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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Yu-Chang Li, Yi Hu, Xiao-Yan Wu, Nai-Fan Huo, Jing Li, Sen Zhang, Tao Jiang, Xiao-Ping Kang
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can cause fever, headache, neurological disorders, and/or peripheral flaccid paralysis; therefore, it is a major threat to public health. A rapid, sensitive, and simple method for detecting anti-TBEV antibodies is needed urgently to determine infection and for vaccine evaluation. Here, a luciferase-based immunocomplex assay system (Luc-IC) was developed to detect TBEV antibodies. The system is based on a reporter Nano luciferase (NLuc) that is co-expressed as a fusion protein with viral envelope domain III (ED3) in COS7 cells...
November 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Alessia Cappelli, Aida Capone, Matteo Valzano, Jovana Bozic, Silvia Preziuso, Priscilla Mensah, Ilaria Varotto Boccazzi, Laura Rinaldi, Guido Favia, Irene Ricci
Tick-borne diseases are an increasing problem for the community. Ticks harbor a complex microbial population acquired while feeding on a variety of animals. Profiling the bacterial population by 16S rDNA amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis enables detection of the broad spectrum of bacteria that settles in the ticks. This study identified known and unknown tick-infecting bacteria in samples from Italy. Seven adult ticks from different hosts and origins were analyzed: two Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from dogs (Lombardia), two Rhipicephalus bursa ticks from bovines (Lazio), and three Ixodes ricinus ticks from humans (Marche)...
November 10, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Jean-Sébastien Palerme, Elizabeth Lamperelli, Jordan Gagne, Callie Cazlan, Min Zhang, June E Olds
By the nature of their environment and behavior, free-roaming cats are at increased risk of exposure to a wide range of pathogens compared with client-owned cats. Consequently, free-roaming cats can act as a reservoir for possible zoonotic infections. In this study, 140 cats were prospectively recruited over a 12-month period from a free-roaming cat spay and neuter clinic and a local animal shelter in the state of Iowa. The presence of antileptospiral antibodies was measured using a microscopic agglutination test against six leptospiral serovars (canicola, pomona, icterhemorrhagiae, bratislava, hardjo, and grippotyphosa)...
November 1, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Kamelia Osman, Eman E Abdeen, Walid S Mousa, Walid Elmonir, Eman M El-Diasty, Ayman Elbehiry
As human populaces develop, they are progressively squeezed into higher living densities. The same is true for horticulture and animals expected to bolster these communities. Despite the high potential for zoonotic transmission, connections among humans and cattle have been understudied; however, Candida albicans remains the most important medical mycosis. The genesis of the mycobiome can vary, and interactions between humans and cattle are progressively being perceived as a key interface for disease transmission...
November 1, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Olena Zubach, Tetiana Telegina, Oksana Semenyshyn, Lilya Vasiunets, Aleksander Zinchuk
The article describes the results of a retrospective analysis of medical records of 395 patients with a clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis treated at the Lviv Oblast Infectious Disease Clinical Hospital (Ukraine) between 2002 and 2016. The main risk factors for leptospirosis were contact with rodents or their excrements (26.84%) and bathing in ponds, small lakes, and reservoirs (10.63%). Among 276 patients in whom the anti-leptospira antibodies were detected by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), the most common serotypes were Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae (33...
October 18, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Laís Moraes Paiz, Gabriela Motoie, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Helio Langoni, Benedito Donizete Menozzi, José Eduardo Tolezano, Maria Rita Donalisio
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic protozoan infection that affects mammals and involves a complex epidemiology. Although dogs are considered the main reservoir in zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the possible presence of other mammalian species acting as reservoirs has been associated as a possible cause of lack of success in the control of human VL in many endemic areas. The knowledge about natural infections of some species is still scarce, such as nonhuman primates (NHP), especially from the genus Callithrix (marmosets)...
October 18, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Fei Liu, Dan Wang, Si-Cong Yang, Jun-Hui Zhu, Jian-Ming Li, Kun Shi, Rui Du, Quan Zhao
Brucellosis and Toxoplasmosis are important zoonotic diseases, and Neospora caninum is a parasite causing disease in cattle and other animals. Brucella spp. and N. caninum can cause abortions in cattle, and Toxoplasmosis is a relevant cause of abortion for small ruminants, resulting in economic loses to farmers. In this study, from July 2015 to April 2017, a total of 535 Yanbian yellow cattle blood samples were collected from 3 cities in Jilin Province, China. We detected the frequency of N. caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp...
