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Nature Reviews. Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321684/leptin-and-the-maintenance-of-elevated-body-weight
#1
REVIEW
Warren W Pan, Martin G Myers
Obesity represents the single most important risk factor for early disability and death in developed societies, and the incidence of obesity remains at staggering levels. CNS systems that modulate energy intake and expenditure in response to changes in body energy stores serve to maintain constant body adiposity; the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and its receptor (LEPR) represent crucial regulators of these systems. As in the case of insulin resistance, a variety of mechanisms (including feedback inhibition, inflammation, gliosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress) have been proposed to interfere with leptin action and impede the systems that control body energy homeostasis to promote or maintain obesity, although the relative importance and contribution of each of these remain unclear...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321682/intermittent-metabolic-switching-neuroplasticity-and-brain-health
#2
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Keelin Moehl, Nathaniel Ghena, Maggie Schmaedick, Aiwu Cheng
During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29263382/neural-coding-investigating-social-spaces
#3
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213138/sleep-i-feel-the-need-the-need-for-sleep
#4
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213137/decision-making-valuable-choices
#5
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213136/neurodevelopmental-disorders-misreading-social-smells
#6
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213134/anticipated-moments-temporal-structure-in-attention
#7
REVIEW
Anna C Nobre, Freek van Ede
We have come to recognize the brain as a predictive organ, anticipating attributes of the incoming sensory stimulation to guide perception and action in the service of adaptive behaviour. In the quest to understand the neural bases of the modulatory prospective signals that prioritize and select relevant events during perception, one fundamental dimension has until recently been largely overlooked: time. In this Review, we introduce the burgeoning field of temporal attention and illustrate how the brain makes use of various forms of temporal regularities in the environment to guide adaptive behaviour and influence neural processing...
December 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187743/synaptic-transmission-closer-encounters
#8
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167525/lineage-divergence-of-activity-driven-transcription-and-evolution-of-cognitive-ability
#9
REVIEW
Giles E Hardingham, Priit Pruunsild, Michael E Greenberg, Hilmar Bading
Excitation-transcription coupling shapes network formation during brain development and controls neuronal survival, synaptic function and cognitive skills in the adult. New studies have uncovered differences in the transcriptional responses to synaptic activity between humans and mice. These differences are caused both by the emergence of lineage-specific activity-regulated genes and by the acquisition of signal-responsive DNA elements in gene regulatory regions that determine whether a gene can be transcriptionally induced by synaptic activity or alter the extent of its inducibility...
November 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167524/neuromodulation-on-the-alert
#10
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142247/visual-processing-silent-motion-detectors
#11
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118450/neural-circuits-shock-signals
#12
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118449/axo-myelinic-neurotransmission-a-novel-mode-of-cell-signalling-in-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
I Micu, J R Plemel, A V Caprariello, K-A Nave, P K Stys
It is widely recognized that myelination of axons greatly enhances the speed of signal transmission. An exciting new finding is the dynamic communication between axons and their myelin-forming oligodendrocytes, including activity-dependent signalling from axon to myelin. The oligodendrocyte-myelin complex may in turn respond by providing metabolic support or alter subtle myelin properties to modulate action potential propagation. In this Opinion, we discuss what is known regarding the molecular physiology of this novel, synapse-like communication and speculate on potential roles in disease states including multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease...
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321683/dual-function-of-thalamic-low-vigilance-state-oscillations-rhythm-regulation-and-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
Vincenzo Crunelli, Magor L Lőrincz, William M Connelly, François David, Stuart W Hughes, Régis C Lambert, Nathalie Leresche, Adam C Errington
During inattentive wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, the neocortex and thalamus cooperatively engage in rhythmic activities that are exquisitely reflected in the electroencephalogram as distinctive rhythms spanning a range of frequencies from <1 Hz slow waves to 13 Hz alpha waves. In the thalamus, these diverse activities emerge through the interaction of cell-intrinsic mechanisms and local and long-range synaptic inputs. One crucial feature, however, unifies thalamic oscillations of different frequencies: repetitive burst firing driven by voltage-dependent Ca2+ spikes...
February 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348669/learning-and-memory-you-only-learn-once
#15
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348668/neurodegenerative-disease-a-proteostatic-boost
#16
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348667/neuroimmunology-brain-police
#17
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348666/mitochondria-at-the-neuronal-presynapse-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Devine, Josef T Kittler
Synapses enable neurons to communicate with each other and are therefore a prerequisite for normal brain function. Presynaptically, this communication requires energy and generates large fluctuations in calcium concentrations. Mitochondria are optimized for supplying energy and buffering calcium, and they are actively recruited to presynapses. However, not all presynapses contain mitochondria; thus, how might synapses with and without mitochondria differ? Mitochondria are also increasingly recognized to serve additional functions at the presynapse...
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213139/neurodegenerative-disease-remodelling-neurodegeneration
#19
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213135/neuropsychiatric-disorders-stressful-depression
#20
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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