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Trends in Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219310/mucosal-and-skin-langerhans-cells-nurture-calls
#1
REVIEW
Avi-Hai Hovav
Langerhans cells (LCs) are classically viewed as unique antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that originate from embryonic precursors and maintain themselves independently in the epidermis. However, recent studies have demonstrated that murine LCs in mucosal epithelia arise and are continuously replenished from circulating bone marrow (BM) precursors. This has led to the emergence of a novel perspective proposing that LCs can evolve from various origins. Because both embryonic and BM precursors differentiate into LCs only after entering the epithelium, this highlights its crucial role in nurturing LC development to perfectly comply with the physiological functions of the tissue...
September 12, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219309/type-iii-interferons-in-antiviral-defenses-at-barrier-surfaces
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra I Wells, Carolyn B Coyne
Barrier surfaces such as the epithelium lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts, the endothelium comprising the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and placental trophoblasts provide key physical and immunological protection against viruses. These barriers utilize nonredundant mechanisms to suppress viral infections including the production of interferons (IFNs), which induce a strong antiviral state following receptor binding. However, whereas type I IFNs control infection systemically, type III IFNs (IFN-λs) control infection locally at barrier surfaces and are often preferentially induced by these cells...
September 12, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213499/canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-signaling-in-immune-cells
#3
REVIEW
Wook-Jin Chae, Alfred L M Bothwell
Cell differentiation, proliferation, and death are vital for immune homeostasis. Wnt signaling plays essential roles in processes across species. The roles of Wnt signaling proteins and Wnt ligands have been studied in the past, but the context-dependent mechanisms and functions of these pathways in immune responses remain unclear. Recent findings regarding the role of Wnt ligands and Wnt signaling in immune cells and their immunomodulatory mechanisms suggest that Wnt ligands and signaling are significant in regulating immune responses...
September 10, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195467/hiding-in-plain-sight-soluble-immunomodulatory-receptors
#4
Lekh N Dahal, Herbert Schwarz, Frank J Ward
Alternatively spliced natural soluble isoforms of immunomodulatory receptors [cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), 4-1BB, and programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1] have been overlooked in favor of their cell-surface-bound counterparts that have generated blockbuster antibodies for the treatment of cancer. We propose that the soluble variants of these receptors contribute to immune regulation and offer potential as targets for immunotherapy.
September 5, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195466/formyl-peptide-receptors-in-infection-inflammation-and-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Elisabeth Weiß, Dorothee Kretschmer
Formyl-peptide receptors (FPRs) recognize bacterial and mitochondrial formylated peptides as well as endogenous non-formylated peptides and even lipids. FPRs are expressed on various host cell types but most strongly on neutrophils and macrophages. After the discovery of FPRs on leukocytes, it was assumed that these receptors predominantly govern a proinflammatory response resulting in chemotaxis, degranulation, and oxidative burst during infection. However, it is clear that the activation of FPRs has more complex consequences and can also promote the resolution of inflammation...
September 5, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153971/immunomodulation-of-tumor-vessels-it-takes-two-to-tango
#6
REVIEW
Anna Johansson-Percival, Bo He, Ruth Ganss
The density of intratumoral CD8+ T cells predicts patient survival and responsiveness to immunotherapy. Effector T cell infiltration in turn is controlled by the tumor vasculature which co-evolves together with an immune-suppressive environment. At the T cell-vascular interface, endothelial cells actively suppress T cell trafficking and function. Conversely, forced activation, normalization, and differentiation of tumor vessels into high endothelial venule entrance portals for lymphocytes can facilitate T cell extravasation...
August 25, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150090/-notching-up-the-in-vitro-production-of-dendritic-cells
#7
Martin Guilliams, Charlotte L Scott
Two studies show that adding NOTCH ligands to Flt3L cultures increases the yield of cDC1s from mouse and human progenitors. Moreover, these NOTCH-DCs more closely resemble in vivo DCs transcriptionally and functionally. This will be extremely valuable for studying DCs in vitro and for further developing autologous DC-based antitumor vaccinations.
August 24, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30150089/a-fresh-view-on-lymph-node-organogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Lucas Onder, Burkhard Ludewig
Lymph nodes (LNs) are strategically positioned outposts of the immune system that underpin regional immune surveillance. The current model describing LN formation in mice is based on a two cell-type interaction scheme with lymphoid tissue inducer cells regulating the activation of mesenchymal lymphoid tissue organizer cells. We highlight here the key role of lymphatic endothelial cells during the initiation of LN formation. The involvement of lymphatic endothelial cells as an additional organizer cell type in LN organogenesis unveils multiple control levels that govern the generation of lymphoid organs...
August 24, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126696/does-the-mhc-confer-protection-against-malaria-in-bonobos
#9
Natasja G de Groot, Jeroen M G Stevens, Ronald E Bontrop
The immunological factors that could explain the near absence of malaria parasites in bonobos are not yet understood. The MHC class I system, however, may play an important role, as particular bonobo allotypes show functional similarities to HLA-B*53/B*78, which are considered to confer protection against malaria in humans.
August 17, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093224/forging-the-road-ahead-in-immunology
#10
EDITORIAL
Catarina Sacristán
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077656/humanized-mice-for-the-study-of-immuno-oncology
#11
REVIEW
Philippe De La Rochere, Silvia Guil-Luna, Didier Decaudin, Georges Azar, Sukhvinder S Sidhu, Eliane Piaggio
Immunotherapy is revolutionizing cancer treatment; however, complete responses are achieved in only a small fraction of patients and tumor types. Thus, there is an urgent need for predictive preclinical models to drive rational immunotherapeutic drug development, treatment combinations, and to minimize failures in clinical trials. Humanized mouse models (HIS) have been developed to study and modulate the interactions between immune components and tumors of human origin. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the 'humanization' of mouse models to improve the quality of human immune cell reconstitution...
