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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293032/planar-cell-polarity-in-development-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Mitchell T Butler, John B Wallingford
Planar cell polarity (PCP) is an essential feature of animal tissues, whereby distinct polarity is established within the plane of a cell sheet. Tissue-wide establishment of PCP is driven by multiple global cues, including gradients of gene expression, gradients of secreted WNT ligands and anisotropic tissue strain. These cues guide the dynamic, subcellular enrichment of PCP proteins, which can self-assemble into mutually exclusive complexes at opposite sides of a cell. Endocytosis, endosomal trafficking and degradation dynamics of PCP components further regulate planar tissue patterning...
March 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270684/regulatory-feedback-from-nascent-rna-to-chromatin-and-transcription
#2
REVIEW
Lenka Skalska, Manuel Beltran-Nebot, Jernej Ule, Richard G Jenner
Transcription and chromatin function are regulated by proteins that bind to DNA, nucleosomes or RNA polymerase II, with specific non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) functioning to modulate their recruitment or activity. Unlike ncRNAs, nascent pre-mRNA was considered to be primarily a passive player in these processes. In this Opinion article, we describe recently identified interactions between nascent pre-mRNAs and regulatory proteins, highlight commonalities between the functions of nascent pre-mRNA and nascent ncRNA, and propose that both types of RNA have an active role in transcription and chromatin regulation...
March 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250415/stem-cells-self-consumption-will-keep-your-blood-young
#3
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248323/the-code-and-beyond-transcription-regulation-by-the-rna-polymerase-ii-carboxy-terminal-domain
#4
REVIEW
Kevin M Harlen, L Stirling Churchman
The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) extends from the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) as a long, repetitive and largely unstructured polypeptide chain. Throughout the transcription process, the CTD is dynamically modified by post-translational modifications, many of which facilitate or hinder the recruitment of key regulatory factors of Pol II that collectively constitute the 'CTD code'. Recent studies have revealed how the physicochemical properties of the CTD promote phase separation in the presence of other low-complexity domains...
March 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248322/global-treadmilling-coordinates-actin-turnover-and-controls-the-size-of-actin-networks
#5
REVIEW
Marie-France Carlier, Shashank Shekhar
Various cellular processes (including cell motility) are driven by the regulated, polarized assembly of actin filaments into distinct force-producing arrays of defined size and architecture. Branched, linear, contractile and cytosolic arrays coexist in vivo, and cells intricately control the number, length and assembly rate of filaments in these arrays. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed novel molecular mechanisms that regulate the number of filament barbed and pointed ends and their respective assembly and disassembly rates, thus defining classes of dynamically different filaments, which coexist in the same cell...
March 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248321/unclogging-sickle-cell-anaemia
#6
Hojun Li, Harvey Lodish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248320/non-coding-rna-the-cancer-link-rna-between-pip3-and-akt
#7
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225081/biomolecular-condensates-organizers-of-cellular-biochemistry
#8
REVIEW
Salman F Banani, Hyun O Lee, Anthony A Hyman, Michael K Rosen
Biomolecular condensates are micron-scale compartments in eukaryotic cells that lack surrounding membranes but function to concentrate proteins and nucleic acids. These condensates are involved in diverse processes, including RNA metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, the DNA damage response and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown that liquid-liquid phase separation driven by multivalent macromolecular interactions is an important organizing principle for biomolecular condensates. With this physical framework, it is now possible to explain how the assembly, composition, physical properties and biochemical and cellular functions of these important structures are regulated...
February 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225080/dna-g-quadruplexes-in-the-human-genome-detection-functions-and-therapeutic-potential
#9
REVIEW
Robert Hänsel-Hertsch, Marco Di Antonio, Shankar Balasubramanian
Single-stranded guanine-rich DNA sequences can fold into four-stranded DNA structures called G-quadruplexes (G4s) that arise from the self-stacking of two or more guanine quartets. There has been considerable recent progress in the detection and mapping of G4 structures in the human genome and in biologically relevant contexts. These advancements, many of which align with predictions made previously in computational studies, provide important new insights into the functions of G4 structures in, for example, the regulation of transcription and genome stability, and uncover their potential relevance for cancer therapy...
