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Trends in Immunology

Mark Anczurowski, Naoto Hirano
Polymorphisms in HLA-DP can modulate interactions with the invariant chain chaperone, contributing independently to differences in the peptide repertoire presented on DP. The resulting presentation of intracellular antigens directly to CD4+ T cells may partly explain genetic and clinical studies describing previously unexplained links between polymorphism in DP and disease.
November 8, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Sarah K Whiteside, Jeremy P Snook, Matthew A Williams, Janis J Weis
T cell responses are essential for appropriate protection against pathogens. T cell immunity is achieved through the ability to discriminate between foreign and self-molecules, and this relies heavily on stringent T cell receptor (TCR) specificity. Recently, bystander activated T lymphocytes, that are specific for unrelated epitopes during an antigen-specific response, have been implicated in diverse diseases. Numerous infection models have challenged the classic dogma of T cell activation as being solely dependent on TCR and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) interactions, indicating an unappreciated role for pathogen-associated receptors on T cells...
November 6, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Rahul Shinde, Tracy L McGaha
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a cytoplasmic receptor and transcription factor activated through cognate ligand binding. It is an important factor in immunity and tissue homeostasis, and structurally diverse compounds from the environment, diet, microbiome, and host metabolism can induce AhR activity. Emerging evidence suggests that AhR is a key sensor allowing immune cells to adapt to environmental conditions and changes in AhR activity have been associated with autoimmune disorders and cancer. Furthermore, AhR agonists or antagonists can impact immune disease outcomes identifying AhR as a potentially actionable target for immunotherapy...
November 5, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Sara Mouasni, Léa Tourneur
Initially described as an adaptor molecule for death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptosis, Fas-associated death domain (FADD) was later implicated in nonapoptotic cellular processes. During the last decade, FADD has been shown to participate and regulate most of the signalosome complexes, including necrosome, FADDosome, innateosome, and inflammasome. Given the role of these signaling complexes, FADD has emerged as a new actor in innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer development. Concomitant to these new roles, a surprising number of mechanisms deemed to regulate FADD functions have been identified, including post-translational modifications of FADD protein and FADD secretion...
November 3, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Lucas Onder, Burkhard Ludewig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jasper J Koning, Reina E Mebius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Susan J Robertson, Ashleigh Goethel, Stephen E Girardin, Dana J Philpott
The gut microbiota is important in health and disease. Whereas the intestinal immune system has evolved to protect the mucosal barrier against pathogens, there is much interest in understanding how it influences the composition and functions of resident microbial communities. Overall, host innate immunity exerts little influence on the microbiota at homeostasis, but increases upon immune activation and the onset of inflammation, as well as in the presence of certain members of the microbiota. However, many experiments have not adequately incorporated study design to detect such immune influences, including using proper control groups, precise sampling and timing, and measures beyond broad-scale descriptions of dysbiosis for microbial analysis...
October 27, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Di Yu, Lilin Ye
CD8+ T cells differentiate into multiple effector and memory subsets to carry out immune clearance of infected and cancerous cells and provide long-term protection. Recent research identified a CXCR5+ Tcf1+ Tim-3- subset that localizes in, or proximal to, B cell follicles in secondary lymphoid organs of mice, non-human primates, and humans, hereby termed follicular cytotoxic T (TFC ) cells. With remarkable similarity to follicular helper T (TFH ) cells, TFC differentiation is dependent on transcription factors E2A, Bcl6, and Tcf1, but inhibited by other regulators, including Blimp1, Id2, and Id3...
October 27, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Cory L Brooks, Martin A Rossotti, Kevin A Henry
Homodimeric antibodies devoid of light chains have evolved multiple times through convergent evolution, yet their specific immunological functions remain poorly understood. We survey the molecular and structural features of these antibodies, their immunological functions in host defense, and reflect on the long-standing question of the evolutionary forces driving their emergence.
October 9, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Dora Hammerl, Dietmar Rieder, John W M Martens, Zlatko Trajanoski, Reno Debets
Adoptive transfer of TCR-engineered T cells is a potent therapy, able to induce clinical responses in different human malignancies. Nevertheless, treatment toxicities may occur and, in particular for solid tumors, responses may be variable and often not durable. To address these challenges, it is imperative to carefully select target antigens and to immunologically interrogate the corresponding tumors when designing optimal T cell therapies. Here, we review recent advances, covering both omics- and laboratory tools that can enable the selection of optimal T cell epitopes and TCRs as well as the identification of dominant immune evasive mechanisms within tumor tissues...
October 8, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Giulia De Lorenzo, Simone Ferrari, Felice Cervone, Eitan Okun
Innate immune receptors, well known mediators of response to non-self-molecules and inflammation, also act as mediators of immunity triggered by 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs). Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) cause inflammation in mammals and a rapid immune response in plants, while DAMPs trigger more complex responses, including immunity, tissue maintenance and repair. DAMPs, their receptors and downstream transduction mechanisms are often conserved within a kingdom or, due to convergent evolution, are similar across the kingdoms of life...
