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Nature Reviews. Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151589/transcription-shedding-light-on-alternative-promoter-selection
#1
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151588/prioritizing-diversity-in-human-genomics-research
#2
REVIEW
Lucia A Hindorff, Vence L Bonham, Lawrence C Brody, Margaret E C Ginoza, Carolyn M Hutter, Teri A Manolio, Eric D Green
Recent studies have highlighted the imperatives of including diverse and under-represented individuals in human genomics research and the striking gaps in attaining that inclusion. With its multidecade experience in supporting research and policy efforts in human genomics, the National Human Genome Research Institute is committed to establishing foundational approaches to study the role of genomic variation in health and disease that include diverse populations. Large-scale efforts to understand biology and health have yielded key scientific findings, lessons and recommendations on how to increase diversity in genomic research studies and the genomic research workforce...
November 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129922/statistical-and-integrative-system-level-analysis-of-dna-methylation-data
#3
REVIEW
Andrew E Teschendorff, Caroline L Relton
Epigenetics plays a key role in cellular development and function. Alterations to the epigenome are thought to capture and mediate the effects of genetic and environmental risk factors on complex disease. Currently, DNA methylation is the only epigenetic mark that can be measured reliably and genome-wide in large numbers of samples. This Review discusses some of the key statistical challenges and algorithms associated with drawing inferences from DNA methylation data, including cell-type heterogeneity, feature selection, reverse causation and system-level analyses that require integration with other data types such as gene expression, genotype, transcription factor binding and other epigenetic information...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129921/towards-a-genomics-informed-real-time-global-pathogen-surveillance-system
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer L Gardy, Nicholas J Loman
The recent Ebola and Zika epidemics demonstrate the need for the continuous surveillance, rapid diagnosis and real-time tracking of emerging infectious diseases. Fast, affordable sequencing of pathogen genomes - now a staple of the public health microbiology laboratory in well-resourced settings - can affect each of these areas. Coupling genomic diagnostics and epidemiology to innovative digital disease detection platforms raises the possibility of an open, global, digital pathogen surveillance system. When informed by a One Health approach, in which human, animal and environmental health are considered together, such a genomics-based system has profound potential to improve public health in settings lacking robust laboratory capacity...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129920/transcription-putting-r-loops-firmly-on-the-map
#5
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129919/functional-genomics-shining-a-light-on-genetic-screen-strategies
#6
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109524/navigating-complexity-to-breed-disease-resistant-crops
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca Nelson, Tyr Wiesner-Hanks, Randall Wisser, Peter Balint-Kurti
Plant diseases are responsible for substantial crop losses each year and pose a threat to global food security and agricultural sustainability. Improving crop resistance to pathogens through breeding is an environmentally sound method for managing disease and minimizing these losses. However, it is challenging to breed varieties with resistance that is effective, stable and broad-spectrum. Recent advances in genetic and genomic technologies have contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of host-pathogen interactions and have identified some of the genes and mechanisms that underlie resistance...
November 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082913/human-gene-essentiality
#8
REVIEW
István Bartha, Julia di Iulio, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
A gene can be defined as essential when loss of its function compromises viability of the individual (for example, embryonic lethality) or results in profound loss of fitness. At the population level, identification of essential genes is accomplished by observing intolerance to loss-of-function variants. Several computational methods are available to score gene essentiality, and recent progress has been made in defining essentiality in the non-coding genome. Haploinsufficiency is emerging as a critical aspect of gene essentiality: approximately 3,000 human genes cannot tolerate loss of one of the two alleles...
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033457/emerging-and-evolving-concepts-in-gene-essentiality
#9
REVIEW
Giulia Rancati, Jason Moffat, Athanasios Typas, Norman Pavelka
Gene essentiality is a founding concept of genetics with important implications in both fundamental and applied research. Multiple screens have been performed over the years in bacteria, yeasts, animals and more recently in human cells to identify essential genes. A mounting body of evidence suggests that gene essentiality, rather than being a static and binary property, is both context dependent and evolvable in all kingdoms of life. This concept of a non-absolute nature of gene essentiality changes our fundamental understanding of essential biological processes and could directly affect future treatment strategies for cancer and infectious diseases...
