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Trends in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216309/regulation-of-inflammation-and-infection-driven-hematopoiesis
#1
REVIEW
Steffen Boettcher, Markus G Manz
Innate myeloid immune cells, and neutrophils in particular, serve as first line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Given their short life span during steady-state conditions, myeloid cells - with, in some cases, the exception of tissue macrophages - need to be constantly regenerated from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. During severe systemic bacterial infection, myeloid cell turnover is dramatically increased due to their unique modus operandi in combating invading pathogens involving release of lytic enzymes and neutrophil extracellular traps...
February 16, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214100/nlrp6-a-multifaceted-innate-immune-sensor
#2
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Hagit Shapiro, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, regulates inflammation and host defense against microorganisms. Similar to other NLRs, NLRP6 not only participates in inflammasome formation, but is also involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulation and facilitation of gastrointestinal antiviral effector functions. Additionally, NLRP6 contributes to the regulation of mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production, thereby impacting intestinal microbial colonization and associated microbiome-related infectious, autoinflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214099/lymph-node-stroma-dynamics-and-approaches-for-their-visualization
#3
REVIEW
Rebecca Gentek, Marc Bajénoff
Lymphoid stromal cells are best known as the architectural cells of lymphoid organs. For decades, they have been considered as inert elements of the immune system but this view has changed dramatically in recent years, when it was discovered that they are endowed with critical immunoregulatory functions. It is now accepted that without them, the adaptive immune response would be compromised, if not abrogated entirely. Here, we review the function of the major lymphoid stromal cell types; the way they remodel upon inflammation; discuss the available tools to track their behavior; and introduce several methodological approaches that we believe will help improving our knowledge of these pivotal cell types...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196749/recent-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-pyroptosis-and-gasdermin-family-functions
#4
REVIEW
Robin A Aglietti, Erin C Dueber
Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death that not only protects multicellular organisms from invading pathogenic bacteria and microbial infections, but can also lead to sepsis and lethal septic shock if overactivated. Here, we present an overview of recent developments within the pyroptosis field, beginning with the discovery of Gasdermin D (GSDMD) as a substrate of caspase-1 and caspase-11 upon detection of cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cleavage releases the N-terminal domain of GSDMD, causing it to form cytotoxic pores in the plasma membrane of cells...
February 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161189/making-mouse-models-that-reflect-human-immune-responses
#5
REVIEW
Lili Tao, Tiffany A Reese
Humans are infected with a variety of acute and chronic pathogens over the course of their lives, and pathogen-driven selection has shaped the immune system of humans. The same is likely true for mice. However, laboratory mice we use for most biomedical studies are bred in ultra-hygienic environments, and are kept free of specific pathogens. We review recent studies that indicate that pathogen infections are important for the basal level of activation and the function of the immune system. Consideration of these environmental exposures of both humans and mice can potentially improve mouse models of human disease...
February 1, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094102/single-cell-genomics-approaches-and-utility-in-immunology
#6
REVIEW
Karlynn E Neu, Qingming Tang, Patrick C Wilson, Aly A Khan
Single-cell genomics offers powerful tools for studying immune cells, which make it possible to observe rare and intermediate cell states that cannot be resolved at the population level. Advances in computer science and single-cell sequencing technology have created a data-driven revolution in immunology. The challenge for immunologists is to harness computing and turn an avalanche of quantitative data into meaningful discovery of immunological principles, predictive models, and strategies for therapeutics...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094101/retinoic-acid-and-immune-homeostasis-a-balancing-act
#7
REVIEW
Martje N Erkelens, Reina E Mebius
In the immune system, the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) is known for its role in inducing gut-homing molecules in T and B cells, inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs), and promoting tolerance. However, it was suggested that RA can have a broad spectrum of effector functions depending on the local microenvironment. Under specific conditions, RA can also promote an inflammatory environment. We discuss the dual role of RA in immune responses and how this might be regulated. Furthermore, we focus on the role of RA in autoimmune diseases and whether RA might be used as a therapeutic agent...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089218/nkg2d-signaling-the-immune-subversive-side-of-hdac3
#8
Alicia R Folgueras, Segundo Gonzalez, Alejandro López-Soto
Natural killer (NK) cells are alerted to infected and transformed cells by local upregulation of ligands for the NK-activating receptor NKG2D. In a recent report, Greene et al. unveil a new mechanism that induces the expression of the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early-inducible (RAE-1) in response to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection through inhibition of casein kinase 2 (CK2), an activator of the repressor histone deacetylase HDAC3.
January 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082101/negative-regulation-of-type-2-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Dimitri A de Kouchkovsky, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V Rothlin
Type 2 immunity encompasses the mechanisms through which the immune system responds to helminths and an array of environmental substances such as allergens. In the developing world, billions of individuals are chronically infected with endemic parasitic helminths. In comparison, in the industrialized world, millions of individuals suffer from dysregulated type 2 immunity, referred to clinically as atopic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Thus, type 2 immunity must be carefully regulated to mount protective host responses yet avoid inappropriate activation and immunopathology...
January 9, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073694/hiv-latency-should-we-shock-or-lock
#10
REVIEW
Gilles Darcis, Benoit Van Driessche, Carine Van Lint
Combinatory antiretroviral therapy (cART) increases the survival and quality of life of HIV-1-infected patients. However, interruption of therapy almost invariably leads to the re-emergence of detectable viral replication because HIV-1 persists in viral latent reservoirs. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in HIV-1 latency has paved the way for innovative strategies that attempt to purge latent virus. In this article we discuss the results of the broadly explored 'shock and kill' strategy, and also highlight the major hurdles facing this approach...