October 4, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Elise Granton, Jung Hwan Kim, John Podstawka, Bryan G Yipp
Lung capillaries, best known for vital gas exchange, also contribute to neutrophil margination, a phenomenon resulting in large numbers of pulmonary vascular neutrophils. Importantly, the functional relevance of neutrophil margination is unknown. Recent advances in microscopy have altered our understanding of why neutrophils marginate. Specifically, data show that lung capillaries provide a unique anatomical site for neutrophils to capture bloodstream pathogens, which contrasts the conventional monophagocytic-dominated vascular host defense of the spleen and liver...
September 22, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Gur Yaari, Martin Flajnik, Uri Hershberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Anna Johansson-Percival, Bo He, Ruth Ganss
The density of intratumoral CD8+ T cells predicts patient survival and responsiveness to immunotherapy. Effector T cell infiltration in turn is controlled by the tumor vasculature which co-evolves together with an immune-suppressive environment. At the T cell-vascular interface, endothelial cells actively suppress T cell trafficking and function. Conversely, forced activation, normalization, and differentiation of tumor vessels into high endothelial venule entrance portals for lymphocytes can facilitate T cell extravasation...
August 25, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Lucas Onder, Burkhard Ludewig
Lymph nodes (LNs) are strategically positioned outposts of the immune system that underpin regional immune surveillance. The current model describing LN formation in mice is based on a two cell-type interaction scheme with lymphoid tissue inducer cells regulating the activation of mesenchymal lymphoid tissue organizer cells. We highlight here the key role of lymphatic endothelial cells during the initiation of LN formation. The involvement of lymphatic endothelial cells as an additional organizer cell type in LN organogenesis unveils multiple control levels that govern the generation of lymphoid organs...
August 24, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Tomohiro Watanabe, Kosuke Minaga, Ken Kamata, Masatoshi Kudo, Warren Strober
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a pancreatic manifestation of a recently defined disease form known as IgG4-related disease (AIP/IgG4-RD). AIP/IgG4-RD is characterized by elevated systemic IgG4 antibody concentrations and lesional tissues infiltrated by IgG4-expressing plasmacytes. In addition, recent studies have revealed that, in common with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and psoriasis, AIP/IgG4-RD is associated with increased type I IFN (IFN-I) production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs)...
November 2018: Trends in Immunology
Alexandria P Cogdill, Pierre Olivier Gaudreau, Reetakshi Arora, Vancheswaran Gopalakrishnan, Jennifer A Wargo
The human microbiome is a complex aggregate of microorganisms, and their genomes exert a number of influences crucial to the metabolic, immunologic, hormonal, and homeostatic function of the host. Recent work, both in preclinical mouse models and human studies, has shed light on the impact of gut and tumor microbiota on responses to systemic anticancer therapeutics. In light of this, strategies to target the microbiome to improve therapeutic responses are underway, including efforts to target gut and intratumoral microbes...
November 2018: Trends in Immunology
Dana K Shaw, Ann T Tate, David S Schneider, Elena A Levashina, Jonathan C Kagan, Utpal Pal, Erol Fikrig, Joao H F Pedra
Recent scientific breakthroughs have significantly expanded our understanding of arthropod vector immunity. Insights in the laboratory have demonstrated how the immune system provides resistance to infection, and in what manner innate defenses protect against a microbial assault. Less understood, however, is the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on microbial-vector interactions and the impact of the immune system on arthropod populations in nature. Furthermore, the influence of genetic plasticity on the immune response against vector-borne pathogens remains mostly elusive...
November 2018: Trends in Immunology
Avi-Hai Hovav
Langerhans cells (LCs) are classically viewed as unique antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that originate from embryonic precursors and maintain themselves independently in the epidermis. However, recent studies have demonstrated that murine LCs in mucosal epithelia arise and are continuously replenished from circulating bone marrow (BM) precursors. This has led to the emergence of a novel perspective proposing that LCs can evolve from various origins. Because both embryonic and BM precursors differentiate into LCs only after entering the epithelium, this highlights its crucial role in nurturing LC development to perfectly comply with the physiological functions of the tissue...
October 2018: Trends in Immunology
Alexandra I Wells, Carolyn B Coyne
Barrier surfaces such as the epithelium lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts, the endothelium comprising the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and placental trophoblasts provide key physical and immunological protection against viruses. These barriers utilize nonredundant mechanisms to suppress viral infections including the production of interferons (IFNs), which induce a strong antiviral state following receptor binding. However, whereas type I IFNs control infection systemically, type III IFNs (IFN-λs) control infection locally at barrier surfaces and are often preferentially induced by these cells...
October 2018: Trends in Immunology
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