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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Annete Itzel Apodaca-Medina, José Israel Torres-Avendaño, José Guadalupe Rendón-Maldonado, Edith Hilario Torres-Montoya, Beatriz Armida Flores-López, Rosa M Del Angel, Jesús Salvador Velarde-Félix, Víctor Manuel Salomón-Soto, Hipólito Castillo-Ureta
Fourteen pools of Aedes aegypti larvae collected within the urban area of Culiacán, Sinaloa, were analyzed by RT-PCR. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the vertical infection of serotype-2 dengue virus (DENV-2) in Sinaloa, Mexico, suggesting that Ae. aegypti acts as a natural reservoir of DENV-2 in this region.
February 27, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Stefan Fischer, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Christian Imholt, Nastasja G Spierling, Elisa Heuser, Sabrina Schmidt, Daniela Reil, Ulrike M Rosenfeld, Jens Jacob, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by zoonotic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Numerous mammals, including domestic and companion animals, can be infected by Leptospira spp., but rodents and other small mammals are considered the main reservoir. The annual number of recorded human leptospirosis cases in Germany (2001-2016) was 25-166. Field fever outbreaks in strawberry pickers, due to infection with Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, were reported in 2007 and 2014. To identify the most commonly occurring Leptospira genomospecies, sequence types (STs), and their small mammal host specificity, a monitoring study was performed during 2010-2014 in four federal states of Germany...
February 22, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Kornélia Kurucz, Mónika Madai, Dominika Bali, Dávid Hederics, Győző Horváth, Gábor Kemenesi, Ferenc Jakab
Rodents are important reservoir hosts for several zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Among others, leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide and has the similar clinical manifestation with hantavirus infection in humans. Despite the fact that both pathogens have great epidemiological significance in Europe, no epizootiological data exist for urbanized areas so far. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of Leptospira spp...
February 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Tomáš Csank, Petra Drzewnioková, Ľuboš Korytár, Peter Major, Miklós Gyuranecz, Juraj Pistl, Tamás Bakonyi
In central Europe, at least three flaviviruses circulate among vectors and vertebrate hosts. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne viruses maintained in the nature by enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus causing annual human cases in Slovakia. The aim of this study is the prevalence assessment of flavivirus infections in horses (n = 145) and birds (n = 109) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by neutralization test (VNT)...
February 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Shi-Feng Hu, Fen Li, Wen-Bin Zheng, Guo-Hua Liu
Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, which can infect animals and human, including goats. However, little information on C. abortus infection is available in goats in Hunan province, subtropical China. To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in goats in Hunan province, China, a total of 911 goat blood samples were collected randomly from 14 herds having number of goats ranging from 1000 to 3000 from March 2014 to December 2015. Seropositive animals were found in 11 out of 14 (78...
January 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xin Wang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Chun-Feng Ma, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Quan Zhao, Hong-Bo Ni
Chlamydia is considered as one of the most widely prevalent zoonotic pathogens. It can spread from infected birds to human beings through direct or indirect contact with fecal shedding of Chlamydia. However, data concerning prevalence and genotypes of Chlamydia in pigeons are limited. In the present study, a total of 963 serum samples was collected from Jilin Province, Liaoning Province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) in China between August 2015 and December 2016 and the seroprevalence for Chlamydia was analyzed by indirect hemagglutination assay test...
January 19, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Yogesh K Gurav, Pragya D Yadav, Mangesh D Gokhale, Tushar R Chiplunkar, Rajlakshmi Vishwanathan, Deepak Y Patil, Rajlaxmi Jain, Anita M Shete, Savita L Patil, G D Sarang, Gajanan N Sapkal, M D Andhare, Y R Sale, Pradeep S Awate, Devendra T Mourya
INTRODUCTION: Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) outbreak was confirmed in Dodamarg Taluka, Sindhudurga district (Maharashtra) in India during the year 2016. The rise in suspected KFD cases was reported in January 2016, peaked during March, and then declined gradually from April 2016. The outbreak was thoroughly investigated considering different socio-clinical parameters. METHODS: Total, 488 suspected KFD cases were investigated using KFD specific real-time RT-PCR and anti-KFDV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Kimberly C Mitchell, Patricia Ryan, Donna E Howard, Katherine A Feldman
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward West Nile virus (WNV) prevention among Maryland adults ≥60 years old who are at increased risk of severe WNV disease utilizing the health belief model. METHODS: Using a stratified random sample of households from zip codes with ≥2 human WNV cases, we conducted a telephone survey of 211 Maryland adults ≥60 years old between October and December 2012. RESULTS: Participants expressing worry about WNV were over thrice more likely to use insect repellent in the prior 90 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Mayssaa Fawaz Dabaja, Grazia Greco, Sara Villari, Ali Bayan, Gesualdo Vesco, Valeria Gargano, Maria Arnone, Mohamad Hneino, Rossella Lelli, Mohamad Ezzedine, Atika Berry, Hussein Mortada, Maria Tempesta, Mohamad Mortada
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate, for the first time, the human seroprevalence of Q fever in Lebanon, by assessing the presence of antibodies against the causative agent, Coxiella burnetii. A total number of 421 serum samples (226 females and 196 males) were collected in February 2015 from hospitals and laboratories dispersed in five Lebanese provinces: Akkar, Bekaa, Mount Lebanon, Nabatieh, and South Lebanon. METHODS: Serial testing approach was used...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Melissa Judith Chalada, John Stenos, Gemma Vincent, Dayana Barker, Richard Stewart Bradbury
Central Queensland (CQ) is a large and isolated, low population density, remote tropical region of Australia with a varied environment. The region has a diverse fauna and several species of ticks that feed upon that fauna. This study examined 518 individual ticks: 177 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick), 123 Haemaphysalis bancrofti (wallaby tick), 102 Rhipicephalus australis (Australian cattle tick), 47 Amblyomma triguttatum (ornate kangaroo tick), 57 Ixodes holocyclus (paralysis tick), 9 Bothriocroton tachyglossi (CQ short-beaked echidna tick), and 3 Ornithodoros capensis (seabird soft tick)...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Chee-Sieng Khor, Nurul-Farhana Mohd-Rahim, Habibi Hassan, Josephine Rebecca Chandren, Siti-Sarah Nore, Jefree Johari, Shih-Keng Loong, Juraina Abd-Jamil, Jing-Jing Khoo, Hai-Yen Lee, Brian L Pike, Li Ping Wong, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Keivan Zandi, Sazaly AbuBakar
Q fever is a disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. It is a disease of public health concern in many parts of the world. In this study, we described the seroprevalence of Q fever among selected populations of Orang Asli (OA), indigenous people, many of whom live within the forest fringe areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples were obtained from 887 OA participants from selected villages. Samples were analyzed for the presence of IgG antibodies reactive against C. burnetii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish
Dengue fever is a global disease with a spectrum of clinical manifestation ranging from mild febrile disease to a severe disease in the form of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue virus is one viral hemorrhagic fever that exists in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in addition to Alkhurma (Alkhurma) Hemorrhagic Fever, Chikungunya virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, and Rift Valley Fever. The disease is limited to the Western and South-western regions of Saudi Arabia, where Aedes aegypti exists...
