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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096527/dna-repair-histones-have-got-to-go
#1
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096526/telomeres-in-cancer-tumour-suppression-and-genome-instability
#2
John Maciejowski, Titia de Lange
The shortening of human telomeres has two opposing effects during cancer development. On the one hand, telomere shortening can exert a tumour-suppressive effect through the proliferation arrest induced by activating the kinases ATM and ATR at unprotected chromosome ends. On the other hand, loss of telomere protection can lead to telomere crisis, which is a state of extensive genome instability that can promote cancer progression. Recent data, reviewed here, provide new evidence for the telomere tumour suppressor pathway and has revealed that telomere crisis can induce numerous cancer-relevant changes, including chromothripsis, kataegis and tetraploidization...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074062/translation-smoothening-the-coding-sequence-for-translation
#3
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074061/cell-death-pulling-the-apoptotic-trigger-for-necrosis
#4
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053349/rna-metabolism-modifying-sex-in-flies
#5
Denise Waldron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053348/glucocorticoid-receptor-control-of-transcription-precision-and-plasticity-via-allostery
#6
Emily R Weikum, Matthew T Knuesel, Eric A Ortlund, Keith R Yamamoto
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a constitutively expressed transcriptional regulatory factor (TRF) that controls many distinct gene networks, each uniquely determined by particular cellular and physiological contexts. The precision of GR-mediated responses seems to depend on combinatorial, context-specific assembly of GR-nucleated transcription regulatory complexes at genomic response elements. In turn, evidence suggests that context-driven plasticity is conferred by the integration of multiple signals, each serving as an allosteric effector of GR conformation, a key determinant of regulatory complex composition and activity...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053347/functions-of-bromodomain-containing-proteins-and-their-roles-in-homeostasis-and-cancer
#7
Takao Fujisawa, Panagis Filippakopoulos
Bromodomains (BRDs) are evolutionarily conserved protein-protein interaction modules that are found in a wide range of proteins with diverse catalytic and scaffolding functions and are present in most tissues. BRDs selectively recognize and bind to acetylated Lys residues - particularly in histones - and thereby have important roles in the regulation of gene expression. BRD-containing proteins are frequently dysregulated in cancer, they participate in gene fusions that generate diverse, frequently oncogenic proteins, and many cancer-causing mutations have been mapped to the BRDs themselves...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053346/synthetic-biology-designer-cells-tackle-diabetes
#8
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053345/ageing-forever-young
#9
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053344/histone-chaperone-networks-shaping-chromatin-function
#10
Colin M Hammond, Caroline B Strømme, Hongda Huang, Dinshaw J Patel, Anja Groth
The association of histones with specific chaperone complexes is important for their folding, oligomerization, post-translational modification, nuclear import, stability, assembly and genomic localization. In this way, the chaperoning of soluble histones is a key determinant of histone availability and fate, which affects all chromosomal processes, including gene expression, chromosome segregation and genome replication and repair. Here, we review the distinct structural and functional properties of the expanding network of histone chaperones...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999438/necroptosis-in-development-inflammation-and-disease
#11
Ricardo Weinlich, Andrew Oberst, Helen M Beere, Douglas R Green
In the early 2000s, receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), a molecule already recognized as an important regulator of cell survival, inflammation and disease, was attributed an additional function: the regulation of a novel cell death pathway that came to be known as necroptosis. Subsequently, the related kinase RIPK3 and its substrate mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) were also implicated in the necroptotic pathway, and links between this pathway and apoptosis were established...
December 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999437/the-nuclear-pore-complex-understanding-its-function-through-structural-insight
#12
Martin Beck, Ed Hurt
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) fuse the inner and outer nuclear membranes to form channels across the nuclear envelope. They are large macromolecular assemblies with a complex composition and diverse functions. Apart from facilitating nucleocytoplasmic transport, NPCs are involved in chromatin organization, the regulation of gene expression and DNA repair. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these functions has been hampered by a lack of structural knowledge about the NPC. The recent convergence of crystallographic and biochemical in vitro analysis of nucleoporins (NUPs), the components of the NPC, with cryo-electron microscopic imaging of the entire NPC in situ has provided first pseudo-atomic view of its central core and revealed that an unexpected network of short linear motifs is an important spatial organization principle...
