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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319426/dengue-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-saudi-arabia-a-review
#1
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish
Dengue fever is a global disease with a spectrum of clinical manifestation ranging from mild febrile disease to a severe disease in the form of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue virus is one viral hemorrhagic fever that exists in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in addition to Alkhurma (Alkhurma) Hemorrhagic Fever, Chikungunya virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, and Rift Valley Fever. The disease is limited to the Western and South-western regions of Saudi Arabia, where Aedes aegypti exists...
January 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319413/molecular-evidence-of-rickettsia-slovaca-in-wild-boar-lice-in-northeastern-algeria
#2
Fayçal Zeroual, Hamza Leulmi, Ahmed Benakhla, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Idir Bitam
Using molecular assays, Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of a spotted fever group rickettsia was assessed in 92/325 lice collected on 117 wild boars hunted in the far northeast of Algeria. Overall, 7/92 (7.61%) Haematopinus suis were found positive to R. slovaca. The presence of R. slovaca DNA on H. suis questions about the relationship that may exist between R. slovaca and lice.
January 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298408/exposure-to-rats-and-rat-associated-leptospira-and-bartonella-species-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-an-impoverished-inner-city-neighborhood-of-vancouver-canada
#3
David A McVea, Chelsea G Himsworth, David M Patrick, L Robbin Lindsay, Michael Kosoy, Thomas Kerr
Rat infestations are common, particularly in impoverished, inner-city neighborhoods. However, there has been little research into the nature and consequences of rat exposure in these neighborhoods, particularly in Canada. In this study, we sought to characterize exposure to rats and rat-associated Leptospira interrogans and Bartonella tribocorum, as well as risk factors associated with exposure, in residents (n = 202) of the Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. There was no evidence of exposure to rat-associated L...
January 3, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298405/ultrastructural-features-of-alkhumra-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-infection-of-cells-under-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-conditions
#4
Tariq A Madani, El-Tayb M E Abuelzein, Huda Abu-Araki, Soad S Ali, Sawsan M Jalalah, Ahmed M Hassan, Hussein M S Al-Bar, Esam I Azhar
Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is an emerging novel flavivirus that was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1995. The virus has since caused several outbreaks in the country that resulted in case fatality rates ranging from 1% to 25%. Meager information has been published on the ultrastructural features of the virus on cells under in vitro or in vivo conditions. The present electron microscopic study examined and compared the intracellular growth of the AHFV on the LLC-MK2 cells and brain cells of new born Wistar rats, inoculated intracerebrally...
January 3, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261435/understanding-q-fever-risk-to-humans-in-minnesota-through-the-analysis-of-spatiotemporal-trends
#5
Julio Alvarez, Tory Whitten, Adam J Branscum, Teresa Garcia-Seco, Jeff B Bender, Joni Scheftel, Andres Perez
Q fever is a widely distributed, yet, neglected zoonotic disease, for which domestic ruminants are considered the main reservoirs in some countries. There are still many gaps in our knowledge of its epidemiology, and the source of sporadic cases is often not determined. In this study, we show how Q fever surveillance data in combination with information routinely collected by government agencies in Minnesota during 1997 to 2015 can be used to characterize patterns of occurrence of Q fever illnesses and detect variables potentially associated with increased human illness...
December 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261025/free-ranging-synanthropic-birds-ardea-alba-and-columba-livia-domestica-as-carriers-of-salmonella-spp-and-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-in-the-vicinity-of-an-urban-zoo
#6
Mirela C V de Oliveira, Beatriz Q Camargo, Marcos P V Cunha, Andre Becker Saidenberg, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Carlos E C Matajira, Luisa Z Moreno, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana P G Christ, Mikaela R F Barbosa, Maria I Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno, Terezinha Knöbl
The presence of free-ranging urban birds is a risk factor for transmitting pathogens to captive animals and humans alike, including Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Cloacal swabs from 156 synanthropic Great egrets (Ardea alba) and feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) that inhabit the surroundings of an urban zoo were processed for the identification of Salmonella spp. and diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Bacterial species identification and genotypic characterization employed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR techniques, respectively, comparing their phylogenetic profiles through amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis...
December 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243991/zoonotic-agents-in-feral-pigeons-columba-livia-from-costa-rica-possible-improvements-to-diminish-contagion-risks
#7
Ana María Torres-Mejía, César Rodríguez, Francisco Duarte, Mauricio Jiménez-Soto, Fernando Esperón, Kinndle Blanco-Peña
Most studies on zoonotic agents in pigeons have been conducted in the Palearctic region, but the scarcity of data is notorious in the Neotropical region, where these birds can breed all year around and are in close contact with humans. In this study, we used a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to identify infectious agents in 141 fecal samples from pigeons collected at four urban parks from Costa Rica. Of these we identified 34 positive samples for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Braenderup (24...
