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Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135356/antibody-prevalence-to-influenza-type-a-in-wild-boar-of-northern-ukraine
#1
Ganna Kovalenko, Alona Molozhanova, Ihor Halka, Serhiy Nychyk
A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22...
November 14, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083983/investigation-on-mosquito-borne-viruses-at-lancang-river-and-nu-river-watersheds-in-southwestern-china
#2
Lingli Li, Xiaofang Guo, Qiumin Zhao, Yigang Tong, Hang Fan, Qiang Sun, Shaozhen Xing, Hongning Zhou, Jiusong Zhang
During 2007 and 2010, an extensive entomological survey was performed to assess the distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses at Lancang River and Nu River watersheds in southwestern China. A total of 20,450 mosquitoes consisting 20 species was trapped and submitted 261 pools according to species and location. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. Eighty-seven isolates representing 11 virus species in 8 genera were obtained from 6 mosquito species. The new isolates were identified as Getah virus (GETV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yunnan Culex-related flavivirus (YNCxFV), Yunnan Aedes-related flavivirus (YNAeFV), Banna virus (BAV), Yunnan orbivirus (YUOV), Banna orbivirus (BAOV), Yunnan totivirus (YNToV), Nam Dinh virus (NDiV), Menghai rhabdovirus (MRV), and Anopheles minimus iridovirus (AMIV)...
October 30, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083957/differential-diagnosis-of-flavivirus-infections-in-horses-using-viral-envelope-protein-domain-iii-antigens-in-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#3
Thisun B H Piyasena, Yin X Setoh, Jody Hobson-Peters, Natalie A Prow, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Alexander A Khromykh, David Perera, Mary J Cardosa, Peter D Kirkland, Roy A Hall
In Australia, infection of horses with the West Nile virus (WNV) or Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) occasionally results in severe neurological disease that cannot be clinically differentiated. Confirmatory serological tests to detect antibody specific for MVEV or WNV in horses are often hampered by cross-reactive antibodies induced to conserved epitopes on the envelope (E) protein. This study utilized bacterially expressed recombinant antigens derived from domain III of the E protein (rE-DIII) of MVEV and WNV, respectively, to determine whether these subunit antigens provided specific diagnostic markers of infection with these two viruses...
October 30, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083955/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-tick-paralysis-in-british-columbia
#4
Muhammad Morshed, Lisa Li, Min-Kuang Lee, Keerthi Fernando, Teresa Lo, Quantine Wong
BACKGROUND: Tick paralysis is a frequently overlooked severe disease characterized by bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis caused by a neurotoxin produced by feeding ticks. We aimed to characterize suspected tick paralysis cases documented at the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) in British Columbia (BC) from 1993 to 2016 and reviewed prevention, diagnosis, and treatment considerations. METHODS: Demographic, geographic, and clinical data from test requisition forms for ticks submitted to the BCCDC Public Health Laboratory (PHL) from patients across BC between 1993 and 2016 for suspected human and animal tick paralysis were reviewed...
October 30, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064352/seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-among-lebanese-pregnant-women
#5
Hasan Nahouli, Nour El Arnaout, Elias Chalhoub, Elie Anastadiadis, Hiba El Hajj
OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is a zoonotic obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for the infection of almost one-third of the world's population. T. gondii is particularly threatening for primo-infected pregnant women and may lead, following vertical transplacental transmission, to spontaneous abortion, miscarriage, or severe manifestations in the newborn. The aim of this study was to provide an updated estimate of the seroprevalence of anti-T...
October 24, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064333/molecular-detection-and-serological-evidence-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-serbia
#6
Aleksandar Potkonjak, Tamaš Petrović, Elizabeta Ristanović, Ivica Lalić, Vuk Vračar, Sara Savić, Vesna Turkulov, Grozdana Čanak, Vesna Milošević, Dejan Vidanović, Aleksandar Jurišić, Aleksandra Petrović, Vladimir Petrović
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic flaviviral infection that is a growing public health concern in European countries. The aims of this research were to detect and characterize tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Ixodes ricinus ticks at presumed natural foci in Serbia, and to determine seroprevalence of TBEV IgG antibodies in humans and animals. A total of 500 I. ricinus ticks were examined for the presence of TBEV by real-time RT-PCR, and conventional nested PCR and sequencing. To determine TBEV seroprevalence, 267 human sera samples were collected, as were 200 sera samples from different animal species...
