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Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196981/rna-based-recognition-and-targeting-sowing-the-seeds-of-specificity
#1
REVIEW
Stanislaw A Gorski, Jörg Vogel, Jennifer A Doudna
RNA is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, often by forming sequence-specific base pairs with cellular RNA or DNA targets that must be identified among the large number of nucleic acids in a cell. Several RNA-based regulatory systems in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and small RNAs (sRNAs) that are dependent on the RNA chaperone protein Hfq, achieve specificity using similar strategies. Central to their function is the presentation of short 'seed sequences' within a ribonucleoprotein complex to facilitate the search for and recognition of targets...
February 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174430/mitotic-spindle-assembly-in-animal-cells-a-fine-balancing-act
#2
REVIEW
Suzanna L Prosser, Laurence Pelletier
The mitotic spindle has a crucial role in ensuring the accurate segregation of chromosomes into the two daughter cells during cell division, which is paramount for maintaining genome integrity. It is a self-organized and dynamic macromolecular structure that is constructed from microtubules, microtubule-associated proteins and motor proteins. Thirty years of research have led to the identification of centrosome-, chromatin- and microtubule-mediated microtubule nucleation pathways that each contribute to mitotic spindle assembly...
February 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144032/stem-cells-a-key-to-totipotency
#3
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144030/chromosome-biology-tzap-trims-telomeres
#4
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120913/mechanisms-and-functions-of-nuclear-envelope-remodelling
#5
REVIEW
Rosemarie Ungricht, Ulrike Kutay
As a compartment border, the nuclear envelope (NE) needs to serve as both a protective membrane shell for the genome and a versatile communication interface between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Despite its important structural role in sheltering the genome, the NE is a dynamic and highly adaptable boundary that changes composition during differentiation, deforms in response to mechanical challenges, can be repaired upon rupture and even rapidly disassembles and reforms during open mitosis. NE remodelling is fundamentally involved in cell growth, division and differentiation, and if perturbed can lead to devastating diseases such as muscular dystrophies or premature ageing...
25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096527/dna-repair-histones-have-got-to-go
#6
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096526/telomeres-in-cancer-tumour-suppression-and-genome-instability
#7
REVIEW
John Maciejowski, Titia de Lange
The shortening of human telomeres has two opposing effects during cancer development. On the one hand, telomere shortening can exert a tumour-suppressive effect through the proliferation arrest induced by activating the kinases ATM and ATR at unprotected chromosome ends. On the other hand, loss of telomere protection can lead to telomere crisis, which is a state of extensive genome instability that can promote cancer progression. Recent data, reviewed here, provide new evidence for the telomere tumour suppressor pathway and has revealed that telomere crisis can induce numerous cancer-relevant changes, including chromothripsis, kataegis and tetraploidization...
18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074062/translation-smoothening-the-coding-sequence-for-translation
#8
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074061/cell-death-pulling-the-apoptotic-trigger-for-necrosis
#9
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053349/rna-metabolism-modifying-sex-in-flies
#10
Denise Waldron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053348/glucocorticoid-receptor-control-of-transcription-precision-and-plasticity-via-allostery
#11
REVIEW
Emily R Weikum, Matthew T Knuesel, Eric A Ortlund, Keith R Yamamoto
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a constitutively expressed transcriptional regulatory factor (TRF) that controls many distinct gene networks, each uniquely determined by particular cellular and physiological contexts. The precision of GR-mediated responses seems to depend on combinatorial, context-specific assembly of GR-nucleated transcription regulatory complexes at genomic response elements. In turn, evidence suggests that context-driven plasticity is conferred by the integration of multiple signals, each serving as an allosteric effector of GR conformation, a key determinant of regulatory complex composition and activity...
5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053347/functions-of-bromodomain-containing-proteins-and-their-roles-in-homeostasis-and-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Takao Fujisawa, Panagis Filippakopoulos
Bromodomains (BRDs) are evolutionarily conserved protein-protein interaction modules that are found in a wide range of proteins with diverse catalytic and scaffolding functions and are present in most tissues. BRDs selectively recognize and bind to acetylated Lys residues - particularly in histones - and thereby have important roles in the regulation of gene expression. BRD-containing proteins are frequently dysregulated in cancer, they participate in gene fusions that generate diverse, frequently oncogenic proteins, and many cancer-causing mutations have been mapped to the BRDs themselves...
5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053346/synthetic-biology-designer-cells-tackle-diabetes
#13
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053345/ageing-forever-young
#14
Kim Baumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053344/histone-chaperone-networks-shaping-chromatin-function
#15
REVIEW
Colin M Hammond, Caroline B Strømme, Hongda Huang, Dinshaw J Patel, Anja Groth
The association of histones with specific chaperone complexes is important for their folding, oligomerization, post-translational modification, nuclear import, stability, assembly and genomic localization. In this way, the chaperoning of soluble histones is a key determinant of histone availability and fate, which affects all chromosomal processes, including gene expression, chromosome segregation and genome replication and repair. Here, we review the distinct structural and functional properties of the expanding network of histone chaperones...
5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144031/rna-modifications-and-structures-cooperate-to-guide-rna-protein-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Cole J T Lewis, Tao Pan, Auinash Kalsotra
An emerging body of evidence indicates that post-transcriptional gene regulation relies not only on the sequence of mRNAs but also on their folding into intricate secondary structures and on the chemical modifications of the RNA bases. These features, which are highly dynamic and interdependent, exert direct control over the transcriptome and thereby influence many aspects of cell function. Here, we consider how the coupling of RNA modifications and structures shapes RNA-protein interactions at different steps of the gene expression process...
1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144029/variants-of-core-histones-and-their-roles-in-cell-fate-decisions-development-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Marcus Buschbeck, Sandra B Hake
Histone variants endow chromatin with unique properties and show a specific genomic distribution that is regulated by specific deposition and removal machineries. These variants - in particular, H2A.Z, macroH2A and H3.3 - have important roles in early embryonic development, and they regulate the lineage commitment of stem cells, as well as the converse process of somatic cell reprogramming to pluripotency. Recent progress has also shed light on how mutations, transcriptional deregulation and changes in the deposition machineries of histone variants affect the process of tumorigenesis...
1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999438/necroptosis-in-development-inflammation-and-disease
#18
Ricardo Weinlich, Andrew Oberst, Helen M Beere, Douglas R Green
In the early 2000s, receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), a molecule already recognized as an important regulator of cell survival, inflammation and disease, was attributed an additional function: the regulation of a novel cell death pathway that came to be known as necroptosis. Subsequently, the related kinase RIPK3 and its substrate mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) were also implicated in the necroptotic pathway, and links between this pathway and apoptosis were established...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924075/histone-variants-on-the-move-substrates-for-chromatin-dynamics
#19
Paul B Talbert, Steven Henikoff
Most histones are assembled into nucleosomes behind the replication fork to package newly synthesized DNA. By contrast, histone variants, which are encoded by separate genes, are typically incorporated throughout the cell cycle. Histone variants can profoundly change chromatin properties, which in turn affect DNA replication and repair, transcription, and chromosome packaging and segregation. Recent advances in the study of histone replacement have elucidated the dynamic processes by which particular histone variants become substrates of histone chaperones, ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers and histone-modifying enzymes...
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115747/non-coding-rna-a-class-of-their-own
#20
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
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