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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530509/genotyping-toxoplasma-gondii-with-the-b1-gene-in-naturally-infected-sheep-from-an-endemic-region-in-the-pacific-coast-of-mexico
#1
Williams Arony Martínez-Flores, José Manuel Palma-García, Heriberto Caballero-Ortega, Alejandra Del Viento-Camacho, Eduardo López-Escamilla, Fernando Martínez-Hernández, Pablo Vinuesa, Dolores Correa, Pablo Maravilla
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad ecological valence, which has been detected in a wide range of hosts and landscapes. Although the genus is considered monospecific, in recent years it has been demonstrated to exhibit more genetic variability than previously known. In Mexico, there are few genotyping studies, which suggest that classical, autochthonous, and atypical strains are circulating. The goal of this study was to describe T. gondii genetic diversity in naturally infected sheep from Colima, Mexico...
May 22, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520514/flea-and-small-mammal-species-composition-in-mixed-grass-prairies-implications-for-the-maintenance-of-yersinia-pestis
#2
Lauren P Maestas, Hugh B Britten
Maintenance of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs (Cynomis spp.) was once thought unlikely due to high mortality rates; yet more recent findings indicate that low-level enzootic plague may be maintained in susceptible prairie dog populations. Another hypothesis for the maintenance of sylvatic plague involves small mammals, other than prairie dogs, as an alternative reservoir in the sylvatic plague system. These hypotheses, however, are not mutually exclusive, as both prairie dogs and small mammals could together be driving sylvatic cycles of plague...
May 18, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514225/vector-and-serologic-survey-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-poland
#3
Barbara A Bażanów, Jarosław Pacoń, Łukasz Gadzała, Agnieszka Frącka, Mirosław Welz, Janusz Paweska
In contrast to animals, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) causes a severe disease in humans with a high mortality rate. The etiological agent, CCHF virus (CCHFV), can be transmitted by argasid and ixodid ticks, but arachnids of the genus Hyalomma, followed by Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor serve as the major vectors of this virus. The goal of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of CCHFV infection in cattle in south-east Poland, and survey for potential tick vector species. A total of 592 bovine blood samples from animals located in the southernmost region in Poland were tested by IgG sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
May 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509619/japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-rate-and-detection-of-genotype-i-from-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-collected-from-jiangsu-china
#4
Hongliang Chu, Zhiming Wu, Hongna Chen, Chunxiao Li, Xiaoxia Guo, Ran Liu, Gang Wang, Minghao Zhou, Tongyan Zhao
Information regarding the infection rate and genotype shifts for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important for JE vaccine application. In Jiangsu province, China, which is one of the provinces with a high prevalence of JE, JEV infection in swine and mosquitoes in certain cities has only been investigated in 2008-2009. Lianyungang City has one of the highest numbers of JE cases in Jiangsu province, and it has a high risk of JEV invasion via migrant birds. JEV infection in vectors in Lianyungang City, which has urban and rural parts, has not been investigated...
May 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498740/powassan-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus-of-public-health-concern-in-north-america
#5
Meghan E Hermance, Saravanan Thangamani
Powassan virus (POWV, Flaviviridae) is the only North American member of the tick-borne encephalitis serogroup of flaviviruses. It is transmitted to small- and medium-sized mammals by Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes cookei, and several other Ixodes tick species. Humans become infected with POWV during spillover transmission from the natural transmission cycles. In humans, POWV is the causative agent of a severe neuroinvasive illness with 50% of survivors displaying long-term neurological sequelae. POWV was recognized as a human pathogen in 1958 when a young boy died of severe encephalitis in Powassan, Ontario, and POWV was isolated from the brain autopsy of this case...
May 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488935/seroprevalence-and-factors-associated-with-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-sheep-in-latvia-latvian-dark-headed-sheep-breed-associated-with-higher-seroprevalence
#6
Gunita Deksne, Bettija Ligere, Aija Šneidere, Pikka Jokelainen
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with both public health and veterinary importance. The aims of our study were to estimate the T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep in Latvia and to evaluate potential risk factors for seropositivity. The blood samples investigated were collected from 1039 sheep from 84 farms between January 2012 and April 2013. The sera were tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 179 (17...
May 10, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488932/powassan-deer-tick-virus-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-in-wisconsin-tick-populations
#7
Konstance K Knox, Angela M Thomm, Yvette A Harrington, Ellen Ketter, Jacob M Patitucci, Donald R Carrigan
Powassan/Deer Tick Virus (POWV/DTV) is an emerging cause of arboviral neuroinvasive disease in the upper Midwest. These studies describe the prevalence and geographic distribution of Wisconsin ticks carrying POWV/DTV as well as the high frequency of Ixodes scapularis ticks coinfected with both POWV/DTV and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. These findings suggest that concurrent transmission of POWV/DTV and B. Burgdorferi from coinfected ticks is likely to occur in humans.
