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Demographic Research

Sangeetha Madhavan, Tyler W Myroniuk, Randall Kuhn, Mark A Collinson
BACKGROUND: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most extant research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. OBJECTIVES: First, we offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household; and second, we demonstrate the value of this approach through an analysis of educational progress for boys and girls in rural South Africa...
July 2017: Demographic Research
Joan Garcia Roman, Sarah M Flood, Katie R Genadek
BACKGROUND: Time shared with a partner is an indicator of marital well-being and couples want to spend time together. However, time with a partner depends on work and family arrangements as well as the policies, norms, and values that prevail in society. Contrary to time spent with children, couples' shared time in cross-national context is relatively unstudied. Previous studies from specific countries show that dual-earner couples spend less time together and that parents spend less time alone together...
2017: Demographic Research
John R Logan
BACKGROUND: Segregation in Southern cities has been described as a 20th-century development, layered onto an earlier pattern in which whites and blacks (both slaves and free black people) shared the same neighborhoods. Urban historians have pointed out ways in which the Southern postbellum pattern was less benign, but studies relying on census data aggregated by administrative areas - and segregation measures based on this data - have not confirmed their observations. METHODS: This study is based mainly on 100% microdata from the 1880 census that has been mapped at the address level in Washington, D...
2017: Demographic Research
Yana C Vierboom
BACKGROUND: There are large differences in life expectancy by educational attainment in the United States. Previous research has found obesity's contribution to these differences to be small. Those findings may be sensitive to how obesity is estimated. METHODS: This analysis uses discrete-time logistic regressions with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), pooled from 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2010, to estimate the contribution of differences in adiposity, or body fat, to educational differences in mortality...
2017: Demographic Research
Margaret Frye, Sophia Chae
BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic...
2017: Demographic Research
Jenny Liu, Sepideh Modrek, Maia Sieverding
BACKGROUND: There has been growing interest in the stalled transition to adulthood in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and its consequences for young people's socioeconomic outcomes. However, little is known about how important life transitions relate to youth psychosocial well-being in the region. OBJECTIVE: Drawing on a life course framework, we estimate the associations between making transitions in education, employment, and marriage with changes in mental health among young people in Egypt...
2017: Demographic Research
Riina Peltonen, Jessica Y Ho, Irma T Elo, Pekka Martikainen
BACKGROUND: Smoking is known to vary by marital status, but little is known about its contribution to marital status differences in longevity. We examined the changing contribution of smoking to mortality differences between married and never married, divorced or widowed Finnish men and women aged 50 years and above in 1971-2010. DATA AND METHODS: The data sets cover all persons permanently living in Finland in the census years 1970, 1975 through 2000 and 2005 with a five-year mortality follow-up...
January 2017: Demographic Research
Mao-Mei Liu, Mathew J Creighton, Fernando Riosmena, Pau Baizán Mun Oz
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal micro-level data about international migration behavior are notoriously difficult to collect, but data collection efforts have become more frequent in recent years. Comparative research of the patterns and processes of international migration, however, remains quite rare, especially that which compares across regions. OBJECTIVE: We highlight the promises and difficulties of comparative international migration research, by offering a detailed comparison of two prominent data collection efforts...
July 2016: Demographic Research
Sophia Chae
BACKGROUND: Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE: This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators...
March 22, 2016: Demographic Research
Sarah Walters
BACKGROUND: Little is known about even the relatively recent demographic history of Africa, because of the lack of data. Elsewhere, historical demographic trends have been reconstructed by applying family reconstitution to church records. Such data also exist throughout Africa from the late 19th century. For the Counting Souls Project, nearly one million records from the oldest Catholic parishes in East and Central Africa have been digitised. These data are currently being processed into a relational database...
January 15, 2016: Demographic Research
Marc A Garcia, Chi-Tsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Migration selectivity is thought to shape the health profiles of Mexican immigrants. OBJECTIVE: This study examines how the experience of Mexican migration to the United States affects the health process and the quality of life in old age by age at migration, specific to sex. METHODS: We use 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to estimate the proportion of life spent disability-free prior to death across eight subgroups by sex, nativity, and age at migration among Mexican-origin elderly in the United States...
