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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Bronislava Víchová, Martin Bona, Martina Miterpáková, Jasna Kraljik, Viktória Čabanová, Gabriela Nemčíková, Zuzana Hurníková, Martin Oravec
The present survey aimed to investigate flea and tick fauna parasitizing Slovak red fox populations with special emphasis on canine pathogens they transmit. A total of 407 fleas and 105 ticks were collected from 90 red foxes from two geographically distant regions. Seven flea species (Chaetopsylla globiceps, Pulex irritans, Archaeopsylla erinacei, Chaetopsylla rothschildi, Chaetopsylla trichosa, Ctenocephalides canis, and Ctenopthalmus assimilis) and three species of hard ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes hexagonus, Haemaphysalis concinna) were recorded on sampled animals...
July 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Candasamy Sadanandane, Purushothaman Jambulingam, Kummankottil P Paily, Narendran Pradeep Kumar, Ayanar Elango, Kulandaisamy Athisaya Mary, Sundararajan Agatheswaran, Thirumal Sankari, Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra
Outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) with high fatality and disability, are reported every year in the Gorakhpur region of Uttar Pradesh, India, with the etiology of >60% of the cases being attributed to scrub typhus. In the present study, the prevalence of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiological agent of scrub typhus, was investigated among animal hosts and their ectoparasitic trombiculid mites prevalent in AES-reported areas of Gorakhpur. A total of 154 rodents/shrews were collected using 777 Sherman traps set in 12 study villages, and the overall trap rate was 19...
July 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Adriana Benatti Bilheiro, João Aristeu da Rosa, Jader de Oliveira, Tiago Belintani, Gilberto Fontes, Jansen Fernandes Medeiros, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti, Luís Marcelo Aranha Camargo
Rhodnius montenegrensis was described in 2012. Since then, reports of the occurrence of this species associated with palm trees near households in Rondônia have been published. This study aimed to analyze the natural infection of R. montenegrensis with trypanosomatids in the municipality of Monte Negro, Rondônia, Brazilian western Amazon. Capture of triatomines occurred in Attalea speciosa (babassu) specimens around households. Twelve of the 72 captured triatomines were identified by morphological and morphometric characters, by molecular analysis made using the PCR, DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses...
July 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Hari Kishan Raju, Shanmugavelu Sabesan, Swaminathan Subramanian, Purushothaman Jambulingam
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the leading causes of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia, particularly India. The major vector transmitting the disease, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, breeds in paddy field and its associated water bodies. The incidence of human infection usually occurs after the peak in vector abundance. Earlier, an association between JE vector abundance and paddy growth was demonstrated in Bellary district of Karnataka state, India, using radar satellite (RISAT 1) data. In this study, an attempt has been made to validate this phenomenon with the data collected from Uttar Pradesh state, using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data...
July 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Angela J Toepp, Kelsey Willardson, Mandy Larson, Benjamin D Scott, Ashlee Johannes, Reid Senesac, Christine A Petersen
Certain professionals have more exposure to animals and therefore an increased risk of zoonoses. Professional hunting dog caretakers work with upwards of 50 dogs and are exposed to zoonoses through exposure to multiple potentially infectious canine secretions or excretions, as well as to the ticks that dogs carry. Dog caretakers reported having found embedded ticks on their bodies 5.83 times more than environment-only controls. Zoonotic Lyme disease, first in the United States for morbidity due to a vector-borne infection, has dramatically expanded its geographic range over the last two decades...
July 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Dimitria A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Joany C Van Balen, Thomas E Wittum
The dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae expressing resistance to clinically important antibiotics such as extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones is of critical concern to both human and veterinary medicine. In healthcare facilities, the movement of patients, personnel, and equipment provides an opportunity for Enterobacteriaceae carrying antibiotic resistance genes to disseminate in the hospital environment where they pose a threat to patients, staff, and hospital visitors...
July 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Bárbara A Dos Santos, Kárin R Reinhold-Castro, Carolina C Conter, Herintha C Neitzke-Abreu, Edilson C Cristóvão, Thaís G V Silveira, Ueslei Teodoro
Leishmaniases are classified as tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Brazil is among the countries with the highest number of TL and VL cases. This study was undertaken to standardize the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the genus Leishmania in sandflies of endemic regions, on islands in the Upper Paraná River, northwestern Paraná. The sandflies were collected on 10 islands, from November 2012 to November 2014, with Falcão light traps, identified and conserved in tubes containing isopropanol, for subsequent DNA extraction...