May 10, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448211/prevalence-and-geographic-distribution-of-vector-borne-pathogens-in-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-croatia
#8
Vladimir Mrljak, Josipa Kuleš, Željko Mihaljević, Marin Torti, Jelena Gotić, Martina Crnogaj, Tatjana Živičnjak, Iva Mayer, Iva Šmit, Mangesh Bhide, Renata Barić Rafaj
Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit...
April 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448206/mycoplasma-pulmonis-of-rodents-as-a-possible-human-pathogen
#9
Tomasz Piasecki, Klaudia Chrzastek, Urszula Kasprzykowska
Mycoplasma pulmonis is a naturally occurring respiratory pathogen in rodents. To date, this pathogen was not isolated from humans. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and seropositivity to M. pulmonis in humans who have had direct contact with rats. Moreover, the prevalence of M. pulmonis in pet and laboratory rats was assessed. Overall, 131 and 235 oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from human individuals and rats, respectively. In humans, M. pulmonis was detected by PCR in 21 of 86 pet rat keepers (24...
April 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418772/geographical-clusters-and-predictors-of-rabies-in-three-southeastern-states
#10
Sara Reilly, Wayne T Sanderson, W Jay Christian, Steven R Browning
The rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. In the United States, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. The purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of human exposure...
April 18, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402742/vertebrate-ticks-distribution-and-their-role-as-vectors-in-relation-to-road-edges-and-underpasses
#11
Juan D Delgado, Estefanía Abreu-Yanes, Néstor Abreu-Acosta, Manuel D Flor, Pilar Foronda
Roads fragment vertebrate populations and affect the dynamics and dispersal patterns of vertebrate parasites. We evaluated how vertebrate ticks distribute near roads and road underpasses in human-caused road-fragmented landscapes in Seville, SW Spain. We sampled 49 stations with 93 individualized sampling points and assessed tick abundance. We explored the relationship between tick presence and abundance and distance to the nearest road and underpass (drainage culverts and other passages used by vertebrates), and landscape features through categorical regression and nonparametric statistics...
April 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402727/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-slaughter-pigs-in-shaanxi-province-northwestern-china
#12
Fei Wu, Ya-Lin Wang, Zhao Yang, Xi-Lai Li, Zong-Ren Li, Qing Lin
Toxoplasma gondii is an important food-borne zoonotic protozoan parasite, which can infect endothermic animals, including pigs. However, data on T. gondii in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province were still lacking. To detect the seroprevalence and analyze the risk factors of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China, a total of 784 serum samples were collected from four administrative regions and detected by indirect hemagglutination test for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T...
April 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402703/molecular-detection-of-francisella-spp-among-ticks-attached-to-camels-in-egypt
#13
Nahed H Ghoneim, Khaled A Abdel-Moein, Hala M Zaher
This study was conducted to investigate the possible role of camels and attached ticks in the epidemiology of Francisella spp. including Francisella tularensis. For this purpose, a total of 319 ticks (248 Hyalomma dromedarii and 71 Amblyomma spp.) as well as 100 blood and 50 fecal samples collected from camels were screened for the presence of Francisella spp. by PCR through amplification of Francisella 16S rRNA gene. Positive samples were then tested for F. tularensis by PCR. In addition, serum samples from 75 camel abattoir workers were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies against F...
April 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387600/serological-evidence-for-the-circulation-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-domestic-small-ruminants-in-southern-gabon
#14
Gael Darren Maganga, Andre Lea Abessolo Ndong, Clency Sylde Mikala Okouyi, Sheila Makiala Mandanda, Nadine N'Dilimabaka, Anais Pinto, Ernest Agossou, Brieuc Cossic, Jean-Paul Akue, Eric Maurice Leroy
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease, which caused several epidemics in humans in many countries of Africa. Using an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time reverse transcription PCR, and nested one-step reverse transcription PCR, we conducted a cross-sectional study in populations of sheep and goats from the Mongo County in 2014 to determine the circulation of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in small ruminants from this area. From a total of 201 small ruminants (95 sheep and 106 goats), the overall IgG seroprevalence against the RVFV was 6...