December 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924077/metabolic-regulation-of-gene-expression-through-histone-acylations
#13
Benjamin R Sabari, Di Zhang, C David Allis, Yingming Zhao
Eight types of short-chain Lys acylations have recently been identified on histones: propionylation, butyrylation, 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, succinylation, malonylation, glutarylation, crotonylation and β-hydroxybutyrylation. Emerging evidence suggests that these histone modifications affect gene expression and are structurally and functionally different from the widely studied histone Lys acetylation. In this Review, we discuss the regulation of non-acetyl histone acylation by enzymatic and metabolic mechanisms, the acylation 'reader' proteins that mediate the effects of different acylations and their physiological functions, which include signal-dependent gene activation, spermatogenesis, tissue injury and metabolic stress...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924075/histone-variants-on-the-move-substrates-for-chromatin-dynamics
#14
Paul B Talbert, Steven Henikoff
Most histones are assembled into nucleosomes behind the replication fork to package newly synthesized DNA. By contrast, histone variants, which are encoded by separate genes, are typically incorporated throughout the cell cycle. Histone variants can profoundly change chromatin properties, which in turn affect DNA replication and repair, transcription, and chromosome packaging and segregation. Recent advances in the study of histone replacement have elucidated the dynamic processes by which particular histone variants become substrates of histone chaperones, ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers and histone-modifying enzymes...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847391/the-roles-of-rna-processing-in-translating-genotype-to-phenotype
#15
Kassie S Manning, Thomas A Cooper
A goal of human genetics studies is to determine the mechanisms by which genetic variation produces phenotypic differences that affect human health. Efforts in this respect have previously focused on genetic variants that affect mRNA levels by altering epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Recent studies show that genetic variants that affect RNA processing are at least equally as common as, and are largely independent from, those variants that affect transcription. We highlight the impact of genetic variation on pre-mRNA splicing and polyadenylation, and on the stability, translation and structure of mRNAs as mechanisms that produce phenotypic traits...
November 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924076/stem-cells-hsc-function-determined-by-epigenetic-memory
#16
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899823/cell-migration-let-your-fingers-do-the-walking
#17
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876786/a-view-of-human-haematopoietic-development-from-the-petri-dish
#18
Andrea Ditadi, Christopher M Sturgeon, Gordon Keller
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide an unparalleled opportunity to establish in vitro differentiation models that will transform our approach to the study of human development. In the case of the blood system, these models will enable investigation of the earliest stages of human embryonic haematopoiesis that was previously not possible. In addition, they will provide platforms for studying the origins of human blood cell diseases and for generating de novo haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell populations for cell-based regenerative therapies...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808276/post-transcriptional-gene-regulation-by-mrna-modifications
#19
Boxuan Simen Zhao, Ian A Roundtree, Chuan He
The recent discovery of reversible mRNA methylation has opened a new realm of post-transcriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. The identification and functional characterization of proteins that specifically recognize RNA N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) unveiled it as a modification that cells utilize to accelerate mRNA metabolism and translation. N(6)-adenosine methylation directs mRNAs to distinct fates by grouping them for differential processing, translation and decay in processes such as cell differentiation, embryonic development and stress responses...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703243/reverse-topology-membrane-scission-by-the-escrt-proteins
#20
Johannes Schöneberg, Il-Hyung Lee, Janet H Iwasa, James H Hurley
The narrow membrane necks formed during viral, exosomal and intra-endosomal budding from membranes, as well as during cytokinesis and related processes, have interiors that are contiguous with the cytosol. Severing these necks involves action from the opposite face of the membrane as occurs during the well-characterized formation of coated vesicles. This 'reverse' (or 'inverse')-topology membrane scission is carried out by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins, which form filaments, flat spirals, tubes and conical funnels that are thought to direct membrane remodelling and scission...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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