2016: Demographic Research
Siqi Han, Dmitry Tumin, Zhenchao Qian
BACKGROUND: Field of study may influence the timing of transitions to the labor market, marriage, and parenthood among college graduates. Research to date has yet to study how field of study is associated with the interweaving of these transitions in the USA. OBJECTIVE: The current study examines gendered influences of college field of study on transitions to a series of adult roles, including full-time work, marriage, and parenthood. METHODS: We use Cox proportional hazards models and multinomial logistic regression to examine gendered associations between field of study and the three transitions among college graduates of the NLSY97 (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) cohort...
2016: Demographic Research
Brian C Thiede, Shannon M Monnat
BACKGROUND: The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. METHODS: We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states...
2016: Demographic Research
Natasha Pilkauskas, Jane Waldfogel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
BACKGROUND: Maternal labor force participation has increased dramatically over the last 40 years, yet surprisingly little is known about longitudinal patterns of maternal labor force participation in the years after a birth, or how these patterns vary by education. OBJECTIVE: We document variation by maternal education in mothers' labor force participation (timing, intensity, non-standard work, multiple job-holding) over the first nine years after the birth of a child...
January 2016: Demographic Research
Jennifer E Glick, Scott T Yabiku
BACKGROUND: The growing prevalence of migrant children in diverse contexts requires a reconsideration of the intergenerational consequences of migration. To understand how migration and duration of residence are associated with children's schooling, we need more comparative work that can point to the similarities and differences in outcomes for children across contexts. OBJECTIVE: This paper addresses the importance of nativity and duration of residence for children's school enrollment on both sides of a binational migration system: The United States and Mexico...
2016: Demographic Research
Lei Lei, Scott J South
BACKGROUND: Although Black and Hispanic young adults in the U.S. are less likely than Whites to move out of the parental home and more likely than Whites to return, reasons for these differences have not been clearly identified. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the ability of racial/ethnic disparities in life course transitions, socioeconomic resources, and family connectivity to account for racial/ethnic differences in leaving and returning home. METHODS: Using data from the 2005-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Transition into Adulthood study (N=1,491, age 18 to 26), we estimated discrete-time event history models predicting the timing of moving out of and back into the parental home...
January 2016: Demographic Research
Athena Tapales, Lawrence Finer
BACKGROUND: In 1987, the U.S. unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15-44; the rate fell to 54 in 2008. Over this period, American women experienced dramatic demographic shifts, including an aging population that was better educated and more racially and ethnically diverse. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explain trends in unintended pregnancy and understand what factors contributed most strongly to changes in rates over time, focusing on population composition and group-specific changes...
December 9, 2015: Demographic Research
Emily Smith-Greenaway
BACKGROUND: More than 60 years ago the international community declared literacy a basic human right. Recognition of its intrinsic value and evidence of its social and economic benefits have motivated an expansive international effort to estimate the percentage of adults that can read, especially in low-income countries where educational opportunities are limited. Population data on adults' educational attainment is commonly used to approximate adult literacy rates. Though increasing evidence from school-based studies of pupils confirm literacy achievement is not universal - even at advanced grades - it remains unclear whether adults' educational attainment is reflective of their literacy...
November 11, 2015: Demographic Research
Elizabeth Lawrence, Elisabeth Dowling Root, Stefanie Mollborn
BACKGROUND: Understanding residential mobility in early childhood is important for contextualizing influences on child health and well-being. OBJECTIVE: This study describes individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics associated with residential mobility for children aged 0-5. METHODS: We examined longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001...
October 2015: Demographic Research
Susan Hautaniemi Leonard, Christopher Robinson, Alan C Swedlund, Douglas L Anderton
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests individual-level socioeconomic circumstances and resources may be especially salient influences on mortality within the broader context of social, economic, and environmental factors affecting urban 19th century mortality. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test individual-level socioeconomic effects on mortality from infectious and often epidemic diseases in the context of an emerging New England industrial mill town. METHOD: We analyze mortality data from comprehensive death records and a sample of death records linked to census data, for an emergent industrial New England town, to analyze infectious mortality and model socioeconomic effects using Poisson rate regression...
July 2015: Demographic Research
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