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Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820497/anesthetic-agents-of-plant-origin-a-review-of-phytochemicals-with-anesthetic-activity
#1
REVIEW
Hironori Tsuchiya
The majority of currently used anesthetic agents are derived from or associated with natural products, especially plants, as evidenced by cocaine that was isolated from coca (Erythroxylum coca, Erythroxylaceae) and became a prototype of modern local anesthetics and by thymol and eugenol contained in thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Lamiaceae) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum, Myrtaceae), respectively, both of which are structurally and mechanistically similar to intravenous phenolic anesthetics. This paper reviews different classes of phytochemicals with the anesthetic activity and their characteristic molecular structures that could be lead compounds for anesthetics and anesthesia-related drugs...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820488/phase-behaviour-and-miscibility-studies-of-collagen-silk-fibroin-macromolecular-system-in-dilute-solutions-and-solid-state
#2
Ima Ghaeli, Mariana A de Moraes, Marisa M Beppu, Katarzyna Lewandowska, Alina Sionkowska, Frederico Ferreira-da-Silva, Maria P Ferraz, Fernando J Monteiro
Miscibility is an important issue in biopolymer blends for analysis of the behavior of polymer pairs through the detection of phase separation and improvement of the mechanical and physical properties of the blend. This study presents the formulation of a stable and one-phase mixture of collagen and regenerated silk fibroin (RSF), with the highest miscibility ratio between these two macromolecules, through inducing electrostatic interactions, using salt ions. For this aim, a ternary phase diagram was experimentally built for the mixtures, based on observations of phase behavior of blend solutions with various ratios...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820487/copper-catalyzed-synthesis-of-unsymmetrical-diorganyl-chalcogenides-te-se-s-from-boronic-acids-under-solvent-free-conditions
#3
Sumbal Saba, Giancarlo Vaccari Botteselle, Marcelo Godoi, Tiago Elias Allievi Frizon, Fábio Zazyki Galetto, Jamal Rafique, Antonio L Braga
The efficient and mild copper-catalyzed synthesis of unsymmetrical diorganyl chalcogenides under ligand- and solvent-free conditions is described. The cross-coupling reaction was performed using aryl boric acids and 0.5 equiv. of diorganyl dichalcogenides (Te/Se/S) in the presence of 3 mol % of CuI and 3 equiv. of DMSO, under microwave irradiation. This new protocol allowed the preparation of several unsymmetrical diorganyl chalcogenides in good to excellent yields.
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820480/phytochemicals-of-euphorbia-lathyris-l-and-their-antioxidant-activities
#4
Lizhen Zhang, Chu Wang, Qiuxia Meng, Qin Tian, Yu Niu, Wei Niu
The objectives of this study were to characterize the antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals such as phenolics and flavonoids in four parts of Euphorbia lathyris L. HPLC was employed to detect the type and content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the root, stem, seed, and testa of the plant. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were different among various parts of E. lathyris. The highest TPC were found in the testa (290.46 ± 15.09 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g dry weight (DW))...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820478/detection-of-interactions-between-proteins-by-using-legendre-moments-descriptor-to-extract-discriminatory-information-embedded-in-pssm
#5
Yan-Bin Wang, Zhu-Hong You, Li-Ping Li, Yu-An Huang, Hai-Cheng Yi
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a very large part in most cellular processes. Although a great deal of research has been devoted to detecting PPIs through high-throughput technologies, these methods are clearly expensive and cumbersome. Compared with the traditional experimental methods, computational methods have attracted much attention because of their good performance in detecting PPIs. In our work, a novel computational method named as PCVM-LM is proposed which combines the probabilistic classification vector machine (PCVM) model and Legendre moments (LMs) to predict PPIs from amino acid sequences...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820476/biosynthesis-of-s-adenosylmethionine-by-magnetically-immobilized-escherichia-coli-cells-highly-expressing-a-methionine-adenosyltransferase-variant
#6
Chunli Yin, Tao Zheng, Xin Chang
S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a natural metabolite having important uses in the treatment of various diseases. To develop a simple and effective way to produce SAM, immobilized Escherichia coli cells highly expressing an engineered variant of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) were employed to synthesize SAM. The recombinant I303V MAT variant was successfully produced at approximately 900 mg/L in a 10-L bioreactor and exhibited significantly less product inhibition and had a four-fold higher specific activity (14...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820474/significance-of-resveratrol-in-clinical-management-of-chronic-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Awais Wahab, Kuo Gao, Caixia Jia, Feilong Zhang, Guihua Tian, Ghulam Murtaza, Jianxin Chen