April 7, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350284/molecular-characterization-of-the-kamese-virus-an-unassigned-rhabdovirus-isolated-from-culex-pruina-in-the-central-african-republic
#15
Huguette Dorine Simo Tchetgna, Emmanuel Nakoune, Benjamin Selekon, Antoine Gessain, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Mirdad Kazanji, Nicolas Berthet
Rhabdoviridae is one of the most diversified families of RNA viruses whose members infect a wide range of plants, animals, and arthropods. The members of this family are classified into 13 genera and >150 unassigned viruses. Here, we sequenced the complete genome of a rhabdovirus belonging to the Hart Park serogroup, the Kamese virus (KAMV), isolated in 1977 from Culex pruina in the Central African Republic. The genomic sequence showed an organization typical of rhabdoviruses with additional genes in the P-M and G-L intergenic regions, as already reported for the Hart Park serogroup...
March 28, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346866/prevalence-and-potential-risk-factors-for-bartonella-infection-in-tunisian-stray-dogs
#16
Jaber Belkhiria, Bruno B Chomel, Taoufik Ben Hamida, Rickie W Kasten, Matthew J Stuckey, Drew A Fleischman, Mary M Christopher, Henri-Jean Boulouis, Thomas B Farver
Bartonellae are blood-borne and vector-transmitted pathogens, some are zoonotic, which have been reported in several Mediterranean countries. Transmission from dogs to humans is suspected, but has not been clearly demonstrated. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella bovis (as a proxy for Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii) in stray dogs from Tunisia, identify the Bartonella species infecting the dogs and evaluate potential risk factors for canine infection...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346803/carbapenemase-producing-aeromonas-veronii-disseminated-in-the-environment-of-an-equine-specialty-hospital
#17
Rachael J Adams, Dimitria A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Andrea Whittle, Joshua B Daniels, Thomas E Wittum
The emergence of bacterial resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is an urgent public health threat. Carbapenem drugs are a last resort treatment option for life-threatening infections. The frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat hospitalized patients provides significant selection pressure favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant organisms, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). CREs have been reported in animal populations, but only rarely in horses. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of CRE in the environment of a referral equine specialty hospital...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301305/molecular-characterization-of-leishmania-parasites-in-giemsa-stained-slides-from-cases-of-human-cutaneous-and-visceral-leishmaniasis-eastern-algeria
#18
Nadia Beldi, Roukaya Mansouri, Jihene Bettaieb, Alia Yaacoub, Hejer Souguir Omrani, Yusr Saadi Ben Aoun, Farida Saadni, Ikram Guizani, Souheila Guerbouj
BACKGROUND: In Algeria, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is due to Leishmania (L.) infantum, while three cutaneous forms (CL) are caused by Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. In this study, the use of Giemsa-stained slides was evaluated with two PCR techniques, in Eastern Algeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 136 samples corresponding to 100 CL smears (skin scrapings) and 36 VL slides (bone marrow aspirates) collected from 2008 to 2014 were tested...
March 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301296/distinct-leishmania-infantum-strains-circulate-in-humans-and-dogs-in-the-emilia-romagna-region-northeastern-italy
#19
Gianluca Rugna, Elena Carra, Francesco Corpus, Mattia Calzolari, Daniela Salvatore, Romeo Bellini, Antonietta Di Francesco, Erica Franceschini, Antonella Bruno, Giovanni Poglayen, Stefania Varani, Fabrizio Vitale, Giuseppe Merialdi
Human leishmaniasis is an emerging problem in Italy and is on the increase in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, studies dealing with the molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. circulating in these areas are limited. In the present work, we explored the genetic polymorphism of Leishmania isolates from 28 cases of canine leishmaniasis and three cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which occurred in 2013-2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region. The characterization was carried out in comparison with nine human isolates of Leishmania from other VL endemic Italian regions and two reference strains...
March 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287930/detection-of-imjin-virus-and-seoul-virus-in-crocidurine-shrews-in-shandong-province-china
#20
Xi-Feng Sun, Li Zhao, Zhen-Tang Zhang, Miao-Miao Liu, Zai-Feng Xue, Hong-Ling Wen, Dong-Qiang Ma, Yu-Ting Huang, Yue Sun, Chuan-Min Zhou, Li-Mei Luo, Jian-Wei Liu, Wen-Qian Li, Hao Yu, Xue-Jie Yu
INTRODUCTION: Recently, hantaviruses have been discovered in insectivores in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. Imjin virus (MJNV) was first isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura) from South Korea in 2009. We aim to detect the species and prevalence of insectivore- and rodent-borne hantaviruses in shrews and rodents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Shrews and rodents were captured in Jiaonan County of Shandong Province, China, in 2014...
March 13, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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