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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928488/ubiquitylation-at-the-crossroads-of-development-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Michael Rape
Human development requires intricate cell specification and communication pathways that allow an embryo to generate and appropriately connect more than 200 different cell types. Key to the successful completion of this differentiation programme is the quantitative and reversible regulation of core signalling networks, and post-translational modification with ubiquitin provides embryos with an essential tool to accomplish this task. Instigated by E3 ligases and reversed by deubiquitylases, ubiquitylation controls many processes that are fundamental for development, such as cell division, fate specification and migration...
September 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875994/the-emerging-complexity-of-the-trna-world-mammalian-trnas-beyond-protein-synthesis
#2
REVIEW
Paul Schimmel
The discovery of the genetic code and tRNAs as decoders of the code transformed life science. However, after establishing the role of tRNAs in protein synthesis, the field moved to other parts of the RNA world. Now, tRNA research is blooming again, with demonstration of the involvement of tRNAs in various other pathways beyond translation and in adapting translation to environmental cues. These roles are linked to the presence of tRNA sequence variants known as isoacceptors and isodecoders, various tRNA base modifications, the versatility of protein binding partners and tRNA fragmentation events, all of which collectively create an incalculable complexity...
September 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875992/fluorescence-nanoscopy-in-cell-biology
#3
REVIEW
Steffen J Sahl, Stefan W Hell, Stefan Jakobs
Fluorescence nanoscopy uniquely combines minimally invasive optical access to the internal nanoscale structure and dynamics of cells and tissues with molecular detection specificity. While the basic physical principles of 'super-resolution' imaging were discovered in the 1990s, with initial experimental demonstrations following in 2000, the broad application of super-resolution imaging to address cell-biological questions has only more recently emerged. Nanoscopy approaches have begun to facilitate discoveries in cell biology and to add new knowledge...
September 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852221/cytosolic-lipolysis-and-lipophagy-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#4
REVIEW
Rudolf Zechner, Frank Madeo, Dagmar Kratky
Fatty acids are the most efficient substrates for energy production in vertebrates and are essential components of the lipids that form biological membranes. Synthesis of triacylglycerols from non-esterified free fatty acids (FFAs) combined with triacylglycerol storage represents a highly efficient strategy to stockpile FFAs in cells and prevent FFA-induced lipotoxicity. Although essentially all vertebrate cells have some capacity to store and utilize triacylglycerols, white adipose tissue is by far the largest triacylglycerol depot and is uniquely able to supply FFAs to other tissues...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852220/regulation-of-heat-shock-transcription-factors-and-their-roles-in-physiology-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Rocio Gomez-Pastor, Eileen T Burchfiel, Dennis J Thiele
The heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) were discovered over 30 years ago as direct transcriptional activators of genes regulated by thermal stress, encoding heat shock proteins. The accepted paradigm posited that HSFs exclusively activate the expression of protein chaperones in response to conditions that cause protein misfolding by recognizing a simple promoter binding site referred to as a heat shock element. However, we now realize that the mammalian family of HSFs comprises proteins that independently or in concert drive combinatorial gene regulation events that activate or repress transcription in different contexts...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831203/microtubule-nucleation-beyond-the-template
#6
REVIEW
Johanna Roostalu, Thomas Surrey
Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments central to a wide range of essential cellular functions in eukaryotic cells. Consequently, cells need to exert tight control over when, where and how many microtubules are being made. Whereas the regulation of microtubule dynamics is well studied, the molecular mechanisms of microtubule nucleation are still poorly understood. Next to the established master template of nucleation, the γ-tubulin ring complex, other microtubule-associated proteins that affect microtubule dynamic properties have recently been found to contribute to nucleation...
August 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792006/mitochondrial-diseases-the-contribution-of-organelle-stress-responses-to-pathology
#7
REVIEW
Anu Suomalainen, Brendan J Battersby
Mitochondrial diseases affect one in 2,000 individuals; they can present at any age and they can manifest in any organ. How defects in mitochondria can cause such a diverse range of human diseases remains poorly understood. Insight into this diversity is emerging from recent research that investigated defects in mitochondrial protein synthesis and mitochondrial DNA maintenance, which showed that many cell-specific stress responses are induced in response to mitochondrial dysfunction. Studying the molecular regulation of these stress responses might increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and variability of human mitochondrial diseases...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875993/cell-organization-by-liquid-phase-separation
#8
Daniel W Gerlich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875991/nuclear-envelope-chromosomes-one-baf-layer-to-bind-them-all
#9
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831204/chromosome-biology-different-turfs-for-cohesin-and-condensin
#10
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811668/cancer-biology-the-skin-s-power-of-elimination
#11
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811667/genome-editing-crispr-cas-becoming-more-human
#12
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811666/the-essential-kinase-atr-ensuring-faithful-duplication-of-a-challenging-genome
#13
REVIEW
Joshua C Saldivar, David Cortez, Karlene A Cimprich
One way to preserve a rare book is to lock it away from all potential sources of damage. Of course, an inaccessible book is also of little use, and the paper and ink will continue to degrade with age in any case. Like a book, the information stored in our DNA needs to be read, but it is also subject to continuous assault and therefore needs to be protected. In this Review, we examine how the replication stress response that is controlled by the kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) senses and resolves threats to DNA integrity so that the DNA remains available to read in all of our cells...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792007/shared-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-premature-ageing-and-ageing-associated-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Nard Kubben, Tom Misteli
Ageing is the predominant risk factor for many common diseases. Human premature ageing diseases are powerful model systems to identify and characterize cellular mechanisms that underpin physiological ageing. Their study also leads to a better understanding of the causes, drivers and potential therapeutic strategies of common diseases associated with ageing, including neurological disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Using the rare premature ageing disorder Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome as a paradigm, we discuss here the shared mechanisms between premature ageing and ageing-associated diseases, including defects in genetic, epigenetic and metabolic pathways; mitochondrial and protein homeostasis; cell cycle; and stem cell-regenerative capacity...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792005/splicing-and-transcription-touch-base-co-transcriptional-spliceosome-assembly-and-function
#15
REVIEW
Lydia Herzel, Diana S M Ottoz, Tara Alpert, Karla M Neugebauer
Several macromolecular machines collaborate to produce eukaryotic messenger RNA. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) translocates along genes that are up to millions of base pairs in length and generates a flexible RNA copy of the DNA template. This nascent RNA harbours introns that are removed by the spliceosome, which is a megadalton ribonucleoprotein complex that positions the distant ends of the intron into its catalytic centre. Emerging evidence that the catalytic spliceosome is physically close to Pol II in vivo implies that transcription and splicing occur on similar timescales and that the transcription and splicing machineries may be spatially constrained...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676700/the-multifaceted-roles-of-parp1-in-dna-repair-and-chromatin-remodelling
#16
REVIEW
Arnab Ray Chaudhuri, André Nussenzweig
Cells are exposed to various endogenous and exogenous insults that induce DNA damage, which, if unrepaired, impairs genome integrity and leads to the development of various diseases, including cancer. Recent evidence has implicated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in various DNA repair pathways and in the maintenance of genomic stability. The inhibition of PARP1 is therefore being exploited clinically for the treatment of various cancers, which include DNA repair-deficient ovarian, breast and prostate cancers...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931952/in-the-news-the-lasker-goes-to-michael-hall
#17
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792010/cancer-biology-a-neat-target-of-p53
#18
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792009/epigenetics-getting-instructions-from-mum
#19
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792008/stress-responses-sirt1-puts-an-embargo-on-mrna-export
#20
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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