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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138516/the-functions-and-unique-features-of-long-intergenic-non-coding-rna
#1
REVIEW
Julia D Ransohoff, Yuning Wei, Paul A Khavari
Long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) genes have diverse features that distinguish them from mRNA-encoding genes and exercise functions such as remodelling chromatin and genome architecture, RNA stabilization and transcription regulation, including enhancer-associated activity. Some genes currently annotated as encoding lincRNAs include small open reading frames (smORFs) and encode functional peptides and thus may be more properly classified as coding RNAs. lincRNAs may broadly serve to fine-tune the expression of neighbouring genes with remarkable tissue specificity through a diversity of mechanisms, highlighting our rapidly evolving understanding of the non-coding genome...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115301/mechanical-forces-direct-stem-cell-behaviour-in-development-and-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Kyle H Vining, David J Mooney
Stem cells and their local microenvironment, or niche, communicate through mechanical cues to regulate cell fate and cell behaviour and to guide developmental processes. During embryonic development, mechanical forces are involved in patterning and organogenesis. The physical environment of pluripotent stem cells regulates their self-renewal and differentiation. Mechanical and physical cues are also important in adult tissues, where adult stem cells require physical interactions with the extracellular matrix to maintain their potency...
November 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115300/publisher-correction-the-essential-kinase-atr-ensuring-faithful-duplication-of-a-challenging-genome
#3
Joshua C Saldivar, David Cortez, Karlene A Cimprich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115299/translation-immature-ribosomes-under-surveillance
#4
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115298/mechanobiology-of-collective-cell-behaviours
#5
REVIEW
Benoit Ladoux, René-Marc Mège
The way in which cells coordinate their behaviours during various biological processes, including morphogenesis, cancer progression and tissue remodelling, largely depends on the mechanical properties of the external environment. In contrast to single cells, collective cell behaviours rely on the cellular interactions not only with the surrounding extracellular matrix but also with neighbouring cells. Collective dynamics is not simply the result of many individually moving blocks. Instead, cells coordinate their movements by actively interacting with each other...
November 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093558/forces-as-regulators-of-cell-adhesions
#6
Christopher S Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093557/mechanotransduction-enforcing-protein-import
#7
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093556/mechanobiology-by-the-numbers-a-close-relationship-between-biology-and-physics
#8
Ulrich S Schwarz
Studies of mechanobiology lie at the interface of various scientific disciplines from biology to physics. Accordingly, quantification and mathematical modelling have been instrumental in fuelling the progress in this rapidly developing research field, assisting experimental work on many levels.
November 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067993/transcription-intragenic-enhancers-dampen-gene-expression
#9
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044247/regulation-of-genome-organization-and-gene-expression-by-nuclear-mechanotransduction
#10
REVIEW
Caroline Uhler, G V Shivashankar
It is well established that cells sense chemical signals from their local microenvironment and transduce them to the nucleus to regulate gene expression programmes. Although a number of experiments have shown that mechanical cues can also modulate gene expression, the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. Nevertheless, we are now beginning to understand how mechanical cues are transduced to the nucleus and how they influence nuclear mechanics, genome organization and transcription. In particular, recent progress in super-resolution imaging, in genome-wide application of RNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromosome conformation capture and in theoretical modelling of 3D genome organization enables the exploration of the relationship between cell mechanics, 3D chromatin configurations and transcription, thereby shedding new light on how mechanical forces regulate gene expression...
October 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018283/codon-optimality-bias-and-usage-in-translation-and-mrna-decay
#11
REVIEW
Gavin Hanson, Jeff Coller
The advent of ribosome profiling and other tools to probe mRNA translation has revealed that codon bias - the uneven use of synonymous codons in the transcriptome - serves as a secondary genetic code: a code that guides the efficiency of protein production, the fidelity of translation and the metabolism of mRNAs. Recent advancements in our understanding of mRNA decay have revealed a tight coupling between ribosome dynamics and the stability of mRNA transcripts; this coupling integrates codon bias into the concept of codon optimality, or the effects that specific codons and tRNA concentrations have on the efficiency and fidelity of the translation machinery...
October 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018282/emerging-roles-of-linker-histones-in-regulating-chromatin-structure-and-function
#12
REVIEW
Dmitry V Fyodorov, Bing-Rui Zhou, Arthur I Skoultchi, Yawen Bai
Together with core histones, which make up the nucleosome, the linker histone (H1) is one of the five main histone protein families present in chromatin in eukaryotic cells. H1 binds to the nucleosome to form the next structural unit of metazoan chromatin, the chromatosome, which may help chromatin to fold into higher-order structures. Despite their important roles in regulating the structure and function of chromatin, linker histones have not been studied as extensively as core histones. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made recently...
