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Trends in Immunology

Stefanie Eyerich, Kilian Eyerich, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Tilo Biedermann
The skin is the outermost barrier of the organism that ensures protection from external harm. Lately, our view of the skin has evolved from an inert mechanical barrier to an active organ that can sense danger signals and mount perfectly adapted defense measures in response to invading pathogens. This Review highlights the different levels of the cutaneous barrier (the microbiome, chemical, physical, and immune barriers), their characteristics, and functional, highly interconnected network of cells and mediators that allow balanced defense measures to protect the body and maintain barrier integrity...
March 15, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jordan Z Zhou, Sing Sing Way, Kang Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Chelsea Handfield, Jeffery Kwock, Amanda S MacLeod
Barrier sites such as the skin play a critical role in immune defense. They must maintain homeostasis with commensals and rapidly detect and limit pathogen invasion. This is accomplished in part through the production of endogenous antimicrobial peptides and proteins, which can be either constitutive or inducible. Here, we focus particularly on the control of innate antiviral proteins and present the basic aspects of their regulation in the skin by interferons (IFNs), IFN-independent immunity, and environmental factors...
March 8, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jacques Deguine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Ghislain Opdenakker, Jo Van Damme, Jan Jeroen Vranckx
Chronic skin wounds, caused by arterial or venous insufficiency or by physical pressure, constitute an increasing medical problem as populations age. Whereas typical wounds are characterized by local inflammation that participates in the healing process, atonic wounds lack inflammatory markers, such as neutrophil infiltration, and generally do not heal. Recently, prominent roles in the immunopathology of chronic wounds were attributed to dysregulations in specific cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and their substrates...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Aurélie Poli, Tatiana Michel, Neha Patil, Jacques Zimmer
Immune responses are critical for the maintenance of homeostasis but can also upset the equilibrium, depending on the context and magnitude of the response. Natural killer (NK) cells are well known for their important roles in antiviral and antitumor immune responses, and they are currently used, mostly under optimized forms, as immunotherapeutic agents against cancer. Nevertheless, with accumulating examples of deleterious effects of NK cells, it is paramount to consider their negative contributions. Here, we critically review and comment on the literature surrounding undesirable aspects of NK cell activity, focusing on situations where they play a harmful rather than a protective role...
February 26, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Miqdad O Dhariwala, Tiffany C Scharschmidt
Although our knowledge of host-commensal interactions has increased exponentially, the mechanisms linking a specific commensal, its detection by the immune system, and its impact on tissue function are still often poorly understood. In a recent study in Cell, Linehan et al. dissect one of these interactions in the context of the skin, and demonstrate that Staphylococcus epidermidis antigens, presented through a non-classical pathway, drive the accumulation of CD8+ T cells that promote wound healing.
February 22, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Martijn H den Brok, Tonke K Raaijmakers, Estel Collado-Camps, Gosse J Adema
Lipid droplets (LDs) were initially described as fat storage organelles in adipocytes, but are increasingly recognized as dynamic players in lipid metabolism, with important roles not only in diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but also in immune regulation. Alterations in immune cell function, such as myeloid cell activation, are connected to profound changes in LD numbers and LD protein composition. Thus, these organelles appear to be essential to metabolically support immune responses, and have a vital role in antigen crosspresentation, interferon (IFN) responses, production of inflammatory mediators, and pathogen clearance...
February 22, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Giorgio Trinchieri
In addition to exogenous ligands derived from pathogens, natural killer (NK) and other innate cells can recognize endogenous ligands that often act as markers of stress or damage. A recent study reports that one of these receptors, human NKp44, recognizes PDGF-DD, providing a rare example of the recognition of a soluble growth factor as a stress signal. The recognition of PDGF-DD induces the secretion of cytokines with antitumor activity.
