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Trends in Immunology

Victoria Male
Mouse liver contains two natural killer (NK) cell populations, one of which recirculates while the other is tissue resident. Following this discovery, several groups have sought to identify liver-resident NK (lrNK) cells in humans. Here, I present an overview of recent advances in the field.
March 15, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Miguel Muñoz-Ruiz, Nital Sumaria, Daniel J Pennington, Bruno Silva-Santos
γd T cells have emerged as major sources of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) in multiple models of infection, cancer and autoimmune disease. However, unlike their αβ T cell counterparts that require peripheral activation for effector cell differentiation, γδ T cells instead can be 'developmentally programmed' in the thymus to generate discrete γδ T cell effector subsets with distinctive molecular signatures. Nonetheless, recent studies have presented conflicting viewpoints on the signals involved in thymic γδ T cell development and differentiation, namely on the role of both T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent and TCR-independent factors...
March 9, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Henrique Veiga-Fernandes, António A Freitas
Viewpoints on the immune system have evolved across different paradigms, including the clonal selection theory, the idiotypic network, and the danger and tolerance models. Herein, we propose that in multicellular organisms, where panoplies of cells from different germ layers interact and immune cells are constantly generated, the behavior of the immune system is defined by the rules governing cell survival, systems physiology and organismic homeostasis. Initially, these rules were imprinted at the single cell-protist level, but supervened modifications in the transition to multicellular organisms...
March 7, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Leonardo M R Ferreira, Torsten B Meissner, Tamara Tilburgs, Jack L Strominger
During pregnancy, semiallogeneic fetal extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) invade the uterine mucosa without being rejected by the maternal immune system. Several mechanisms were initially proposed by Peter Medawar half a century ago to explain this apparent violation of the laws of transplantation. Then, three decades ago, an unusual human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecule was identified: HLA-G. Uniquely expressed in EVT, HLA-G has since become the center of the present understanding of fetus-induced immune tolerance...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Axel Kallies, Kim L Good-Jacobson
T-bet was originally described as the key transcription factor defining type 1 T helper (Th) cells. However, it is now clear that it drives the orchestrated generation of effector and memory cells in multiple different lymphocyte lineages. In addition to Th1 cells, CD8 T cells, B cells and some innate lymphocyte populations require T-bet for their development or differentiation in response to antigen. Furthermore, other Th cell populations, including T follicular helper and Th17, as well as regulatory T cells can co-opt T-bet expression to promote functional diversification and colocalization...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Peter A Morawski, Silvia Bolland
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a breakdown of self-tolerance in B cells and the production of antibodies against nuclear self-antigens. Increasing evidence supports the notion that additional cellular contributors beyond B cells are important for lupus pathogenesis. In this review we consider recent advances regarding both the pathogenic and the regulatory role of lymphocytes in SLE beyond the production of IgG autoantibodies. We also discuss various inflammatory effector cell types involved in cytokine production, removal of self-antigens, and responses to autoreactive IgE antibodies...
March 5, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Shin-Rong Wu, Pavan Reddy
The severity of immunopathology from non-infectious inflammation is mainly understood and is managed by targeting immune cells. However, the role of target tissues in determining damage severity has been largely overlooked. Here, we discuss the concept of 'tissue tolerance' for tissue-intrinsic programs that ameliorate organ damage in the setting of sterile immunopathology.
March 3, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Roberto Tinoco, Dennis C Otero, Amy A Takahashi, Linda M Bradley
P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) has long been studied as an adhesion molecule involved in immune cell trafficking and is recognized as a regulator of many facets of immune responses by myeloid cells. PSGL-1 also regulates T cell migration during homeostasis and inflammatory settings. However, recent findings indicate that PSGL-1 can also negatively regulate T cell function. Because T cell differentiation is finely tuned by multiple positive and negative regulatory signals that appropriately scale the magnitude of the immune response, PSGL-1 has emerged as an important checkpoint during this process...
March 2, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Chao Zhong, Jinfang Zhu
Although small-molecule thymus-specific isoform of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γ (RORγt) antagonists suppressing interleukin (IL)-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells are widely reported, the effect of these molecules on other RORγt-expressing cells is unknown. However, a new study reports that RORγt inhibition in CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes resulted in skewed T cell repertoire, contributing to a reduction in the frequency of self-reactive T cells and resistance to autoimmunity.
February 28, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Stephanie C Casey, Virginie Baylot, Dean W Felsher
Cancers are often initiated by genetic events that activate proto-oncogenes or inactivate tumor-suppressor genes. These events are also crucial for sustained tumor cell proliferation and survival, a phenomenon described as oncogene addiction. In addition to this cell-intrinsic role, recent evidence indicates that oncogenes also directly regulate immune responses, leading to immunosuppression. Expression of many oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors induces the expression of immune checkpoints that regulate the immune response, such as PD-L1...
