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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526732/comment-on-how-we-become-ill-by-patrick-finzer
#1
LETTER
Agnese Mariotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515084/novel-diagnostic-technologies-for-clinical-and-frontline-use-advanced-diagnostics-based-on-molecular-markers-and-analysis-technologies-has-been-improving-diagnosis-across-a-wide-range-of-diseases
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515083/self-healing-capacity-of-deep-sea-ecosystems-affected-by-petroleum-hydrocarbons-understanding-microbial-oil-degradation-at-hydrocarbon-seeps-is-key-to-sustainable-bioremediation-protocols
#3
Alberto Scoma, Michail M Yakimov, Daniele Daffonchio, Nico Boon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515082/parkin-independent-mitophagy-fkbp8-takes-the-stage
#4
Grace Gy Lim, Kah-Leong Lim
Although the Parkin/PINK1 pathway has received considerable attention in recent years as a key regulator of mitophagy in mammals, it is important to recognize that multiple mitophagy receptors like BNIP3, NIX, and FUNDC1 exist that can promote the selective clearance of mitochondria in the absence of Parkin. In this issue, Bhujabal et al expand the repertoire of Parkin-independent mitophagy receptors to include the anti-apoptotic protein, FKBP8. The authors demonstrate that FKBP8 interacts preferentially with LC3A via its LIR motif to destroy damaged mitochondria...
May 17, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512121/agricultural-pest-control-with-crispr-based-gene-drive-time-for-public-debate-should-we-use-gene-drive-for-pest-control
#5
Virginie Courtier-Orgogozo, Baptiste Morizot, Christophe Boëte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507163/ca-2-binding-to-f-atp-synthase-%C3%AE-subunit-triggers-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition
#6
Valentina Giorgio, Victoria Burchell, Marco Schiavone, Claudio Bassot, Giovanni Minervini, Valeria Petronilli, Francesco Argenton, Michael Forte, Silvio Tosatto, Giovanna Lippe, Paolo Bernardi
F-ATP synthases convert the electrochemical energy of the H(+) gradient into the chemical energy of ATP with remarkable efficiency. Mitochondrial F-ATP synthases can also undergo a Ca(2+)-dependent transformation to form channels with properties matching those of the permeability transition pore (PTP), a key player in cell death. The Ca(2+) binding site and the mechanism(s) through which Ca(2+) can transform the energy-conserving enzyme into a dissipative structure promoting cell death remain unknown. Through in vitro, in vivo and in silico studies we (i) pinpoint the "Ca(2+)-trigger site" of the PTP to the catalytic site of the F-ATP synthase β subunit and (ii) define a conformational change that propagates from the catalytic site through OSCP and the lateral stalk to the inner membrane...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507162/lipophagy-prevents-activity-dependent-neurodegeneration-due-to-dihydroceramide-accumulation-in-vivo
#7
Wei-Hung Jung, Chung-Chih Liu, Yu-Lian Yu, Yu-Chin Chang, Wen-Yu Lien, Hsi-Chun Chao, Shu-Yi Huang, Ching-Hua Kuo, Han-Chen Ho, Chih-Chiang Chan
Dihydroceramide desaturases are evolutionarily conserved enzymes that convert dihydroceramide (dhCer) to ceramide (Cer). While elevated Cer levels cause neurodegenerative diseases, the neuronal activity of its direct precursor, dhCer, remains unclear. We show that knockout of the fly dhCer desaturase gene, infertile crescent (ifc), results in larval lethality with increased dhCer and decreased Cer levels. Light stimulation leads to ROS increase and apoptotic cell death in ifc-KO photoreceptors, resulting in activity-dependent neurodegeneration...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500258/transposon-driven-transcription-is-a-conserved-feature-of-vertebrate-spermatogenesis-and-transcript-evolution
#8
Matthew P Davis, Claudia Carrieri, Harpreet K Saini, Stijn van Dongen, Tommaso Leonardi, Giovanni Bussotti, Jack M Monahan, Tania Auchynnikava, Angelo Bitetti, Juri Rappsilber, Robin C Allshire, Alena Shkumatava, Dónal O'Carroll, Anton J Enright
Spermatogenesis is associated with major and unique changes to chromosomes and chromatin. Here, we sought to understand the impact of these changes on spermatogenic transcriptomes. We show that long terminal repeats (LTRs) of specific mouse endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) drive the expression of many long non-coding transcripts (lncRNA). This process occurs post-mitotically predominantly in spermatocytes and round spermatids. We demonstrate that this transposon-driven lncRNA expression is a conserved feature of vertebrate spermatogenesis...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500257/zbtb48-is-both-a-vertebrate-telomere-binding-protein-and-a-transcriptional-activator
