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Nature Reviews. Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890535/chromatin-probing-a-pirna-paradox
#1
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890534/harnessing-ancient-genomes-to-study-the-history-of-human-adaptation
#2
REVIEW
Stephanie Marciniak, George H Perry
The past several years have witnessed an explosion of successful ancient human genome-sequencing projects, with genomic-scale ancient DNA data sets now available for more than 1,100 ancient human and archaic hominin (for example, Neandertal) individuals. Recent 'evolution in action' analyses have started using these data sets to identify and track the spatiotemporal trajectories of genetic variants associated with human adaptations to novel and changing environments, agricultural lifestyles, and introduced or co-evolving pathogens...
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852223/beyond-editing-to-writing-large-genomes
#3
REVIEW
Raj Chari, George M Church
Recent exponential advances in genome sequencing and engineering technologies have enabled an unprecedented level of interrogation into the impact of DNA variation (genotype) on cellular function (phenotype). Furthermore, these advances have also prompted realistic discussion of writing and radically re-writing complex genomes. In this Perspective, we detail the motivation for large-scale engineering, discuss the progress made from such projects in bacteria and yeast and describe how various genome-engineering technologies will contribute to this effort...
August 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824167/human-genetic-variation-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-disease
#4
REVIEW
Andrew Brantley Hall, Andrew C Tolonen, Ramnik J Xavier
Taxonomic and functional changes to the composition of the gut microbiome have been implicated in multiple human diseases. Recent microbiome genome-wide association studies reveal that variants in many human genes involved in immunity and gut architecture are associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiome. Although many factors can affect the microbial organisms residing in the gut, a number of recent findings support the hypothesis that certain host genetic variants predispose an individual towards microbiome dysbiosis...
August 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804140/vertebrate-sex-determination-evolutionary-plasticity-of-a-fundamental-switch
#5
REVIEW
Blanche Capel
The discovery of the Sry gene in 1990 triggered a revolution in our understanding of sex determination. More recently, advances in non-model organisms have been fuelled by the rapid evolution of affordable genome and transcriptome technologies. This Review considers the unusual plasticity in the bipotential system of sex determination and some of the diverse mechanisms that have evolved to control this critical developmental decision, including strong genetic pathways, environmental influences and epigenetic regulation...
August 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804139/the-interplay-of-epigenetic-marks-during-stem-cell-differentiation-and-development
#6
REVIEW
Yaser Atlasi, Hendrik G Stunnenberg
Chromatin, the template for epigenetic regulation, is a highly dynamic entity that is constantly reshaped during early development and differentiation. Epigenetic modification of chromatin provides the necessary plasticity for cells to respond to environmental and positional cues, and enables the maintenance of acquired information without changing the DNA sequence. The mechanisms involve, among others, chemical modifications of chromatin, changes in chromatin constituents and reconfiguration of chromatin interactions and 3D structure...
August 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852225/model-organisms-new-tools-new-insights-probing-social-behaviour-in-ants
#7
Dorothy Clyde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852224/genetic-engineering-pigs-without-pervs
#8
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852222/chromosome-biology-different-turfs-for-cohesin-and-condensin
#9
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824168/gene-therapy-human-genome-editing-in-heart-disease
#10
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804138/settling-the-score-variant-prioritization-and-mendelian-disease
#11
REVIEW
Karen Eilbeck, Aaron Quinlan, Mark Yandell
When investigating Mendelian disease using exome or genome sequencing, distinguishing disease-causing genetic variants from the multitude of candidate variants is a complex, multidimensional task. Many prioritization tools and online interpretation resources exist, and professional organizations have offered clinical guidelines for review and return of prioritization results. In this Review, we describe the strengths and weaknesses of widely used computational approaches, explain their roles in the diagnostic and discovery process and discuss how they can inform (and misinform) expert reviewers...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804137/pathogen-genetics-evolutionary-dynamics-driving-drug-resistance
#12
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736437/dissecting-evolution-and-disease-using-comparative-vertebrate-genomics
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer R S Meadows, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
With the generation of more than 100 sequenced vertebrate genomes in less than 25 years, the key question arises of how these resources can be used to inform new or ongoing projects. In the past, this diverse collection of sequences from human as well as model and non-model organisms has been used to annotate the human genome and to increase the understanding of human disease. In the future, comparative vertebrate genomics in conjunction with additional genomic resources will yield insights into the processes of genome function, evolution, speciation, selection and adaptation, as well as the quantification of species diversity...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714481/evolutionary-biology-through-the-lens-of-budding-yeast-comparative-genomics
#14
REVIEW
Souhir Marsit, Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Éléonore Durand, Axelle Marchant, Marie Filteau, Christian R Landry
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly advanced model system for studying genetics, cell biology and systems biology. Over the past decade, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to this species has contributed to this yeast also becoming an important model for evolutionary genomics. Indeed, comparative genomic analyses of laboratory, wild and domesticated yeast populations are providing unprecedented detail about many of the processes that govern evolution, including long-term processes, such as reproductive isolation and speciation, and short-term processes, such as adaptation to natural and domestication-related environments...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649135/synthetic-lethality-and-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Nigel J O'Neil, Melanie L Bailey, Philip Hieter
A synthetic lethal interaction occurs between two genes when the perturbation of either gene alone is viable but the perturbation of both genes simultaneously results in the loss of viability. Key to exploiting synthetic lethality in cancer treatment are the identification and the mechanistic characterization of robust synthetic lethal genetic interactions. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies are enabling the identification of hundreds of tumour-specific mutations and alterations in gene expression that could be targeted by a synthetic lethality approach...
October 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781364/epigenetics-getting-instructions-from-mum
#16
Paulina Strzyz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781363/complex-disease-from-non-coding-risk-variant-to-biological-mechanism-in-cad
#17
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736439/genome-organization-tracking-chromosomal-conformation-through-the-cell-cycle
#18
Carolina Perdigoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736438/alternative-splicing-a-thermometer-controlling-gene-expression
#19
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714480/the-impact-of-replication-stress-on-replication-dynamics-and-dna-damage-in-vertebrate-cells
#20
REVIEW
Hervé Técher, Stéphane Koundrioukoff, Alain Nicolas, Michelle Debatisse
The interplay between replication stress and the S phase checkpoint is a key determinant of genome maintenance, and has a major impact on human diseases, notably, tumour initiation and progression. Recent studies have yielded insights into sequence-dependent and sequence-independent sources of endogenous replication stress. These stresses result in nuclease-induced DNA damage, checkpoint activation and genome-wide replication fork slowing. Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the mechanisms involved in this complex response...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
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