December 15, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232534/detection-of-dengue-virus-in-bat-flies-diptera-streblidae-of-common-vampire-bats-desmodus-rotundus-in-progreso-hidalgo-mexico
#8
Judith Abundes-Gallegos, Monica Salas-Rojas, Guillermo Galvez-Romero, Leonardo Perea-Martínez, Cirani Y Obregón-Morales, Juan B Morales-Malacara, Bruno B Chomel, Matthew J Stuckey, Hayde Moreno-Sandoval, Anahi García-Baltazar, Benjamin Nogueda-Torres, Gerardo Zuñiga, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién
Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in wild animals. Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites (bat flies) and their common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico...
December 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232527/seroprevalence-of-francisella-tularensis-in-austrian-hunting-dogs
#9
Annika Posautz, Miklós Gyuranecz, Béla Dénes, Felix Knauer, Helmut Dier, Christian Walzer
Based on initial reports of infection with Francisella tularensis in dogs in northern Europe, a serological study in hunting dogs was conducted in Austria. Five (6.25%) tested positive. The results highlight the potential for disease transmission to dogs and raise the question of whether dogs could be a source of infection for humans.
December 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232176/molecular-characterization-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-in-egypt-survival-and-thermoresistance-at-different-temperatures-a-potential-public-health-risk
#10
Maysa A I Awadallah, Heba A Ahmed, Abdallah M A Merwad, Rasha M M Abou Elez, Karem M A Saleh
Cronobacter sakazakii has been implicated in causing serious infections in neonates due to consumption of contaminated infant powdered milk. The zoonotic potential of the organism was not clear due to scarce evidence about the role of food animals in the transmission of infection. C. sakazakii was identified in infant powdered milk (n = 100), infant stool (n = 100), and dairy animal feces (n = 100) with the percentages of 1%, 2%, and 4%, respectively. The outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene was characterized in all isolates of different origin, while gene encoding for zinc-metaloprotease (zpx) was only identified in isolates from animal feces...
December 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227211/babesia-occurrence-in-rodents-in-relation-to-landscapes-of-mainland-southeast-asia
#11
Anamika Karnchanabanthoeng, Serge Morand, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Bernard Carcy
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between habitat structure and Babesia spp. occurrence in rodents in mainland Southeast Asia. Of 1439 rodents and insectivores investigated, the protist Babesia was found in only 81 individuals (5.6% of the micromammals investigated) with Babesia microti U.S. type the more prevalent (4.1%), followed by the B. microti Kobe type (1.2%), and by the very rare Babesia BiCM002 (0.04%). We used georeferenced data of rodents analyzed for Babesia infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia, and Lao PDR, where they were collected...
December 11, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185906/molecular-identification-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-iranian-dogs-using-seminested-pcr-a-first-report
#12
Reza Ranjbar, Hossein Mirhendi, Morteza Izadi, Bahador Behrouz, Reza Mohammadi Manesh
Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoon with a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Cryptosporidiosis has been reported from numerous countries, including Iran. Molecular identification can be applied to characterize Cryptosporidium, of which there are over 30 species and 50 genotypes. Herein, we report the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Iranian dogs for the first time based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. One hundred forty fecal samples of herd dogs were collected from Isfahan, central Iran...
November 29, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173127/integrated-control-of-nymphal-ixodes-scapularis-effectiveness-of-white-tailed-deer-reduction-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-anisopliae-and-fipronil-based-rodent-bait-boxes
#13
Scott C Williams, Kirby C Stafford, Goudarz Molaei, Megan A Linske
Pathogens transmitted by ticks are the leading cause of arthropod-associated human diseases in the United States and managing the risk of exposure to potentially infected ticks is of vital public health importance. A 3-year integrated tick management program to control blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector for the pathogenic agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and babesiosis, was implemented in the town of Redding in southwestern Connecticut beginning in 2013. Combinations of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, reduction, area application of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, and fipronil-based rodent bait boxes were evaluated for their ability to reduce nymphal I...
November 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135356/antibody-prevalence-to-influenza-type-a-in-wild-boar-of-northern-ukraine
#14
Ganna Kovalenko, Alona Molozhanova, Ihor Halka, Serhiy Nychyk
A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22...
