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Demographic Research

Joshua Wassink
Background: Despite an expansive body of research on health and access to medical care among Mexican immigrants in the United States, research on return migrants focuses primarily on their labor market mobility and contributions to local development. Objective: Motivated by recent scholarship that documents poor mental and physical health among Mexican return migrants, this study investigates return migrants' health insurance coverage and access to medical care...
2018: Demographic Research
Stefanie Mollborn, Juhee Woo, Richard G Rogers
BACKGROUND: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes...
January 2018: Demographic Research
Léa Pessin, Bruno Arpino
BACKGROUND: Gender attitudes toward women's employment are of particular importance because they positively influence gender-equal outcomes in the labor market. Our understanding of the mechanisms that promote egalitarian gender attitudes among immigrants, however, remains limited. OBJECTIVE: By studying first- and second-generation immigrants from multiple origins and living in different countries, this article seeks to explain under what conditions the prevalent cultural attitudes toward gender roles at the origin and destination influence immigrants' gender attitudes...
January 2018: Demographic Research
Luis Rosero-Bixby
Background: Some existing estimates suggest, controversially, that life expectancy at age 60 (LE60) of Latin American males is exceptionally high. Knowledge of adult mortality in Latin America is often based on unreliable statistics or indirect demographic methods. Objectives: This study aimed to gather direct estimates of mortality at older ages in two Latin American countries (Mexico and Costa Rica) using recent longitudinal surveys and to determine the socioeconomic status (SES) gradients for LE60...
2018: Demographic Research
Barrett A Lee, Michael J R Martin, Stephen A Matthews, Chad R Farrell
Background: Few studies have examined long-term changes in ethnoracial diversity for US states despite the potential social, economic, and political ramifications of such changes at the state level. Objective: We describe shifts in diversity magnitude and structure from 1980 through 2015 to determine if states are following a universal upward path. Methods: Decennial census data for 1980-2010 and American Community Survey data for 2015 are used to compute entropy index ( E ) and Simpson index ( S ) measures of diversity magnitude based on five panethnic populations...
December 2017: Demographic Research
Donghui Wang, Guangqing Chi
Background: China has been characterized by persistently low fertility rates since the 1990s. Existing literature has examined the relationships of fertility levels with social, economic, and policy-related determinants. However, the possible spatial variations in these relationships have not been investigated. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the potential spatially varying relationships between county-level fertility rates and policy and socioeconomic factors in China...
July 2017: Demographic Research
Sangeetha Madhavan, Tyler W Myroniuk, Randall Kuhn, Mark A Collinson
BACKGROUND: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most extant research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. OBJECTIVES: First, we offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household; and second, we demonstrate the value of this approach through an analysis of educational progress for boys and girls in rural South Africa...
July 2017: Demographic Research
Joan Garcia Roman, Sarah M Flood, Katie R Genadek
BACKGROUND: Time shared with a partner is an indicator of marital well-being and couples want to spend time together. However, time with a partner depends on work and family arrangements as well as the policies, norms, and values that prevail in society. Contrary to time spent with children, couples' shared time in cross-national context is relatively unstudied. Previous studies from specific countries show that dual-earner couples spend less time together and that parents spend less time alone together...
2017: Demographic Research
John R Logan
BACKGROUND: Segregation in Southern cities has been described as a 20th-century development, layered onto an earlier pattern in which whites and blacks (both slaves and free black people) shared the same neighborhoods. Urban historians have pointed out ways in which the Southern postbellum pattern was less benign, but studies relying on census data aggregated by administrative areas - and segregation measures based on this data - have not confirmed their observations. METHODS: This study is based mainly on 100% microdata from the 1880 census that has been mapped at the address level in Washington, D...
2017: Demographic Research
Yana C Vierboom
BACKGROUND: There are large differences in life expectancy by educational attainment in the United States. Previous research has found obesity's contribution to these differences to be small. Those findings may be sensitive to how obesity is estimated. METHODS: This analysis uses discrete-time logistic regressions with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), pooled from 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2010, to estimate the contribution of differences in adiposity, or body fat, to educational differences in mortality...
2017: Demographic Research
Margaret Frye, Sophia Chae
BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic...
2017: Demographic Research
Jenny Liu, Sepideh Modrek, Maia Sieverding
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest in the stalled transition to adulthood in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and its consequences for young people's socioeconomic outcomes. However, little is known about how important life transitions relate to youth psychosocial well-being in the region. OBJECTIVE: Drawing on a life course framework, we estimate the associations between making transitions in education, employment, and marriage with changes in mental health among young people in Egypt...
2017: Demographic Research
Riina Peltonen, Jessica Y Ho, Irma T Elo, Pekka Martikainen
BACKGROUND: Smoking is known to vary by marital status, but little is known about its contribution to marital status differences in longevity. We examined the changing contribution of smoking to mortality differences between married and never married, divorced or widowed Finnish men and women aged 50 years and above in 1971-2010. DATA AND METHODS: The data sets cover all persons permanently living in Finland in the census years 1970, 1975 through 2000 and 2005 with a five-year mortality follow-up...
January 2017: Demographic Research
Mao-Mei Liu, Mathew J Creighton, Fernando Riosmena, Pau Baizán Mun Oz
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal micro-level data about international migration behavior are notoriously difficult to collect, but data collection efforts have become more frequent in recent years. Comparative research of the patterns and processes of international migration, however, remains quite rare, especially that which compares across regions. OBJECTIVE: We highlight the promises and difficulties of comparative international migration research, by offering a detailed comparison of two prominent data collection efforts...
July 2016: Demographic Research
Sophia Chae
BACKGROUND: Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE: This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators...
March 22, 2016: Demographic Research
Sarah Walters
BACKGROUND: Little is known about even the relatively recent demographic history of Africa, because of the lack of data. Elsewhere, historical demographic trends have been reconstructed by applying family reconstitution to church records. Such data also exist throughout Africa from the late 19th century. For the Counting Souls Project, nearly one million records from the oldest Catholic parishes in East and Central Africa have been digitised. These data are currently being processed into a relational database...
January 15, 2016: Demographic Research
Marc A Garcia, Chi-Tsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Migration selectivity is thought to shape the health profiles of Mexican immigrants. OBJECTIVE: This study examines how the experience of Mexican migration to the United States affects the health process and the quality of life in old age by age at migration, specific to sex. METHODS: We use 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent disability-free prior to death across eight subgroups by sex, nativity, and age at migration among Mexican-origin elderly in the United States...
2016: Demographic Research
Siqi Han, Dmitry Tumin, Zhenchao Qian
BACKGROUND: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. OBJECTIVE: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. METHODS: We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort...
2016: Demographic Research
Brian C Thiede, Shannon M Monnat
BACKGROUND: The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. METHODS: We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states...
2016: Demographic Research
Natasha Pilkauskas, Jane Waldfogel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
BACKGROUND: Maternal labor force participation has increased dramatically over the last 40 years, yet surprisingly little is known about longitudinal patterns of maternal labor force participation in the years after a birth, or how these patterns vary by education. OBJECTIVE: We document variation by maternal education in mothers' labor force participation (timing, intensity, non-standard work, multiple job-holding) over the first nine years after the birth of a child...
January 2016: Demographic Research
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