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Trends in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919048/control-of-immune-cell-homeostasis-and-function-by-lncrnas
#1
REVIEW
Walter K Mowel, Jonathan J Kotzin, Sam J McCright, Vanessa D Neal, Jorge Henao-Mejia
The immune system is composed of diverse cell types that coordinate responses to infection and maintain tissue homeostasis. In each of these cells, extracellular cues determine highly specific epigenetic landscapes and transcriptional profiles to promote immunity while maintaining homeostasis. New evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in mammals. Thus, lncRNAs have emerged as key regulatory molecules of immune cell gene expression programs in response to microbial and tissue-derived cues...
September 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917597/common-senses
#2
EDITORIAL
Jacques Deguine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916232/circulating-normal-igg-as-stimulator-of-regulatory-t-cells-lessons-from-intravenous-immunoglobulin
#3
Mohan S Maddur, Srini V Kaveri, Jagadeesh Bayry
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a pooled normal IgG formulation prepared from thousands of healthy donors' plasma, is extensively used for the immunotherapy of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Recent reports demonstrate that IVIG exerts anti-inflammatory actions by stimulating the activation and expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells by multiple mechanisms via antigen-presenting cells (APCs).
September 12, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919256/metabolic-links-between-plasma-cell-survival-secretion-and-stress
#4
REVIEW
Wing Y Lam, Deepta Bhattacharya
Humoral immunity is generated and maintained by antigen-specific antibodies that counter infectious pathogens. Plasma cells are the major producers of antibodies during and after infections, and each plasma cell produces some thousands of antibody molecules per second. This magnitude of secretion requires enormous quantities of amino acids and glycosylation sugars to properly build and fold antibodies, biosynthetic substrates to fuel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) biogenesis, and additional carbon sources to generate energy...
September 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923365/mitochondrial-dynamics-at-the-interface-of-immune-cell-metabolism-and-function
#5
REVIEW
Angelika S Rambold, Erika L Pearce
Immune cell differentiation and function are crucially dependent on specific metabolic programs dictated by mitochondria, including the generation of ATP from the oxidation of nutrients and supplying precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and post-translational modifications. The many processes that occur in mitochondria are intimately linked to their morphology that is shaped by opposing fusion and fission events. Exciting evidence is now emerging that demonstrates reciprocal crosstalk between mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923364/tissue-specific-immunity-at-the-oral-mucosal-barrier
#6
REVIEW
Niki M Moutsopoulos, Joanne E Konkel
The oral mucosal barrier is constantly exposed to a plethora of triggers requiring immune control, including a diverse commensal microbiome, ongoing damage from mastication, and dietary and airborne antigens. However, how these tissue-specific cues participate in the training of immune responsiveness at this site is minimally understood. Moreover, the mechanisms mediating homeostatic immunity at this interface are not yet fully defined. Here we present basic aspects of the oral mucosal barrier and discuss local cues that may modulate and train local immune responsiveness...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886908/dna-sensing-across-the-tree-of-life
#7
REVIEW
Stefania Gallucci, Massimo E Maffei
From plants to mammals, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) specifically recognize DNA, as a potential marker of either infection or damage. These receptors play critical roles in inflammation, immunity, and pathogen resistance. Importantly, given the ubiquity of DNA, its sensing must be tightly regulated. DNA localization plays a key role in recognition, as highlighted by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in the endosomal compartment and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) in the cytoplasm...
September 5, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882454/understanding-immunity-through-the-lens-of-disease-ecology
#8
REVIEW
Stephen M Hedrick
As we describe the immune system in ever more exquisite detail, we might find that no matter how successful, this approach will not be sufficient to understand the spread of infectious agents, their susceptibility to vaccine therapy, and human disease resistance. Compared with the strict reductionism practiced as a means of characterizing most biological processes, I propose that the progression and outcome of disease-causing host-parasite interactions will be more clearly understood through a focus on disease ecology...