January 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Fayçal Zeroual, Hamza Leulmi, Ahmed Benakhla, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Idir Bitam
Using molecular assays, Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of a spotted fever group rickettsia was assessed in 92/325 lice collected on 117 wild boars hunted in the far northeast of Algeria. Overall, 7/92 (7.61%) Haematopinus suis were found positive to R. slovaca. The presence of R. slovaca DNA on H. suis questions about the relationship that may exist between R. slovaca and lice.
January 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Tariq A Madani, El-Tayb M E Abuelzein, Huda Abu-Araki, Soad S Ali, Sawsan M Jalalah, Ahmed M Hassan, Hussein M S Al-Bar, Esam I Azhar
Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is an emerging novel flavivirus that was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1995. The virus has since caused several outbreaks in the country that resulted in case fatality rates ranging from 1% to 25%. Meager information has been published on the ultrastructural features of the virus on cells under in vitro or in vivo conditions. The present electron microscopic study examined and compared the intracellular growth of the AHFV on the LLC-MK2 cells and brain cells of new born Wistar rats, inoculated intracerebrally...
January 3, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Yoshiko Kudo, Ket Vansith, En Rin, Kohdai Uchida, Sumika Kodama, Takashi Fukui, Sho Masuda, Toshiyuki Masuzawa
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis remains a major public health threat in Cambodia. In this study, we aimed at facilitating the development of preventive strategies against leptospirosis in Cambodia by conducting molecular epidemiological surveys of Leptospira infection among wild rodents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred sixty-three wild rodents were captured in the capital Phnom Penh and surrounding areas, and their kidneys and bladders were collected for analysis...
March 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Anamika Karnchanabanthoeng, Serge Morand, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Bernard Carcy
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between habitat structure and Babesia spp. occurrence in rodents in mainland Southeast Asia. Of 1439 rodents and insectivores investigated, the protist Babesia was found in only 81 individuals (5.6% of the micromammals investigated) with Babesia microti U.S. type the more prevalent (4.1%), followed by the B. microti Kobe type (1.2%), and by the very rare Babesia BiCM002 (0.04%). We used georeferenced data of rodents analyzed for Babesia infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia, and Lao PDR, where they were collected...
March 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
David A McVea, Chelsea G Himsworth, David M Patrick, L Robbin Lindsay, Michael Kosoy, Thomas Kerr
Rat infestations are common, particularly in impoverished, inner-city neighborhoods. However, there has been little research into the nature and consequences of rat exposure in these neighborhoods, particularly in Canada. In this study, we sought to characterize exposure to rats and rat-associated Leptospira interrogans and Bartonella tribocorum, as well as risk factors associated with exposure, in residents (n = 202) of the Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. There was no evidence of exposure to rat-associated L...
February 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Annika Posautz, Miklós Gyuranecz, Béla Dénes, Felix Knauer, Helmut Dier, Christian Walzer
Based on initial reports of infection with Francisella tularensis in dogs in northern Europe, a serological study in hunting dogs was conducted in Austria. Five (6.25%) tested positive. The results highlight the potential for disease transmission to dogs and raise the question of whether dogs could be a source of infection for humans.
February 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Maysa A I Awadallah, Heba A Ahmed, Abdallah M A Merwad, Rasha M M Abou Elez, Karem M A Saleh
Cronobacter sakazakii has been implicated in causing serious infections in neonates due to consumption of contaminated infant powdered milk. The zoonotic potential of the organism was not clear due to scarce evidence about the role of food animals in the transmission of infection. C. sakazakii was identified in infant powdered milk (n = 100), infant stool (n = 100), and dairy animal feces (n = 100) with the percentages of 1%, 2%, and 4%, respectively. The outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene was characterized in all isolates of different origin, while gene encoding for zinc-metaloprotease (zpx) was only identified in isolates from animal feces...
February 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Reza Ranjbar, Hossein Mirhendi, Morteza Izadi, Bahador Behrouz, Reza Mohammadi Manesh
Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoon with a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Cryptosporidiosis has been reported from numerous countries, including Iran. Molecular identification can be applied to characterize Cryptosporidium, of which there are over 30 species and 50 genotypes. Herein, we report the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Iranian dogs for the first time based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. One hundred forty fecal samples of herd dogs were collected from Isfahan, central Iran...
February 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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