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Nature Reviews. Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904142/functional-diversity-of-astrocytes-in-neural-circuit-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Lucile Ben Haim, David Rowitch
Although it is well established that all brain regions contain various neuronal subtypes with different functions, astrocytes have traditionally been thought to be homogenous. However, recent evidence has shown that astrocytes in the mammalian CNS display distinct inter- and intra-regional features, as well as functional diversity. In the CNS, astrocyte processes fill the local environment in non-overlapping domains. Therefore, a potential advantage of region-specified astrocytes might be their capacity to regulate local development or optimize local neural circuit function...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904141/systems-neuroscience-opening-the-gait
#2
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881856/stress-glucocorticoids-and-memory-implications-for-treating-fear-related-disorders
#3
Dominique de Quervain, Lars Schwabe, Benno Roozendaal
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881855/crf-and-the-nucleus-incertus-a-node-for-integration-of-stress-signals
#4
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881854/the-neural-and-computational-bases-of-semantic-cognition
#5
Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies, Karalyn Patterson, Timothy T Rogers
Semantic cognition refers to our ability to use, manipulate and generalize knowledge that is acquired over the lifespan to support innumerable verbal and non-verbal behaviours. This Review summarizes key findings and issues arising from a decade of research into the neurocognitive and neurocomputational underpinnings of this ability, leading to a new framework that we term controlled semantic cognition (CSC). CSC offers solutions to long-standing queries in philosophy and cognitive science, and yields a convergent framework for understanding the neural and computational bases of healthy semantic cognition and its dysfunction in brain disorders...
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829687/network-abnormalities-and-interneuron-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-disease
#6
Jorge J Palop, Lennart Mucke
The function of neural circuits and networks can be controlled, in part, by modulating the synchrony of their components' activities. Network hypersynchrony and altered oscillatory rhythmic activity may contribute to cognitive abnormalities in Alzheimer disease (AD). In this condition, network activities that support cognition are altered decades before clinical disease onset, and these alterations predict future pathology and brain atrophy. Although the precise causes and pathophysiological consequences of these network alterations remain to be defined, interneuron dysfunction and network abnormalities have emerged as potential mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in AD and related disorders...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829686/behavioural-neuroscience-descending-into-dishonesty
#7
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811927/integrins-in-synapse-regulation
#8
Yun Kyung Park, Yukiko Goda
Integrins are a large family of extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors. In the developing and adult brain, many integrins are present at high levels at synapses. The tetrapartite structure of synapses - which comprises presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, the ECM and glial processes - places synaptic integrins in an excellent position to sense dynamic changes in the synaptic environment and use this information to coordinate further changes in synapse structure and function that will shape neural circuit properties...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811926/neural-circuits-halting-hunger
#9
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811925/neurodegenerative-disease-resisting-the-chop
#10
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811924/neurodegenerative-disease-actin-up
#11
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811923/sleep-and-memory-rippling-memories
#12
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811922/neural-development-the-river-runs-through-it
#13
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811921/keeping-it-in-check-chronic-viral-infection-and-antiviral-immunity-in-the-brain
#14
Katelyn D Miller, Matthias J Schnell, Glenn F Rall
It is becoming clear that the manner by which the immune response resolves or contains infection by a pathogen varies according to the tissue that is affected. Unlike many peripheral cell types, CNS neurons are generally non-renewable. Thus, the cytolytic and inflammatory strategies that are effective in controlling infections in the periphery could be damaging if deployed in the CNS. Perhaps for this reason, the immune response to some CNS viral infections favours maintenance of neuronal integrity and non-neurolytic viral control...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784888/addiction-under-a-stressful-influence
#15
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761004/the-mirror-mechanism-a-basic-principle-of-brain-function
#16
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Corrado Sinigaglia
The mirror mechanism is a basic brain mechanism that transforms sensory representations of others' behaviour into one's own motor or visceromotor representations concerning that behaviour. According to its location in the brain, it may fulfil a range of cognitive functions, including action and emotion understanding. In each case, it may enable a route to knowledge of others' behaviour, which mainly depends on one's own motor or visceromotor representations.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761003/synaptic-plasticity-spinal-signals
#17
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853142/neurodegenerative-disease-straining-the-brain
#18
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853141/neural-circuits-cortical-replacements
#19
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708356/spatial-genome-organization-and-cognition
#20
Prashanth Rajarajan, Sergio Espeso Gil, Kristen J Brennand, Schahram Akbarian
Nonrandom chromosomal conformations, including promoter-enhancer loopings that bypass kilobases or megabases of linear genome, provide a crucial layer of transcriptional regulation and move vast amounts of non-coding sequence into the physical proximity of genes that are important for neurodevelopment, cognition and behaviour. Activity-regulated changes in the neuronal '3D genome' could govern transcriptional mechanisms associated with learning and plasticity, and loop-bound intergenic and intronic non-coding sequences have been implicated in psychiatric and adult-onset neurodegenerative disease...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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