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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632488/vector-borne-pathogens-in-stray-dogs-in-northeastern-turkey
#1
Esin Guven, Hamza Avcioglu, Seyda Cengiz, Armagan Hayirli
This experiment was carried out to attain prevalence and molecular characterization of pathogens causing canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) including babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniasis, filariosis (Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma platys) in stray dogs. The study material consisted of 133 asymptomatic female (n = 96) and male (n = 37) stray dogs (≤1 year old, n = 16 and 1-6 years old, n = 117) housed in the Animal Care and Rehabilitation Center, Erzurum, Northeastern Turkey...
June 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628400/west-nile-virus-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-palestine-and-israel
#2
Kifaya Azmi, Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Mu'taz Manasrah, Rotem Mizrahi, Abed Nasereddin, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Suheir Ereqat, Ziad Abdeen, Yaniv Lustig, Boris Gelman, Gili Schvartz, Amir Steinman
West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628366/culex-flavivirus-during-west-nile-virus-epidemic-and-interepidemic-years-in-chicago-united-states
#3
Christina M Newman, Bethany L Krebs, Tavis K Anderson, Gabriel L Hamer, Marilyn O Ruiz, Jeffrey D Brawn, William M Brown, Uriel D Kitron, Tony L Goldberg
Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus infecting Culex mosquitoes, which are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). CxFV and WNV cocirculate in nature and coinfect Culex mosquitoes, including in a WNV "hotspot" in suburban Chicago. We previously identified a positive association between CxFV and WNV in mosquito pools collected from suburban Chicago in 2006. To further investigate this phenomenon, we compared the spatial and temporal distribution of CxFV during an interepidemic year (2011) and an epidemic year (2012) for WNV...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605299/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-specific-antibody-detection-in-cattle-in-mauritania
#4
Miriam A Sas, Marc Mertens, Ekaterina Isselmou, Nicole Reimer, Bezeid O El Mamy, Baba Doumbia, Martin H Groschup
BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in Mauritania in 1983 and several CCHFV outbreaks were reported in the following years. The last human case was diagnosed in 2015. However, no recent data exist about the prevalence of CCHFV in animals, although it is already described that prevalence studies in animals serve as good risk indicators. CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high case fatality rate in humans. Therefore, a precise risk assessment on the basis of updated data is very important...
June 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598270/investigating-the-adult-ixodid-tick-populations-and-their-associated-anaplasma-ehrlichia-and-rickettsia-bacteria-at-a-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-hotspot-in-western-tennessee
#5
Rebecca T Trout Fryxell, Brain M Hendricks, Kimberly Pompo, Sarah E Mays, Dave J Paulsen, Darwin J Operario, Allan E Houston
Ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis are two common bacterial tick-borne diseases in the southeastern United States. Ehrlichiosis is caused by ehrlichiae transmitted by Amblyomma americanum and rickettsiosis is caused by rickettsiae transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum and Dermacentor variabilis. These ticks are common and have overlapping distributions in the region. The objective of this study was to identify Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species associated with questing ticks in a Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) hotspot, and identify habitats, time periods, and collection methods for collecting questing-infected ticks...
June 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581349/detection-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-urban-river-water
#6
Emilio D'Ugo, Massimo Sdanganelli, Cinzia Grasso, Fabio Magurano, Stefania Marcheggiani, Bas Boots, Melissa Baggieri, Laura Mancini
Previous molecular-based studies have identified microorganisms of zoonotic and human nature in surface waters. Contaminated water can lead to human health issues, and the detection of pathogenic microorganisms is a valuable tool for the prevention of their spread. Water samples were taken from the River Tiber in and out of the city of Rome. Genetic analysis of the sequences obtained showed the presence of Coxiella burnetii in both the analyzed sites. Blast analysis showed that two sequences were identical to each other...
June 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541836/description-of-candidatus-bartonella-fadhilae-n-sp-and-candidatus-bartonella-sanaae-n-sp-bartonellaceae-from-dipodillus-dasyurus-and-sekeetamys-calurus-gerbillinae-from-the-sinai-massif-egypt
#7
Mohammed Alsarraf, Eman M E Mohallal, Ewa J Mierzejewska, Jolanta Behnke-Borowczyk, Renata Welc-Falęciak, Małgorzata Bednarska, Lukasz Dziewit, Samy Zalat, Francis Gilbert, Jerzy M Behnke, Anna Bajer
Bartonella spp. are parasites of mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells, transmitted by blood-feeding arthropod ectoparasites. Different species of rodents may constitute the main hosts of Bartonella, including several zoonotic species of Bartonella. The aim of this study was to identify and compare Bartonella species and genotypes isolated from rodent hosts from the South Sinai, Egypt. Prevalence of Bartonella infection was assessed in rodents (837 Acomys dimidiatus, 73 Acomys russatus, 111 Dipodillus dasyurus, and 65 Sekeetamys calurus) trapped in 2000, 2004, 2008, and 2012 in four dry montane wadis around St...