February 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196981/rna-based-recognition-and-targeting-sowing-the-seeds-of-specificity
#10
REVIEW
Stanislaw A Gorski, Jörg Vogel, Jennifer A Doudna
RNA is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, often by forming sequence-specific base pairs with cellular RNA or DNA targets that must be identified among the large number of nucleic acids in a cell. Several RNA-based regulatory systems in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and small RNAs (sRNAs) that are dependent on the RNA chaperone protein Hfq, achieve specificity using similar strategies. Central to their function is the presentation of short 'seed sequences' within a ribonucleoprotein complex to facilitate the search for and recognition of targets...
February 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144029/variants-of-core-histones-and-their-roles-in-cell-fate-decisions-development-and-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Marcus Buschbeck, Sandra B Hake
Histone variants endow chromatin with unique properties and show a specific genomic distribution that is regulated by specific deposition and removal machineries. These variants - in particular, H2A.Z, macroH2A and H3.3 - have important roles in early embryonic development, and they regulate the lineage commitment of stem cells, as well as the converse process of somatic cell reprogramming to pluripotency. Recent progress has also shed light on how mutations, transcriptional deregulation and changes in the deposition machineries of histone variants affect the process of tumorigenesis...
February 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120913/mechanisms-and-functions-of-nuclear-envelope-remodelling
#12
REVIEW
Rosemarie Ungricht, Ulrike Kutay
As a compartment border, the nuclear envelope (NE) needs to serve as both a protective membrane shell for the genome and a versatile communication interface between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Despite its important structural role in sheltering the genome, the NE is a dynamic and highly adaptable boundary that changes composition during differentiation, deforms in response to mechanical challenges, can be repaired upon rupture and even rapidly disassembles and reforms during open mitosis. NE remodelling is fundamentally involved in cell growth, division and differentiation, and if perturbed can lead to devastating diseases such as muscular dystrophies or premature ageing...
January 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074062/translation-smoothening-the-coding-sequence-for-translation
#13
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074061/cell-death-pulling-the-apoptotic-trigger-for-necrosis
#14
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053349/rna-metabolism-modifying-sex-in-flies
#15
Denise Waldron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053346/synthetic-biology-designer-cells-tackle-diabetes
#16
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053345/ageing-forever-young
#17
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053347/functions-of-bromodomain-containing-proteins-and-their-roles-in-homeostasis-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Takao Fujisawa, Panagis Filippakopoulos
Bromodomains (BRDs) are evolutionarily conserved protein-protein interaction modules that are found in a wide range of proteins with diverse catalytic and scaffolding functions and are present in most tissues. BRDs selectively recognize and bind to acetylated Lys residues - particularly in histones - and thereby have important roles in the regulation of gene expression. BRD-containing proteins are frequently dysregulated in cancer, they participate in gene fusions that generate diverse, frequently oncogenic proteins, and many cancer-causing mutations have been mapped to the BRDs themselves...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174430/mitotic-spindle-assembly-in-animal-cells-a-fine-balancing-act
#19
REVIEW
Suzanna L Prosser, Laurence Pelletier
The mitotic spindle has a crucial role in ensuring the accurate segregation of chromosomes into the two daughter cells during cell division, which is paramount for maintaining genome integrity. It is a self-organized and dynamic macromolecular structure that is constructed from microtubules, microtubule-associated proteins and motor proteins. Thirty years of research have led to the identification of centrosome-, chromatin- and microtubule-mediated microtubule nucleation pathways that each contribute to mitotic spindle assembly...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144032/stem-cells-a-key-to-totipotency
#20
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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