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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Clara Marin, Francesca Martelli, André Rabie, Robert Davies
Salmonella remains one of the most prevalent zoonoses worldwide. Although salmonellosis is commonly associated with the consumption of contaminated food, it has been estimated that up to 11% of Salmonella infections overall are acquired from direct or indirect contact with animals, including reptiles. In 2016, an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis involving multiple cases, especially children, associated with reptile contact and contaminated feeder mice was reported in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate Salmonella external and internal contamination of stored commercial frozen feeder mice used to feed reptiles and obtained from the same supplier involved in the outbreak...
May 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Joan L Kenney, Michael Anishchenko, Meghan Hermance, Hannah Romo, Ching-I Chen, Saravanan Thangamani, Aaron C Brault
The Flavivirus genus comprises a diverse group of viruses that utilize a wide range of vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. The genus includes viruses that are transmitted solely by mosquitoes or vertebrate hosts as well as viruses that alternate transmission between mosquitoes or ticks and vertebrates. Nevertheless, the viral genetic determinants that dictate these unique flaviviral host and vector specificities have been poorly characterized. In this report, a cDNA clone of a flavivirus that is transmitted between ticks and vertebrates (Powassan lineage II, deer tick virus [DTV]) was generated and chimeric viruses between the mosquito/vertebrate flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV), were constructed...
May 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Rebecca J Eisen, Linda A Atiku, Karen A Boegler, Joseph T Mpanga, Russell E Enscore, Katherine MacMillan, Kenneth L Gage
Rodents pose a significant threat to human health, particularly in rural subsistence farming communities in Africa, where rodents threaten food security and serve as reservoirs of human pathogens, including the agents of plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, rat-bite fever, Lassa fever, salmonellosis, and campylobacteriosis. Our study focused on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where a majority of residents live in Uganda government-defined poverty, rely on subsistence farming for a living, and frequently experience incursions of rodents into their homes...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Matilde Jimenez-Coello, Thomas Shelite, Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez, Omar Saldarriaga, Rocio Rivero, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Carlos Acevedo-Arcique, Karla Amaya-Guardia, Nisha Garg, Peter Melby, Bruno L Travi
Chagas disease is a lingering Public Health problem in Latin America with ∼5.7 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Transmission is still taking place in most countries of the Americas, including the United States. Dogs are frequently infected with T. cruzi and its high infection prevalence is associated with increased risk of Chagas disease in humans. The city of Mérida in the Yucatan peninsula is endemic for Chagas disease and canines are frequently infected with T. cruzi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a qualitative point of care (POC) molecular test (RPA-LF, recombinase polymerase amplification-lateral flow) developed in our laboratory for identifying infected dogs...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Sheila Makiala-Mandanda, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Jessica L Abbate, Elisabeth Pukuta-Simbu, Justus Nsio-Mbeta, Nicolas Berthet, Eric Maurice Leroy, Pierre Becquart, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum
For more than 95% of acute febrile jaundice cases identified through surveillance for yellow fever, a reemerging arthropod-borne viral disease, no etiological exploration is ever done. The aim of this study was to test for other arthropod-borne viruses that can induce the same symptoms in patients enrolled in the yellow fever surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Of 652 patients included in the surveillance of yellow fever in DRC from January 2003 to January 2012, 453 patients that tested negative for yellow fever virus (YFV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were selected for the study...
