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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512352/stem-cells-stem-cell-based-therapies-threatened-by-the-accumulation-of-p53-mutations
#1
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512351/non-homologous-dna-end-joining-and-alternative-pathways-to-double-strand-break-repair
#2
REVIEW
Howard H Y Chang, Nicholas R Pannunzio, Noritaka Adachi, Michael R Lieber
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most dangerous type of DNA damage because they can result in the loss of large chromosomal regions. In all mammalian cells, DSBs that occur throughout the cell cycle are repaired predominantly by the non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Defects in NHEJ result in sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the ablation of lymphocytes. The NHEJ pathway utilizes proteins that recognize, resect, polymerize and ligate the DNA ends in a flexible manner. This flexibility permits NHEJ to function on a wide range of DNA-end configurations, with the resulting repaired DNA junctions often containing mutations...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512350/mechanisms-of-action-and-regulation-of-atp-dependent-chromatin-remodelling-complexes
#3
REVIEW
Cedric R Clapier, Janet Iwasa, Bradley R Cairns, Craig L Peterson
Cells utilize diverse ATP-dependent nucleosome-remodelling complexes to carry out histone sliding, ejection or the incorporation of histone variants, suggesting that different mechanisms of action are used by the various chromatin-remodelling complex subfamilies. However, all chromatin-remodelling complex subfamilies contain an ATPase-translocase 'motor' that translocates DNA from a common location within the nucleosome. In this Review, we discuss (and illustrate with animations) an alternative, unifying mechanism of chromatin remodelling, which is based on the regulation of DNA translocation...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512349/the-winding-path-of-protein-methylation-research-milestones-and-new-frontiers
#4
REVIEW
Jernej Murn, Yang Shi
In 1959, while analysing the bacterial flagellar proteins, Ambler and Rees observed an unknown species of amino acid that they eventually identified as methylated lysine. Over half a century later, protein methylation is known to have a regulatory role in many essential cellular processes that range from gene transcription to signal transduction. However, the road to this now burgeoning research field was obstacle-ridden, not least because of the inconspicuous nature of the methyl mark itself. Here, we chronicle the milestone achievements and discuss the future of protein methylation research...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488703/protein-o-glcnacylation-emerging-mechanisms-and-functions
#5
REVIEW
Xiaoyong Yang, Kevin Qian
O-GlcNAcylation - the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties to cytoplasmic, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins - is a post-translational modification that regulates fundamental cellular processes in metazoans. A single pair of enzymes - O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) - controls the dynamic cycling of this protein modification in a nutrient- and stress-responsive manner. Recent years have seen remarkable advances in our understanding of O-GlcNAcylation at levels that range from structural and molecular biology to cell signalling and gene regulation to physiology and disease...
May 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488700/alternative-splicing-as-a-regulator-of-development-and-tissue-identity
#6
REVIEW
Francisco E Baralle, Jimena Giudice
Alternative splicing of eukaryotic transcripts is a mechanism that enables cells to generate vast protein diversity from a limited number of genes. The mechanisms and outcomes of alternative splicing of individual transcripts are relatively well understood, and recent efforts have been directed towards studying splicing networks. It has become apparent that coordinated splicing networks regulate tissue and organ development, and that alternative splicing has important physiological functions in different developmental processes in humans...
May 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400610/the-development-and-functions-of-multiciliated-epithelia
#7
REVIEW
Nathalie Spassky, Alice Meunier
Multiciliated cells are epithelial cells that are in contact with bodily fluids and are required for the proper function of major organs including the brain, the respiratory system and the reproductive tracts. Their multiple motile cilia beat unidirectionally to remove particles of external origin from their surface and/or drive cells or fluids into the lumen of the organs. Multiciliated cells in the brain are produced once, almost exclusively during embryonic development, whereas in respiratory tracts and oviducts they regenerate throughout life...
