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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934071/prevalence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-rodents-and-mites-from-central-india
#1
Ruchi Bhate, Nilesh Pansare, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Vijay K Choudhary, Nitin V Kurkure, Sunil W Kolte
Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, is an obligate intracytosolic bacterium transmitted among animals and to humans by some species of larval trombiculid mites (chiggers) and is hosted mainly by rodents. In this study, we attempted detection of O. tsutsugamushi from blood and tissue samples of rodents trapped from different locations in Central India using PCR targeting the 56 kDa outer membrane protein gene and the 47 kDa high temperature transmembrane protein gene. A total of 59 rodent samples comprising 38 of blood collected from domestic and public surroundings and 21 of tissue from agricultural farm were included in this study...
September 21, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933680/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-hepatitis-e-virus-in-veterinarians-in-estonia
#2
Brian Lassen, Marilin Janson, Kädi Neare, Tatjana Tallo, Irina Reshetnjak, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Arvo Viltrop, Irina Golovljova, Pikka Jokelainen
In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115 persons reported they had obtained a veterinary degree and were included in this study. The sera were tested for presence of antibodies against HEV using a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial immunoblot assay in series...
September 21, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873035/potential-reservoir-and-associated-factors-for-west-nile-virus-in-three-distinct-climatological-zones
#3
Christine DeCarlo, Anwar H Omar, Mohammod I Haroun, Laura Bigler, Mohamad N Bin Rais, Jalila Abu, Abdul Rahman Omar, Hussni O Mohammed
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic single-strand RNA arbovirus (family Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted among avian hosts in enzootic cycles by a mosquito vector. The virus has a significant disease effect on humans and equines when it bridges into a cycle with various sequelae with epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify the potential spectrum of WNV hosts in three geographic areas with climatologically distinct features: Malaysia, Qatar, and the United States of America (U.S.). Serum samples were collected from avian and mammal species suspected to be reservoirs for the virus at these areas in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study...
September 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873024/serological-survey-of-zoonotic-viruses-in-invasive-and-native-commensal-rodents-in-senegal-west-africa
#4
Christophe A Diagne, Nathalie Charbonnel, Heikki Henttonen, Tarja Sironen, Carine Brouat
Increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. Such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. Here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the circulation of potentially zoonotic viruses in both invasive (Mus musculus domesticus and Rattus rattus) and native (Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys natalensis) murine rodent populations in Senegal (West Africa)...
September 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873022/seroprevalence-of-leptospirosis-brucellosis-and-q-fever-in-a-wild-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-population-kept-in-a-fenced-reserve-in-absence-of-contact-with-livestock
#5
Jose María San-Miguel Ayanz, Francisco Javier Garcia-Peña, Paula García-Lunar, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, María José Ruano, Gema Álvarez-García, Esther Collantes-Fernández
Wildlife health is of interest for public and animal health because wild animals have been identified as important sentinels for the surveillance for zoonotic pathogens. This work investigated Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in a free-ranging red deer population. The study was conducted in a fenced reserve with controlled hunting activity in central Spain with animals that did not have any contact with livestock. Sampling was performed at two time points before and 5 years after the implementation of new management measures, including a reduction in the red deer population in the reserve...
September 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836897/genomic-characterization-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-hyalomma-tick-from-spain-2014
#6
Maria N B Cajimat, Sergio E Rodriguez, Isolde U E Schuster, Daniele M Swetnam, Thomas G Ksiazek, Miguel A Habela, Ana Isabel Negredo, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Alan D T Barrett, Dennis A Bente
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV). Ticks in the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs of CCHFV. In Spain, CCHFV was first detected in Hyalomma ticks from Cáceres in 2010. Subsequently, two autochthonous CCHF cases were reported in August 2016. In this study, we describe the characterization of the CCHFV genome directly from Hyalomma lusitanicum collected in Cáceres in 2014. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a close relationship with clade III strains from West Africa, with an estimated divergence time of 50 years...
August 24, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832259/a-snapshot-avian-surveillance-reveals-west-nile-virus-and-evidence-of-wild-birds-participating-in-toscana-virus-circulation
#7
Sabri Hacioglu, Ender Dincer, Cafer Tayer Isler, Zeynep Karapinar, Veysel Soydal Ataseven, Aykut Ozkul, Koray Ergunay
INTRODUCTION: Birds are involved in the epidemiology of several vector-borne viruses, as amplification hosts for viruses, dissemination vehicles for the vectors, and sources of emerging strains in cross-species transmission. Turkey provides diverse habitats for a variety of wild birds and is located along major bird migration routes. This study was undertaken to provide a cross-sectional screening of avian specimens for a spectrum of vector-borne viruses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The specimens were collected in Hatay province, in the Mediterranean coast of the Anatolian peninsula, located in the convergence zone of the known migration routes...
