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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

José Ángel Hernández, Cristiana Filipa Cazapal-Monteiro, Jaime Sanchís, Rita Sánchez-Andrade, Adolfo Paz-Silva, María Sol Arias
The usefulness of a strategy involving the biological control of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) with zoonotic potential is tested. A blend of spores of two filamentous fungi, Mucor circinelloides and Duddingtonia flagrans, was provided to one group (G-2) of puppies (five Griffon bleu de Gascogne and five Gascon Saintongeois) shedding eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum. Other identical group (G-1) remained without spores. Fecal samples were collected daily and divided into two portions, one sample was immediately analyzed by the flotation test and the other was examined 28 days later...
September 19, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André, Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Daniella Aparecida Franze, Leidiane Lima-Duarte, Angelina Cirelli-Moraes, Pablo Henrique Nunes, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Jonas Moraes-Filho, Maria Marlene Martins, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó
There are two distinct lineages of ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, in South America: tropical and temperate lineages. Only the tropical lineage is recognized as competent vector for Ehrlichia canis. The epidemiological data of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is congruent with the distribution of the two lineages of R. sanguineus. Herein, we report the infection of R. sanguineus (tropical lineage) cell cultures with E. canis, after cryopreservation. R. sanguineus (tropical lineage) cell identity was confirmed by sequencing using a 16S rDNA gene fragment...
September 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Mohamed A Hussein, Abdallah M A Merwad, Mohamed T Elabbasy, Iman I A Suelam, Ashraf M Abdelwahab, Mohamed A Taha
This study investigated the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin genes and shiga toxin -producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in fish and evaluated quality parameters of examined fish. A total of 150 fish samples belonging to 6 species (25/each species) were cultured on Baird-Parker agar and eosin methylene blue agar. Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes) in E. coli serotypes were determined by multiplex PCR. Aerobic plate count (APC), Enterobacteriaceae count, coliform count, and Pseudomonas count were performed...
September 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Wenfei Zhu, Lei Yang, Yuelong Shu
The low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses (LPAI) were first identified in 2013 and have continued to infect humans since then. It was reported in February 2017 that the LPAI H7N9 virus has evolved into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, potentially increasing the risk for human and poultry. We in this study overviewed the emergence, epidemiology, and biological characterizations of the HPAI H7N9 viruses for the risk assessment.
September 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Stephen Higgs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xiaoyan Gao, Hong Liu, Xiaolong Li, Shihong Fu, Lei Cao, Nan Shao, Weijia Zhang, Qianying Wang, Zhi Lu, Wenwen Lei, Ying He, Yuxi Cao, Huanyu Wang, Guodong Liang
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a representative virus of the JEV serogroup in genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. JEV is a mosquito-borne virus that causes Japanese encephalitis (JE), one of the most severe viral encephalitis diseases in the world. JEV is divided into five genotypes (G1-G5), and each genotype has its own distribution pattern. However, the distribution of different JEV genotypes has changed markedly in recent years. JEV G1 has replaced G3 as the dominant genotype in the traditional epidemic areas in Asia, while G3 has spread from Asia to Europe and Africa and caused domestic JE cases in Africa...
September 12, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Guang Xu, Patrick Pearson, Elizabeth Dykstra, Elizabeth S Andrews, Stephen M Rich
From July 2006 through August 2017, a passive surveillance study of Ixodes ticks submitted from California, Oregon, and Washington was conducted by the TickReport program at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. In total, 549 human-biting Ixodes ticks were submitted comprising both endemic and nonendemic species. We found that 430 endemic ticks were from 3 Ixodes species: Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes spinipalpis, and Ixodes angustus, whereas Ixodes scapularis (n = 111) was the most common species among the 119 nonendemic ticks...