February 22, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Tao Gong, Yanqing Yang, Tengchuan Jin, Wei Jiang, Rongbin Zhou
The assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome can promote the release of IL-1β/IL-18 and initiate pyroptosis. Accordingly, the dysregulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation is involved in a variety of human diseases, including gout, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. NLRP3 can sense a variety of structurally unrelated pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to trigger inflammation, but the unifying mechanism of NLRP3 activation is still poorly understood. Increasing evidence suggests that intracellular ions, such as K + , Ca 2+ , and Cl - , have a significant role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Davide G Franchina, Catherine Dostert, Dirk Brenner
T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jordan Z Zhou, Sing Sing Way, Kang Chen
Along with the maintenance of symbiotic mutualism with commensal microbes and protection against invasive infections common to all mucosal barrier tissues, female reproductive tissues have additional, unique tasks that include dynamic cyclic cellular turnover in menstruation and immunological tolerance to genetically foreign fetal antigens in pregnancy. Here we review current knowledge on distinct features of the immune cells in female reproductive tissue with regard to antimicrobial host defense and adaptations to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy...
February 9, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Mangalakumari Jeyanathan, Yushi Yao, Sam Afkhami, Fiona Smaill, Zhou Xing
Despite some major progress made in developing tuberculosis (TB) vaccine strategies, with a dozen novel vaccines currently in the clinical pipeline, the world is still missing an effective TB vaccine. This questions whether any major breakthroughs can be achieved without making a drastic departure from the current strategy, which creates a state of 'near-natural immunity', imitating the natural immunity developed after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Here, we argue instead that mounting evidence suggests an effective strategy ought to induce a state of all-around 'un-natural' immunity comprising trained innate immunity (TII), tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM ), and anti-Mtb surface antibodies in the lung...
February 9, 2018: Trends in Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jeanette E Boudreau, Katharine C Hsu
The functional capacities of natural killer (NK) cells differ within and between individuals, reflecting considerable genetic variation. 'Licensing/arming', 'disarming', and 'tuning' are models that have been proposed to explain how interactions between MHC class I molecules and their cognate inhibitory receptors - Ly49 in mice and KIR in humans - 'educate' NK cells for variable reactivity and sensitivity to inhibition. In this review we discuss recent progress toward understanding the genetic, epigenetic, and molecular features that titrate NK effector function and inhibition, and the impact of variable NK cell education on human health and disease...
January 31, 2018: Trends in Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jim Kaufman
In comparison with the major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) of typical mammals, the chicken MHC is simple and compact with a single dominantly expressed class I molecule that can determine the immune response. In addition to providing useful information for the poultry industry and allowing insights into the evolution of the adaptive immune system, the simplicity of the chicken MHC has allowed the discovery of phenomena that are more difficult to discern in the more complicated mammalian systems. This review discusses the new concept that poorly expressed promiscuous class I alleles act as generalists to protect against a wide variety of infectious pathogens, while highly expressed fastidious class I alleles can act as specialists to protect against new and dangerous pathogens...
January 29, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Liv Eidsmo, Carmen Gerlach
CD8 T cells are crucial for long-term immunity. Nevertheless, the in vivo differentiation of human naïve CD8 T cells into effector and memory populations remains ill-defined. A recent study assesses the in vivo turnover of human antigen-specific CD8 T cells and suggests that long-lived memory cells arise from effector cells.
January 22, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Matthew S Parsons, Deborah Cromer, Miles P Davenport, Stephen J Kent
It is widely thought that generating broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (BnAbs) will protect humans against HIV, given promising data from in vitro experiments and in vivo macaque studies. The primary action of BnAbs is preventing cell-free virus from entering cells. Recent in vitro and macaque data suggest that BnAbs are less potent against cell-associated virus exposure. We speculate that BnAb-based suppression of HIV transmission, particularly if mediated by cell-cell transmission, may result in some exposed subjects carrying a form of latent (or 'occult') HIV infection...
January 20, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Andrew D Cook, Anne D Christensen, Damini Tewari, Stephen B McMahon, John A Hamilton
There is burgeoning interest in the interaction between the immune and nervous systems. Pain is mediated by primary sensory neurons (nociceptors) that can respond to a variety of thermal, mechanical and chemical signals. Cytokines are now recognized as important mediators of inflammatory pain. They can induce nociceptor sensitization indirectly via mediators, wherein neurons become primed and thus become more responsive to stimulation; alternatively, there is also evidence that cytokines can directly activate neurons via their specific receptors present on the neuronal cells...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Immunology
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