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International Immunopharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775946/il-9-exhibits-elevated-expression-in-osteonecrosis-of-femoral-head-patients-and-promotes-cartilage-degradation-through-activation-of-jak-stat-signaling-in-vitro
#1
Wei Geng, Wen Zhang, Jinzhu Ma
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) often causes severe symptoms in young people and limits the mobility of the hip joint. Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a multi-functional inflammatory factor that participates in lumbar disk herniation and arthritis and has been reported in many studies. However, the correlation between IL-9 and ONFH is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the role of IL-9 in the pathogenetic mechanism of osteonecrosis. To assess IL-9 expression in ONFH and femoral neck fracture patients, cartilage tissue was examined through western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry...
May 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772494/effects-of-ceftriaxone-induced-intestinal-dysbacteriosis-on-regulatory-t-cells-validated-by-anaphylactic-mice
#2
Xia Luo, Zengfeng Pan, Shuang Luo, Qi Liu, Shaowei Huang, Guanghua Yang, Feifei Nong, Yajun Fu, Xiangliang Deng, Lian Zhou
Both probiotics and pathogens in the human gut express pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and die with the release of endotoxin and bacterial DNA, which can stimulate our immune system and cause immune reaction. However, it's interesting and fascinating to address why the normal intestinal flora will not generate immunological rejection like the pathogen does. By investigating the changes in cells and molecules relevant to immune tolerance in mice with ceftriaxone-induced dysbacteriosis, our study discovered that both the Evenness indexes and Shannon Wiener index of intestinal flora showed a decrease in dysbacteriosis mice...
May 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763881/orally-administered-brown-seaweed-derived-%C3%AE-glucan-effectively-restrained-development-of-gastric-dysplasia-in-a4gnt-ko-mice-that-spontaneously-develop-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#3
Mark Joseph Desamero, Shigeru Kakuta, James Kenn Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Satoshi Hachimura, Masaya Takamoto, Jun Nakayama, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Shigeru Kyuwa
β-Glucan refers to a heterogeneous group of chemically defined storage polysaccharides containing β-(1,3)-d-linked glucose polymers with branches connected by either β-(1,4) or β-(1,6) glycosidic linkage. To date, an extensive amount of scientific evidence supports their multifunctional biological activities, but their potential involvement in the progression of premalignant lesions remains to be clarified. A4gnt KO mice that lack α1,4-N-acetylglucosamine-capped O-glycans in gastric gland mucin are a unique animal model for gastric cancer because the mutant mice spontaneously develop gastric cancer through hyperplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence...
May 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758489/fisetin-inhibits-the-generation-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-human-lung-epithelial-cells-by-suppressing-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-erk1-2-pathways
#4
Hui-Ling Peng, Wen-Chung Huang, Shu-Chen Cheng, Chian-Jiun Liou
Fisetin, a flavone that can be isolated from fruits and vegetables, has anti-tumor and anti-oxidative properties and ameliorates airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice. This study investigated whether fisetin can suppress the expression of inflammatory mediators and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in A549 human lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to induce inflammatory responses. A549 cells were treated with fisetin (3-30 μM) and then with IL-1β. Fisetin significantly inhibited COX-2 expression and reduced prostaglandin E2 production, and it suppressed the levels of IL-8, CCL5, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-6...
May 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747125/a-characterization-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-chronic-relapsing-colitis-mice-model
#5
Yan-Hong Li, Rosenstein Adam, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Repeated cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration in mice, inducing chronic relapsing colitis, have been used to mimic human ulcerative colitis (UC). However, no systematic characterization of pro-inflammatory cytokines in these DSS mice has been reported. In this study, the development of colitis was examined by assessment of the disease severity and inflammation in the colon of C57BL/6 mice that received DSS. ELISA was used to analyze the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum, colon, spleen and supernatant of cultured splenocytes...
May 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747124/serum-human-epididymis-protein-4-is-a-predictor-for-developing-nephritis-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Yingpeng Ren, Jing Xie, Feng Lin, Wanwan Luo, Zhencheng Zhang, Panying Mao, Renqian Zhong, Yan Liang, Zaixing Yang
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a useful biomarker for differentiating lupus nephritis (LN) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, it remains unclear whether HE4 can be used to predict the development of LN. METHODS: A total of 74 SLE patients without LN were recruited between August 2008 and September 2013. Serum HE4 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These patients were followed up from the date of SLE diagnosis to LN development or the end of the study...
May 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747123/hiv-aspartyl-protease-inhibitors-modify-the-percentage-of-activated-leukocytes-as-well-as-serum-levels-of-il-17a-and-no-during-experimental-leishmaniasis
#7
Daniele Luísa Ribeiro Alvarenga, Amanda Helen Dos Santos Silva, Jacqueline Araújo Fiuza, Soraya Torres Gaze, Jaquelline Germano de Oliveira, Rodrigo Corrêa Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Calzavara-Silva, Marcelo Antônio Pascoal-Xavier, Érica Alessandra Rocha Alves
HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors are able to modulate multiple defense mechanisms. However, their influence on the immune response against Leishmania has rarely been investigated. The aim of our study was to investigate whether in vivo treatment with HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors is able to modulate the immune response during Leishmania infection. Using Leishmania (L.) amazonensis-infected mice, we analyzed the disease evolution and parasite load, immunophenotypic profiles of splenic T and B lymphocytes, numbers of lymphoid aggregates in the spleen, percentages of circulating atypical lymphocytes and reactive monocytes, and serum levels of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) after 30 days of oral treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) or atazanavir (ATV)...