May 25, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530509/genotyping-toxoplasma-gondii-with-the-b1-gene-in-naturally-infected-sheep-from-an-endemic-region-in-the-pacific-coast-of-mexico
#8
Williams Arony Martínez-Flores, José Manuel Palma-García, Heriberto Caballero-Ortega, Alejandra Del Viento-Camacho, Eduardo López-Escamilla, Fernando Martínez-Hernández, Pablo Vinuesa, Dolores Correa, Pablo Maravilla
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad ecological valence, which has been detected in a wide range of hosts and landscapes. Although the genus is considered monospecific, in recent years it has been demonstrated to exhibit more genetic variability than previously known. In Mexico, there are few genotyping studies, which suggest that classical, autochthonous, and atypical strains are circulating. The goal of this study was to describe T. gondii genetic diversity in naturally infected sheep from Colima, Mexico...
May 22, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520514/flea-and-small-mammal-species-composition-in-mixed-grass-prairies-implications-for-the-maintenance-of-yersinia-pestis
#9
Lauren P Maestas, Hugh B Britten
Maintenance of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs (Cynomis spp.) was once thought unlikely due to high mortality rates; yet more recent findings indicate that low-level enzootic plague may be maintained in susceptible prairie dog populations. Another hypothesis for the maintenance of sylvatic plague involves small mammals, other than prairie dogs, as an alternative reservoir in the sylvatic plague system. These hypotheses, however, are not mutually exclusive, as both prairie dogs and small mammals could together be driving sylvatic cycles of plague...
May 18, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514225/vector-and-serologic-survey-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-poland
#10
Barbara A Bażanów, Jarosław Pacoń, Łukasz Gadzała, Agnieszka Frącka, Mirosław Welz, Janusz Paweska
In contrast to animals, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) causes a severe disease in humans with a high mortality rate. The etiological agent, CCHF virus (CCHFV), can be transmitted by argasid and ixodid ticks, but arachnids of the genus Hyalomma, followed by Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor serve as the major vectors of this virus. The goal of the study was to assess the epidemiological situation of CCHFV infection in cattle in south-east Poland, and survey for potential tick vector species. A total of 592 bovine blood samples from animals located in the southernmost region in Poland were tested by IgG sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
May 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509619/japanese-encephalitis-virus-infection-rate-and-detection-of-genotype-i-from-culex-tritaeniorhynchus-collected-from-jiangsu-china
#11
Hongliang Chu, Zhiming Wu, Hongna Chen, Chunxiao Li, Xiaoxia Guo, Ran Liu, Gang Wang, Minghao Zhou, Tongyan Zhao
Information regarding the infection rate and genotype shifts for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are important for JE vaccine application. In Jiangsu province, China, which is one of the provinces with a high prevalence of JE, JEV infection in swine and mosquitoes in certain cities has only been investigated in 2008-2009. Lianyungang City has one of the highest numbers of JE cases in Jiangsu province, and it has a high risk of JEV invasion via migrant birds. JEV infection in vectors in Lianyungang City, which has urban and rural parts, has not been investigated...
May 16, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498740/powassan-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus-of-public-health-concern-in-north-america
#12
Meghan E Hermance, Saravanan Thangamani
Powassan virus (POWV, Flaviviridae) is the only North American member of the tick-borne encephalitis serogroup of flaviviruses. It is transmitted to small- and medium-sized mammals by Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes cookei, and several other Ixodes tick species. Humans become infected with POWV during spillover transmission from the natural transmission cycles. In humans, POWV is the causative agent of a severe neuroinvasive illness with 50% of survivors displaying long-term neurological sequelae. POWV was recognized as a human pathogen in 1958 when a young boy died of severe encephalitis in Powassan, Ontario, and POWV was isolated from the brain autopsy of this case...
May 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488935/seroprevalence-and-factors-associated-with-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-sheep-in-latvia-latvian-dark-headed-sheep-breed-associated-with-higher-seroprevalence
#13
Gunita Deksne, Bettija Ligere, Aija Šneidere, Pikka Jokelainen
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with both public health and veterinary importance. The aims of our study were to estimate the T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep in Latvia and to evaluate potential risk factors for seropositivity. The blood samples investigated were collected from 1039 sheep from 84 farms between January 2012 and April 2013. The sera were tested for immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 179 (17...