October 24, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040058/recommendations-for-laboratory-containment-and-management-of-gene-drive-systems-in-arthropods
#7
Mark Q Benedict, Austin Burt, Margareth L Capurro, Paul De Barro, Alfred M Handler, Keith R Hayes, John M Marshall, Walter J Tabachnick, Zach N Adelman
Versatile molecular tools for creating driving transgenes and other invasive genetic factors present regulatory, ethical, and environmental challenges that should be addressed to ensure their safe use. In this article, we discuss driving transgenes and invasive genetic factors that can potentially spread after their introduction into a small proportion of individuals in a population. The potential of invasive genetic factors to increase their number in natural populations presents challenges that require additional safety measures not provided by previous recommendations regarding accidental release of arthropods...
October 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040056/an-integrated-control-strategy-takes-clonorchis-sinensis-under-control-in-an-endemic-area-in-south-china
#8
Yalan Huang, Dana Huang, Yijie Geng, Shisong Fang, Fan Yang, Chunli Wu, Hailong Zhang, Miao Wang, Ran Zhang, Xin Wang, Shuang Wu, Jianping Cao, Renli Zhang
Clonorchis sinensis is an important foodborne zoonosis worldwide and prevalent in China for more than 2000 years. According to the experience of controlling Schistosoma japonica, China started to establish the integrated control strategy for C. sinensis in endemic areas. Lou village, the largest village in Shenzhen city in South China was taken as a pilot site. This longitudinal study assessed the infection status of C. sinensis among people and intermediate hosts from 2006 to 2014 in Lou village. After a continuous intervention with the integrated control strategy, the prevalence of C...
October 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040020/first-report-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-china
#9
Yun-Jiao Zhao, Yun-Hong Zhao, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Xue-Juan Sun, Yu-Qin Liu, Yan-Jie Hou, Jing-Qiu Wu, Hui Jia, Yi-Nan Han, Wei Dong, Shi-Ming Yan, Ai-Dong Qian
In recent years, coinfection of tuberculosis (TB) and parasitosis in humans is an emerging problem in coendemic areas, which has been increasingly highlighted in developing countries. However, there is limited information about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in TB patients. Therefore, through a case-control study, 924 TB patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in northeastern and eastern China, and 924 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched with gender, age, and residence were examined for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T...
October 17, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022768/molecular-survey-on-rickettsia-spp-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-and-babesia-spp-in-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-infesting-dogs-in-central-italy
#10
Giulia Morganti, Stefano Gavaudan, Cristina Canonico, Silvia Ravagnan, Emanuela Olivieri, Manuela Diaferia, Maria Luisa Marenzoni, Maria Teresa Antognoni, Gioia Capelli, Cornelia Silaghi, Fabrizia Veronesi
Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976820/distribution-and-diversity-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-group-bacteria-in-sciurids-of-california
#11
Austin N Roy, Mary H Straub, Nicole Stephenson, Kathleen E Sholty, Janet Foley
California has a remarkable diversity of squirrel and chipmunk species (sciurids), and five named and several unnamed genospecies in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group (BBSL) of bacteria as well, many of which utilize sciurids as reservoirs. We investigated the prevalence, spatial distribution, and diversity of BBSL in sciurids of California by literature search, PCR of 585 ear tissue samples from 15 sciurid species prospectively collected across 19 California counties, and DNA sequencing when possible...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976814/west-nile-virus-lineage-2-associated-with-human-case-in-republic-of-serbia
#12
Aleksandra Jovanović Galović, Jacqueline Weyer, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Janusz T Paweska, Jelena Radovanov, Gordana Kovačević, Ivana Hrnjaković Cvjetković, Vladimir Petrović, Lucille H Blumberg, Vesna Milošević
A suspicion on West Nile virus (WNV) in Serbia was first reported in 1972 by a seroprevalence study, after which no data were available for four decades. We report full sequence of the isolate obtained for the first time from a human sample in Serbia. The closest clustering was obtained with lineage 2 WNV identified in Greece in 2010. Since WNV lineage 2 emerged in Europe in 2004, a cocirculation of lineages 1 and 2-as observed in Hungary and Italy-cannot be excluded. The reinforcement of surveillance will be required to investigate the possible cocirculation of the two lineages and the burden of WNV in the local population...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968195/abiotic-and-biotic-contributors-to-support-inter-epidemic-francisella-tularensis-in-an-agricultural-peri-urban-environment
#13
Tara M Roth, Janet Foley, Stan Wright
To characterize the inter-epidemic ecology of Francisella tularensis, we surveyed vertebrates and invertebrates for the abundance, spatial distribution, and status of infection at a site in northern California that had evidence of endemic type B tularemia. We collected 2910 mosquitoes, 77 biting flies, 704 ticks, 115 mammals, and 1911 aquatic invertebrates in 2013-2014. Real-time PCR on all mosquitoes, 40 biting flies, 113 aquatic invertebrates, and 650 ticks did not detect F. tularensis DNA. Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on 109 mammals revealed 2 (of 2, 100%) seropositive feral cats, 1 (of 24, 4...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968179/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotypic-characteristic-of-campylobacter-spp-isolates-from-free-living-birds-in-poland