May 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734133/down-regulation-of-ifit3-protects-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Ge Guan, Yuntai Shen, Qianqian Yu, Huan Liu, Bin Zhang, Yuan Guo, Xiaodan Zhu, Zhiqiang Li, Wei Rao, Likun Zhuang, Yunjin Zang
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) could result in severe liver damage and dysfunction during liver surgery and transplantation. As one of the Interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes, IFIT3 exerted antitumor activity but its roles in hepatic IRI are still unknown. In this study, roles of IFIT3 in hepatic IRI were investigated using a mouse hepatic IRI model and a cellular hypoxia-reoxygenation model. Firstly, our results showed that IFIT3 was up-regulated in reperfused liver tissues of patients undergoing liver transplantation and was positively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
May 4, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730580/toll-like-receptors-in-immunity-and-inflammatory-diseases-past-present-and-future
#9
REVIEW
Kumar Vijay
The immune system is a very diverse system of the host that evolved during evolution to cope with various pathogens present in the vicinity of environmental surroundings inhabited by multicellular organisms ranging from achordates to chordates (including humans). For example, cells of immune system express various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect danger via recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and mount a specific immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of these PRRs expressed by various immune cells...
May 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730559/mln3126-an-antagonist-of-the-chemokine-receptor-ccr9-ameliorates-inflammation-in-a-t-cell-mediated-mouse-colitis-model
#10
Keiko Igaki, Yusaku Komoike, Yoshiki Nakamura, Takeshi Watanabe, Masashi Yamasaki, Paul Fleming, Lili Yang, Dulce Soler, Eric Fedyk, Noboru Tsuchimori
C-C chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) is the homing receptor for C-C motif chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25), and contributes to the maintenance of mucosal immunity and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through the recruitment of T cells into the gut mucosa. Recent reports suggest that the interaction of CCR9 and CCL25 in the large intestine correlate with disease severity of colonic IBD. MLN3126 is an orally available small molecular compound with potent and selective CCR9 antagonist activity. MLN3126 inhibited CCL25-induced calcium mobilization in human CCR9 transfected cells and CCL25-induced chemotaxis of mouse primary thymocytes in a dose-dependent manner...
May 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730558/increased-expression-of-il-1r8-and-a-possible-immunomodulatory-role-of-its-ligand-il-37-in-allergic-rhinitis-patients
#11
Cong Li, Yang Shen, Jue Wang, Zu-Xia Ma, Xia Ke, Zhi-Hai Wang, Su-Ling Hong, Guo-Hua Hu
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that is caused by an abnormal T cell response. T helper (Th)-17 cells and Th2 cells are the CD4+ T cell subsets implicated in the pathogenesis of AR. The suppression of excessive responses of these Th17 and Th2 cells has been reported to be an effective therapeutic approach to treat AR patients, and continuous efforts are being undertaken to find new methods to modulate the function of these cells. Recent studies have shown that IL-1R8 and its ligand IL-37 negatively regulate the immune response...
May 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730557/immunomodulatory-effects-of-tinospora-crispa-extract-and-its-major-compounds-on-the-immune-functions-of-raw-264-7-macrophages
#12
Waqas Ahmad, Ibrahim Jantan, Endang Kumolosasi, Md Areeful Haque, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
The in vivo immunomodulatory activities of Tinospora crispa have been reported but its molecular mechanisms underlying its immunomodulatory properties remains obscure and the active constituents contributing to the activities have not been identified. The present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of T. crispa extract (TCE) and its chemical constituents on RAW 264.7 macrophages. Six known compounds including magnoflorine and syringin were isolated by various chromatographic techniques from TCE and their structures were determined spectroscopically...
May 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730556/new-peptide-my1340-revert-the-inhibition-effect-of-vegf-on-dendritic-cells-differentiation-and-maturation-via-blocking-vegf-nrp-1-axis-and-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#13
Zheng Mo, Fei Yu, Su Han, Songhua Yang, Liangliang Wu, Peng Li, Shunchang Jiao
The development and clinical application of immunostimulatory therapy provides us a new and exciting strategy in cancer treatment of which the agents act on crucial receptors. Given the fact that Neuropilin-1(NRP-1) is essential for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to inhibit LPS-dependent maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), it may present a potentially meaningful target in cancer immunotherapy. To explore this hypothesis, we synthesized a novel polypeptide called MY1340 consist of 32 amino acids with the aim of targeting VEGF-NRP-1 axis...