#9
Arne Jahn, Grishma Rane, Maciej Paszkowski-Rogacz, Sergi Sayols, Alina Bluhm, Chung-Ting Han, Irena Draškovič, José Arturo Londoño-Vallejo, Alan Prem Kumar, Frank Buchholz, Falk Butter, Dennis Kappei
Telomeres constitute the ends of linear chromosomes and together with the shelterin complex form a structure essential for genome maintenance and stability. In addition to the constitutive binding of the shelterin complex, other direct, yet more transient interactions are mediated by the CST complex and HOT1/HMBOX1, while subtelomeric variant repeats are recognized by NR2C/F transcription factors. Recently, the Kruppel-like zinc finger protein ZBTB48/HKR3/TZAP has been described as a novel telomere-associated factor in the vertebrate lineage...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500256/tzap-ing-telomeres-down-to-size
#10
Laura Garcia-Exposito, Roderick J O'Sullivan
The phenomenon of gradual telomere shortening has become a paradigm for how we understand the biology of aging and cancer. Cell proliferation is accompanied by cumulative telomere loss, and the aged cell either senesces, dies or transforms toward cancer. This transformation requires the activation of telomere elongation mechanisms in order to restore telomere length such that cell death or senescence programs are not induced. Most of the time, this occurs through telomerase reactivation. In other rare cases, the Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway hijacks DNA recombination-associated mechanisms to hyperextend telomeres, often to more than 50 kb...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487353/the-chromatin-remodelling-factor-atrx-suppresses-r-loops-in-transcribed-telomeric-repeats
#11
Diu Tt Nguyen, Hsiao Phin J Voon, Barbara Xella, Caroline Scott, David Clynes, Christian Babbs, Helena Ayyub, Jon Kerry, Jacqueline A Sharpe, Jackie A Sloane-Stanley, Sue Butler, Chris A Fisher, Nicki E Gray, Thomas Jenuwein, Douglas R Higgs, Richard J Gibbons
ATRX is a chromatin remodelling factor found at a wide range of tandemly repeated sequences including telomeres (TTAGGG)n ATRX mutations are found in nearly all tumours that maintain their telomeres via the alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway, and ATRX is known to suppress this pathway. Here, we show that recruitment of ATRX to telomeric repeats depends on repeat number, orientation and, critically, on repeat transcription. Importantly, the transcribed telomeric repeats form RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) whose abundance correlates with the recruitment of ATRX Here, we show loss of ATRX is also associated with increased R-loop formation...
May 9, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487352/in-vivo-structures-of-an-intact-type-vi-secretion-system-revealed-by-electron-cryotomography
#12
Yi-Wei Chang, Lee A Rettberg, Davi R Ortega, Grant J Jensen
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile molecular weapon used by many bacteria against eukaryotic hosts or prokaryotic competitors. It consists of a cytoplasmic bacteriophage tail-like structure anchored in the bacterial cell envelope via a cytoplasmic baseplate and a periplasmic membrane complex. Rapid contraction of the sheath in the bacteriophage tail-like structure propels an inner tube/spike complex through the target cell envelope to deliver effectors. While structures of purified contracted sheath and purified membrane complex have been solved, because sheaths contract upon cell lysis and purification, no structure is available for the extended sheath...
May 9, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483842/molecular-interactions-between-tubulin-tails-and-glutamylases-reveal-determinants-of-glutamylation-patterns
#13
Kathiresan Natarajan, Sudarshan Gadadhar, Judith Souphron, Maria M Magiera, Carsten Janke
Posttranslational modifications of tubulin currently emerge as key regulators of microtubule functions. Polyglutamylation generates a variety of modification patterns that are essential for controlling microtubule functions in different cell types and organelles, and deregulation of these patterns has been linked to ciliopathies, cancer and neurodegeneration. How the different glutamylating enzymes determine precise modification patterns has so far remained elusive. Using computational modelling, molecular dynamics simulations and mutational analyses we now show how the carboxy-terminal tails of tubulin bind into the active sites of glutamylases...
