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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611414/ribosome-cycle-emerges-from-dna-replication
#1
Raymond Kaempfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537575/physiological-functions-of-programmed-dna-breaks-in-signal-induced-transcription
#2
REVIEW
Janusz Puc, Aneel K Aggarwal, Michael G Rosenfeld
The idea that signal-dependent transcription might involve the generation of transient DNA nicks or even breaks in the regulatory regions of genes, accompanied by activation of DNA damage repair pathways, would seem to be counterintuitive, as DNA damage is usually considered harmful to cellular integrity. However, recent studies have generated a substantial body of evidence that now argues that programmed DNA single- or double-strand breaks can, at least in specific cases, have a role in transcription regulation...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537574/mechanisms-of-dna-replication-termination
#3
REVIEW
James M Dewar, Johannes C Walter
Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537573/vascular-heterogeneity-and-specialization-in-development-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Michael Potente, Taija Mäkinen
Blood and lymphatic vessels pervade almost all body tissues and have numerous essential roles in physiology and disease. The inner lining of these networks is formed by a single layer of endothelial cells, which is specialized according to the needs of the tissue that it supplies. Whereas the general mechanisms of blood and lymphatic vessel development are being defined with increasing molecular precision, studies of the processes of endothelial specialization remain mostly descriptive. Recent insights from genetic animal models illuminate how endothelial cells interact with each other and with their tissue environment, providing paradigms for vessel type- and organ-specific endothelial differentiation...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537572/understanding-nucleosome-dynamics-and-their-links-to-gene-expression-and-dna-replication
#5
REVIEW
William K M Lai, B Franklin Pugh
Advances in genomics technology have provided the means to probe myriad chromatin interactions at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This has led to a profound understanding of nucleosome organization within the genome, revealing that nucleosomes are highly dynamic. Nucleosome dynamics are governed by a complex interplay of histone composition, histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome occupancy and positioning within chromatin, which are influenced by numerous regulatory factors, including general regulatory factors, chromatin remodellers, chaperones and polymerases...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512351/non-homologous-dna-end-joining-and-alternative-pathways-to-double-strand-break-repair
#6
REVIEW
Howard H Y Chang, Nicholas R Pannunzio, Noritaka Adachi, Michael R Lieber
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most dangerous type of DNA damage because they can result in the loss of large chromosomal regions. In all mammalian cells, DSBs that occur throughout the cell cycle are repaired predominantly by the non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Defects in NHEJ result in sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the ablation of lymphocytes. The NHEJ pathway utilizes proteins that recognize, resect, polymerize and ligate the DNA ends in a flexible manner. This flexibility permits NHEJ to function on a wide range of DNA-end configurations, with the resulting repaired DNA junctions often containing mutations...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512349/the-winding-path-of-protein-methylation-research-milestones-and-new-frontiers
#7
REVIEW
Jernej Murn, Yang Shi
In 1959, while analysing the bacterial flagellar proteins, Ambler and Rees observed an unknown species of amino acid that they eventually identified as methylated lysine. Over half a century later, protein methylation is known to have a regulatory role in many essential cellular processes that range from gene transcription to signal transduction. However, the road to this now burgeoning research field was obstacle-ridden, not least because of the inconspicuous nature of the methyl mark itself. Here, we chronicle the milestone achievements and discuss the future of protein methylation research...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611415/translation-rapping-with-ribosomes
#8
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588257/gene-expression-acss2-boosts-local-histone-acetylation
#9
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559575/autophagy-membrane-contacts-lend-a-hand
#10
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559574/cytoplasmic-movements-outside-the-living-cell
#11
Thomas D Pollard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559573/transcription-paused-means-poised
#12
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512352/stem-cells-stem-cell-based-therapies-threatened-by-the-accumulation-of-p53-mutations
#13
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512350/mechanisms-of-action-and-regulation-of-atp-dependent-chromatin-remodelling-complexes
#14
REVIEW
Cedric R Clapier, Janet Iwasa, Bradley R Cairns, Craig L Peterson
Cells utilize diverse ATP-dependent nucleosome-remodelling complexes to carry out histone sliding, ejection or the incorporation of histone variants, suggesting that different mechanisms of action are used by the various chromatin-remodelling complex subfamilies. However, all chromatin-remodelling complex subfamilies contain an ATPase-translocase 'motor' that translocates DNA from a common location within the nucleosome. In this Review, we discuss (and illustrate with animations) an alternative, unifying mechanism of chromatin remodelling, which is based on the regulation of DNA translocation...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488703/protein-o-glcnacylation-emerging-mechanisms-and-functions
#15
REVIEW
Xiaoyong Yang, Kevin Qian
O-GlcNAcylation - the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moieties to cytoplasmic, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins - is a post-translational modification that regulates fundamental cellular processes in metazoans. A single pair of enzymes - O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) - controls the dynamic cycling of this protein modification in a nutrient- and stress-responsive manner. Recent years have seen remarkable advances in our understanding of O-GlcNAcylation at levels that range from structural and molecular biology to cell signalling and gene regulation to physiology and disease...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488700/alternative-splicing-as-a-regulator-of-development-and-tissue-identity
#16
REVIEW
Francisco E Baralle, Jimena Giudice
Alternative splicing of eukaryotic transcripts is a mechanism that enables cells to generate vast protein diversity from a limited number of genes. The mechanisms and outcomes of alternative splicing of individual transcripts are relatively well understood, and recent efforts have been directed towards studying splicing networks. It has become apparent that coordinated splicing networks regulate tissue and organ development, and that alternative splicing has important physiological functions in different developmental processes in humans...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400610/the-development-and-functions-of-multiciliated-epithelia
#17
REVIEW
Nathalie Spassky, Alice Meunier
Multiciliated cells are epithelial cells that are in contact with bodily fluids and are required for the proper function of major organs including the brain, the respiratory system and the reproductive tracts. Their multiple motile cilia beat unidirectionally to remove particles of external origin from their surface and/or drive cells or fluids into the lumen of the organs. Multiciliated cells in the brain are produced once, almost exclusively during embryonic development, whereas in respiratory tracts and oviducts they regenerate throughout life...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488702/mechanisms-of-diseases-excessive-polyq-tracts-curb-autophagy
#18
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488701/rna-decay-the-anti-apoptotic-function-of-adar1
#19
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488699/charting-the-unknown-epitranscriptome
#20
Eva Maria Novoa, Christopher E Mason, John S Mattick
RNA modifications can alter RNA structure-function relationships and various cellular processes. However, the genomic distribution and biological roles of most RNA modifications remain uncharacterized. Here, we propose using phage display antibody technology and direct sequencing through nanopores to facilitate systematic interrogation of the distribution, location and dynamics of RNA modifications.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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