similarities and differences between these forms of memory and the underlying mechanisms...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416447/evolutionary-origins-of-cgas-sting-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Shally R Margolis, Stephen C Wilson, Russell E Vance
Detection of foreign nucleic acids is an important strategy for innate immune recognition of pathogens. In vertebrates, pathogen-derived DNA is sensed in the cytosol by cGAS, which produces the cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) second messenger cGAMP to activate the signaling adaptor STING. While induction of antiviral type I interferons (IFNs) is the major outcome of STING activation in vertebrates, it has recently become clear that core components of the cGAS-STING pathway evolved more than 600 million years ago, predating the evolution of type I IFNs...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396078/macrophage-immunometabolism-where-are-we-going
#20
REVIEW
Jan Van den Bossche, Luke A O'Neill, Deepthi Menon
A growing number of findings highlight the crucial role of metabolic reprogramming in macrophage activation. Metabolic pathways are closely interconnected and recent literature demonstrates the need for glucose metabolism in anti-inflammatory as well as inflammatory macrophages. Moreover, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) not only supports anti-inflammatory responses as described formerly but also drives inflammasome activation in inflammatory macrophages. Hence, defining glycolysis as proinflammatory and FAO as anti-inflammatory may be an oversimplification...
April 7, 2017: Trends in Immunology
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