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Nature Reviews. Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931944/errant-gardeners-glial-cell-dependent-synaptic-pruning-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Urte Neniskyte, Cornelius T Gross
The final stage of brain development is associated with the generation and maturation of neuronal synapses. However, the same period is also associated with a peak in synapse elimination - a process known as synaptic pruning - that has been proposed to be crucial for the maturation of remaining synaptic connections. Recent studies have pointed to a key role for glial cells in synaptic pruning in various parts of the nervous system and have identified a set of critical signalling pathways between glia and neurons...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878373/decision-making-making-hasty-decisions
#2
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878372/the-use-of-brain-organoids-to-investigate-neural-development-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth Di Lullo, Arnold R Kriegstein
Understanding the development and dysfunction of the human brain is a major goal of neurobiology. Much of our current understanding of human brain development has been derived from the examination of post-mortem and pathological specimens, bolstered by observations of developing non-human primates and experimental studies focused largely on mouse models. However, these tissue specimens and model systems cannot fully capture the unique and dynamic features of human brain development. Recent advances in stem cell technologies that enable the generation of human brain organoids from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) promise to profoundly change our understanding of the development of the human brain and enable a detailed study of the pathogenesis of inherited and acquired brain diseases...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878371/reward-eating-goes-down-a-treat
#4
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878370/reward-restraint-from-risky-reward
#5
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855741/the-impact-of-cytoskeletal-organization-on-the-local-regulation-of-neuronal-transport
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Nirschl, Amy E Ghiretti, Erika L F Holzbaur
Neurons are akin to modern cities in that both are dependent on robust transport mechanisms. Like the best mass transit systems, trafficking in neurons must be tailored to respond to local requirements. Neurons depend on both high-speed, long-distance transport and localized dynamics to correctly deliver cargoes and to tune synaptic responses. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that provide localized regulation of the transport machinery, including the cytoskeleton and molecular motors, to yield compartment-specific trafficking in the axon initial segment, axon terminal, dendrites and spines...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855740/polyglutamine-spinocerebellar-ataxias-from-genes-to-potential-treatments
#7
REVIEW
Henry L Paulson, Vikram G Shakkottai, H Brent Clark, Harry T Orr
The dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a large and diverse group of neurodegenerative diseases. The most prevalent SCAs (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7) are caused by expansion of a glutamine-encoding CAG repeat in the affected gene. These SCAs represent a substantial portion of the polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders and provide insight into this class of diseases as a whole. Recent years have seen considerable progress in deciphering the clinical, pathological, physiological and molecular aspects of the polyglutamine SCAs, with these advances establishing a solid base from which to pursue potential therapeutic approaches...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855739/noncoding-rnas-in-neurodegeneration
#8
REVIEW
Evgenia Salta, Bart De Strooper
The emerging complexity of the transcriptional landscape poses great challenges to our conventional preconceptions of how the genome regulates brain function and dysfunction. Non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) confer a high level of intricate and dynamic regulation of various molecular processes in the CNS and they have been implicated in neurodevelopment and brain ageing, as well as in synapse function and cognitive performance, in both health and disease. ncRNA-mediated processes may be involved in various aspects of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924260/visual-processing-face-off
#9
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924259/non-coding-rna-regulatory-circles
#10
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924258/neurodegenerative-disease-towards-transplant-therapy
#11
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924257/electrodiffusion-phenomena-in-neuroscience-a-neglected-companion
#12
REVIEW
Leonid P Savtchenko, Mu Ming Poo, Dmitri A Rusakov
The emerging technological revolution in genetically encoded molecular sensors and super-resolution imaging provides neuroscientists with a pass to the real-time nano-world. On this small scale, however, classical principles of electrophysiology do not always apply. This is in large part because the nanoscopic heterogeneities in ionic concentrations and the local electric fields associated with individual ions and their movement can no longer be ignored. Here, we review basic principles of molecular electrodiffusion in the cellular environment of organized brain tissue...
September 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924256/neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-transcription-targeting-target
#13
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924255/learning-and-memory-memories-take-the-sub-way
#14
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924254/techniques-having-a-field-day
#15
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775345/gut-brain-communication-permitting-pain
#16
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775344/neuronal-cell-type-classification-challenges-opportunities-and-the-path-forward
#17
REVIEW
Hongkui Zeng, Joshua R Sanes
Neurons have diverse molecular, morphological, connectional and functional properties. We believe that the only realistic way to manage this complexity - and thereby pave the way for understanding the structure, function and development of brain circuits - is to group neurons into types, which can then be analysed systematically and reproducibly. However, neuronal classification has been challenging both technically and conceptually. New high-throughput methods have created opportunities to address the technical challenges associated with neuronal classification by collecting comprehensive information about individual cells...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775343/neuronal-networks-individual-arrangements
#18
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775342/neurodegenerative-disease-a-programmed-killer
#19
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775341/psychiatric-disorders-acute-actions
#20
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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