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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Wen-Bin Zheng, Wei Cong, Junling Hou, Jian-Gang Ma, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Qing-Feng Meng, Dong-Hui Zhou
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite, can infect homoiothermal vertebrate animals, including raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Regretfully, data on T. gondii infection in raccoon dogs were limited in China. Therefore, to investigate the seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii infection in raccoon dogs, a total of 1181 raccoon dog blood samples were collected from Jilin and Shandong provinces, China, from September to December 2014. The antibodies of T. gondii were examined using the modified agglutination test...
November 28, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Willem Takken, Arnold J H van Vliet, Niels O Verhulst, Frans H H Jacobs, Fedor Gassner, Nienke Hartemink, Sara Mulder, Hein Sprong
A longitudinal investigation on tick populations and their Borrelia infections in the Netherlands was undertaken between 2006 and 2011 with the aim to assess spatial and temporal patterns of the acarological risk in forested sites across the country and to assess variations in Borrelia genospecies diversity. Ticks were collected monthly in 11 sites and nymphs were examined for Borrelia infections. Tick populations expressed strong seasonal variations, with consistent and significant differences in mean tick densities between sites...
November 28, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Yi-Ju Tseng, Alfred DeMaria, Donald A Goldmann, Kenneth D Mandl
BACKGROUND: A Lyme disease (LD) diagnosis can be far from straightforward, particularly if erythema migrans does not develop or is not noticed. Extended courses of antibiotics for LD are not recommended, but their use is increasing. We sought to elucidate the patient patterns toward a diagnosis of LD, hypothesizing that a subset of patients ultimately receiving extended courses antibiotics may be symptomatic for an extended period before the first LD diagnosis. METHODS: Claims submitted to a nationwide U...
November 17, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Katja A Koskela, Laura Kalin-Mänttäri, Heidi Hemmilä, Teemu Smura, Paula M Kinnunen, Jukka Niemimaa, Heikki Henttonen, Simo Nikkari
Voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) are known carriers of zoonotic bacteria such as Bartonella spp. and Francisella tularensis. However, apart from F. tularensis, the bacterial microbiome of voles has not previously been determined in Finland and rarely elsewhere. Therefore, we studied liver samples from 61 voles using 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR analysis, followed by Sanger sequencing. Twenty-three of these samples were also studied with tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The samples originated from 21 field voles (Microtus agrestis), 37 tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus), and 3 bank voles (Myodes glareolus)...
November 17, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Ioana Adriana Matei, Angela Monica Ionică, Gianluca D'Amico, Alexandra Corduneanu, Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Menelaos Lefkaditis, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is an important tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution. The importance of this disease resides in the ability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect humans and several animal species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence rate of CGA in different altitudinal areas of Romania. A total of 357 canine blood samples were collected during 2010-2013 from eight counties. To assess the influence of the altitude on A. phagocytophilum prevalence, the samples were collected from four different altitude areas (coastal 0-5 meters; lowland 6-100 meters; hilly areas 200-300 meters; low mountain areas >500 meters)...
November 14, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Jacob L Ogdee, Scott E Henke, David B Wester, Alan M Fedynich
Baylisascaris procyonis is a large ascarid of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic threat. We documented the potential rate a raccoon population can contaminate their environment with B. procyonis eggs. We estimated the population size of raccoons using a 9 × 7 trapping grid of Havahart traps, identified locations of raccoon scats through systematic searches, and enumerated the distance B. procyonis eggs passively travel from site of origin upon scat decay. During an 8-week capture period, the raccoon population was estimated to be 19...
November 14, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Muhammad Qamar, Muhammad Irfan Malik, Muhammad Latif, Qurat Ul Ain, Munir Aktas, Rehan Sadiq Shaikh, Furhan Iqbal
The intraleukocytic parasite, Hepatozoon canis, causes the sometimes fatal tick borne disease canine hepatozoonosis. In this study, dogs from Islamabad, Lahore, and Multan Districts of the Punjab region of Pakistan were surveyed to investigate the presence and prevalence of H. canis infection and to determine the effects of the parasite on hematological parameters. Blood samples were collected from 151 domestic dogs (149 pet, 2 stray) of both sexes and varying ages. Data on sex, age, tick infestation, and clinical factors (body temperature, mucous membrane status, and presence of hematuria and vomiting) were collected...