May 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730555/harmine-a-small-molecule-derived-from-natural-sources-inhibits-enterovirus-71-replication-by-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#14
Deyan Chen, Xiaoyan Tian, Xue Zou, Shijie Xu, Huanru Wang, Nan Zheng, Zhiwei Wu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection of young children can cause neurological manifestations, which is mainly responsible for the fatality. Although a vaccine is recently available for preventing enterovirus 71 infection, its efficacy remains to be seen. Therefore, there is a pressing need for anti-viral agents for the treatment of EV71 infection. By screening a natural compound library for inhibitory activity of EV71 replication, we identified a small molecule, harmine, that inhibited EV71 replication by targeting NF-κB signaling pathway...
May 2, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729496/progressive-increase-in-allergen-concentration-abrogates-immune-tolerance-in-ovalbumin-induced-murine-model-of-chronic-asthma
#15
Gurupreet S Sethi, Amarjit S Naura
Persistent inflammation and remodeling of airways are the major hallmarks of asthma. Though airway inflammation diminishes in ovalbumin (OVA)-based mouse model of chronic asthma owing to immune-tolerance linked with repeated allergen exposure, which limits the application of the disease model. Accordingly, the present study was designed to develop a murine model of chronic asthma which presents persistent airway inflammation coupled with remodeling traits. Herein, OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice were challenged with increasing (modified protocol) or constant concentration (conventional protocol) of the allergen for 6 weeks; 3 times/week...
May 2, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709772/ginsenoside-rg1-protects-against-hind-limb-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-lung-injury-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-cox-2-signaling-pathway
#16
Yuzhu Ye, Yuanlu Shan, Caiying Bao, Yi Hu, Liangrong Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ginsenoside Rg1 is regarded as the primary bioactive ingredient in Panax notoginseng that has been well recognized for its protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the mechanisms still remain elusive. Our study aims to investigate the effects of Rg1 against lung injury induced by hind-limb IR in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were randomly submitted to sham operation (SM group), hind-limb IR (IR group), hind-limb IR + Rg1 (Rg1 group), and hind-limb IR + Pro-DTC group (PD group)...
April 27, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709771/sphingobactan-a-new-%C3%AE-mannan-exopolysaccharide-from-arctic-sphingobacterium-sp-iitkgp-btpf3-capable-of-biological-response-modification
#17
Soumya Chatterjee, Sourav K Mukhopadhyay, Samiran S Gauri, Satyahari Dey
An exopolysaccharide, from a new Arctic permafrost isolate, Sphingobacterium sp. IITKGP-BTPF3 was purified and characterized. Upon optimization of various parameters (pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen source), the yield of EPS obtained was 1.42 g/L. Structural investigation through FT-IR, GC-MS/MS, HPLC and NMR (1D and 2D) revealed the molecule to be a mannan with α-(1 → 2) and α-(1 → 6) linkages. Anti-oxidant and macrophage immunomodulatory assays were employed for the assessment of bioactivity...
April 27, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709770/regulatory-t-cells-increase-after-treatment-with-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-inhibitor-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#18
Min-Young Noh, Won Moo Lee, Su-Jung Lee, Hyun Young Kim, Seung Hyun Kim, Young Seo Kim
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are thought to play a modulatory role in immune responses and to improve outcomes after ischemic stroke. Thus, various strategies for increasing Tregs in animal models of ischemic stroke have yielded successful results. The aim of this study was to examine the potential effect of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitor on Treg proportion in stroke patients. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 12 ischemic stroke patients (within 72 h of stroke onset) and 5 healthy control subjects...
April 27, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705532/paeoniflorin-augments-systemic-candida-albicans-infection-through-inhibiting-th1-and-th17-cell-expression-in-a-mouse-model
#19
Xue Kong, Dongni Leng, Guanzhao Liang, Hailin Zheng, Qiong Wang, Yongnian Shen, Guixia Lu, Huailiang Zhang, Dongmei Shi, Weida Liu
Paeoniflorin (PF), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used in clinical practice in China because of its dual immunoregulatory effects. A previous study found that PF inhibited the biofilm formation of Candida albicans (C. albicans) in vitro; however, whether PF plays an antifungal role in vivo is still unexplored. In this study, we sought to examine the effect of PF alone or in combination with an antifungal agent, fluconazole (FCZ), using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results showed that the survival time of mice treated with PF alone or PF + FCZ decreased compared with the Infected alone and FCZ treated groups, respectively (8...
April 26, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705531/copper-and-arsenic-induced-oxidative-stress-and-immune-imbalance-are-associated-with-activation-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-chicken-intestines
#20
Yu Wang, Hongjing Zhao, Juanjuan Liu, Yizhi Shao, Jinglun Li, Liyang Luo, Mingwei Xing
Arsenic and copper, two ubiquitous pollutants, can be oxidative stress inducers when organisms are heavy or chronically exposed, causing adverse effects on digestion and absorption function, resulting in potential losses to poultry husbandry. The present study examined the effects of arsenic trioxide (30 mg/kg)- and copper sulfate (300 mg/kg)-mixed foods, administered alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on various biochemical indices of oxidative stress and immunity in the small intestines of Hy-line chickens...
April 26, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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