October 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033456/the-dna-methyltransferase-family-a-versatile-toolkit-for-epigenetic-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Frank Lyko
The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) family comprises a conserved set of DNA-modifying enzymes that have a central role in epigenetic gene regulation. Recent studies have shown that the functions of the canonical DNMT enzymes - DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B - go beyond their traditional roles of establishing and maintaining DNA methylation patterns. This Review analyses how molecular interactions and changes in gene copy numbers modulate the activity of DNMTs in diverse gene regulatory functions, including transcriptional silencing, transcriptional activation and post-transcriptional regulation by DNMT2-dependent tRNA methylation...
October 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109523/gene-expression-principles-of-gene-regulation-across-tissues
#11
Darren J Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109522/cancer-genomics-the-driving-force-of-cancer-evolution
#12
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082914/transcription-promoters-dictate-termination-mode
#13
Grant Otto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062057/population-genetics-of-sexual-conflict-in-the-genomic-era
#14
REVIEW
Judith E Mank
Sexual conflict occurs when selection acts in opposing directions on males and females. Case studies in both vertebrates and invertebrates indicate that sexual conflict maintains genetic diversity through balancing selection, which might explain why many populations show more genetic variation than expected. Recent population genomic approaches based on different measures of balancing selection have suggested that sexual conflict can arise over survival, not just reproductive fitness as previously thought. A fuller understanding of sexual conflict will provide insight into its contribution to adaptive evolution and will reveal the constraints it might impose on populations...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062056/transcription-intragenic-enhancers-dampen-gene-expression
#15
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062055/genetic-engineering-on-the-road-to-efficient-gene-drives
#16
Michelle Trenkmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033455/genetic-variation-birds-of-a-feather-genetic-mapping-of-yellow-pigmentation
#17
Ross Cloney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989171/convergence-between-biological-behavioural-and-genetic-determinants-of-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Sujoy Ghosh, Claude Bouchard
Multiple biological, behavioural and genetic determinants or correlates of obesity have been identified to date. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have contributed to the identification of more than 100 obesity-associated genetic variants, but their roles in causal processes leading to obesity remain largely unknown. Most variants are likely to have tissue-specific regulatory roles through joint contributions to biological pathways and networks, through changes in gene expression that influence quantitative traits, or through the regulation of the epigenome...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944780/demographic-history-selection-and-functional-diversity-of-the-canine-genome
#19
REVIEW
Elaine A Ostrander, Robert K Wayne, Adam H Freedman, Brian W Davis
The domestic dog represents one of the most dramatic long-term evolutionary experiments undertaken by humans. From a large wolf-like progenitor, unparalleled diversity in phenotype and behaviour has developed in dogs, providing a model for understanding the developmental and genomic mechanisms of diversification. We discuss pattern and process in domestication, beginning with general findings about early domestication and problems in documenting selection at the genomic level. Furthermore, we summarize genotype-phenotype studies based first on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and then with whole-genome data and show how an understanding of evolution informs topics as different as human history, adaptive and deleterious variation, morphological development, ageing, cancer and behaviour...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852223/beyond-editing-to-writing-large-genomes
#20
REVIEW
Raj Chari, George M Church
Recent exponential advances in genome sequencing and engineering technologies have enabled an unprecedented level of interrogation into the impact of DNA variation (genotype) on cellular function (phenotype). Furthermore, these advances have also prompted realistic discussion of writing and radically re-writing complex genomes. In this Perspective, we detail the motivation for large-scale engineering, discuss the progress made from such projects in bacteria and yeast and describe how various genome-engineering technologies will contribute to this effort...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
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