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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784956/dynamics-and-function-of-dna-methylation-in-plants
#1
REVIEW
Huiming Zhang, Zhaobo Lang, Jian-Kang Zhu
DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic modification that is important for gene regulation and genome stability. Aberrant patterns of DNA methylation can lead to plant developmental abnormalities. A specific DNA methylation state is an outcome of dynamic regulation by de novo methylation, maintenance of methylation and active demethylation, which are catalysed by various enzymes that are targeted by distinct regulatory pathways. In this Review, we discuss DNA methylation in plants, including methylating and demethylating enzymes and regulatory factors, and the coordination of methylation and demethylation activities by a so-called methylstat mechanism; the functions of DNA methylation in regulating transposon silencing, gene expression and chromosome interactions; the roles of DNA methylation in plant development; and the involvement of DNA methylation in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress conditions...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769648/overcoming-obstacles-to-progression
#2
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769647/why-does-biopolymer-condensation-matter
#3
Stephen W Michnick, Louis-Philippe Bergeron-Sandoval
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765158/stepping-outside-the-comfort-zone-of-membrane-contact-site-research
#4
Maria Bohnert, Maya Schuldiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760421/roadblocks-and-resolutions-in-eukaryotic-translation
#5
REVIEW
Anthony P Schuller, Rachel Green
During protein synthesis, ribosomes encounter many roadblocks, the outcomes of which are largely determined by substrate availability, amino acid features and reaction kinetics. Prolonged ribosome stalling is likely to be resolved by ribosome rescue or quality control pathways, whereas shorter stalling is likely to be resolved by ongoing productive translation. How ribosome function is affected by such hindrances can therefore have a profound impact on the translational output (yield) of a particular mRNA. In this Review, we focus on these roadblocks and the resumption of normal translation elongation rather than on alternative fates wherein the stalled ribosome triggers degradation of the mRNA and the incomplete protein product...
May 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752447/the-beginning-of-totipotency
#6
Kikuë Tachibana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740130/publisher-correction-the-cytoplasmic-dynein-transport-machinery-and-its-many-cargoes
#7
Samara L Reck-Peterson, William B Redwine, Ronald D Vale, Andrew P Carter
In Figure 1c of the original article, ARP1 was incorrectly labelled as ARP11. The highlight for reference 37 was mistakenly placed under reference 36 and the highlight for reference 29 should have also referred to reference 16 (instead of 19). The HTML and PDF versions of the article have now been corrected.
May 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740129/born-to-run-control-of-transcription-elongation-by-rna-polymerase-ii
#8
REVIEW
Fei Xavier Chen, Edwin R Smith, Ali Shilatifard
The dynamic regulation of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is an integral part of the implementation of gene expression programmes during development. In most metazoans, the majority of transcribed genes exhibit transient pausing of Pol II at promoter-proximal regions, and the release of Pol II into gene bodies is controlled by many regulatory factors that respond to environmental and developmental cues. Misregulation of the elongation stage of transcription is implicated in cancer and other human diseases, suggesting that mechanistic understanding of transcription elongation control is therapeutically relevant...
May 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740128/publisher-correction-contextual-determinants-of-tgf%C3%AE-action-in-development-immunity-and-cancer
#9
Charles J David, Joan Massagué
In the section 'Combinatorial ligand perception' of the original article, DMP1 was incorrectly used in place of BMP. This has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
May 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717231/epitofing-ageing
#10
Grant Otto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713002/smooth-translation-to-maintain-a-healthy-skin
#11
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700393/shieldin-the-ends-for-53bp1
#12
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686419/dynamics-of-the-epigenetic-landscape-during-the-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#13
REVIEW
Melanie A Eckersley-Maslin, Celia Alda-Catalinas, Wolf Reik
A remarkable epigenetic remodelling process occurs shortly after fertilization, which restores totipotency to the zygote. This involves global DNA demethylation, chromatin remodelling, genome spatial reorganization and substantial transcriptional changes. Key to these changes is the transition from the maternal environment of the oocyte to an embryonic-driven developmental expression programme, a process termed the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Zygotic genome activation occurs predominantly at the two-cell stage in mice and the eight-cell stage in humans, yet the dynamics of its control are still mostly obscure...
April 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674711/microtubule-dynamics-an-interplay-of-biochemistry-and-mechanics
#14
REVIEW
Gary J Brouhard, Luke M Rice
Microtubules are dynamic polymers of αβ-tubulin that are essential for intracellular organization, organelle trafficking and chromosome segregation. Microtubule growth and shrinkage occur via addition and loss of αβ-tubulin subunits, which are biochemical processes. Dynamic microtubules can also engage in mechanical processes, such as exerting forces by pushing or pulling against a load. Recent advances at the intersection of biochemistry and mechanics have revealed the existence of multiple conformations of αβ-tubulin subunits and their central role in dictating the mechanisms of microtubule dynamics and force generation...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674710/silencing-drops
#15
Anne Mirabella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666443/single-cell-transcriptional-profiling-a-window-into-embryonic-cell-type-specification
#16
REVIEW
Blanca Pijuan-Sala, Carolina Guibentif, Berthold Göttgens
During mammalian embryonic development, a single fertilized egg cell will proliferate and differentiate into all the cell lineages and cell types that eventually form the adult organism. Cell lineage diversification involves repeated cell fate choices that ultimately occur at the level of the individual cell rather than at the cell-population level. Improvements in single-cell technologies are transforming our understanding of mammalian development, not only by overcoming the limitations presented by the extremely low cell numbers of early embryos but also by enabling the study of cell fate specification in greater detail...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662141/the-cytoplasmic-dynein-transport-machinery-and-its-many-cargoes
#17
REVIEW
Samara L Reck-Peterson, William B Redwine, Ronald D Vale, Andrew P Carter
Cytoplasmic dynein 1 is an important microtubule-based motor in many eukaryotic cells. Dynein has critical roles both in interphase and during cell division. Here, we focus on interphase cargoes of dynein, which include membrane-bound organelles, RNAs, protein complexes and viruses. A central challenge in the field is to understand how a single motor can transport such a diverse array of cargoes and how this process is regulated. The molecular basis by which each cargo is linked to dynein and its cofactor dynactin has started to emerge...
April 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654320/the-challenges-facing-synthetic-biology-in-eukaryotes
#18
Francesca Ceroni, Tom Ellis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643418/contextual-determinants-of-tgf%C3%AE-action-in-development-immunity-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Charles J David, Joan Massagué
Few cell signals match the impact of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family in metazoan biology. TGFβ cytokines regulate cell fate decisions during development, tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and are major players in tumorigenesis, fibrotic disorders, immune malfunctions and various congenital diseases. The effects of the TGFβ family are mediated by a combinatorial set of ligands and receptors and by a common set of receptor-activated mothers against decapentaplegic homologue (SMAD) transcription factors, yet the effects can differ dramatically depending on the cell type and the conditions...
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643417/proteins-clog-neural-stem-cell-activation
#20
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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