October 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974775/biochemical-and-cellular-properties-of-insulin-receptor-signalling
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca A Haeusler, Timothy E McGraw, Domenico Accili
The mechanism of insulin action is a central theme in biology and medicine. In addition to the rather rare condition of insulin deficiency caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells, genetic and acquired abnormalities of insulin action underlie the far more common conditions of type 2 diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance. The latter predisposes to diseases ranging from hypertension to Alzheimer disease and cancer. Hence, understanding the biochemical and cellular properties of insulin receptor signalling is arguably a priority in biomedical research...
October 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974774/ampk-guardian-of-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Sébastien Herzig, Reuben J Shaw
Cells constantly adapt their metabolism to meet their energy needs and respond to nutrient availability. Eukaryotes have evolved a very sophisticated system to sense low cellular ATP levels via the serine/threonine kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex. Under conditions of low energy, AMPK phosphorylates specific enzymes and growth control nodes to increase ATP generation and decrease ATP consumption. In the past decade, the discovery of numerous new AMPK substrates has led to a more complete understanding of the minimal number of steps required to reprogramme cellular metabolism from anabolism to catabolism...
October 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974772/piezos-thrive-under-pressure-mechanically-activated-ion-channels-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Swetha E Murthy, Adrienne E Dubin, Ardem Patapoutian
Cellular mechanotransduction, the process of translating mechanical forces into biological signals, is crucial for a wide range of physiological processes. A role for ion channels in sensing mechanical forces has been proposed for decades, but their identity in mammals remained largely elusive until the discovery of Piezos. Recent research on Piezos has underscored their importance in somatosensation (touch perception, proprioception and pulmonary respiration), red blood cell volume regulation, vascular physiology and various human genetic disorders...
October 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951564/mechanobiology-of-yap-and-taz-in-physiology-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Tito Panciera, Luca Azzolin, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
A growing body of evidence suggests that mechanical signals emanating from the cell's microenvironment are fundamental regulators of cell behaviour. Moreover, at the macroscopic scale, the influence of forces, such as the forces generated by blood flow, muscle contraction, gravity and overall tissue rigidity (for example, inside of a tumour lump), is central to our understanding of physiology and disease pathogenesis. Still, how mechanical cues are sensed and transduced at the molecular level to regulate gene expression has long remained enigmatic...
September 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928488/ubiquitylation-at-the-crossroads-of-development-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Michael Rape
Human development requires intricate cell specification and communication pathways that allow an embryo to generate and appropriately connect more than 200 different cell types. Key to the successful completion of this differentiation programme is the quantitative and reversible regulation of core signalling networks, and post-translational modification with ubiquitin provides embryos with an essential tool to accomplish this task. Instigated by E3 ligases and reversed by deubiquitylases, ubiquitylation controls many processes that are fundamental for development, such as cell division, fate specification and migration...
September 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875994/the-emerging-complexity-of-the-trna-world-mammalian-trnas-beyond-protein-synthesis
#18
REVIEW
Paul Schimmel
The discovery of the genetic code and tRNAs as decoders of the code transformed life science. However, after establishing the role of tRNAs in protein synthesis, the field moved to other parts of the RNA world. Now, tRNA research is blooming again, with demonstration of the involvement of tRNAs in various other pathways beyond translation and in adapting translation to environmental cues. These roles are linked to the presence of tRNA sequence variants known as isoacceptors and isodecoders, various tRNA base modifications, the versatility of protein binding partners and tRNA fragmentation events, all of which collectively create an incalculable complexity...
September 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852220/regulation-of-heat-shock-transcription-factors-and-their-roles-in-physiology-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Rocio Gomez-Pastor, Eileen T Burchfiel, Dennis J Thiele
The heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) were discovered over 30 years ago as direct transcriptional activators of genes regulated by thermal stress, encoding heat shock proteins. The accepted paradigm posited that HSFs exclusively activate the expression of protein chaperones in response to conditions that cause protein misfolding by recognizing a simple promoter binding site referred to as a heat shock element. However, we now realize that the mammalian family of HSFs comprises proteins that independently or in concert drive combinatorial gene regulation events that activate or repress transcription in different contexts...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018284/the-discovery-of-catalytic-rna
#20
John Abelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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