April 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248323/the-code-and-beyond-transcription-regulation-by-the-rna-polymerase-ii-carboxy-terminal-domain
#8
REVIEW
Kevin M Harlen, L Stirling Churchman
The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) extends from the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) as a long, repetitive and largely unstructured polypeptide chain. Throughout the transcription process, the CTD is dynamically modified by post-translational modifications, many of which facilitate or hinder the recruitment of key regulatory factors of Pol II that collectively constitute the 'CTD code'. Recent studies have revealed how the physicochemical properties of the CTD promote phase separation in the presence of other low-complexity domains...
March 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488702/mechanisms-of-diseases-excessive-polyq-tracts-curb-autophagy
#9
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488701/rna-decay-the-anti-apoptotic-function-of-adar1
#10
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488699/charting-the-unknown-epitranscriptome
#11
Eva Maria Novoa, Christopher E Mason, John S Mattick
RNA modifications can alter RNA structure-function relationships and various cellular processes. However, the genomic distribution and biological roles of most RNA modifications remain uncharacterized. Here, we propose using phage display antibody technology and direct sequencing through nanopores to facilitate systematic interrogation of the distribution, location and dynamics of RNA modifications.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429790/ageing-is-fat-a-key-to-longevity
#12
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429789/cell-death-escrting-dying-cells-back-to-life
#13
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429788/the-hsp90-chaperone-machinery
#14
REVIEW
Florian H Schopf, Maximilian M Biebl, Johannes Buchner
The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone machinery is a key regulator of proteostasis under both physiological and stress conditions in eukaryotic cells. As HSP90 has several hundred protein substrates (or 'clients'), it is involved in many cellular processes beyond protein folding, which include DNA repair, development, the immune response and neurodegenerative disease. A large number of co-chaperones interact with HSP90 and regulate the ATPase-associated conformational changes of the HSP90 dimer that occur during the processing of clients...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400611/the-moment-when-translational-control-had-a-theory-of-everything
#15
Allan Jacobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400609/metabolism-methyl-groups-sink-into-phospholipids-and-histones
#16
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356571/the-mystery-of-membrane-organization-composition-regulation-and-roles-of-lipid-rafts
#17
REVIEW
Erdinc Sezgin, Ilya Levental, Satyajit Mayor, Christian Eggeling
Cellular plasma membranes are laterally heterogeneous, featuring a variety of distinct subcompartments that differ in their biophysical properties and composition. A large number of studies have focused on understanding the basis for this heterogeneity and its physiological relevance. The membrane raft hypothesis formalized a physicochemical principle for a subtype of such lateral membrane heterogeneity, in which the preferential associations between cholesterol and saturated lipids drive the formation of relatively packed (or ordered) membrane domains that selectively recruit certain lipids and proteins...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293032/planar-cell-polarity-in-development-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Mitchell T Butler, John B Wallingford
Planar cell polarity (PCP) is an essential feature of animal tissues, whereby distinct polarity is established within the plane of a cell sheet. Tissue-wide establishment of PCP is driven by multiple global cues, including gradients of gene expression, gradients of secreted WNT ligands and anisotropic tissue strain. These cues guide the dynamic, subcellular enrichment of PCP proteins, which can self-assemble into mutually exclusive complexes at opposite sides of a cell. Endocytosis, endosomal trafficking and degradation dynamics of PCP components further regulate planar tissue patterning...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248322/global-treadmilling-coordinates-actin-turnover-and-controls-the-size-of-actin-networks
#19
REVIEW
Marie-France Carlier, Shashank Shekhar
Various cellular processes (including cell motility) are driven by the regulated, polarized assembly of actin filaments into distinct force-producing arrays of defined size and architecture. Branched, linear, contractile and cytosolic arrays coexist in vivo, and cells intricately control the number, length and assembly rate of filaments in these arrays. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed novel molecular mechanisms that regulate the number of filament barbed and pointed ends and their respective assembly and disassembly rates, thus defining classes of dynamically different filaments, which coexist in the same cell...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377621/cell-senescence-a-new-role-for-atm
#20
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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