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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339798/shedding-light-on-the-cell-biology-of-extracellular-vesicles
#1
REVIEW
Guillaume van Niel, Gisela D'Angelo, Gra├ža Raposo
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising exosomes and microvesicles, which originate from the endosomal system or which are shed from the plasma membrane, respectively. They are present in biological fluids and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material. Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern extracellular vesicle biology is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis...
January 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339797/a-brave-new-world-of-rna-binding-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Matthias W Hentze, Alfredo Castello, Thomas Schwarzl, Thomas Preiss
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are typically thought of as proteins that bind RNA through one or multiple globular RNA-binding domains (RBDs) and change the fate or function of the bound RNAs. Several hundred such RBPs have been discovered and investigated over the years. Recent proteome-wide studies have more than doubled the number of proteins implicated in RNA binding and uncovered hundreds of additional RBPs lacking conventional RBDs. In this Review, we discuss these new RBPs and the emerging understanding of their unexpected modes of RNA binding, which can be mediated by intrinsically disordered regions, protein-protein interaction interfaces and enzymatic cores, among others...
January 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339796/a-user-s-guide-to-the-ambiguous-word-epigenetics
#3
John M Greally
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259336/gene-expression-the-yin-and-yang-of-enhancer-promoter-interactions
#4
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259335/mitochondria-back-to-the-future
#5
Navdeep S Chandel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259334/the-comeback-of-hand-drawing-in-modern-life-sciences
#6
Renaud Chabrier, Carsten Janke
Scientific manuscripts are full of images. Since the birth of the life sciences, these images were in a form of hand drawings, with great examples from da Vinci, Hooke, van Leeuwenhoek, Remak, Buffon, Bovery, Darwin, Huxley, Haeckel and Gray's Anatomy to name a few. However, in the course of the past century, photographs and simplified schematics have gradually taken over as a way of illustrating scientific data and concepts, assuming that these are 'accurate' representations of the truth. Here, we argue for the importance of reviving the art of scientific drawings as a way of effectively communicating complex scientific ideas to both specialists and the general public...
December 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259333/unfolded-protein-response-pro-survival-clock-supression
#7
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235575/ageing-pol-iii-inhibition-new-promise-of-longevity
#8
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235574/ten-principles-of-heterochromatin-formation-and-function
#9
REVIEW
Robin C Allshire, Hiten D Madhani
Heterochromatin is a key architectural feature of eukaryotic chromosomes, which endows particular genomic domains with specific functional properties. The capacity of heterochromatin to restrain the activity of mobile elements, isolate DNA repair in repetitive regions and ensure accurate chromosome segregation is crucial for maintaining genomic stability. Nucleosomes at heterochromatin regions display histone post-translational modifications that contribute to developmental regulation by restricting lineage-specific gene expression...
December 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209056/transcription-regulation-by-the-mediator-complex
#10
REVIEW
Julie Soutourina
Alterations in the regulation of gene expression are frequently associated with developmental diseases or cancer. Transcription activation is a key phenomenon in the regulation of gene expression. In all eukaryotes, mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription (Mediator), a large complex with modular organization, is generally required for transcription by RNA polymerase II, and it regulates various steps of this process. The main function of Mediator is to transduce signals from the transcription activators bound to enhancer regions to the transcription machinery, which is assembled at promoters as the preinitiation complex (PIC) to control transcription initiation...
December 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209055/splicing-going-in-circles
#11
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184196/stem-cells-regenerating-the-skin-of-a-young-patient
#12
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184195/chromatin-dependencies-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
Ivan Marazzi, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Diana H P Low, Ernesto Guccione
Multiple cell-signalling pathways converge on chromatin to induce gene expression programmes. The inducible transcriptional programmes that are established as a result of inflammatory or oncogenic signals are controlled by shared chromatin regulators. Therapeutic targeting of such chromatin dependencies has proved effective for controlling tumorigenesis and for preventing immunopathologies that are driven by overt inflammation. In this Review, we discuss how chromatin dependencies are established to regulate the expression of key oncogenes and inflammation-promoting genes and how a better mechanistic understanding of such chromatin dependencies can be leveraged to improve the magnitude, timing, duration and selectivity of cell responses with the aim of minimizing unwanted cellular and systemic effects...
November 29, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165428/chromosome-biology-spindle-asymmetry-drives-selfish-segregation
#14
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165427/sphingolipids-and-their-metabolism-in-physiology-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Yusuf A Hannun, Lina M Obeid
Studies of bioactive lipids in general and sphingolipids in particular have intensified over the past several years, revealing an unprecedented and unanticipated complexity of the lipidome and its many functions, which rivals, if not exceeds, that of the genome or proteome. These results highlight critical roles for bioactive sphingolipids in most, if not all, major cell biological responses, including all major cell signalling pathways, and they link sphingolipid metabolism to key human diseases. Nevertheless, the fairly nascent field of bioactive sphingolipids still faces challenges in its biochemical and molecular underpinnings, including defining the molecular mechanisms of pathway and enzyme regulation, the study of lipid-protein interactions and the development of cellular probes, suitable biomarkers and therapeutic approaches...
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165426/the-mitochondrial-upr-mechanisms-physiological-functions-and-implications-in-ageing
#16
REVIEW
Tomer Shpilka, Cole M Haynes
Mitochondrial function declines during ageing owing to the accumulation of deleterious mitochondrial genomes and damage resulting from the localized generation of reactive oxygen species, both of which are often exacerbated in diseases such as Parkinson disease. Cells have several mechanisms to assess mitochondrial function and activate a transcriptional response known as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) when mitochondrial integrity and function are impaired. The UPRmt promotes cell survival and the recovery of the mitochondrial network to ensure optimal cellular function...
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165425/rna-metabolism-the-short-tail-that-wags-the-mrna
#17
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165424/functional-5-utr-mrna-structures-in-eukaryotic-translation-regulation-and-how-to-find-them
#18
REVIEW
Kathrin Leppek, Rhiju Das, Maria Barna
RNA molecules can fold into intricate shapes that can provide an additional layer of control of gene expression beyond that of their sequence. In this Review, we discuss the current mechanistic understanding of structures in 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of eukaryotic mRNAs and the emerging methodologies used to explore them. These structures may regulate cap-dependent translation initiation through helicase-mediated remodelling of RNA structures and higher-order RNA interactions, as well as cap-independent translation initiation through internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), mRNA modifications and other specialized translation pathways...
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138516/the-functions-and-unique-features-of-long-intergenic-non-coding-rna
#19
REVIEW
Julia D Ransohoff, Yuning Wei, Paul A Khavari
Long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) genes have diverse features that distinguish them from mRNA-encoding genes and exercise functions such as remodelling chromatin and genome architecture, RNA stabilization and transcription regulation, including enhancer-associated activity. Some genes currently annotated as encoding lincRNAs include small open reading frames (smORFs) and encode functional peptides and thus may be more properly classified as coding RNAs. lincRNAs may broadly serve to fine-tune the expression of neighbouring genes with remarkable tissue specificity through a diversity of mechanisms, highlighting our rapidly evolving understanding of the non-coding genome...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115300/publisher-correction-the-essential-kinase-atr-ensuring-faithful-duplication-of-a-challenging-genome
#20
Joshua C Saldivar, David Cortez, Karlene A Cimprich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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