May 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xiaoxia He, Junwei Zhao, Shihong Fu, Lisi Yao, Xiaoyan Gao, Yan Liu, Ying He, Guodong Liang, Huanyu Wang
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes neurological infections with serious sequelae in Europe and Northeast Asia. In China, the major epidemic areas are along the borders with Russia and North Korea. Although several TBEV isolates have been reported, the biological characteristics of the Chinese strains, especially those along the China-North Korea border, are unclear. In this study, we detected seven TBEV fragment sequences in 602 adult Dermacentor silvarum collected in the Changbai Mountain area of Jilin Province on the China-North Korea border and characterized the genome of three TBEV strains (JLCB11-08, JLCB11-35, and JLCB11-40)...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Weisi Liu, Zhoubin Zhang, Jiamin Chen, Xiaojin You
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the information seeking about Ebola virus disease (EVD) and media channels, then to provide theory evidence for working out the health education transmission strategy in similar public health emergency events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a cross-sectional survey model, data were collected through questionnaire over telephone calls, and R × c chi-square test was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and media channels for choosing to get the information about EVD prevention and control...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Emily McGibbon, Morgan Moy, Neil M Vora, Alan Dupuis, Annie Fine, Karen Kulas, Ronald Limberger, Dakai Liu, Jennifer Rakeman, Kirsten St George, Sally Slavinski
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) began in May 2015 in Brazil and rapidly spread throughout the Americas; New York City (NYC) has a diverse population with ∼1.8 million residents who were born in ZIKV-affected areas. Before July 24, 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ZIKV testing recommendations included nucleic acid amplification-based tests for serum and urine specimens collected ≤14 days of illness onset or last potential exposure, and ZIKV immunoglobulin M (IgM) assay when ZIKV RNA is not detected or for specimens collected within 2-12 weeks of illness onset or last potential exposure, followed by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Amy C Lyons, Yan-Jang S Huang, So Lee Park, Victoria B Ayers, Susan M Hettenbach, Stephen Higgs, D Scott McVey, Leela Noronha, Wei-Wen Hsu, Dana L Vanlandingham
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Maintenance of JEV in nature involves enzootic transmission by competent Culex mosquitoes among susceptible avian and swine species. Historically, JEV has been regarded as one of the most important arthropod-borne viruses in Southeast Asia. Oronasal shedding of JEV from infected amplification hosts was not recognized until the recent discovery of vector-free transmission of JEV among domestic pigs. In this study, oral shedding of JEV was characterized in domestic pigs and miniature swine representing the feral phenotype...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Tian-Yin Cheng, Zhen Chen, Zhong-Bo Li, Guo-Hua Liu
Ticks are obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites that infect a wide range of animals and humans, causing a variety of both human and animal diseases around the world. Ixodes nipponensis is the most commonly reported tick in Korea and Japan, but it is very rare in China. In this study, six I. nipponensis samples were collected from three black goats in Hunan province, China. Ticks identified morphologically as I. nipponensis were then examined by PCR with two different molecular markers: mitochondrial cox1 and the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA genes...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xiaolong Li, Xiaoyan Gao, Shihong Fu, Huanyu Wang, Zhi Lu, Ying He, Wenwen Lei, Guodong Liang
BACKGROUND: A Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemic occurred in 2013 in China. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in adults occurring in 2013, as well as identify potential hotspots of incidences in the afflicted regions in China. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To generate a spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in China, epidemiological and demographic data between 2011 and 2013 were collected. Our results indicate that the total number of JE cases in 2013 was significantly higher compared with those in 2011 and 2012...
May 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Cristian Raileanu, Sara Moutailler, Daniela Porea, Luanda Oslobanu, Dragos Anita, Adriana Anita, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Gheorghe Savuta
Ixodid ticks are competent vectors for multiple pathogens, several of which cause infections in human. The medical importance of tick-borne pathogens is well known, yet unanswered questions remain regarding the occurrence of pathogens such as Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in questing ticks in Romania. Our objectives were to identify three emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in eastern Romania, to assess their prevalence, establish co-infection rates, and to compare infection levels of selected pathogens in questing ticks collected from one suburban area in the city of Iaşi and one forested area located in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve...
May 7, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Argentina Muianga, Gabriela Pinto, Marilia Massangaie, Sadia Ali, John Oludele, Almiro Tivane, Kerstin I Falk, Nina Lagerqvist, Eduardo S Gudo
An outbreak of dengue and high densities of Aedes aegypti were reported in 2014 in northern Mozambique, suggesting an increased risk for other arboviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in this region. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of CHIKV during an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) in Pemba city in northern Mozambique in 2014. Febrile patients (n = 146) seeking medical attention at the Pemba Provincial Hospital between March and April 2014 were enrolled in this study. Blood samples from each participant were tested for chikungunya and DENV RNA, IgM and IgG antibodies using PCR and ELISA, respectively...