#14
Marta Krawiec, Anna Woźniak-Biel, Michał Bednarski, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953448/serological-survey-of-hantavirus-and-flavivirus-among-wild-rodents-in-central-italy
#15
Gian Mario Cosseddu, Giulia Sozio, Fabrizia Valleriani, Annapia Di Gennaro, Ilaria Pascucci, Stefano Gavaudan, Philippe Marianneau, Federica Monaco
Hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic viruses carried by rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) are the causative agents of human hantavirus infections in Europe. Knowledge about hantavirus circulation in Italy is very scarce. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are emerging neuropathogenic flaviviruses, both endemic in most part of the Italian territories. To monitor the circulation of PUUV, DOBV, WNV, and USUV in natural environment in central Italy, we carried out serological surveillance in wild rodents...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934071/prevalence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-rodents-and-mites-from-central-india
#16
Ruchi Bhate, Nilesh Pansare, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Vijay K Choudhary, Nitin V Kurkure, Sunil W Kolte
Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, is an obligate intracytosolic bacterium transmitted among animals and to humans by some species of larval trombiculid mites (chiggers) and is hosted mainly by rodents. In this study, we attempted detection of O. tsutsugamushi from blood and tissue samples of rodents trapped from different locations in Central India using PCR targeting the 56 kDa outer membrane protein gene and the 47 kDa high temperature transmembrane protein gene. A total of 59 rodent samples comprising 38 of blood collected from domestic and public surroundings and 21 of tissue from agricultural farm were included in this study...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933680/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-hepatitis-e-virus-in-veterinarians-in-estonia
#17
Brian Lassen, Marilin Janson, Kädi Neare, Tatjana Tallo, Irina Reshetnjak, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Arvo Viltrop, Irina Golovljova, Pikka Jokelainen
In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115 persons reported they had obtained a veterinary degree and were included in this study. The sera were tested for presence of antibodies against HEV using a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial immunoblot assay in series...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873035/potential-reservoir-and-associated-factors-for-west-nile-virus-in-three-distinct-climatological-zones
#18
Christine DeCarlo, Anwar H Omar, Mohammod I Haroun, Laura Bigler, Mohamad N Bin Rais, Jalila Abu, Abdul Rahman Omar, Hussni O Mohammed
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic single-strand RNA arbovirus (family Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted among avian hosts in enzootic cycles by a mosquito vector. The virus has a significant disease effect on humans and equines when it bridges into a cycle with various sequelae with epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify the potential spectrum of WNV hosts in three geographic areas with climatologically distinct features: Malaysia, Qatar, and the United States of America (U.S.). Serum samples were collected from avian and mammal species suspected to be reservoirs for the virus at these areas in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study...
October 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873024/serological-survey-of-zoonotic-viruses-in-invasive-and-native-commensal-rodents-in-senegal-west-africa
#19
Christophe A Diagne, Nathalie Charbonnel, Heikki Henttonen, Tarja Sironen, Carine Brouat
Increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. Such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. Here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the circulation of potentially zoonotic viruses in both invasive (Mus musculus domesticus and Rattus rattus) and native (Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys natalensis) murine rodent populations in Senegal (West Africa)...
October 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873022/seroprevalence-of-leptospirosis-brucellosis-and-q-fever-in-a-wild-red-deer-cervus-elaphus-population-kept-in-a-fenced-reserve-in-absence-of-contact-with-livestock
#20
Jose María San-Miguel Ayanz, Francisco Javier Garcia-Peña, Paula García-Lunar, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, María José Ruano, Gema Álvarez-García, Esther Collantes-Fernández
Wildlife health is of interest for public and animal health because wild animals have been identified as important sentinels for the surveillance for zoonotic pathogens. This work investigated Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in a free-ranging red deer population. The study was conducted in a fenced reserve with controlled hunting activity in central Spain with animals that did not have any contact with livestock. Sampling was performed at two time points before and 5 years after the implementation of new management measures, including a reduction in the red deer population in the reserve...
October 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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