July 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Gulmira Sariyeva, Ziyat Abdel, Anton Shabunin, Zaurbek Sagiyev, Sabirzhan Abdikarimov, Gulnara Bazarkanova, Dzhenish Kendirbaev, Ravshambek Maimulov, Aigul Dzhaparova, Viktor Sofeikov, Aigul Abdirassilova, Raikhan Mussagaliyeva, Berzhan Kurmanov, Zharkynai Aitbaeva, Dias Almazbek
The Sari-Dzhas natural mountain focus of plague with an area of 5000 sq. km is located mainly in Kyrgyzstan. This enzootic area belongs to a group of Tien-Shan mountain plague foci and crosses the boundaries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and China. After collapse of Soviet Union, this area was not investigated fully, thence we have estimated current status of hosts and vectors comparing to 1977 in the Sari-Dzhas focus. For period 1977-2014, the number of the gray marmot (Marmota baibacina) as main host of plague has decreased twice due to regular chemical suppression of focal area, but now there is a tendency for population recovery...
July 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Lei Cao, Shihong Fu, Zhi Lu, Chengjun Tang, Xiaoyan Gao, Xiaolong Li, Wenwen Lei, Ying He, Minghua Li, Yuxi Cao, Huanyu Wang, Guodong Liang
This study detected West Nile virus (WNV) infection in serum samples of patients clinically diagnosed with viral encephalitis in the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) endemic area (seven provinces) and JEV nonendemic area (Xinjiang province) in China from 2011 to 2012. In JEV endemic areas, there were 22 positive cases of WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody in serum specimens of 65 JEV patients (JEV IgM antibody positive) in the acute phase, whereas WNV IgM antibodies were not detected in serum specimens of 63 non-JEV patients (JEV IgM antibody negative)...
July 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Ahmad Jafarbekloo, Maryam Roya Ramzgouyan, Sadegh Shirian, Leila Tajedin, Hassan Bakhshi, Faezeh Faghihi, Mehdi Sedaghat, Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy
INTRODUCTION: Piroplasms are hemoprotozoa comprising heterogeneous tick-borne parasites, which are differentiated into three genera, namely Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, molecular identification, and phylogenetic relationship of both Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in tick species isolated from different domestic animals from two different geographical locations of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 930 ticks collected from goats, sheep, and cattle were examined for the presence of Theileria spp...
July 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Rebecca van Grootveld, Manu P Bilsen, Timo L Boelsums, Edou R Heddema, Geert H Groeneveld, Jairo Gooskens, Mark G J de Boer
We describe a case of community-acquired pneumonia due to Chlamydia caviae in a patient with no direct animal exposure, raising questions about the zoonotic reservoirs and potential transmission routes. Genotyping of Chamydia isolates that cause pneumonia should be performed for a precise diagnosis and to initiate adequate infection control measures.
July 9, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Carla A Rudolf, América Jaimes, Ariel S Espinosa-Blanco, Monica Contreras, María Alexandra García-Amado
Helicobacter species can colonize digestive tract of animals and humans and have been associated with gastrointestinal diseases; however, this genus has not been studied in crocodiles. Our objective was to detect by PCR Helicobacter genus and Helicobacter pylori in oral and cloacal swabs from Orinoco crocodiles of two wild (Cojedes River System and Capanaparo River) and two captive breeding centers (CBCs; Masaguaral Ranch and UNELLEZ) populations. Bacterial DNA was found in 100% of oral samples (10 wild and 10 captives), and in the 95% of cloacal samples (10 wild and 9 captives)...
July 5, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Rita Cruz, Fernando Esteves, Carmen Vasconcelos-Nóbrega, Carla Santos, Ana S Ferreira, Cristina Mega, Ana C Coelho, Helena Vala, João R Mesquita
INTRODUCTION: Q fever is an almost global zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Human infections can produce acute and chronic disease that can lead to abortions and stillbirths in pregnant women, usually infected by the inhalation of C. burnetii-contaminated aerosols or through consumption of contaminated products. Sheep are one of the primary animal reservoirs with disease being associated with vast shedding of bacteria in placentas, feces, milk, and birth fluids. Although almost neglected in the past, recent outbreaks of sheep origin have alerted the public and the scientific community...