August 23, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832257/survey-of-the-occurrence-and-human-infective-potential-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-wastewater-and-different-surface-water-sources-of-western-romania
#8
Kálmán Imre, Adriana Morar, Marius S Ilie, Judit Plutzer, Mirela Imre, Tîrziu Emil, Mihai V Herbei, Gheorghe Dărăbuș
From the group of parasitic protozoa, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common pathogens spread in surface water sources, representing a continuous threat to public health and water authorities. The aim of this survey was to assess the occurrence and human infective potential of these pathogens in treated wastewaters and different surface water sources. A total of 76 western Romanian water bodies in four counties (Arad, Bihor, Caraș-Severin and Timiș) were investigated, including the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (n = 11) and brooks (n = 19), irrigation channels (n = 8), lakes (n = 16), and ponds (n = 22)...
August 23, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806141/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-saudi-arabia-a-comprehensive-overview
#9
Abuzaid A Abuzaid, Abdalmohsin M Abdoon, Mohamed A Aldahan, Abdullah G Alzahrani, Raaft F Alhakeem, Abdullah M Asiri, Mohamed H Alzahrani, Ziad A Memish
Despite the great efforts by health authorities in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) continues to be a major public health problem in the country. Many risk factors make KSA prone to outbreaks and epidemics; among these, rapid urbanization and the huge population movement are the most important. The disease is endemic in many parts of KSA, with the majority of cases concentrated in six regions, including Al-Qaseem, Riyadh, Al-Hassa, Aseer, Ha'il, and Al-Madinah. Leishmania major (L...
August 14, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714801/muleshoe-virus-and-other-hantaviruses-associated-with-neotomine-or-sigmodontine-rodents-in-texas
#10
Mary Louise Milazzo, Maria N B Cajimat, Martin H Richter, Robert D Bradley, Charles F Fulhorst
The broad objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of Muleshoe virus and other hantaviruses associated with cricetid rodents in Texas. Anti-hantavirus antibody was found in 38 (3.2%) of 1171 neotomine rodents and 6 (1.8%) of 332 sigmodontine rodents from 10 Texas counties; hantaviral RNA was detected in 23 (71.9%) of 32 antibody-positive rodents. Analyses of nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated Muleshoe virus infection in four hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from northern Texas; Bayou virus, three Texas marsh oryzomys (Oryzomys texensis) from the Gulf Coast; Limestone Canyon virus, five brush mice (Peromyscus boylii) from western Texas; and Sin Nombre virus-five Texas mice (P...
July 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816638/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-at-the-largest-veterinary-teaching-hospital-in-costa-rica
#11
Irene Rojas, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Joany C van Balen, Norman Rojas, Lohendy Muñoz-Vargas, Armando E Hoet
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen associated with severe infections in companion animals present in the community, and it is diagnosed in animals admitted to veterinary hospitals. However, reports that describe the circulation of MRSA in animal populations and veterinary settings in Latin America are scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and investigate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in the environment of the largest veterinary teaching hospital in Costa Rica...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816628/outbreak-and-cocirculation-of-three-different-usutu-virus-strains-in-eastern-germany
#12
Michael Sieg, Volker Schmidt, Ute Ziegler, Markus Keller, Dirk Höper, Kristin Heenemann, Antje Rückner, Hermann Nieper, Aemero Muluneh, Martin H Groschup, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus accounting for large-scale deaths in resident bird populations. In this study, we show the introduction of USUV to Eastern Germany resulting in massive death of birds, particularly blackbirds (Turdus merula). We found that three diverse USUV lineages ("Europe 3," "Africa 2," and "Africa 3-like") circulated simultaneously. Moreover, we detected USUV in Culex pipiens in a region where no dead birds were reported, strengthening the need for mosquito monitoring to uncover the spread of arboviruses...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792853/small-scale-die-offs-in-woodrats-support-long-term-maintenance-of-plague-in-the-u-s-southwest
#13
Michael Kosoy, Pamela Reynolds, Ying Bai, Kelly Sheff, Russell E Enscore, John Montenieri, Paul Ettestad, Kenneth Gage
Our longitudinal study of plague dynamics was conducted in north-central New Mexico to identify which species in the community were infected with plague, to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of the dynamics of plague epizootics, and to describe the dynamics of Yersinia pestis infection within individual hosts. A total of 3156 fleas collected from 535 small mammals of 8 species were tested for Y. pestis DNA. Nine fleas collected from six southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) and from one rock squirrel (Otospermophilus variegatus) were positive for the pla gene of Y...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783449/entomological-study-of-the-mosquito-fauna-in-the-regional-unit-of-drama-region-of-east-macedonia-thrace-greece-2015-to-2016