May 8, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483841/trem2-deficiency-impairs-chemotaxis-and-microglial-responses-to-neuronal-injury
#14
Fargol Mazaheri, Nicolas Snaidero, Gernot Kleinberger, Charlotte Madore, Anna Daria, Georg Werner, Susanne Krasemann, Anja Capell, Dietrich Trümbach, Wolfgang Wurst, Bettina Brunner, Sebastian Bultmann, Sabina Tahirovic, Martin Kerschensteiner, Thomas Misgeld, Oleg Butovsky, Christian Haass
Sequence variations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have been linked to an increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In the brain, TREM2 is predominantly expressed in microglia. Several disease-associated TREM2 variants result in a loss of function by reducing microglial phagocytosis, impairing lipid sensing, preventing binding of lipoproteins and affecting shielding of amyloid plaques. We here investigate the consequences of TREM2 loss of function on the microglia transcriptome...
May 8, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473421/comment-on-improving-research-misconduct-policies-by-redman-caplan
#15
LETTER
Brian C Martinson, Carol R Thrush, C K Gunsalus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473420/response-by-the-authors
#16
LETTER
Barbara K Redman, Arthur L Caplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468957/bacilli-glutamate-dehydrogenases-diverged-via-coevolution-of-transcription-and-enzyme-regulation
#17
Lianet Noda-Garcia, Maria Luisa Romero Romero, Liam M Longo, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal, Dan S Tawfik
The linkage between regulatory elements of transcription, such as promoters, and their protein products is central to gene function. Promoter-protein coevolution is therefore expected, but rarely observed, and the manner by which these two regulatory levels are linked remains largely unknown. We study glutamate dehydrogenase-a hub of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In Bacillus subtilis, two paralogues exist: GudB is constitutively transcribed whereas RocG is tightly regulated. In their active, oligomeric states, both enzymes show similar enzymatic rates...
May 3, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468956/structural-insight-into-recognition-of-phosphorylated-threonine-4-of-rna-polymerase-ii-c-terminal-domain-by-rtt103p
#18
Olga Jasnovidova, Magdalena Krejcikova, Karel Kubicek, Richard Stefl
Phosphorylation patterns of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (called the CTD code) orchestrate the recruitment of RNA processing and transcription factors. Recent studies showed that not only serines and tyrosines but also threonines of the CTD can be phosphorylated with a number of functional consequences, including the interaction with yeast transcription termination factor, Rtt103p. Here, we report the solution structure of the Rtt103p CTD-interacting domain (CID) bound to Thr4 phosphorylated CTD, a poorly understood letter of the CTD code...
May 2, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468955/hyper-reactive-cloned-mice-generated-by-direct-nuclear-transfer-of-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells
#19
Osamu Kaminuma, Kazufumi Katayama, Kimiko Inoue, Mayumi Saeki, Tomoe Nishimura, Noriko Kitamura, Yusuke Shimo, Soichi Tofukuji, Satoru Ishida, Narumi Ogonuki, Satoshi Kamimura, Mami Oikawa, Shigeki Katoh, Akio Mori, Michitaka Shichijo, Takachika Hiroi, Atsuo Ogura
T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic mice have been employed for evaluating antigen-response mechanisms, but their non-endogenous TCR might induce immune response differently than the physiologically expressed TCR Nuclear transfer cloning produces animals that retain the donor genotype in all tissues including germline and immune systems. Taking advantage of this feature, we generated cloned mice that carry endogenously rearranged TCR genes from antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. We show that T cells of the cloned mice display distinct developmental pattern and antigen reactivity because of their endogenously pre-rearranged TCRα (rTα) and TCRβ (rTβ) alleles...
May 2, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446613/structural-basis-for-ligand-capture-and-release-by-the-endocytic-receptor-apoer2
#20
Hidenori Hirai, Norihisa Yasui, Keitaro Yamashita, Sanae Tabata, Masaki Yamamoto, Junichi Takagi, Terukazu Nogi
Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) is a close homologue of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that mediates the endocytosis of ligands, including LDL particles. LDLR family members have been presumed to explore a large conformational space to capture ligands in the extended conformation at the cell surface. Ligands are subsequently released through a pH-titrated structural transition to a self-docked, contracted-closed conformation. In addition to lipoprotein uptake, ApoER2 is implicated in signal transduction during brain development through capture of the extracellular protein reelin...
April 26, 2017: EMBO Reports
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