Resveratrol could be beneficial to health and provides protection against a wide array of pathologies and age-associated problems, as evident from preclinical studies. However, a comparison of animal and human studies reveals that this dietary polyphenol cannot protect against metabolic diseases and their associated complications. The clinical outcomes are affected by many factors such as sample size. This article not only presents a comprehensive review of the current advances concerning the dose, the extent of absorption, interaction and toxicity of resveratrol in human studies, but also describes its therapeutic effects against several chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and aging and the related diseases...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820471/metal-based-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-infectious-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Blessing Atim Aderibigbe
Infectious diseases can be transmitted and they cause a significant burden on public health globally. They are the greatest world killers and it is estimated that they are responsible for the demise of over 17 million people annually. The impact of these diseases is greater in the developing countries. People with compromised immune systems and children are the most affected. Infectious diseases may be caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The treatment of infectious diseases is hampered by simultaneous resistance to multiple drugs, indicating that there is a serious and pressing need to develop new therapeutics that can overcome drug resistance...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817105/bioactive-compounds-from-mexican-varieties-of-the-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-implications-for-health
#9
REVIEW
Celia Chávez-Mendoza, Esteban Sánchez
As Mexico is located within Mesoamerica, it is considered the site where the bean plant originated and where it was domesticated. Beans have been an integral part of the Mexican diet for thousands of years. Within the country, there are a number of genotypes possessing highly diverse physical and chemical properties. This review describes the major bioactive compounds contained on the Mexican varieties of the common bean. A brief analysis is carried out regarding the benefits they have on health. The effect of seed coat color on the nutraceutical compounds content is distinguished, where black bean stands out because it is high content of anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids such as quercetin...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817102/anticancer-activity-of-ramalin-a-secondary-metabolite-from-the-antarctic-lichen-ramalina-terebrata-against-colorectal-cancer-cells
#10
Sung-Suk Suh, Tai Kyoung Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Ju-Mi Hong, Trang Thu Thi Nguyen, Se Jong Han, Ui Joung Youn, Joung Han Yim, Il-Chan Kim
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and occurs through the highly complex coordination of multiple cellular pathways, resulting in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have increasingly revealed that constituents of lichen extracts exhibit potent pharmaceutical activities, including anticancer activity against various cancer cells, making them promising candidates for new anticancer therapeutic drugs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer capacities of ramalin, a secondary metabolite from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817092/biochemical-and-comparative-transcriptomic-analyses-identify-candidate-genes-related-to-variegation-formation-in-paeonia-rockii
#11
Qianqian Shi, Long Li, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jianrang Luo, Xiang Li, Lijuan Zhai, Lixia He, Yanlong Zhang
Paeonia rockii is a wild tree peony species with large and dark purple variegations at the base of its petals. It is the genetic resource for various variegation patterns in tree peony cultivars, which is in contrast to the pure white petals of Paeonia ostii. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of variegation in this plant is still unknown. Here, we conducted Illumina transcriptome sequencing for P. rockii, P. ostii (with pure white petals) and their F1 individuals (with purple-red variegation)...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817076/spirulina-maxima-extract-prevents-neurotoxicity-via-promoting-activation-of-bdnf-creb-signaling-pathways-in-neuronal-cells-and-mice
#12
Eun-Jeong Koh, Young-Jin Seo, Jia Choi, Hyeon Yong Lee, Do-Hyung Kang, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817073/extended-physicochemical-characterization-of-the-synthetic-anticoagulant-pentasaccharide-fondaparinux-sodium-by-quantitative-nmr-and-single-crystal-x-ray-analysis
#13
William de Wildt, Huub Kooijman, Carel Funke, Bülent Üstün, Afranina Leika, Maarten Lunenburg, Frans Kaspersen, Edwin Kellenbach
Fondaparinux sodium is a synthetic pentasaccharide representing the high affinity antithrombin III binding site in heparin. It is the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the anticoagulant drug Arixtra(®). The single crystal X-ray structure of Fondaparinux sodium is reported, unequivocally confirming both structure and absolute configuration. The iduronic acid adopts a somewhat distorted chair conformation. Due to the presence of many sulfur atoms in the highly sulfated pentasaccharide, anomalous dispersion could be applied to determine the absolute configuration...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813027/sulfonamide-linked-ciprofloxacin-sulfadiazine-and-amantadine-derivatives-as-a-novel-class-of-inhibitors-of-jack-bean-urease-synthesis-kinetic-mechanism-and-molecular-docking
#14
Pervaiz Ali Channar, Aamer Saeed, Fernando Albericio, Fayaz Ali Larik, Qamar Abbas, Mubashir Hassan, Hussain Raza, Sung-Yum Seo
