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Nature Reviews. Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529337/dynamic-chromatin-technologies-from-individual-molecules-to-epigenomic-regulation-in-cells
#1
REVIEW
Olivier Cuvier, Beat Fierz
The establishment and maintenance of chromatin states involves multiscale dynamic processes integrating transcription factor and multiprotein effector dynamics, cycles of chemical chromatin modifications, and chromatin structural organization. Recent developments in genomic technologies are emerging that are enabling a view beyond ensemble- and time-averaged properties and are revealing the importance of dynamic chromatin states for cell fate decisions, differentiation and reprogramming at the single-cell level...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529336/stem-cells-the-different-flavours-of-ips-cells
#2
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529335/cancer-genomics-tracking-cancer-evolution
#3
Carolina Perdigoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529334/plant-genetics-spatial-transcriptomics-in-plants
#4
Liesbet Lieben
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502977/the-evolutionary-significance-of-polyploidy
#5
REVIEW
Yves Van de Peer, Eshchar Mizrachi, Kathleen Marchal
Polyploidy, or the duplication of entire genomes, has been observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and in somatic and germ cells. The consequences of polyploidization are complex and variable, and they differ greatly between systems (clonal or non-clonal) and species, but the process has often been considered to be an evolutionary 'dead end'. Here, we review the accumulating evidence that correlates polyploidization with environmental change or stress, and that has led to an increased recognition of its short-term adaptive potential...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502976/technology-nucleic-acid-detection-it-s-elementary-with-sherlock
#6
Dorothy Clyde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479598/the-origin-of-metazoa-a-unicellular-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Arnau Sebé-Pedrós, Bernard M Degnan, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo
The first animals evolved from an unknown single-celled ancestor in the Precambrian period. Recently, the identification and characterization of the genomic and cellular traits of the protists most closely related to animals have shed light on the origin of animals. Comparisons of animals with these unicellular relatives allow us to reconstruct the first evolutionary steps towards animal multicellularity. Here, we review the results of these investigations and discuss their implications for understanding the earliest stages of animal evolution, including the origin of metazoan genes and genome function...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479597/genetic-testing-the-diagnostic-power-of-rna-seq
#8
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479595/comparative-transcriptomics-in-human-and-mouse
#9
REVIEW
Alessandra Breschi, Thomas R Gingeras, Roderic Guigó
Cross-species comparisons of genomes, transcriptomes and gene regulation are now feasible at unprecedented resolution and throughput, enabling the comparison of human and mouse biology at the molecular level. Insights have been gained into the degree of conservation between human and mouse at the level of not only gene expression but also epigenetics and inter-individual variation. However, a number of limitations exist, including incomplete transcriptome characterization and difficulties in identifying orthologous phenotypes and cell types, which are beginning to be addressed by emerging technologies...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344341/functional-variomics-and-network-perturbation-connecting-genotype-to-phenotype-in-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Song Yi, Shengda Lin, Yongsheng Li, Wei Zhao, Gordon B Mills, Nidhi Sahni
Proteins interact with other macromolecules in complex cellular networks for signal transduction and biological function. In cancer, genetic aberrations have been traditionally thought to disrupt the entire gene function. It has been increasingly appreciated that each mutation of a gene could have a subtle but unique effect on protein function or network rewiring, contributing to diverse phenotypic consequences across cancer patient populations. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding of cancer genetic variants, including the broad spectrum of mutation classes and the wide range of mechanistic effects on gene function in the context of signalling networks...
March 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479596/the-x-chromosome-in-space
#11
REVIEW
Teddy Jégu, Eric Aeby, Jeannie T Lee
Extensive 3D folding is required to package a genome into the tiny nuclear space, and this packaging must be compatible with proper gene expression. Thus, in the well-hierarchized nucleus, chromosomes occupy discrete territories and adopt specific 3D organizational structures that facilitate interactions between regulatory elements for gene expression. The mammalian X chromosome exemplifies this structure-function relationship. Recent studies have shown that, upon X-chromosome inactivation, active and inactive X chromosomes localize to different subnuclear positions and adopt distinct chromosomal architectures that reflect their activity states...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479594/genome-organization-in-the-beginning-there-was-order
#12
Carolina Perdigoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461692/technique-a-mosaic-of-enhancer-function-in-single-cells
#13
Ross Cloney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461691/mutations-dawn-of-the-human-knockout-project
#14
Carolina Perdigoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420879/evolutionary-genetics-fantastic-beasts-cephalopod-rna-recoding
#15
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392571/scaling-by-shrinking-empowering-single-cell-omics-with-microfluidic-devices
#16
REVIEW
Sanjay M Prakadan, Alex K Shalek, David A Weitz
Recent advances in cellular profiling have demonstrated substantial heterogeneity in the behaviour of cells once deemed 'identical', challenging fundamental notions of cell 'type' and 'state'. Not surprisingly, these findings have elicited substantial interest in deeply characterizing the diversity, interrelationships and plasticity among cellular phenotypes. To explore these questions, experimental platforms are needed that can extensively and controllably profile many individual cells. Here, microfluidic structures - whether valve-, droplet- or nanowell-based - have an important role because they can facilitate easy capture and processing of single cells and their components, reducing labour and costs relative to conventional plate-based methods while also improving consistency...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286336/genetics-of-coronary-artery-disease-discovery-biology-and-clinical-translation
#17
REVIEW
Amit V Khera, Sekar Kathiresan
Coronary artery disease is the leading global cause of mortality. Long recognized to be heritable, recent advances have started to unravel the genetic architecture of the disease. Common variant association studies have linked approximately 60 genetic loci to coronary risk. Large-scale gene sequencing efforts and functional studies have facilitated a better understanding of causal risk factors, elucidated underlying biology and informed the development of new therapeutics. Moving forwards, genetic testing could enable precision medicine approaches by identifying subgroups of patients at increased risk of coronary artery disease or those with a specific driving pathophysiology in whom a therapeutic or preventive approach would be most useful...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260791/autism-genetics-opportunities-and-challenges-for-clinical-translation
#18
REVIEW
Jacob A S Vorstman, Jeremy R Parr, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Richard J L Anney, John I Nurnberger, Joachim F Hallmayer
Genetic studies have revealed the involvement of hundreds of gene variants in autism. Their risk effects are highly variable, and they are frequently related to other conditions besides autism. However, many different variants converge on common biological pathways. These findings indicate that aetiological heterogeneity, variable penetrance and genetic pleiotropy are pervasive characteristics of autism genetics. Although this advancing insight should improve clinical care, at present there is a substantial discrepancy between research knowledge and its clinical application...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366938/genetic-variation-linear-insights-into-non-coding-dna
#19
Shimona Starling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366937/genetic-screens-crispr-based-mapping-of-genetic-interactions
#20
Ross Cloney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
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