September 4, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867526/from-original-antigenic-sin-to-the-universal-influenza-virus-vaccine
#9
REVIEW
Carole Henry, Anna-Karin E Palm, Florian Krammer, Patrick C Wilson
Antibody responses are essential for protection against influenza virus infection. Humans are exposed to a multitude of influenza viruses throughout their lifetime and it is clear that immune history influences the magnitude and quality of the antibody response. The 'original antigenic sin' concept refers to the impact of the first influenza virus variant encounter on lifelong immunity. Although this model has been challenged since its discovery, past exposure, and likely one's first exposure, clearly affects the epitopes targeted in subsequent responses...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844811/the-multifaceted-personality-of-intestinal-cx3cr1-macrophages
#10
REVIEW
Mari Regoli, Eugenio Bertelli, Massimo Gulisano, Claudio Nicoletti
Intestinal macrophages expressing the fraktalkine receptor (CX3CR1(+)) represent a cell population that plays a variety of roles ranging from maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis at steady state to controlling antigen access by extending transepithelial dendrites (TEDs) to capture luminal microbes and shuttle them across the epithelium to initiate immune responses. However, recent evidence shows that very early during infection, pathogen-capturing CX3CR1(+) macrophages migrate to the lumen of the small intestine, therefore preventing pathogens from traversing the epithelium...
August 24, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838855/exosomes-damps-and-mirna-features-of-stress-physiology-and-immune-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Monika Fleshner, Camille R Crane
Psychological/physical stressors and local tissue damage increase inflammatory proteins in tissues and blood in humans and animals, in the absence of pathogenic disease. Stress-evoked cytokine/chemokine responses, or sterile inflammation, can facilitate host survival and/or negatively affect health, depending on context. Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that systemic stress-evoked sterile inflammation is initiated by the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in the elevation of exosome-associated immunostimulatory endogenous danger/damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and a reduction in immunoinhibitory miRNA, which are carried in the circulation to tissues throughout the body...
August 21, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830734/post-translational-peptide-splicing-and-t-cell-responses
#12
REVIEW
Michele Mishto, Juliane Liepe
CD8(+) T cell specificity depends on the recognition of MHC class I-epitope complexes at the cell surface. These epitopes are mainly produced via degradation of proteins by the proteasome, generating fragments of the original sequence. However, it is now clear that proteasomes can produce a significant portion of epitopes by reshuffling the antigen sequence, thus expanding the potential antigenic repertoire. MHC class I-restricted spliced epitopes have been described in tumors and infections, suggesting an unpredicted relevance of these peculiar peptides...
August 19, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830733/the-mechanisms-of-t-cell-selection-in-the-thymus
#13
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Takaba, Hiroshi Takayanagi
T cells undergo positive and negative selection in the thymic cortex and medulla, respectively. A promiscuous expression of a wide array of self-antigens in the thymus is essential for the negative selection of self-reactive T cells and the establishment of central tolerance. Aire was originally thought to be the exclusive factor regulating the expression of tissue-restricted antigens, but Fezf2 recently emerged as a critical transcription factor in this regulatory activity. Fezf2 is selectively expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells, regulates a large number of tissue-restricted antigens and suppresses the onset of autoimmune responses...
August 19, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830732/cgas-sting-and-cancer-dichotomous-roles-in-tumor-immunity-and-development
#14
REVIEW
Kevin W Ng, Erin A Marshall, John C Bell, Wan L Lam
cGMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) sensing has emerged as a key regulator of innate immune responses to both exogenous and endogenous DNA. Recent studies reveal critical roles for this pathway in natural antitumor immunity across cancer types as well as in immune checkpoint blockade therapy. However, it is also clear that some tumors evade cGAS-STING-mediated immune responses, and immunomodulatory therapeutics are currently being explored to target this pathway. Finally, we also discuss recent observations that cGAS-STING-mediated inflammation may promote tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis in certain malignancies and how this may complicate the utility of this pathway in therapeutic development...