October 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Jae Hyoung Im, JiHyeon Baek, Areum Durey, Hea Yoon Kwon, Moon-Hyun Chung, Jin-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Bites with tick-borne pathogens can cause various bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases in humans. Tick-transmitted diseases are known as contributing factors to the increasing incidence and burden of diseases. The present article investigated the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in South Korea. METHODS: The incidence and distribution of common tick-borne diseases in Korea (Lyme disease, Q fever, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome [SFTS]) were investigated and analyzed, using data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) infectious disease reporting system...
October 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Hyun-Joo Kim, Hye-Rhyoung Lyoo, Jeong-Soo Choi, Yoon-Hee Lee, Byoung-Han Kim, Han Sang Yoo
A new quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to differentiate Rift Valley fever (RVF) Smithburn vaccine strain from Clone 13 vaccine strain. The new qRT-PCR assay targeting the S segment (NSs and N gene) was tested on synthesized standard RNA and MP-12 strain viruses. The detection limit of the new qRT-PCR assay is 1 copy/μL of NSs and N, and is able to differentiate the Smithburn vaccine strain of RVF from the Clone 13 vaccine strain. No cross-reactivity with other vector-borne viruses was observed, a factor that is especially important in the Republic of Korea (ROK)...
October 6, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Olivia Wesula Lwande, Jonas Näslund, Eva Lundmark, Kristoffer Ahlm, Clas Ahlm, Göran Bucht, Magnus Evander
INTRODUCTION: Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus known to infect birds and cause intermittent outbreaks among humans in Fenno-Scandia. In Sweden, the endemic area has mainly been in central Sweden. Recently, SINV infections have emerged to northern Sweden, but the vectorial efficiency for SINV of mosquito species in this northern region has not yet been ascertained. OBJECTIVE: Mosquito larvae were sampled from the Umeå region in northern Sweden and propagated in a laboratory to adult stage to investigate the infection, dissemination, and transmission efficiency of SINV in mosquitoes...
October 6, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Amanda R de Almeida, Gislaine Vieira-Damiani, Marilene N da Silva, Bruno G Lania, Tânia C B Soares, Marina R Drummond, Karina de A Lins, Marna E Ericson, Kalpna Gupta, Paulo Eduardo N F Velho
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most prevalent hematologic genetic disorder. Acute vaso-occlusive painful crisis is the hallmark of the disease and may be related to subclinical infections. Bartonellosis, a rare and neglected infection, is caused by Bartonella spp., which can be found in donated blood. These bacteria cause intraerythrocytic and endothelial infection and pain, all of which occur in SCD. It is likely that this infection is transmitted to SCD patients during transfusion from donated blood, leading to pain...
September 29, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Xunliang Li, Pengchong Li, Tongyuan Zhang, Pengkun Zhang, Xiaofeng Ren, Guangxing Li
Borrelia burgdorferi as a causative agent of Lyme disease is transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks to humans and animals. Sheep is considered a natural reservoir for B. burgdorferi and plays a pivotal role in disease transmission and the expansion of natural foci. An epidemiological investigation of B. burgdorferi in sheep is essential for prevention and control of Lyme disease. In this study, we developed a recombinant outer surface protein C (OspC)-based ELISA for serological study of B. burgdorferi in sheep with a specificity and sensitivity of 84...
September 27, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Kenia López-López, Annete I Apodaca-Medina, Claudia R León-Sicairos, Carolina C Murúa-López, Vianney F Ortiz-Navarrete, Jeanett Chávez-Ontiveros, Evangelina Beltrán-López, Héctor S López-Moreno
Leishmania mexicana is an intracellular parasite that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in some countries, including Mexico. Recently, we identified the elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) of L. mexicana by immunoproteomic analysis. In Leishmania donovani, this molecule has been reported as a virulence factor involved in downregulation of macrophages by no-canonical function when EF-1α interacts with protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1). However, in L. mexicana the key role of EF-1α in host-parasite relationship has not been elucidated, by this reason we started with cloning and recombinant expression of this antigen...
