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Nature Reviews. Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053329/neurodevelopmental-disorders-converging-on-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053328/neural-development-relaying-control-of-neuronal-identity
#2
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053327/ventral-tegmental-area-cellular-heterogeneity-connectivity-and-behaviour
#3
Marisela Morales, Elyssa B Margolis
Dopamine-releasing neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have central roles in reward-related and goal-directed behaviours. VTA dopamine-releasing neurons are heterogeneous in their afferent and efferent connectivity and, in some cases, release GABA or glutamate in addition to dopamine. Recent findings show that motivational signals arising from the VTA can also be carried by non-dopamine-releasing projection neurons, which have their own specific connectivity. Both dopamine-releasing and non-dopamine-releasing VTA neurons integrate afferent signals with local inhibitory or excitatory inputs to generate particular output firing patterns...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053326/scanning-the-horizon-towards-transparent-and-reproducible-neuroimaging-research
#4
Russell A Poldrack, Chris I Baker, Joke Durnez, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Paul M Matthews, Marcus R Munafò, Thomas E Nichols, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Edward Vul, Tal Yarkoni
Functional neuroimaging techniques have transformed our ability to probe the neurobiological basis of behaviour and are increasingly being applied by the wider neuroscience community. However, concerns have recently been raised that the conclusions that are drawn from some human neuroimaging studies are either spurious or not generalizable. Problems such as low statistical power, flexibility in data analysis, software errors and a lack of direct replication apply to many fields, but perhaps particularly to functional MRI...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003656/closed-loop-brain-training-the-science-of-neurofeedback
#5
Ranganatha Sitaram, Tomas Ros, Luke Stoeckel, Sven Haller, Frank Scharnowski, Jarrod Lewis-Peacock, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Maria Laura Blefari, Mohit Rana, Ethan Oblak, Niels Birbaumer, James Sulzer
Neurofeedback is a psychophysiological procedure in which online feedback of neural activation is provided to the participant for the purpose of self-regulation. Learning control over specific neural substrates has been shown to change specific behaviours. As a progenitor of brain-machine interfaces, neurofeedback has provided a novel way to investigate brain function and neuroplasticity. In this Review, we examine the mechanisms underlying neurofeedback, which have started to be uncovered. We also discuss how neurofeedback is being used in novel experimental and clinical paradigms from a multidisciplinary perspective, encompassing neuroscientific, neuroengineering and learning-science viewpoints...
December 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003655/sensory-systems-smelling-trouble
#6
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003654/neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-painful-role-for-shank3
#7
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003653/learning-and-memory-working-out-working-memory
#8
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881855/crf-and-the-nucleus-incertus-a-node-for-integration-of-stress-signals
#9
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904142/functional-diversity-of-astrocytes-in-neural-circuit-regulation
#10
Lucile Ben Haim, David H Rowitch
Although it is well established that all brain regions contain various neuronal subtypes with different functions, astrocytes have traditionally been thought to be homogenous. However, recent evidence has shown that astrocytes in the mammalian CNS display distinct inter- and intra-regional features, as well as functional diversity. In the CNS, astrocyte processes fill the local environment in non-overlapping domains. Therefore, a potential advantage of region-specified astrocytes might be their capacity to regulate local development or optimize local neural circuit function...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904141/systems-neuroscience-opening-the-gait
#11
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881856/stress-glucocorticoids-and-memory-implications-for-treating-fear-related-disorders
#12
Dominique de Quervain, Lars Schwabe, Benno Roozendaal
Glucocorticoid stress hormones are crucially involved in modulating mnemonic processing of emotionally arousing experiences. They enhance the consolidation of new memories, including those that extinguish older memories, but impair the retrieval of information stored in long-term memory. As strong aversive memories lie at the core of several fear-related disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias, the memory-modulating properties of glucocorticoids have recently become of considerable translational interest...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881854/the-neural-and-computational-bases-of-semantic-cognition
#13
Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Elizabeth Jefferies, Karalyn Patterson, Timothy T Rogers
Semantic cognition refers to our ability to use, manipulate and generalize knowledge that is acquired over the lifespan to support innumerable verbal and non-verbal behaviours. This Review summarizes key findings and issues arising from a decade of research into the neurocognitive and neurocomputational underpinnings of this ability, leading to a new framework that we term controlled semantic cognition (CSC). CSC offers solutions to long-standing queries in philosophy and cognitive science, and yields a convergent framework for understanding the neural and computational bases of healthy semantic cognition and its dysfunction in brain disorders...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974849/glia-an-astrocytic-influence
#14
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974848/glia-glial-messenging
#15
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974847/cell-biology-of-the-neuron-endocytic-mediators
#16
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974846/synaptic-transmission-separating-transmission-modes
#17
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974845/metabolism-a-rapid-satiety-circuit
#18
Katherine Whalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974844/learning-and-memory-the-cannabinoid-connection
#19
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974843/structural-plasticity-and-reorganisation-in-chronic-pain
#20
Rohini Kuner, Herta Flor
Chronic pain is not simply a temporal continuum of acute pain. Studies on functional plasticity in neural circuits of pain have provided mechanistic insights and linked various modulatory factors to a change in perception and behaviour. However, plasticity also occurs in the context of structural remodelling and reorganisation of synapses, cells and circuits, potentially contributing to the long-term nature of chronic pain. This Review discusses maladaptive structural plasticity in neural circuits of pain, spanning multiple anatomical and spatial scales in animal models and human patients, and addresses key questions on structure-function relationships...
December 15, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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