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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811668/cancer-biology-the-skin-s-power-of-elimination
#1
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811667/genome-editing-crispr-cas-becoming-more-human
#2
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811666/the-essential-kinase-atr-ensuring-faithful-duplication-of-a-challenging-genome
#3
REVIEW
Joshua C Saldivar, David Cortez, Karlene A Cimprich
One way to preserve a rare book is to lock it away from all potential sources of damage. Of course, an inaccessible book is also of little use, and the paper and ink will continue to degrade with age in any case. Like a book, the information stored in our DNA needs to be read, but it is also subject to continuous assault and therefore needs to be protected. In this Review, we examine how the replication stress response that is controlled by the kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) senses and resolves threats to DNA integrity so that the DNA remains available to read in all of our cells...
August 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792008/stress-responses-sirt1-puts-an-embargo-on-mrna-export
#4
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792007/shared-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-premature-ageing-and-ageing-associated-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Nard Kubben, Tom Misteli
Ageing is the predominant risk factor for many common diseases. Human premature ageing diseases are powerful model systems to identify and characterize cellular mechanisms that underpin physiological ageing. Their study also leads to a better understanding of the causes, drivers and potential therapeutic strategies of common diseases associated with ageing, including neurological disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Using the rare premature ageing disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome as a paradigm, we discuss here the shared mechanisms between premature ageing and ageing-associated diseases, including defects in genetic, epigenetic and metabolic pathways; mitochondrial and protein homeostasis; cell cycle; and stem cell-regenerative capacity...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792006/mitochondrial-diseases-the-contribution-of-organelle-stress-responses-to-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Anu Suomalainen, Brendan J Battersby
Mitochondrial diseases affect one in 2,000 individuals; they can present at any age and they can manifest in any organ. How defects in mitochondria can cause such a diverse range of human diseases remains poorly understood. Insight into this diversity is emerging from recent research that investigated defects in mitochondrial protein synthesis and mitochondrial DNA maintenance, which showed that many cell-specific stress responses are induced in response to mitochondrial dysfunction. Studying the molecular regulation of these stress responses might increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and variability of human mitochondrial diseases...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792005/splicing-and-transcription-touch-base-co-transcriptional-spliceosome-assembly-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Lydia Herzel, Diana S M Ottoz, Tara Alpert, Karla M Neugebauer
Several macromolecular machines collaborate to produce eukaryotic messenger RNA. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) translocates along genes that are up to millions of base pairs in length and generates a flexible RNA copy of the DNA template. This nascent RNA harbours introns that are removed by the spliceosome, which is a megadalton ribonucleoprotein complex that positions the distant ends of the intron into its catalytic centre. Emerging evidence that the catalytic spliceosome is physically close to Pol II in vivo implies that transcription and splicing occur on similar timescales and that the transcription and splicing machineries may be spatially constrained...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792010/cancer-biology-a-neat-target-of-p53
#8
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792009/epigenetics-getting-instructions-from-mum
#9
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745313/adult-stem-cells-fat-cells-promote-blood-regeneration
#10
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745312/splicing-phasing-alternative-exons
#11
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698599/genes-and-molecular-pathways-underpinning-ciliopathies
#12
REVIEW
Jeremy F Reiter, Michel R Leroux
Motile and non-motile (primary) cilia are nearly ubiquitous cellular organelles. The dysfunction of cilia causes diseases known as ciliopathies. The number of reported ciliopathies (currently 35) is increasing, as is the number of established (187) and candidate (241) ciliopathy-associated genes. The characterization of ciliopathy-associated proteins and phenotypes has improved our knowledge of ciliary functions. In particular, investigating ciliopathies has helped us to understand the molecular mechanisms by which the cilium-associated basal body functions in early ciliogenesis, as well as how the transition zone functions in ciliary gating, and how intraflagellar transport enables cargo trafficking and signalling...
July 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698598/classification-and-function-of-small-open-reading-frames
#13
REVIEW
Juan-Pablo Couso, Pedro Patraquim
Small open reading frames (smORFs) of 100 codons or fewer are usually - if arbitrarily - excluded from proteome annotations. Despite this, the genomes of many metazoans, including humans, contain millions of smORFs, some of which fulfil key physiological functions. Recently, the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster was shown to contain thousands of smORFs of different classes that actively undergo translation, which produces peptides of mostly unknown function. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of smORFs in flies, mice and humans...
July 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676700/the-multifaceted-roles-of-parp1-in-dna-repair-and-chromatin-remodelling
#14
REVIEW
Arnab Ray Chaudhuri, André Nussenzweig
Cells are exposed to various endogenous and exogenous insults that induce DNA damage, which, if unrepaired, impairs genome integrity and leads to the development of various diseases, including cancer. Recent evidence has implicated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in various DNA repair pathways and in the maintenance of genomic stability. The inhibition of PARP1 is therefore being exploited clinically for the treatment of various cancers, which include DNA repair-deficient ovarian, breast and prostate cancers...
July 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655905/mechanisms-of-dna-protein-crosslink-repair
#15
REVIEW
Julian Stingele, Roberto Bellelli, Simon J Boulton
Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs, also known as protein adducts) of topoisomerases and other proteins with DNA are highly toxic DNA lesions. Of note, chemical agents that induce DPCs include widely used classes of chemotherapeutics. Their bulkiness blocks virtually every chromatin-based process and makes them intractable for repair by canonical repair pathways. Distinct DPC repair pathways employ unique points of attack and are crucial for the maintenance of genome stability. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterases (TDPs) directly hydrolyse the covalent linkage between protein and DNA...
June 28, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537572/understanding-nucleosome-dynamics-and-their-links-to-gene-expression-and-dna-replication
#16
REVIEW
William K M Lai, B Franklin Pugh
Advances in genomics technology have provided the means to probe myriad chromatin interactions at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This has led to a profound understanding of nucleosome organization within the genome, revealing that nucleosomes are highly dynamic. Nucleosome dynamics are governed by a complex interplay of histone composition, histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome occupancy and positioning within chromatin, which are influenced by numerous regulatory factors, including general regulatory factors, chromatin remodellers, chaperones and polymerases...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698600/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-control-of-brown-and-beige-adipose-cell-fate-and-function
#17
Takeshi Inagaki, Juro Sakai, Shingo Kajimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676699/circadian-rhythms-replication-keeps-the-clock-ticking
#18
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676698/stem-cells-colonic-organoids-for-drug-testing-and-colorectal-disease-modelling
#19
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655907/cancer-biology-therapy-induced-transcription-is-cryptically-widespread
#20
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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