February 20, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Silvia Bulfone-Paus, Gunnar Nilsson, Petr Draber, Ulrich Blank, Francesca Levi-Schaffer
Mast cells are powerful immune modulators of the tissue microenvironment. Within seconds of activation, these cells release a variety of preformed biologically active products, followed by a wave of mediator synthesis and secretion. Increasing evidence suggests that an intricate network of inhibitory and activating receptors, specific signaling pathways, and adaptor proteins governs mast cell responsiveness to stimuli. Here, we discuss the biological and clinical relevance of negative and positive signaling modalities that control mast cell activation, with an emphasis on novel FcεRI regulators, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-independent pathways [e...
February 18, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Nilesh Amatya, Abhishek V Garg, Sarah L Gaffen
Interleukin (IL)-17 is the founding member of a novel family of inflammatory cytokines. While the proinflammatory properties of IL-17 are key to its host-protective capacity, unrestrained IL-17 signaling is associated with immunopathology, autoimmune disease, and cancer progression. In this review we discuss both the activators and the inhibitors of IL-17 signal transduction, and also the physiological implications of these events. We highlight the surprisingly diverse means by which these regulators control expression of IL-17-dependent inflammatory genes, as well as the major target cells that respond to IL-17 signaling...
February 18, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Steffen Boettcher, Markus G Manz
Innate myeloid immune cells, and neutrophils in particular, serve as first line of defense against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Given their short life span during steady-state conditions, myeloid cells - with, in some cases, the exception of tissue macrophages - need to be constantly regenerated from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. During severe systemic bacterial infection, myeloid cell turnover is dramatically increased due to their unique modus operandi in combating invading pathogens involving release of lytic enzymes and neutrophil extracellular traps...
February 16, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Maayan Levy, Hagit Shapiro, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, regulates inflammation and host defense against microorganisms. Similar to other NLRs, NLRP6 not only participates in inflammasome formation, but is also involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulation and facilitation of gastrointestinal antiviral effector functions. Additionally, NLRP6 contributes to the regulation of mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production, thereby impacting intestinal microbial colonization and associated microbiome-related infectious, autoinflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Rebecca Gentek, Marc Bajénoff
Lymphoid stromal cells are best known as the architectural cells of lymphoid organs. For decades, they have been considered as inert elements of the immune system but this view has changed dramatically in recent years, when it was discovered that they are endowed with critical immunoregulatory functions. It is now accepted that without them, the adaptive immune response would be compromised, if not abrogated entirely. Here, we review the function of the major lymphoid stromal cell types; the way they remodel upon inflammation; discuss the available tools to track their behavior; and introduce several methodological approaches that we believe will help improving our knowledge of these pivotal cell types...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Robin A Aglietti, Erin C Dueber
Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death that not only protects multicellular organisms from invading pathogenic bacteria and microbial infections, but can also lead to sepsis and lethal septic shock if overactivated. Here, we present an overview of recent developments within the pyroptosis field, beginning with the discovery of Gasdermin D (GSDMD) as a substrate of caspase-1 and caspase-11 upon detection of cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cleavage releases the N-terminal domain of GSDMD, causing it to form cytotoxic pores in the plasma membrane of cells...
February 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
Lili Tao, Tiffany A Reese
Humans are infected with a variety of acute and chronic pathogens over the course of their lives, and pathogen-driven selection has shaped the immune system of humans. The same is likely true for mice. However, laboratory mice we use for most biomedical studies are bred in ultra-hygienic environments, and are kept free of specific pathogens. We review recent studies that indicate that pathogen infections are important for the basal level of activation and the function of the immune system. Consideration of these environmental exposures of both humans and mice can potentially improve mouse models of human disease...
March 2017: Trends in Immunology
Martje N Erkelens, Reina E Mebius
In the immune system, the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) is known for its role in inducing gut-homing molecules in T and B cells, inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs), and promoting tolerance. However, it was suggested that RA can have a broad spectrum of effector functions depending on the local microenvironment. Under specific conditions, RA can also promote an inflammatory environment. We discuss the dual role of RA in immune responses and how this might be regulated. Furthermore, we focus on the role of RA in autoimmune diseases and whether RA might be used as a therapeutic agent...
March 2017: Trends in Immunology
Alicia R Folgueras, Segundo Gonzalez, Alejandro López-Soto
Natural killer (NK) cells are alerted to infected and transformed cells by local upregulation of ligands for the NK-activating receptor NKG2D. In a recent report, Greene et al. unveil a new mechanism that induces the expression of the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early-inducible (RAE-1) in response to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection through inhibition of casein kinase 2 (CK2), an activator of the repressor histone deacetylase HDAC3.
March 2017: Trends in Immunology
Dimitri A de Kouchkovsky, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V Rothlin
Type 2 immunity encompasses the mechanisms through which the immune system responds to helminths and an array of environmental substances such as allergens. In the developing world, billions of individuals are chronically infected with endemic parasitic helminths. In comparison, in the industrialized world, millions of individuals suffer from dysregulated type 2 immunity, referred to clinically as atopic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Thus, type 2 immunity must be carefully regulated to mount protective host responses yet avoid inappropriate activation and immunopathology...
March 2017: Trends in Immunology
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