Sulfonamide derivatives serve as an important building blocks in the drug design discovery and development (4D) process. Ciprofloxacin-, sulfadiazine- and amantadine-based sulfonamides were synthesized as potent inhibitors of jack bean urease and free radical scavengers. Molecular diversity was explored and electronic factors were also examined. All 24 synthesized compounds exhibited excellent potential against urease enzyme. Compound 3e (IC50 = 0.081 ± 0.003 µM), 6a (IC50 = 0.0022 ± 0.0002 µM), 9e (IC50 = 0...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813015/transcriptional-responses-of-creeping-bentgrass-to-2-3-butanediol-a-bacterial-volatile-compound-bvc-analogue
#15
Yi Shi, Kuiju Niu, Bingru Huang, Wenhui Liu, Huiling Ma
Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) have been reported to enhance plant growth and elicit plant defenses against fungal infection and insect damage. The objective of this study was to determine transcriptomic changes in response to synthetic BVC that could be associated with plant resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in creeping bentgrass. The 2,3-butanediol (BD) (250 µM) was sprayed on creeping bentgrass leaves grown in jam jars. The result showed that synthetic BD induced plant defense against R. solani for creeping bentgrass...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813011/insights-into-the-effect-of-the-g245s-single-point-mutation-on-the-structure-of-p53-and-the-binding-of-the-protein-to-dna
#16
Marco Gaetano Lepre, Sara Ibrahim Omar, Gianvito Grasso, Umberto Morbiducci, Marco Agostino Deriu, Jack A Tuszynski
The transcription factor p53 is a potent tumor suppressor dubbed as the "guardian of the genome" because of its ability to orchestrate protective biological outputs in response to a variety of oncogenic stresses. Mutation and thus inactivation of p53 can be found in 50% of human tumors. The majority are missense mutations located in the DNA binding region. Among them, G245S is known to be a structural hotspot mutation. To understand the behaviors and differences between the wild-type and mutant, both a dimer of the wild type p53 (wt-p53) and its G245S mutant (G245S-mp53), complexed with DNA, were simulated using molecular dynamics for more than 1 μs...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813004/lactose-binding-induces-opposing-dynamics-changes-in-human-galectins-revealed-by-nmr-based-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange
#17
Chih-Ta Henry Chien, Meng-Ru Ho, Chung-Hung Lin, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in a myriad of biological functions. Despite their highly conserved carbohydrate binding motifs with essentially identical structures, their affinities for lactose, a common galectin inhibitor, vary significantly. Here, we aimed to examine the molecular basis of differential lactose affinities amongst galectins using solution-based techniques. Consistent dissociation constants of lactose binding were derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry and bio-layer interferometry for human galectin-1 (hGal1), galectin-7 (hGal7), and the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of galectin-8 (hGal8(NTD) and hGal8(CTD), respectively)...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809818/synthesis-of-5-galnac-conjugated-oligonucleotides-a-comparison-of-solid-and-solution-phase-conjugation-strategies
#18
Isaiah Cedillo, Dana Chreng, Elyse Engle, Lijian Chen, Andrew K McPherson, Andrew A Rodriguez
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) conjugated to triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) ligands represent an emerging approach to antisense therapy. Our current generation of GalNAc-ASO conjugates link the GalNAc to the 5'-terminus of the ASO. The conjugation reaction can be accomplished using solution-phase or solid-phase techniques. Here we show a direct comparison of a solution-phase and a solid-phase conjugation strategy. The solution-phase approach, using amine-pentafluorophenyl (PFP) ester coupling, is higher yielding and gives material of slightly higher purity, but requires several additional unit operations and longer production time...
August 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809817/synthesis-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-the-process-related-impurities-of-eplerenone-an-antihypertensive-drug
#19
Iwona Dams, Agata Białońska, Piotr Cmoch, Małgorzata Krupa, Anita Pietraszek, Anna Ostaszewska, Michał Chodyński
Two unknown impurities were observed during the process development for multigram-scale synthesis of eplerenone (Inspra(®)). The new process-related impurities were identified and fully characterized as the corresponding (7β,11α,17α)-11-hydroxy- and (7α,11β,17α)-9,11-dichloroeplerenone derivatives 12a and 13. Seven other known but poorly described in the literature eplerenone impurities, including four impurities A, B, C and E listed in the European Pharmacopoeia 8.4 were also detected, identified and fully characterized...
August 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809813/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-inhibitory-binding-of-alkylimidazolium-ionic-liquids-to-laccase
#20
Jianliang Sun, Hao Liu, Wenping Yang, Shicheng Chen, Shiyu Fu
Water-miscible alkylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) are "green" co-solvents for laccase catalysis, but generally inhibit enzyme activity. Here, we present novel insights into inhibition mechanisms by a combination of enzyme kinetics analysis and molecular simulation. Alkylimidazolium cations competitively bound to the TI Cu active pocket in the laccase through hydrophobic interactions. Cations with shorter alkyl chains (C₂~C₆) entered the channel inside the pocket, exhibiting a high compatibility with laccase (competitive inhibition constant Kic = 3...
August 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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