May 10, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488932/powassan-deer-tick-virus-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-in-wisconsin-tick-populations
#14
Konstance K Knox, Angela M Thomm, Yvette A Harrington, Ellen Ketter, Jacob M Patitucci, Donald R Carrigan
Powassan/Deer Tick Virus (POWV/DTV) is an emerging cause of arboviral neuroinvasive disease in the upper Midwest. These studies describe the prevalence and geographic distribution of Wisconsin ticks carrying POWV/DTV as well as the high frequency of Ixodes scapularis ticks coinfected with both POWV/DTV and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. These findings suggest that concurrent transmission of POWV/DTV and B. Burgdorferi from coinfected ticks is likely to occur in humans.
May 10, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448206/mycoplasma-pulmonis-of-rodents-as-a-possible-human-pathogen
#15
Tomasz Piasecki, Klaudia Chrzastek, Urszula Kasprzykowska
Mycoplasma pulmonis is a naturally occurring respiratory pathogen in rodents. To date, this pathogen was not isolated from humans. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and seropositivity to M. pulmonis in humans who have had direct contact with rats. Moreover, the prevalence of M. pulmonis in pet and laboratory rats was assessed. Overall, 131 and 235 oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from human individuals and rats, respectively. In humans, M. pulmonis was detected by PCR in 21 of 86 pet rat keepers (24...
April 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402727/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-slaughter-pigs-in-shaanxi-province-northwestern-china
#16
Fei Wu, Ya-Lin Wang, Zhao Yang, Xi-Lai Li, Zong-Ren Li, Qing Lin
Toxoplasma gondii is an important food-borne zoonotic protozoan parasite, which can infect endothermic animals, including pigs. However, data on T. gondii in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province were still lacking. To detect the seroprevalence and analyze the risk factors of T. gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China, a total of 784 serum samples were collected from four administrative regions and detected by indirect hemagglutination test for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T...
April 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448211/prevalence-and-geographic-distribution-of-vector-borne-pathogens-in-apparently-healthy-dogs-in-croatia
#17
Vladimir Mrljak, Josipa Kuleš, Željko Mihaljević, Marin Torti, Jelena Gotić, Martina Crnogaj, Tatjana Živičnjak, Iva Mayer, Iva Šmit, Mangesh Bhide, Renata Barić Rafaj
Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit...
June 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418772/geographical-clusters-and-predictors-of-rabies-in-three-southeastern-states
#18
Sara Reilly, Wayne T Sanderson, W Jay Christian, Steven R Browning
The rabies virus causes progressive encephalomyelitis that is fatal in nearly 100% of untreated cases. In the United States, wildlife act as the primary reservoir for rabies; prevention, surveillance, and control costs remain high. The purpose of this study is to understand the current distribution of wildlife rabies in three southeastern states, with particular focus on raccoons as the primary eastern reservoir, as well as identify demographic and geographic factors which may affect the risk of human exposure...
June 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402742/vertebrate-ticks-distribution-and-their-role-as-vectors-in-relation-to-road-edges-and-underpasses
#19
Juan D Delgado, Estefanía Abreu-Yanes, Néstor Abreu-Acosta, Manuel D Flor, Pilar Foronda
Roads fragment vertebrate populations and affect the dynamics and dispersal patterns of vertebrate parasites. We evaluated how vertebrate ticks distribute near roads and road underpasses in human-caused road-fragmented landscapes in Seville, SW Spain. We sampled 49 stations with 93 individualized sampling points and assessed tick abundance. We explored the relationship between tick presence and abundance and distance to the nearest road and underpass (drainage culverts and other passages used by vertebrates), and landscape features through categorical regression and nonparametric statistics...
June 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402703/molecular-detection-of-francisella-spp-among-ticks-attached-to-camels-in-egypt
#20
Nahed H Ghoneim, Khaled A Abdel-Moein, Hala M Zaher
This study was conducted to investigate the possible role of camels and attached ticks in the epidemiology of Francisella spp. including Francisella tularensis. For this purpose, a total of 319 ticks (248 Hyalomma dromedarii and 71 Amblyomma spp.) as well as 100 blood and 50 fecal samples collected from camels were screened for the presence of Francisella spp. by PCR through amplification of Francisella 16S rRNA gene. Positive samples were then tested for F. tularensis by PCR. In addition, serum samples from 75 camel abattoir workers were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies against F...
June 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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