September 12, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Fátima Ingrid López-Vivas, Juan Carlos Vázquez-Chagoyán, Jorge Pablo Acosta-Dibarrat, Imelda Medina-Torres, Héctor M Diaz-Albiter, Pomposo Fernández-Rosas, Roberto Montes de Oca-Jiménez
PCR amplification and sequencing of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) spliced-leader intergenic region of the mini-exon gene intergenic region (SL-IR) fragment was performed on intestinal tissue and fecal content DNA extracted from 19 Meccus pallidipennis (M. pallidipennis) specimens collected in the southern region of the State of Mexico. DNA sequence analysis from 49 bp T. cruzi SL-IR showed that all 19 samples corresponded to haplotype TcIa, and all of them were identical to GenBank sequence JQ028863. When extending the analysis to the whole 256 bp amplified sequence of the SL-IR, we found six sequences with a C insertion at position 10, one of which also presented a mutation (T/C) at position 54...
September 5, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Sarah E Lauterbach, Sarah N Nelson, Jacqueline M Nolting, Jessie D Trujillo, Jürgen A Richt, Andrew S Bowman
Rapid detection of influenza A virus (IAV) at swine exhibitions, where zoonotic transmission has occurred, can allow exhibition officials to quickly implement mitigation strategies and reduce public health risk. While laboratory diagnostic methods using PCR exist, pen-side detection of IAV can reduce lag time between sample collection and results. Portable insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) has been used for point-of-care pathogen detection in veterinary medicine. This study compared laboratory methods of real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) to RT-iiPCR to determine the potential effectiveness of RT-iiPCR for detection of IAV in swine in the field...
September 5, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Joe Kgaladi, Venessa Patharoo, Phumza Ohaebosim, Veerle Msimang, Babsy Nyokong, Janusz T Paweska
Major Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemics in South Africa occur at irregular intervals, usually spanning several decades, with human cases rarely reported in the absence of widespread outbreaks in livestock. This report describes four cases of RVF in farm workers associated with an isolated outbreak on a sheep farm in the Free State Province of South Africa, in 2018. In contrast to the last major RVF epidemic in South Africa in 2010-2011, where detection of human cases served as an alert for an ongoing outbreak in livestock, the current isolated outbreak was first detected in livestock, and human cases recognized following subsequent epidemiological investigation...
September 5, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Serena Montagnaro, Diego Piantedosi, Roberto Ciarcia, Rosa Loponte, Vincenzo Veneziano, Giovanna Fusco, Maria Grazia Amoroso, Gianmarco Ferrara, Sara Damiano, Giuseppe Iovane, Ugo Pagnini
A Flavivirus survey on 183 hunting dogs was conducted in Campania region, Southern Italy. The seroprevalence value of 40.43% (74/183, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 33.37-47.49) detected in our study using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent serologic assay (cELISA) proves a considerable level of Flavivirus exposition of these animals. Among the 74 cELISA-positive sera, seroneutralization (SN) test showed that 24 sera resulted positive for Usutu virus with an overall prevalence of 13.11% (24/183) (95% CI 8...
August 30, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Pedro M Palermo, Antonio De la Mora-Covarrubias, Florinda Jimenez-Vega, Douglas M Watts
Arboviruses are significant causes of human and animal diseases, globally. In the Rio Grande Valley of the United States-Mexico border region, endemic transmission of Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), and West Nile (WNV) viruses have been documented as a cause of human disease. Otherwise, very little is known about the distribution of arboviruses and their possible cause of human disease in other areas of the United States-Mexico border region. Therefore, a pilot serosurvey was conducted to determine if there was evidence of DENV and WNV infection among a human cohort in Anapra, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico...
August 30, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Anthoni F Llau, Carlos Espinal-Tejada, Nasar U Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. A neglected disease of poor and rural Latin American populations, it has now emerged in other regions and urban areas due to international migration. In Colombia, systematic data pertaining to the disease's magnitude in the general population and its distribution within regions are lacking. Our objective is to describe the prevalence of Chagas disease in Colombia through a meta-analysis and systematic review...