July 3, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Lucio Hernández, Yovanny Quevedo-Acosta, Karina Vázquez, Alberto Gómez-Treviño, J José Zarate-Ramos, Mario A Macías, John J Hurtado
An organic salt and four metal complexes derived from azole were evaluated against embryonated Toxocara canis eggs (TCE). The new organic salt, (LH)+ (FeCl4 )- , where L = 3,5-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-1-ylmethyl)toluene (5), a potential environmental disinfectant, was isolated as an air-stable yellow solid and characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductivity, mass spectrometry, and infrared and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy. In addition, the structure of 5 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
July 3, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Ilia Tsachev, Nikola Pantchev, Plamen Marutsov, Vladimir Petrov, Dimitrina Gundasheva, Magdalena Baymakova
Lyme Borreliosis and granulocytic anaplasmosis are less extensively studied in horses than in dogs and humans. Equine ehrlichiosis is not known in Europe and is in the initial stage of investigation in South, Central, and North America. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of these infections in Bulgaria. A total of 155 horses were investigated from five regions in Southeastern Bulgaria. Horses were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia spp. antibodies by a commercial rapid ELISA test...
July 3, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Manal Alsaif, Kamal Dabelah, Hesham Girim, Robin Featherstone, Joan L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the spectrum of presentations and the outcome of congenital brucellosis should expedite diagnosis and improve prognostication. METHODS: A systematic review of literature of cases of congenital brucellosis was performed on October 10, 2017 (registered as PROSPERO CRD42017072061). RESULTS: A case seen by the authors was added to the review, yielding 44 reported cases of which 22 (50%) were from Turkey, Saudi Arabia, or Kuwait...
June 29, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Yuanyuan Li, Shihong Fu, Xiaofang Guo, Xiaolong Li, Minghua Li, Lihua Wang, Xiaoyan Gao, Wenwen Lei, Lei Cao, Zhi Lu, Ying He, Huanyu Wang, Hongning Zhou, Guodong Liang
We detected neutralizing antibodies of Getah virus (GETV) in serum specimens of domestic animals collected from Yunnan Province in China. Antibodies were detected in serum specimens of chicken, duck, dairy cattle, pig, and beef cattle. The positive rate of antibodies in pig and beef cattle was high (46-72%), with titers of 1:640-1:2560. These results suggest that there may be a large number of host animals for GETV in the local area. It is important to improve the monitoring of the incidence of GETV infection in domestic animals, in particular among pigs and beef cattle, by surveillance for animal illness and testing of sick animals...
June 29, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Hazem H Ramadan, Charlene R Jackson, Samaa A Taha, Amira A Moawad, John B Barrett, Tiffanie A Woodley
BACKGROUND: Chickens are considered potential reservoirs for human extraintestinal infections with pathogenic Escherichia coli. However, information about genetic relatedness between E. coli from healthy chickens and human patients is still limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, clinical samples from patients with extraintestinal infections and healthy broiler chickens were collected from geographically related locations in Egypt during the 2nd half of 2015...
June 21, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Yan Yang, Yiwei Liu, Zhichun Xie, Shuzhi Wu, Lu Yang, Wen Li, Xinbin Quan
OBJECTIVES: This article describes the epidemiology of malaria in Yulin, 1999-2016. We review also malaria control strategy in Yulin in the posteradication phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined all malaria case records from Yulin prefecture reported to the Ministry of Health since 1999 and extracted malaria data between 1999 and 2003, the stage of malaria eradication, from the notifiable disease reporting records and case records of Guangxi. Malaria data between 2004 and 2016, the stage of malaria elimination, was obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System and National Malaria Reporting System...
June 19, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Nicholas Komar, Nicholas A Panella, Andrew J Golnar, Gabriel L Hamer
Culex quinquefasciatus is the principal vector of West Nile virus (WNV) in the South Central United States, yet limited data on host utilization are available. We evaluated host utilization over a 3-month period in 2013 in a residential landscape in College Station, Texas. PCR sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 gene permitted molecular identification of vertebrate bloodmeals to the species level. Forage ratio analysis identified bird species that were overutilized and underutilized by comparing community feeding index values to expected relative abundance values of bird species, derived from eBird data...
June 19, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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