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Nature Reviews. Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286338/integration-site-selection-by-retroviruses-and-transposable-elements-in-eukaryotes
#1
REVIEW
Tania Sultana, Alessia Zamborlini, Gael Cristofari, Pascale Lesage
Transposable elements and retroviruses are found in most genomes, can be pathogenic and are widely used as gene-delivery and functional genomics tools. Exploring whether these genetic elements target specific genomic sites for integration and how this preference is achieved is crucial to our understanding of genome evolution, somatic genome plasticity in cancer and ageing, host-parasite interactions and genome engineering applications. High-throughput profiling of integration sites by next-generation sequencing, combined with large-scale genomic data mining and cellular or biochemical approaches, has revealed that the insertions are usually non-random...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286337/transplant-genetics-and-genomics
#2
REVIEW
Joshua Y C Yang, Minnie M Sarwal
Ever since the discovery of the major histocompatibility complex, scientific and clinical understanding in the field of transplantation has been advanced through genetic and genomic studies. Candidate-gene approaches and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled a deeper understanding of the complex interplay of the donor-recipient interactions that lead to transplant tolerance or rejection. Genetic analysis in transplantation, when linked to demographic and clinical outcomes, has the potential to drive personalized medicine by enabling individualized risk stratification and immunosuppression through the identification of variants associated with immune-mediated complications, post-transplant disease or alterations in drug-metabolizing genes...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286336/genetics-of-coronary-artery-disease-discovery-biology-and-clinical-translation
#3
REVIEW
Amit V Khera, Sekar Kathiresan
Coronary artery disease is the leading global cause of mortality. Long recognized to be heritable, recent advances have started to unravel the genetic architecture of the disease. Common variant association studies have linked approximately 60 genetic loci to coronary risk. Large-scale gene sequencing efforts and functional studies have facilitated a better understanding of causal risk factors, elucidated underlying biology and informed the development of new therapeutics. Moving forwards, genetic testing could enable precision medicine approaches by identifying subgroups of patients at increased risk of coronary artery disease or those with a specific driving pathophysiology in whom a therapeutic or preventive approach would be most useful...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260791/autism-genetics-opportunities-and-challenges-for-clinical-translation
#4
REVIEW
Jacob A S Vorstman, Jeremy R Parr, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Richard J L Anney, John I Nurnberger, Joachim F Hallmayer
Genetic studies have revealed the involvement of hundreds of gene variants in autism. Their risk effects are highly variable, and they are frequently related to other conditions besides autism. However, many different variants converge on common biological pathways. These findings indicate that aetiological heterogeneity, variable penetrance and genetic pleiotropy are pervasive characteristics of autism genetics. Although this advancing insight should improve clinical care, at present there is a substantial discrepancy between research knowledge and its clinical application...
March 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216634/detecting-rna-modifications-in-the-epitranscriptome-predict-and-validate
#5
REVIEW
Mark Helm, Yuri Motorin
RNA modifications are emerging players in the field of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and are attracting a comparable degree of research interest to DNA and histone modifications in the field of epigenetics. We now know of more than 150 RNA modifications and the true potential of a few of these is currently emerging as the consequence of a leap in detection technology, principally associated with high-throughput sequencing. This Review outlines the major developments in this field through a structured discussion of detection principles, lays out advantages and drawbacks of new high-throughput methods and presents conventional biophysical identification of modifications as meaningful ways for validation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111470/metagenomics-uncultivated-microbes-reveal-new-crispr-cas-systems
#6
Ross Cloney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239157/non-coding-rna-exosomal-micrornas-as-novel-adipokines
#7
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239156/cancer-genomics-ecdetect-hunts-extrachromosomal-dna
#8
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190876/the-evolution-of-tumour-phylogenetics-principles-and-practice
#9
REVIEW
Russell Schwartz, Alejandro A Schäffer
Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing and a growing realization of the importance of evolutionary theory to cancer genomics have led to a proliferation of phylogenetic studies of tumour progression. These studies have yielded not only new insights but also a plethora of experimental approaches, sometimes reaching conflicting or poorly supported conclusions. Here, we consider this body of work in light of the key computational principles underpinning phylogenetic inference, with the goal of providing practical guidance on the design and analysis of scientifically rigorous tumour phylogeny studies...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190875/technique-barcoding-the-nucleus
#10
Dorothy Clyde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163321/limb-development-a-paradigm-of-gene-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Florence Petit, Karen E Sears, Nadav Ahituv
The limb is a commonly used model system for developmental biology. Given the need for precise control of complex signalling pathways to achieve proper patterning, the limb is also becoming a model system for gene regulation studies. Recent developments in genomic technologies have enabled the genome-wide identification of regulatory elements that control limb development, yielding insights into the determination of limb morphology and forelimb versus hindlimb identity. The modulation of regulatory interactions - for example, through the modification of regulatory sequences or chromatin architecture - can lead to morphological evolution, acquired regeneration capacity or limb malformations in diverse species, including humans...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163320/complex-traits-selecting-against-schooling
#12
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138143/evolving-health-care-through-personal-genomics
#13
REVIEW
Heidi L Rehm
With the rapid evolution of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, the cost of sequencing a human genome has plummeted, and genomics has started to pervade health care across all stages of life - from preconception to adult medicine. Challenges to fully embracing genomics in a clinical setting remain, but some approaches are starting to overcome these barriers, such as community-driven data sharing to improve the accuracy and efficiency of applying genomics to patient care.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111472/building-a-lineage-from-single-cells-genetic-techniques-for-cell-lineage-tracking
#14
REVIEW
Mollie B Woodworth, Kelly M Girskis, Christopher A Walsh
Resolving lineage relationships between cells in an organism is a fundamental interest of developmental biology. Furthermore, investigating lineage can drive understanding of pathological states, including cancer, as well as understanding of developmental pathways that are amenable to manipulation by directed differentiation. Although lineage tracking through the injection of retroviral libraries has long been the state of the art, a recent explosion of methodological advances in exogenous labelling and single-cell sequencing have enabled lineage tracking at larger scales, in more detail, and in a wider range of species than was previously considered possible...
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293031/genetic-variation-hsp90-shapes-human-genetic-variation
#15
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293030/epigenetics-rich-pore-methods-for-dna-methylation-detection
#16
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138147/non-coding-rna-pri-mirna-processing-structure-is-key
#17
Louise Adams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138146/technique-smile-seq-illuminates-transcription-factor-motifs
#18
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138145/genetic-variation-giving-context-to-phenotype-prediction
#19
Ross Cloney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138144/chromatin-dynamics-during-the-cell-cycle-at-centromeres
#20
REVIEW
Sebastian Müller, Geneviève Almouzni
Centromeric chromatin undergoes major changes in composition and architecture during each cell cycle. These changes in specialized chromatin facilitate kinetochore formation in mitosis to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Thus, proper orchestration of centromeric chromatin dynamics during interphase, including replication in S phase, is crucial. We provide the current view concerning the centromeric architecture associated with satellite repeat sequences in mammals and its dynamics during the cell cycle...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
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