September 27, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Ruixia Dai, Meiying Qi, Haoming Xiong, Xiaoyan Yang, Jian He, Zhikai Zhang, Hanqing Yang, Juan Jin, Xiang Li, Youquan Xin, Yonghai Yang, Cunxiang Li, Zhenjun Li, Jianguo Xu, Zuyun Wang, Wei Li, Baiqing Wei
The plague, which is caused by the Gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been classified as a reemerging infectious disease by the World Health Organization. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau natural plague focus is the largest plague focus in China, and Marmota himalayana is the primary host of the plague. Tibetan sheep (Ovis aries) were first identified as naturally infected hosts of Y. pestis based on etiological evidence in 1975, and activities such as slaughtering or skinning Tibetan sheep that have been infected by Y...
September 25, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Georgios Dougas, Vasileia Konte, Konstantinos Mitrou, Theano Georgakopoulou, Agoritsa Baka, Aikaterini Liona, Dimitra Tatsiou, Symeon Metallidis, Ioannis Istikoglou, Emmanuel Christodoulou, Michalis Stavrakakis, Chrysa Pargiana, Foteini Tsalikoglou, Myrsini Tzani, Laskarina-Maria Korou, Konstantia Tasioudi, Maria Mavrouli, Georgia Vrioni, Sotirios Tsiodras
Rabies reemerged in Greek fauna during October 2012, 25 years after the last report in animals and 42 after the last human case. This study examined the administration of rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in humans over the period 2012-2016. A total of 1,454 individuals (62.6% males) received PEP. The vast majority (92.3%) of regimens was initiated in high risk for animal rabies areas (11.1 PEP per 100,000 residents per year). Among the exposed, 77.0% presented at a healthcare setting during the first 24 h after the incident; more severe injuries were associated with faster presentation (p < 0...
September 22, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Evelien Kieckens, Laura Van den Broeck, Mathias Van Gils, Servaas Morré, Daisy Vanrompay
Chlamydia suis is a swine pathogen that causes economic losses due to reproductive failure. Recently, C. suis has been detected in human eyes. However, knowledge of the zoonotic potential is still limited. C. suis infections in swine could present a risk for public health because (1) tetracycline-resistant C. suis strains are emerging in the pork industry, (2) tetracycline resistance gene transfers in vitro from C. suis to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis and as previously demonstrated, (3) C. suis and C...
September 22, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
José Ángel Hernández, Cristiana Filipa Cazapal-Monteiro, Jaime Sanchís, Rita Sánchez-Andrade, Adolfo Paz-Silva, María Sol Arias
The usefulness of a strategy involving the biological control of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) with zoonotic potential is tested. A blend of spores of two filamentous fungi, Mucor circinelloides and Duddingtonia flagrans, was provided to one group (G-2) of puppies (five Griffon bleu de Gascogne and five Gascon Saintongeois) shedding eggs of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Ancylostoma caninum. Other identical group (G-1) remained without spores. Fecal samples were collected daily and divided into two portions, one sample was immediately analyzed by the flotation test and the other was examined 28 days later...
September 19, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André, Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Daniella Aparecida Franze, Leidiane Lima-Duarte, Angelina Cirelli-Moraes, Pablo Henrique Nunes, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Jonas Moraes-Filho, Maria Marlene Martins, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó
There are two distinct lineages of ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, in South America: tropical and temperate lineages. Only the tropical lineage is recognized as competent vector for Ehrlichia canis. The epidemiological data of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is congruent with the distribution of the two lineages of R. sanguineus. Herein, we report the infection of R. sanguineus (tropical lineage) cell cultures with E. canis, after cryopreservation. R. sanguineus (tropical lineage) cell identity was confirmed by sequencing using a 16S rDNA gene fragment...
September 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Mohamed A Hussein, Abdallah M A Merwad, Mohamed T Elabbasy, Iman I A Suelam, Ashraf M Abdelwahab, Mohamed A Taha
This study investigated the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin genes and shiga toxin -producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in fish and evaluated quality parameters of examined fish. A total of 150 fish samples belonging to 6 species (25/each species) were cultured on Baird-Parker agar and eosin methylene blue agar. Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and virulence genes (stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes) in E. coli serotypes were determined by multiplex PCR. Aerobic plate count (APC), Enterobacteriaceae count, coliform count, and Pseudomonas count were performed...
September 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Wenfei Zhu, Lei Yang, Yuelong Shu
The low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses (LPAI) were first identified in 2013 and have continued to infect humans since then. It was reported in February 2017 that the LPAI H7N9 virus has evolved into highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, potentially increasing the risk for human and poultry. We in this study overviewed the emergence, epidemiology, and biological characterizations of the HPAI H7N9 viruses for the risk assessment.
September 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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