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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698599/genes-and-molecular-pathways-underpinning-ciliopathies
#1
REVIEW
Jeremy F Reiter, Michel R Leroux
Motile and non-motile (primary) cilia are nearly ubiquitous cellular organelles. The dysfunction of cilia causes diseases known as ciliopathies. The number of reported ciliopathies (currently 35) is increasing, as is the number of established (187) and candidate (241) ciliopathy-associated genes. The characterization of ciliopathy-associated proteins and phenotypes has improved our knowledge of ciliary functions. In particular, investigating ciliopathies has helped us to understand the molecular mechanisms by which the cilium-associated basal body functions in early ciliogenesis, as well as how the transition zone functions in ciliary gating, and how intraflagellar transport enables cargo trafficking and signalling...
July 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698598/classification-and-function-of-small-open-reading-frames
#2
REVIEW
Juan-Pablo Couso, Pedro Patraquim
Small open reading frames (smORFs) of 100 codons or fewer are usually - if arbitrarily - excluded from proteome annotations. Despite this, the genomes of many metazoans, including humans, contain millions of smORFs, some of which fulfil key physiological functions. Recently, the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster was shown to contain thousands of smORFs of different classes that actively undergo translation, which produces peptides of mostly unknown function. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of smORFs in flies, mice and humans...
July 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676700/the-multifaceted-roles-of-parp1-in-dna-repair-and-chromatin-remodelling
#3
REVIEW
Arnab Ray Chaudhuri, André Nussenzweig
Cells are exposed to various endogenous and exogenous insults that induce DNA damage, which, if unrepaired, impairs genome integrity and leads to the development of various diseases, including cancer. Recent evidence has implicated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in various DNA repair pathways and in the maintenance of genomic stability. The inhibition of PARP1 is therefore being exploited clinically for the treatment of various cancers, which include DNA repair-deficient ovarian, breast and prostate cancers...
July 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655905/mechanisms-of-dna-protein-crosslink-repair
#4
REVIEW
Julian Stingele, Roberto Bellelli, Simon J Boulton
Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs, also known as protein adducts) of topoisomerases and other proteins with DNA are highly toxic DNA lesions. Of note, chemical agents that induce DPCs include widely used classes of chemotherapeutics. Their bulkiness blocks virtually every chromatin-based process and makes them intractable for repair by canonical repair pathways. Distinct DPC repair pathways employ unique points of attack and are crucial for the maintenance of genome stability. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterases (TDPs) directly hydrolyse the covalent linkage between protein and DNA...
June 28, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537572/understanding-nucleosome-dynamics-and-their-links-to-gene-expression-and-dna-replication
#5
REVIEW
William K M Lai, B Franklin Pugh
Advances in genomics technology have provided the means to probe myriad chromatin interactions at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This has led to a profound understanding of nucleosome organization within the genome, revealing that nucleosomes are highly dynamic. Nucleosome dynamics are governed by a complex interplay of histone composition, histone post-translational modifications, nucleosome occupancy and positioning within chromatin, which are influenced by numerous regulatory factors, including general regulatory factors, chromatin remodellers, chaperones and polymerases...
May 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698600/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-control-of-brown-and-beige-adipose-cell-fate-and-function
#6
Takeshi Inagaki, Juro Sakai, Shingo Kajimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676699/circadian-rhythms-replication-keeps-the-clock-ticking
#7
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676698/stem-cells-colonic-organoids-for-drug-testing-and-colorectal-disease-modelling
#8
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655907/cancer-biology-therapy-induced-transcription-is-cryptically-widespread
#9
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655906/chromosome-biology-structuring-interphase-chromatin
#10
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611414/ribosome-cycle-emerges-from-dna-replication
#11
Raymond Kaempfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537575/physiological-functions-of-programmed-dna-breaks-in-signal-induced-transcription
#12
REVIEW
Janusz Puc, Aneel K Aggarwal, Michael G Rosenfeld
The idea that signal-dependent transcription might involve the generation of transient DNA nicks or even breaks in the regulatory regions of genes, accompanied by activation of DNA damage repair pathways, would seem to be counterintuitive, as DNA damage is usually considered harmful to cellular integrity. However, recent studies have generated a substantial body of evidence that now argues that programmed DNA single- or double-strand breaks can, at least in specific cases, have a role in transcription regulation...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537574/mechanisms-of-dna-replication-termination
#13
REVIEW
James M Dewar, Johannes C Walter
Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537573/vascular-heterogeneity-and-specialization-in-development-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Michael Potente, Taija Mäkinen
Blood and lymphatic vessels pervade almost all body tissues and have numerous essential roles in physiology and disease. The inner lining of these networks is formed by a single layer of endothelial cells, which is specialized according to the needs of the tissue that it supplies. Whereas the general mechanisms of blood and lymphatic vessel development are being defined with increasing molecular precision, studies of the processes of endothelial specialization remain mostly descriptive. Recent insights from genetic animal models illuminate how endothelial cells interact with each other and with their tissue environment, providing paradigms for vessel type- and organ-specific endothelial differentiation...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512351/non-homologous-dna-end-joining-and-alternative-pathways-to-double-strand-break-repair
#15
REVIEW
Howard H Y Chang, Nicholas R Pannunzio, Noritaka Adachi, Michael R Lieber
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most dangerous type of DNA damage because they can result in the loss of large chromosomal regions. In all mammalian cells, DSBs that occur throughout the cell cycle are repaired predominantly by the non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Defects in NHEJ result in sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the ablation of lymphocytes. The NHEJ pathway utilizes proteins that recognize, resect, polymerize and ligate the DNA ends in a flexible manner. This flexibility permits NHEJ to function on a wide range of DNA-end configurations, with the resulting repaired DNA junctions often containing mutations...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512349/the-winding-path-of-protein-methylation-research-milestones-and-new-frontiers
#16
REVIEW
Jernej Murn, Yang Shi
In 1959, while analysing the bacterial flagellar proteins, Ambler and Rees observed an unknown species of amino acid that they eventually identified as methylated lysine. Over half a century later, protein methylation is known to have a regulatory role in many essential cellular processes that range from gene transcription to signal transduction. However, the road to this now burgeoning research field was obstacle-ridden, not least because of the inconspicuous nature of the methyl mark itself. Here, we chronicle the milestone achievements and discuss the future of protein methylation research...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729712/unfolded-protein-response-reacting-to-membrane-stress
#17
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611415/translation-rapping-with-ribosomes
#18
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588257/gene-expression-acss2-boosts-local-histone-acetylation
#19
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559575/autophagy-membrane-contacts-lend-a-hand
#20
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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