September 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072119/shedding-of-baff-april-receptors-controls-b-cells
#12
Edgar Meinl, Franziska S Thaler, Stefan F Lichtenthaler
Proteolytic shedding of the receptors BCMA, TACI, and BAFFR reduces their cell-surface expression and ligand-mediated survival of B cell subsets. This shedding is executed by protease γ-secretase or by metalloproteases, and is partially dependent on ligand binding and receptor interactions. Shed receptors may serve as biomarkers for autoimmunity and lymphoma.
September 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001872/peripheral-tissue-chemokines-homeostatic-control-of-immune-surveillance-t-cells
#13
REVIEW
Michelle L McCully, Ariadni Kouzeli, Bernhard Moser
Cellular immunity is governed by a complex network of migratory cues that enable appropriate immune cell responses in a timely and spatially controlled fashion. This review focuses on the chemokines and their receptors regulating the steady-state localisation of immune cells within healthy peripheral tissues. Steady-state immune cell traffic is not well understood but is thought to involve constitutive (homeostatic) chemokines. The recent discovery of tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) illustrates our need for understanding how chemokines control immune cell mobilisation and/or retention...
September 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941203/helminth-bacterial-interactions-cause-and-consequence
#14
REVIEW
Alexis Rapin, Nicola L Harris
Intestinal helminths, along with mutualistic microbes, have cohabited the intestine of mammals throughout evolution. Interactions between helminths, bacteria, and their mammalian hosts may shape not only host-helminth and host-microbiome interactions, but also the relationship between helminths and the microbiome. This 'ménage à trois' situation may not be completely balanced in that it may favor either the host or the parasite, possibly at the cost of the other partner. Similarly, helminths may favor the establishment of a particular microbiome with either positive or negative consequences for the overall health and well-being of the host...
September 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843959/liver-microbiome-axis-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Timon E Adolph, Christoph Grander, Alexander R Moschen, Herbert Tilg
The intestinal and hepatobiliary tract exhibits host-specific commensal colonization. The resident microbiota has emerged as a key player in intestinal and hepatic diseases. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (ALD/NAFLD), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), liver cirrhosis, and some of their clinical complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE), have been linked to a microbial signature, as also observed for severe liver inflammation in alcoholic hepatitis. In turn, the liver impacts, and communicates with, the microbiota through hepatic mediators, such as bile acids or inflammatory signals...
September 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716793/the-intestinal-epithelium-central-coordinator-of-mucosal-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Joannie M Allaire, Shauna M Crowley, Hong T Law, Sun-Young Chang, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Bruce A Vallance
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract represents a unique challenge to the mammalian immune system. It must tolerate the presence of the luminal microbiota and thus not respond to their products, but still protect the intestinal mucosa from potentially harmful dietary antigens and invading pathogens. The intestinal epithelium, composed of a single layer of cells, is crucial for preserving gut homeostasis and acts both as a physical barrier and as a coordinating hub for immune defense and crosstalk between bacteria and immune cells...
September 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655522/antibiotics-as-instigators-of-microbial-dysbiosis-implications-for-asthma-and-allergy
#17
REVIEW
Tomasz P Wypych, Benjamin J Marsland
The human body and its resident microbiota form a complex ecosystem, shaped by both inherited and environmental factors. The use of antibiotics represents an extreme example of environmental pressure and can broadly disrupt the microbial landscape. The benefits that antibiotics have brought to modern medicine are unquestionable; however, their overuse comes with consequences, including the potential for secondary infections by opportunistic pathogens and the spread of antibiotic resistance. Here, we discuss the implications of microbial dysbiosis driven by antibiotics, with a focus on potential links with allergy and asthma...
September 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060805/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-receptor-mechanosensing-forces-out-serial-engagement
#18
REVIEW
Yinnian Feng, Ellis L Reinherz, Matthew J Lang
T lymphocytes use αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize sparse antigenic peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHCs) arrayed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Contrary to conventional receptor-ligand associations exemplified by antigen-antibody interactions, forces play a crucial role in nonequilibrium mechanosensor-based T cell activation. Both T cell motility and local cytoskeleton machinery exert forces (i.e., generate loads) on TCR-pMHC bonds. We review biological features of the load-dependent activation process as revealed by optical tweezers single molecule/single cell and other biophysical measurements...
August 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001871/immunological-mechanisms-responsible-for-radiation-induced-abscopal-effect
#19
REVIEW
María E Rodríguez-Ruiz, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Ignacio Melero, Silvia Chiara Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Radiotherapy has been used for more than a hundred years as a local tumor treatment. The occurrence of systemic antitumor effects manifesting as regression of tumors outside of the irradiated field (abscopal effect) was occasionally observed but deemed too rare and unpredictable to be a therapeutic goal. This has changed with the advent of immunotherapy. Remarkable systemic effects have been observed in patients receiving radiotherapy to control tumors that were progressing during immune checkpoint blockade, stimulating interest in using radiation to overcome primary and acquired cancer resistance to immunotherapy...
August 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954663/noncanonical-hippo-signalling-in-the-regulation-of-leukocyte-function
#20
REVIEW
Angela R M Kurz, Sergio D Catz, Markus Sperandio
The mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) kinases are central constituents of the evolutionary ancient canonical Hippo pathway regulating cell proliferation and survival. However, perhaps surprisingly, MST1 deficiency in human patients leads to a severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome with features of autoimmune disease. In line with this, Mst1-deficient mice exhibit severe defects in lymphocyte and neutrophil functions as well as disturbed intracellular vesicle transport. These findings spurred research on the noncanonical functions of MST1 in leukocytes...
August 2018: Trends in Immunology
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