#14
Stavroula Beleri, Spiros Chatzinikolaou, Andreas Nearchou, Eleni Patsoula
This study reports the mosquito collections conducted from June to September of 2015 and 2016, in Regional Unit (R.U.) of Drama, East Macedonia-Thrace Region, in Northeastern Greece. A total of 923 specimens were examined based on their morphological characteristics and identified to the species level. Medically important taxa were recognized among the 15 mosquito species recorded belonging to seven genera. All data presented here comprise new distribution records due to lack of previous mosquito faunal surveys in the R...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759350/usutu-virus-antibodies-in-blood-donors-and-healthy-forestry-workers-in-the-lombardy-region-northern-italy
#15
Elena Percivalle, Davide Sassera, Francesca Rovida, Paola Isernia, Massimo Fabbi, Fausto Baldanti, Piero Marone
Usutu virus (USUV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is known to circulate at low prevalence in Northern Italy, and has been reported to cause overt infection. USUV was first reported in Europe in 2001, but a retrospective study showed that it has been present in Italy at least since 1996. Seroprevalence data for USUV antibodies in sera are being collected in different European countries, showing circulation at low prevalence in human populations. Interestingly, two consecutive studies in Northern Italy indicate a possible increase in the presence of the virus, from 0% to 0...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759337/detection-of-coxiella-burnetii-dna-in-peridomestic-and-wild-animals-and-ticks-in-an-endemic-region-canary-islands-spain
#16
Margarita Bolaños-Rivero, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Noe F Rodríguez, Carlos Gutiérrez, José-Luis Pérez-Arellano
Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65)...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727516/serological-survey-for-west-nile-virus-in-wild-artiodactyls-southern-moravia-czech-republic
#17
Zdenek Hubálek, Zina Juricová, Petra Straková, Hana Blazejová, Lenka Betásová, Ivo Rudolf
Antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) were examined by plaque-reduction neutralization test in the blood sera of 1023 wild artiodactyls: 105 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 148 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 287 fallow deer (Dama dama), 71 mouflons (Ovis musimon), and 412 wild boars (Sus scrofa), sampled in South Moravian district of Breclav (Czech Republic) in the years 1990-2008. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 5.9% of wild ruminants (4.8% roe deer, 4.1% red deer, 6.3% fallow deer, 9.9% mouflons) and 4...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727515/brave-new-worlds-the-expanding-universe-of-lyme-disease
#18
Brandee L Stone, Yvonne Tourand, Catherine A Brissette
Projections around the globe suggest an increase in tick-vectored disease incidence and distribution, and the potential for emergence of novel tick-borne pathogens. Lyme disease is the most common reported tick-borne illness in the Unites States and is prevalent throughout much of central Europe. In recent years, the worldwide burden of Lyme disease has increased and extended into regions and countries where the disease was not previously reported. In this review, we discuss the trends for increasing Lyme disease, and examine the factors driving Lyme disease expansion, including the effect of climate change on the spread of vector Ixodid ticks and reservoir hosts; and the impacts of increased awareness on disease reporting and diagnosis...
September 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678679/hantavirus-rna-prevalence-in-myomorph-rodents-on-bolshoy-ussuriysky-island-at-the-sino-russian-border
#19
Tingting Lu, Yingqun Fu, Yong Hou, Yu Yang, Lijuan Liu, Huijie Liang, Jun Yang, Dan Jiao, Changqing Ying
OBJECTIVE: To understand the distribution and infection status of hantavirus in Myomorph rodents on Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island (Heixiazi Island) at the Sino-Russian border, and to provide data for the safe development and utilization of Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island. METHODS: In 2013 and 2014, Myomorph rodents were trapped on Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island. Total RNA was extracted from rodent tissue, and it was screened for hantavirus RNA by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
August 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678651/rabies-virus-in-bats-state-of-par%C3%A3-brazil-2005-2011
#20
Armando de Souza Pereira, Livia Medeiros Neves Casseb, Taciana Fernandes Souza Barbosa, Alberto Lopes Begot, Roberto Messias Oliveira Brito, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Elizabeth Salbé Travassos da Rosa
Rabies is an acute, progressive zoonotic viral infection that in general produces a fatal outcome. This disease is responsible for deaths in humans and animals worldwide and, because it can affect all mammals, is considered one of the most important viral infections for public health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of rabies in bats of different species found in municipalities of the state of Pará from 2005 to 2011. The rabies virus was detected in 12 (0.39%) bats in a total of 3100 analyzed, including hematophagous, frugivorous, and insectivorous bats...
August 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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