November 14, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Mathilde De Keukeleire, Sophie O Vanwambeke, Christel Cochez, Paul Heyman, David Fretin, Véronique Deneys, Victor Luyasu, Benoît Kabamba, Annie Robert
To estimate the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap), and Francisella tularensis (Ft) in Belgium, we tested sera from three population-based samples in which exposure to pathogen is assumed to vary: 148 samples from workers professionally exposed, 209 samples from rural blood donors, and 193 samples from urban blood donors. Sera were tested using ELISA or the immunofluorescence assay test. The seroprevalence of Bb was 5.4% in workers professionally exposed, 2.9% in rural blood donors, and 2...
November 9, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Tariq A Madani, El-Tayb M E Abuelzein, Esam I Azhar, Hussein M S Al-Bar, Ahmed M Hassan, Thomas G Ksiazek
BACKGROUND: Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is a flavivirus that was discovered in 1995 in Saudi Arabia. Clinical manifestations of AHFV infection include hemorrhagic fever, hepatitis, and encephalitis with a reported mortality rate as high as 25%. There are no published data on the growth characteristics of AHFV in mammalian cell lines. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of AHFV to grow and propagate in four of the commonly used mammalian cell culture lines and to determine the virus growth curve characteristics in each...
October 6, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Toomas Kramarenko, Mati Roasto, Mihkel Mäesaar, Antonella Maugliani, Rosangela Tozzoli, Kadrin Meremäe, Terje Elias, Maiu Kuningas
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 was isolated from 30 (4%) of 744 cattle hide swab samples collected at Estonian slaughterhouses within a 3-year monitoring program of zoonotic pathogens. The isolates were characterized by determining the presence of STEC main virulence factors, the antimicrobial resistance profiles, and the genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Thirteen strains carried the stx2 gene alone and 17 both the stx1 and stx2 genes. The most frequently detected stx subtype was stx2c, occurring alone (n = 12) or in combination with subtype stx1a (n = 13)...
September 22, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Fernando Martínez-Hernández, Osvaldo López-Díaz, Rafael Bello-Bedoy, Guiehdani Villalobos, Claudia I Muñoz-García, Ricardo Alejandre-Aguilar, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, Ana E Gutiérrez-Cabrera, Gerardo Suzán, Claudia Villanueva-García, Lilia M Gama-Campillo, Mariela T Díaz-Negrete, Emilio Rendón-Franco
A key step in the dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the role of seasonality. Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Some wild mammals are considered natural hosts, yet not all mammals show the same response to infection. We explored the effect of T. cruzi on blood parameters in two mammal carnivores, coati (Nasua narica) and raccoon (Procyon lotor), that were naturally infected in summer and winter seasons. The study was carried out in the Zoological Park "Parque Museo de la Venta," in Southeastern Mexico...
September 22, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Laís Moraes Paiz, Maria Rita Donalisio, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Gabriela Motoie, Claudio Luiz Castagna, José Eduardo Tolezano
There is a growing concern about the participation of wild hosts and reservoirs in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, particularly within the context of increasingly frequent environmental changes and the expansion of the One Health concept. This work is a molecular research of infection by Leishmania spp. among the wildlife of an environmentally protected area located in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The studied area has a history of intense environmental changes, with notifications of human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the 1990s, and a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis since 2009...
September 15, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Sandra Ramos-Lopez, Ma Fabiola León-Galván, Mariana Salas-Alatorre, Alma A Lechuga-Arana, Mauricio Valencia-Posadas, Abner J Gutiérrez-Chávez
Dirofilaria repens is the causative zoonotic agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis. Although the American continent is considered currently free of D. repens infections, in the past few years there have been some reports suggesting the presence of this agent in the Americas. In Guanajuato, Mexico, there is a report of the presence of D. repens. To determine whether this parasite is really present in Guanajuato, a total of 177 EDTA blood samples from dogs were tested using the modified Knott's technique. Using this technique, we found 15 positive samples, which were then analyzed using the PCR technique, with a panfilarial set of primers and a specific primer pair for D...