November 14, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083983/investigation-on-mosquito-borne-viruses-at-lancang-river-and-nu-river-watersheds-in-southwestern-china
#15
Lingli Li, Xiaofang Guo, Qiumin Zhao, Yigang Tong, Hang Fan, Qiang Sun, Shaozhen Xing, Hongning Zhou, Jiusong Zhang
During 2007 and 2010, an extensive entomological survey was performed to assess the distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses at Lancang River and Nu River watersheds in southwestern China. A total of 20,450 mosquitoes consisting 20 species was trapped and submitted 261 pools according to species and location. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. Eighty-seven isolates representing 11 virus species in 8 genera were obtained from 6 mosquito species. The new isolates were identified as Getah virus (GETV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yunnan Culex-related flavivirus (YNCxFV), Yunnan Aedes-related flavivirus (YNAeFV), Banna virus (BAV), Yunnan orbivirus (YUOV), Banna orbivirus (BAOV), Yunnan totivirus (YNToV), Nam Dinh virus (NDiV), Menghai rhabdovirus (MRV), and Anopheles minimus iridovirus (AMIV)...
October 30, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083957/differential-diagnosis-of-flavivirus-infections-in-horses-using-viral-envelope-protein-domain-iii-antigens-in-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#16
Thisun B H Piyasena, Yin X Setoh, Jody Hobson-Peters, Natalie A Prow, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Alexander A Khromykh, David Perera, Mary J Cardosa, Peter D Kirkland, Roy A Hall
In Australia, infection of horses with the West Nile virus (WNV) or Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) occasionally results in severe neurological disease that cannot be clinically differentiated. Confirmatory serological tests to detect antibody specific for MVEV or WNV in horses are often hampered by cross-reactive antibodies induced to conserved epitopes on the envelope (E) protein. This study utilized bacterially expressed recombinant antigens derived from domain III of the E protein (rE-DIII) of MVEV and WNV, respectively, to determine whether these subunit antigens provided specific diagnostic markers of infection with these two viruses...
October 30, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083955/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-tick-paralysis-in-british-columbia
#17
Muhammad Morshed, Lisa Li, Min-Kuang Lee, Keerthi Fernando, Teresa Lo, Quantine Wong
BACKGROUND: Tick paralysis is a frequently overlooked severe disease characterized by bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis caused by a neurotoxin produced by feeding ticks. We aimed to characterize suspected tick paralysis cases documented at the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) in British Columbia (BC) from 1993 to 2016 and reviewed prevention, diagnosis, and treatment considerations. METHODS: Demographic, geographic, and clinical data from test requisition forms for ticks submitted to the BCCDC Public Health Laboratory (PHL) from patients across BC between 1993 and 2016 for suspected human and animal tick paralysis were reviewed...
October 30, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064352/seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-among-lebanese-pregnant-women
#18
Hasan Nahouli, Nour El Arnaout, Elias Chalhoub, Elie Anastadiadis, Hiba El Hajj
OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is a zoonotic obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for the infection of almost one-third of the world's population. T. gondii is particularly threatening for primo-infected pregnant women and may lead, following vertical transplacental transmission, to spontaneous abortion, miscarriage, or severe manifestations in the newborn. The aim of this study was to provide an updated estimate of the seroprevalence of anti-T...
October 24, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064333/molecular-detection-and-serological-evidence-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-serbia
#19
Aleksandar Potkonjak, Tamaš Petrović, Elizabeta Ristanović, Ivica Lalić, Vuk Vračar, Sara Savić, Vesna Turkulov, Grozdana Čanak, Vesna Milošević, Dejan Vidanović, Aleksandar Jurišić, Aleksandra Petrović, Vladimir Petrović
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic flaviviral infection that is a growing public health concern in European countries. The aims of this research were to detect and characterize tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Ixodes ricinus ticks at presumed natural foci in Serbia, and to determine seroprevalence of TBEV IgG antibodies in humans and animals. A total of 500 I. ricinus ticks were examined for the presence of TBEV by real-time RT-PCR, and conventional nested PCR and sequencing. To determine TBEV seroprevalence, 267 human sera samples were collected, as were 200 sera samples from different animal species...
October 24, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022768/molecular-survey-on-rickettsia-spp-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-and-babesia-spp-in-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-infesting-dogs-in-central-italy
#20
Giulia Morganti, Stefano Gavaudan, Cristina Canonico, Silvia Ravagnan, Emanuela Olivieri, Manuela Diaferia, Maria Luisa Marenzoni, Maria Teresa Antognoni, Gioia Capelli, Cornelia Silaghi, Fabrizia Veronesi
Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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