January 7, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073693/crosstalk-between-cytoplasmic-rig-i-and-sting-sensing-pathways
#11
REVIEW
Alessandra Zevini, David Olagnier, John Hiscott
Detection of evolutionarily conserved molecules on microbial pathogens by host immune sensors represents the initial trigger of the immune response against infection. Cytosolic receptors sense viral and intracellular bacterial genomes, as well as nucleic acids produced during replication. Once activated, these sensors trigger multiple signaling cascades, converging on the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. Although distinct classes of receptors are responsible for the RNA and DNA sensing, the downstream signaling components are physically and functionally interconnected...
January 7, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017520/microbial-dysbiosis-in-common-variable-immune-deficiencies-evidence-causes-and-consequences
#12
REVIEW
Roos-Marijn Berbers, Stefan Nierkens, Jacob M van Laar, Debby Bogaert, Helen L Leavis
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immune disorder that not only causes increased susceptibility to infection, but also to inflammatory complications such as autoimmunity, lymphoid proliferation, malignancy, and granulomatous disease. Recent findings implicate the microbiome as a driver of this systemic immune dysregulation. Here, we critically review the current evidence for a role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of CVID immune dysregulation, and describe the possible immunologic mechanisms behind causes and consequences of microbial dysbiosis in CVID...
December 22, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986392/solving-immunology
#13
REVIEW
Yoram Vodovotz, Ashley Xia, Elizabeth L Read, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, David A Hafler, Eduardo Sontag, Jin Wang, John S Tsang, Judy D Day, Steven H Kleinstein, Atul J Butte, Matthew C Altman, Ross Hammond, Stuart C Sealfon
Emergent responses of the immune system result from the integration of molecular and cellular networks over time and across multiple organs. High-content and high-throughput analysis technologies, concomitantly with data-driven and mechanistic modeling, hold promise for the systematic interrogation of these complex pathways. However, connecting genetic variation and molecular mechanisms to individual phenotypes and health outcomes has proven elusive. Gaps remain in data, and disagreements persist about the value of mechanistic modeling for immunology...
December 13, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939451/transcriptional-regulation-of-tissue-resident-lymphocytes
#14
REVIEW
Laura K Mackay, Axel Kallies
Numerous innate and adaptive immune cells reside in non-lymphoid tissues, where they contribute to barrier immunity, tissue homeostasis, and immune regulation. These tissue-resident populations do not recirculate in the blood or lymphatics and adopt a unique phenotype that is distinct from immune cells in the circulation. Tissue residency has been predominantly described for memory CD8(+) T cells [tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM)], but it is now clear that CD4 T cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells, various innate T cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can establish residence in non-lymphoid tissues...
December 8, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964820/t-cell-exhaustion-in-glioblastoma-intricacies-of-immune-checkpoints
#15
REVIEW
Reza Mirzaei, Susobhan Sarkar, V Wee Yong
Glioblastoma is an aggressive and incurable primary brain tumor. While the blockade of immune checkpoints leads to reversal of T cell exhaustion in many cancers, the efficacy of this therapy in glioblastoma requires further consideration of the brain microenvironment beyond T cell activity. Neural cells are crucially dependent on glucose for survival, and tumor cells rabidly consume glucose; the glucose-deprived microenvironment further elevates immune checkpoint molecules to benefit tumor growth and exacerbate T cell exhaustion...
December 7, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919707/autoimmune-cardiotoxicity-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
Feixiong Cheng, Joseph Loscalzo
Contemporary immunotherapies (e.g., immune checkpoint inhibitors), which enhance the immune response to cancer cells, improve clinical outcomes in several malignancies. A recent study reported the cases of two patients with metastatic melanoma who developed fatal myocarditis during ipilimumab and nivolumab combination immunotherapy; these examples highlight the risk of unbridled activation of the immune system.
December 2, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939452/mhc-bias-by-t-cell-receptors-genetic-evidence-for-mhc-and-tcr-coevolution
#17
Brian M Baker, Brian D Evavold
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction is a fundamental tenet of T cell biology, but the underlying mechanisms have remained controversial. The extent to which T cell receptors (TCRs) are biased towards MHC proteins in particular has been widely discussed. In a recent paper, Sharon et al. report direct evidence for coevolution between TCR and MHC genes, helping to explain how MHC compatibility and bias can be encoded within TCRs.
January 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916385/noncanonical-antiviral-mechanisms-of-isgs-dispensability-of-inducible-interferons
#18
LETTER
Lei Xu, Wenshi Wang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889398/recognition-of-mycobacterial-lipids-by-immune-receptors
#19
REVIEW
Eri Ishikawa, Daiki Mori, Sho Yamasaki
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects one-third of the world's population and causes 1.5 million deaths each year. The cell envelopes of mycobacteria comprise a wealth of unique glycolipids, including trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), lipoarabinomannan (LAM), lipomannan (LM), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) mannosides (PIMs). These lipids are important modulators of the host immune responses during infection and in some cases have been used as adjuvants [e.g., complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)]...
January 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863906/post-translational-control-of-intracellular-pathogen-sensing-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Cindy Chiang, Michaela U Gack
Mammalian cells recognize virus-derived nucleic acids using a defined set of intracellular sensors including the DNA sensors cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) and interferon gamma (IFNγ)-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) as well as viral RNA receptors of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family. Following innate immune recognition, these sensors launch an immune response that is characterized by the transcriptional upregulation of many antiviral molecules, including proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and IFN-stimulated genes...
January 2017: Trends in Immunology
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