August 19, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826942/dendritic-cells-as-inducers-of-peripheral-tolerance
#15
REVIEW
Courtney A Iberg, Andrew Jones, Daniel Hawiger
Mechanisms of tolerance initiated in the thymus are indispensable for establishing immune homeostasis, but they may not be sufficient to prevent tissue-specific autoimmune diseases. In the periphery, dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial tolerogenic role, extending the maintenance of immune homeostasis and blocking autoimmune responses. We review here these essential roles of DCs in orchestrating mechanisms of peripheral T cell tolerance as determined by targeted delivery of defined antigens to DCs in vivo in combination with various genetic modifications of DCs...
August 18, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826941/mechanisms-of-mixed-chimerism-based-transplant-tolerance
#16
REVIEW
Julien Zuber, Megan Sykes
Immune responses to allografts represent a major barrier in organ transplantation. Immune tolerance to avoid chronic immunosuppression is a critical goal in the field, recently achieved in the clinic by combining bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with kidney transplantation following non-myeloablative conditioning. At high levels of chimerism such protocols can permit central deletional tolerance, but with a significant risk of graft-versus-host (GVH) disease (GVHD). By contrast, transient chimerism-based tolerance is devoid of GVHD risk and appears to initially depend on regulatory T cells (Tregs) followed by gradual, presumably peripheral, clonal deletion of donor-reactive T cells...
August 18, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826817/do-type-i-interferons-link-systemic-autoimmunities-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-pathogenetic-continuum
#17
REVIEW
Dipyaman Ganguly
The central pathogenetic role of type I interferons (IFNs) in several systemic autoimmune diseases is well established. Recent studies have also discovered a similar crucial role of type I IFNs in different components of metabolic disorders. Self nucleic acid-driven Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and type I IFN induction appear to be the key initiating events shared by most of these autoimmune and metabolic diseases. Further strengthening this link, many patients with systemic autoimmunities also present with metabolic disorders...
August 17, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823510/nod1-and-nod2-beyond-peptidoglycan-sensing
#18
REVIEW
A Marijke Keestra-Gounder, Renée M Tsolis
NOD1 and NOD2 are pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system with well-established roles in sensing fragments of bacterial peptidoglycan. In addition to their role as microbial sensors, recent evidence indicates that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains (NODs) can also recognize a broader array of danger signals. Indeed, recent work has expanded the roles of NOD1 and NOD2 to encompass not only sensing of infections with viruses and parasites but also perceiving perturbations of cellular processes such as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis...
August 16, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807517/trim21-and-the-function-of-antibodies-inside-cells
#19
REVIEW
David A Rhodes, David A Isenberg
Therapeutic antibodies targeting disease-associated antigens are key tools in the treatment of cancer and autoimmunity. So far, therapeutic antibodies have targeted antigens that are, or are presumed to be, extracellular. A largely overlooked property of antibodies is their functional activity inside cells. The diverse literature dealing with intracellular antibodies emerged historically from studies of the properties of some autoantibodies. The identification of tripartite motif (TRIM) 21 as an intracellular Fc receptor linking cytosolic antibody recognition to the ubiquitin proteasome system brings this research into sharper focus...
August 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784414/neutrophilic-inflammation-in-asthma-and-association-with-disease-severity
#20
REVIEW
Anuradha Ray, Jay K Kolls
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. While the local infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells, and their role in the disease have long been recognized, neutrophil infiltration has also been assessed in many clinical studies. In these studies, airway neutrophilia was associated with asthma severity. Importantly, neutrophilia also correlates with asthma that is refractory to corticosteroids, the mainstay of asthma treatment. However, it is now increasingly recognized that neutrophils are a heterogeneous population, and a more precise phenotyping of these cells may help delineate different subtypes of asthma...
August 4, 2017: Trends in Immunology
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