August 29, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Tshokey Tshokey, John Stenos, Tenzin Tenzin, Kinzang Drukpa, Ratna Bahadur Gurung, Stephen R Graves
There is no information on rickettsial diseases in domestic animals in Bhutan. This study provides preliminary serological data on exposure of domestic animals to Rickettsia, Orientia, and Coxiella. Animal sera were collected opportunistically from Bhutan and tested in the Australian Rickettsial Reference Laboratory for IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFG) and typhus group (TG) Rickettsia, scrub typhus group (STG), and Q fever (QF). Of the 294 animals tested, 136 (46%) showed serological evidence of past exposure to one or more rickettsiae: 106 (36%), 62 (21%), 45 (15%), and 11 (4%) being positive against SFG Rickettsia, Orientia, TG Rickettsia, and Coxiella, respectively...
August 27, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Don Walter Kannangara, Pritiben Patel
Erythema migrans (EM) rashes once considered pathognomonic of Lyme disease (LD) have been reported following bites of arthropods that do not transmit LD and in areas with no LD. Also, EM rashes have been reported in association with organisms other than members of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Arthropod saliva has chemicals that have effects on the host and pathogen transmission. Tick saliva has protein families similar to spiders and scorpions and even substances homologous to those found in snakes and other venomous animals...
August 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Valentina Stefanetti, Giulia Morganti, Fabrizia Veronesi, Stefano Gavaudan, Gioia Capelli, Silvia Ravagnan, Maria Teresa Antognoni, Flavia Bianchi, Fabrizio Passamonti
Dogs may be useful sentinels for public health monitoring of spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFGR). The aim of this study was to determine the exposure to SFGR among dogs and feeding ticks in central Italy. A total of 344 dogs and 607 adult ticks (395 Rhipicephalus sanguineus and 212 Ixodes ricinus specimens) collected from the coats of sampled animals were included in the study. Canine serum samples were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) for IgG antibodies against Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia rickettsii...
August 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xing Zhang, Jingjing Geng, Jie Du, Yanhong Wang, Weiping Qian, Aihua Zheng, Zhen Zou
Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that can infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, through arthropod vectors such as Ixodid ticks. These ticks are a threat to humans and animals because they are the primary vectors or reservoirs for rickettsiae, which is of public health importance. In this study, we report the identification and percent of positive of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from Cangxi County, Southwest China. Haemaphysalis longicornis comprised 48...
August 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Beatriz Suay-García, Fátima Galán, Manuel A Rodríguez-Iglesias, María Teresa Pérez-Gracia
The detection of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a growing problem; however, the role of domesticated animals in the propagation of antimicrobial resistance has barely been studied. The aim of this study was to identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains in domestic animal feces to assess their antimicrobial resistance profile and carry out molecular characterization of the β-lactamases. A total of 325 samples were collected from eight animal species. Of these, 34 bacterial isolates were identified as E...
August 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Abaineh D Endalew, Igor Morozov, A Sally Davis, Natasha N Gaudreault, Kerstin Wernike, Bhupinder Bawa, Mark G Ruder, Barbara S Drolet, D Scott McVey, Vinay Shivanna, Wenjun Ma, Bonto Faburay, William C Wilson, Juergen A Richt
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an orthobunyavirus in the Simbu serogroup that emerged in Germany in late 2011 and was mostly associated with a mild transient disease of sheep and cattle. SBV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides species) and causes abortions, stillbirths, and congenital defects in naïve pregnant ruminants. Two separate studies were conducted with a primary objective of better understanding the virological and serological responses of sheep and cattle to different SBV isolates after experimental infection...
August 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Yanhua Wang, Lingling Mao, Yingwei Sun, Zijiang Wang, Jiayong Zhang, Jibo Zhang, Yao Peng, Lianxu Xia
Francisella tularensis causes a highly infectious zoonotic disease tularemia. Both Haemaphysalis longicornis and Hyalomma asiaticum are widely distributed in China, but the presence of Francisella and Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) in the two tick species is poorly understood. Therefore, a total of 627 H. longicornis (471 adults and 156 nymphs) and 88 Hy. asiaticum ticks (adults) were collected, of which 88 were from Bole of Xinjiang, 236 from Liaoyang, and 176 from Shenyang of Liaoning, and 215 from Wuhan of Hubei...
August 14, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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