May 7, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Jyoti K Lama, Dave S Bachoon
Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an environmentally destructive invasive species that act as a reservoir for zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Brucella suis, Campylobacter jejuni, and of Escherichia coli in feces of feral pigs from Georgia. Fecal samples were collected from 87 feral pigs from forested and agricultural regions of Georgia. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to screen for each of the four pathogens. The qPCR assays indicated that B...
April 26, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Alyssa T Pyke, Peter R Moore, Scott A Ritchie, Frederick A J Moore, Andrew F van den Hurk
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a globally emerging arbovirus responsible for widespread epidemics in the western Pacific, the Americas, and Asia. The virus predominately circulates in urban transmission cycles between Aedes aegypti and humans. Australia is considered at risk to outbreaks of ZIKV due to the presence of A. aegypti populations in northern areas of the state of Queensland. Furthermore, close proximity to epidemic regions has led to almost 50% of imported cases reported since 2012 originating in the Pacific region...
April 25, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Jung-Yong Yeh, Jae Geun Kim, Jaehyuk Choi, Jae Kwang Kim, Kil Won Kim
Bluetongue is a re-emergent arthropod-transmitted viral disease that affects all wild and domestic ruminant species, reducing herd productivity. The epidemiology of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is poorly defined in much of the world, including extensive portions of Asia and the Middle East. In the Republic of Korea (ROK), scarce information is available on the status of BTV infection. Despite evidence of BTV in neighboring countries, such as the People's Republic of China and Japan, and the presence of Culicoides species that have recently been reported as possible vectors for BTV transmission, no serological data on BTV infection or circulation have been reported in the ROK...
April 24, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Lan-Bi Nie, Qin-Li Liang, Yang Zou, Yun-Hang Gao, Quan Zhao, Gui-Xue Hu, Xing-Quan Zhu
Chlamydia is Gram-negative obligate bacterium, which can cause human diseases worldwide and has huge economic impact on animals. It is yet to know whether farmed wild boars are infected with Chlamydia in China. To assess risk factors of Chlamydia infection in farmed wild boars in China, from April 2015 to February 2016, a total of 837 serum samples of farmed wild boars were collected in Jilin province, northeastern China, and antibodies against Chlamydia were examined by the indirect hemagglutination assay...
April 24, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Nanthanida Mongkol, Yupin Suputtamongkol, Piyanan Taweethavonsawat, Suporn Foongladda
Rickettsia spp. has been detected in dog fleas in Bangkok, Thailand. With the intent of collecting evidence to confirm the presence of rickettsioses in dogs and to assess the level of associated potential for accidental human infection, human buffy coat from patients with fever of unknown origin (n = 168), whole blood samples from dogs (n = 353), and 19 flea groups from our dog sample population were studied during the 2012 to 2014 study period. The presence of Rickettsia was investigated by molecular detection of 23S rRNA gene of Rickettsia genus, citrate synthase (gltA) gene, and 17-kDa outer membrane gene...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Daniela Loconsole, Angela Metallo, Anna Lisa De Robertis, Anna Morea, Michele Quarto, Maria Chironna
International travelers to areas endemic for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be at risk of contracting and spreading these diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that are specific for Dengue Virus (DV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), or Zika Virus (ZV) in a cohort of international travelers. The study enrolled travelers who attended the Travel Medicine and Migration outpatient service of Local Health Unit of Bari, Italy, in March 2015-June 2017 for counseling and vaccine prophylaxis before travel...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Thaís Aparecida Kazimoto, Sthenia Santos Albano Amora, Fabiano Borges Figueiredo, Jamille Maia E Magalhães, Yannara Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo Sousa, Anne Emanuelle Câmara da Silva Melo, Monique Paiva Campos, Nilza Dutra Alves, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis and with the dog as its main urban reservoir. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars (DMC) DIC, Scalibor® 65 cm model and MSD manufacturer, on the prevalence and incidence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and on the rate of infection of sandflies by L. infantum. The research was conducted in two areas of the municipality Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte in Northeast of Brazil...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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