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Nature Reviews. Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781364/epigenetics-getting-instructions-from-mum
#1
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781363/complex-disease-from-non-coding-risk-variant-to-biological-mechanism-in-cad
#2
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736439/genome-organization-tracking-chromosomal-conformation-through-the-cell-cycle
#3
Carolina Perdigoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736438/alternative-splicing-a-thermometer-controlling-gene-expression
#4
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736437/dissecting-evolution-and-disease-using-comparative-vertebrate-genomics
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer R S Meadows, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
With the generation of more than 100 sequenced vertebrate genomes in less than 25 years, the key question arises of how these resources can be used to inform new or ongoing projects. In the past, this diverse collection of sequences from human as well as model and non-model organisms has been used to annotate the human genome and to increase the understanding of human disease. In the future, comparative vertebrate genomics in conjunction with additional genomic resources will yield insights into the processes of genome function, evolution, speciation, selection and adaptation, as well as the quantification of species diversity...
July 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714481/evolutionary-biology-through-the-lens-of-budding-yeast-comparative-genomics
#6
REVIEW
Souhir Marsit, Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Éléonore Durand, Axelle Marchant, Marie Filteau, Christian R Landry
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly advanced model system for studying genetics, cell biology and systems biology. Over the past decade, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to this species has contributed to this yeast also becoming an important model for evolutionary genomics. Indeed, comparative genomic analyses of laboratory, wild and domesticated yeast populations are providing unprecedented detail about many of the processes that govern evolution, including long-term processes, such as reproductive isolation and speciation, and short-term processes, such as adaptation to natural and domestication-related environments...
July 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714480/the-impact-of-replication-stress-on-replication-dynamics-and-dna-damage-in-vertebrate-cells
#7
REVIEW
Hervé Técher, Stéphane Koundrioukoff, Alain Nicolas, Michelle Debatisse
The interplay between replication stress and the S phase checkpoint is a key determinant of genome maintenance, and has a major impact on human diseases, notably, tumour initiation and progression. Recent studies have yielded insights into sequence-dependent and sequence-independent sources of endogenous replication stress. These stresses result in nuclease-induced DNA damage, checkpoint activation and genome-wide replication fork slowing. Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the mechanisms involved in this complex response...
July 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669983/exploiting-induced-and-natural-epigenetic-variation-for-crop-improvement
#8
REVIEW
Nathan M Springer, Robert J Schmitz
Plant breeding has traditionally relied on combining the genetic diversity present within a species to develop combinations of alleles that provide desired traits. Epigenetic diversity may provide additional sources of variation within a species that could be captured or created for crop improvement. It will be important to understand the sources of epigenetic variation and the stability of newly formed epigenetic variants over generations to fully use the potential of epigenetic variation to improve crops...
July 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649135/synthetic-lethality-and-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Nigel J O'Neil, Melanie L Bailey, Philip Hieter
A synthetic lethal interaction occurs between two genes when the perturbation of either gene alone is viable but the perturbation of both genes simultaneously results in the loss of viability. Key to exploiting synthetic lethality in cancer treatment are the identification and the mechanistic characterization of robust synthetic lethal genetic interactions. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies are enabling the identification of hundreds of tumour-specific mutations and alterations in gene expression that could be targeted by a synthetic lethality approach...
June 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607512/network-propagation-a-universal-amplifier-of-genetic-associations
#10
REVIEW
Lenore Cowen, Trey Ideker, Benjamin J Raphael, Roded Sharan
Biological networks are powerful resources for the discovery of genes and genetic modules that drive disease. Fundamental to network analysis is the concept that genes underlying the same phenotype tend to interact; this principle can be used to combine and to amplify signals from individual genes. Recently, numerous bioinformatic techniques have been proposed for genetic analysis using networks, based on random walks, information diffusion and electrical resistance. These approaches have been applied successfully to identify disease genes, genetic modules and drug targets...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555658/tet-mediated-active-dna-demethylation-mechanism-function-and-beyond
#11
REVIEW
Xiaoji Wu, Yi Zhang
In mammals, DNA methylation in the form of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) can be actively reversed to unmodified cytosine (C) through TET dioxygenase-mediated oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), followed by replication-dependent dilution or thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG)-dependent base excision repair. In the past few years, biochemical and structural studies have revealed mechanistic insights into how TET and TDG mediate active DNA demethylation...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669984/cancer-genetics-a-3d-view-of-genome-rearrangements
#12
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669982/gene-expression-microglia-environment-defines-identity
#13
Michelle Trenkmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649134/cancer-epigenetics-therapy-induced-transcription-is-cryptically-widespread
#14
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649133/disease-genetics-repeat-expansion-disorders-going-through-a-phase
#15
Dorothy Clyde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626224/reference-standards-for-next-generation-sequencing
#16
REVIEW
Simon A Hardwick, Ira W Deveson, Tim R Mercer
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a broad investigation of the genome, and it is being readily applied for the diagnosis of disease-associated genetic features. However, the interpretation of NGS data remains challenging owing to the size and complexity of the genome and the technical errors that are introduced during sample preparation, sequencing and analysis. These errors can be understood and mitigated through the use of reference standards - well-characterized genetic materials or synthetic spike-in controls that help to calibrate NGS measurements and to evaluate diagnostic performance...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607511/technique-sizing-up-tumours-with-tuba-seq
#17
Michelle Trenkmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555659/human-y-chromosome-variation-in-the-genome-sequencing-era
#18
REVIEW
Mark A Jobling, Chris Tyler-Smith
The properties of the human Y chromosome - namely, male specificity, haploidy and escape from crossing over - make it an unusual component of the genome, and have led to its genetic variation becoming a key part of studies of human evolution, population history, genealogy, forensics and male medical genetics. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have driven recent progress in these areas. In particular, NGS has yielded direct estimates of mutation rates, and an unbiased and calibrated molecular phylogeny that has unprecedented detail...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529337/dynamic-chromatin-technologies-from-individual-molecules-to-epigenomic-regulation-in-cells
#19
REVIEW
Olivier Cuvier, Beat Fierz
The establishment and maintenance of chromatin states involves multiscale dynamic processes integrating transcription factor and multiprotein effector dynamics, cycles of chemical chromatin modifications, and chromatin structural organization. Recent developments in genomic technologies are emerging that are enabling a view beyond ensemble- and time-averaged properties and are revealing the importance of dynamic chromatin states for cell fate decisions, differentiation and reprogramming at the single-cell level...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479598/the-origin-of-metazoa-a-unicellular-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Arnau Sebé-Pedrós, Bernard M Degnan, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo
The first animals evolved from an unknown single-celled ancestor in the Precambrian period. Recently, the identification and characterization of the genomic and cellular traits of the protists most closely related to animals have shed light on the origin of animals. Comparisons of animals with these unicellular relatives allow us to reconstruct the first evolutionary steps towards animal multicellularity. Here, we review the results of these investigations and discuss their implications for understanding the earliest stages of animal evolution, including the origin of metazoan genes and genome function...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
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