September 15, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Meng Ling Moi, Daisuke Kobayashi, Haruhiko Isawa, Toshinori Sasaki, Masayuki Saijo, Ichiro Kurane, Kyoko Sawabe, Tomohiko Takasaki
Dengue virus (DENV) isolation from mosquitoes is necessary for providing definitive evidence of virus circulation, and is critical for further virological characterization and determination of epidemiological characteristics. By using Aedes albopictus mosquitoes captured during an outbreak in Tokyo in 2014, we compared the DENV isolation rates of a conventional virus isolation method that uses C6/36 mosquito cells as assay cells with those of a virus isolation method that relies on an antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mechanism by using FcγR-expressing baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells and an antibody with ADE activity...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Sabino R Curcio, Laurel P Tria, Azad L Gucwa
INTRODUCTION: Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease (TBD) caused by Babesia microti, an intracellular parasite of red blood cells. Currently, it is the highest ranked pathogen transmitted by blood transfusion. Most healthy individuals infected with B. microti are asymptomatic, but may be at risk for chronic infection. Similar to Lyme disease transmitted by Borrelia burgdorferi, B. microti is spread by Ixodes scapularis ticks. The rate of coinfection with these TBDs in humans is unclear as most studies have focused their prevalence in ticks or rodent reservoirs...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Thi Van Phan, Ngoc Thanh Bui, Van Ha Nguyen, Darwin Murrell
A survey for fish-borne zoonotic trematode (FZT) metacercariae in fish from the Northern Mountain Region of Vietnam was conducted from May to August 2014. The major objective was to evaluate the impact of water body types on the prevalence of FZT. A total of 846 fish (31 species) were collected from three water body types, including aquaculture ponds, rivers, and reservoirs. A pepsin digestion method was used for the recovery of metacercariae from fish. Overall, 29 of the 31 fish species were infected with FZTs...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Shao-Wei Chen, Li-Na Jiang, Xue-Shan Zhong, Xue-Yan Zheng, Shu-Juan Ma, Yi-Quan Xiong, Jun-Hua Zhou, Xing Li, Xue-Mei Ke, Wen Zhou, Qing Chen
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an endemic zoonotic disease of high public health importance in the Asian Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of JEV infection in commensal and field rodents in South China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA copies of JEV were detected in brain samples of rodents using real-time RT-PCR. Detection of serum against JEV-reactive antibodies was performed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microneutralization test...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Daisuke Kobayashi, Haruhiko Isawa, Hiroko Ejiri, Toshinori Sasaki, Toshihiko Sunahara, Kyoko Futami, Yoshio Tsuda, Yukie Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Noboru Minakawa, Nobuo Ohta, Kyoko Sawabe
Getah virus (GETV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) is a mosquito-borne virus known to cause disease in horses and pigs. In 2014, for the first time in ∼30 years, a sudden GETV outbreak occurred among racehorses in Ibaraki, Japan. Two years before this outbreak, we obtained multiple GETV isolates from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes collected in Nagasaki, Japan and determined the whole genome sequence of GETV isolate 12IH26. Our phylogenetic analysis of GETV strains revealed that the isolate 12IH26 forms a robust clade with the epidemic strains 14-I-605-C1 and 14-I-605-C2 isolated from horses in the 2014 outbreak in Ibaraki...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Mary K Grigar, Kevin J Cummings, Lorraine D Rodriguez-Rivera, Shelley C Rankin, Krista Johns, Gabriel L Hamer, Sarah A Hamer
Wild birds may play an important role in maintaining and transmitting Salmonella. Their ability to travel large distances and their proximity to human habitations could make them a vehicle for bridging Salmonella from wild and domestic animals to humans. To determine the potential public health risk presented by urban birds, we investigated the prevalence of Salmonella among great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) and other cohabiting urban bird species. Fecal samples were collected from 114 birds communally roosting in parking lots of retail locations in Brazos County, Texas, from February through July of 2015...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Branko Bobić, Milanka Milosavić, Gordana Guzijan, Olgica Djurković-Djaković
AIM: To provide the first data on the prevalence and basic demographic risk factors for human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the Banja Luka region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). METHODS: Analysis of serological and epidemiological data in a series of 320 blood donors (aged 18-55 years) from the Banja Luka region tested for Toxoplasma infection in February 2015. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of infection was 30.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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