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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A

Katiuska Tuttis, Daryne Lu Maldonado Gomes da Costa, Higor Lopes Nunes, Ana Flávia Leal Specian, Juliana Mara Serpeloni, Lourdes Campaner Dos Santos, Eliana Aparecida Varanda, Wagner Vilegas, Wilner Martínez-Lopez, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus
Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk., popularly known as curriola, is commonly used in Brazil as medicinal plant to treat worm infections, dysentery, pain, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. At present the safety of this extract when used therapeutically in human remains to be determined. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine cytotoxicity, antiproliferative, and antimutagenic actions of this extract. The hydroalcoholic extract from P. ramiflora leaves consisted of flavonoids identified and quantified as myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (13...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Douglas Costa Gontijo, Marisa Alves Nogueira Diaz, Geraldo Célio Brandão, Pablo Costa Gontijo, Alaíde Braga de Oliveira, Luciano Gomes Fietto, João Paulo Viana Leite
Plant extracts exist as a complex matrix which serves as a source of numerous bioactive metabolites. The ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection-coupled electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry technique was used to characterize the aqueous extract from leaves of Alchornea glandulosa (EAG), a species popularly used to treat gastrointestinal problems as an antiulcer agent. Quantification of phenolic derivatives was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3 ) methods...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
David R Mattie, Teresa R Sterner, Gunda Reddy, David R Steup, Errol Zeiger, Dean J Wagner, Katherine Kurtz, Wayne C Daughtrey, Brian A Wong, Darol E Dodd, James T Edwards, John P Hinz
Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) jet fuel is a synthetic organic mixture intended to augment petroleum-derived JP-8 jet fuel use by the U.S. armed forces. The FT SPK testing program goal was to develop a comparative toxicity database with petroleum-derived jet fuels that may be used to calculate an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Toxicity investigations included the dermal irritation test (FT vs. JP-8 vs. 50:50 blend), 2 in vitro genotoxicity tests, acute inhalation study, short-term (2-week) inhalation range finder study with measurement of bone marrow micronuclei, 90-day inhalation toxicity, and sensory irritation assay...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Gabriele Magara, Antonia Concetta Elia, Kristian Syberg, Farhan R Khan
The microplastic "vector effect" has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polyethylene microplastic beads (PE MP) on accumulation and associated oxidative stress responses attributed to fluoranthene (Flu) in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis. Blue mussels were exposed for 96 h to four treatment groups: Flu-only, MP-only, Flu and MP coexposure, and Flu-incubated MP. Treatments were conducted at a low and high concentration (50 μg/L and 100  Flu μg/L and 100, and 1000 MP/mL)...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Fernanda Rosário, Peter Hoet, António José Arsénia Nogueira, Conceição Santos, Helena Oliveira
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), with their important properties, are being used in a range of sectors from industry to medicine, leading to increased human exposure. Hence, their toxicity potential needs to be comprehensively evaluated. It was postulated that within small-sized (≤20 nm) polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNP), minor size differences may significantly induce different toxicity profiles and involve varying cellular pathways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of differing size AgNP with 10 nm (AgNP10) and 20 nm (AgNP20) (up to 100 µg/ml), as well as to ionic silver as AgNO3 for 24 and 48 h, using the human lung cell line A549...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Allison M Jackovitz, Keith A Koistinen, Emily M Lent, Desmond I Bannon, Michael J Quinn, Mark S Johnson
Substances used as explosives in munitions by the military often result in environmental releases through manufacturing, testing, training, and combat activities. The toxicity of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (nitrotriazolone or NTO) was evaluated following oral exposure in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to determine if environmental releases result in unacceptable risks to avian populations. In an acute test at the limit dose (2000 mg/kg), one female was ataxic, exhibited tremors, and showed signs of neurological toxicity approximately 24 h after dosing...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Meredith E Bohannon, Tom E Porter, Emma T Lavoie, Mary Ann Ottinger
The upper Hudson River was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) Aroclor mixtures from the 1940s until the late 1970s. Several well-established biomarkers, such as induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, were used to measure exposure to PCBs and similar contaminants in birds. In the present study, Japanese quail eggs were injected with a PCB mixture based upon a congener profile found in spotted sandpiper eggs at the upper Hudson River and subsequently, RNA was extracted from hatchling liver tissue for hybridization to a customized chicken cDNA microarray...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Roger Diegel, Brad Black, Jean C Pfau, Tracy McNew, Curtis Noonan, Raja Flores
An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) has been reported in Libby, Montana, where extensive exposures to fibrous amphiboles occurred due to mining and use of asbestos-laden vermiculite. In addition, positive antinuclear autoantibody tests are associated with exposure to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA) in both humans and mice. Among 6603 subjects who underwent health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), 13.8% were diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, with prevalence values for the most common SAID being significantly higher than expected in the United States...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Cristina Monteiro, José Miguel P Ferreira de Oliveira, Francisco Pinho, Verónica Bastos, Helena Oliveira, Francisco Peixoto, Conceição Santos
Cadmium (Cd) accumulation is known to occur predominantly in kidney and liver; however, low-level long-term exposure to Cd may also result in bone damage. Few studies have addressed Cd-induced toxicity in osteoblasts, particularly upon cell mitochondrial energy processing and putative associations with oxidative stress in bone. To assess the influence of Cd treatment on mitochondrial function and oxidative status in osteoblast cells, human MG-63 cells were treated with Cd (up to 65 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant defense mechanisms such as total antioxidant activity (TAA) and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Gayle DeLong
Birth rates in the United States have recently fallen. Birth rates per 1000 females aged 25-29 fell from 118 in 2007 to 105 in 2015. One factor may involve the vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Shortly after the vaccine was licensed, several reports of recipients experiencing primary ovarian failure emerged. This study analyzed information gathered in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which represented 8 million 25-to-29-year-old women residing in the United States between 2007 and 2014...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Seul Min Choi, Duck Soo Lim, Min Kook Kim, Sungpil Yoon, Sam Kacew, Hyung Sik Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
The endocrine disrupting actions of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on testicular functions are postulated to involve excess free radical generation. Thus the aim of this study was to examine the ability of antioxidant vitamins C and E to prevent DEHP-induced testicular disruption in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. SD male rats were administered DEHP alone or DEHP with vitamin C and/or vitamin E for 30 days. DEHP alone increased the levels of testosterone (T) and reduced estradiol (E2 ) concentrations. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins diminished or restored serum T levels noted in DEHP-treated rats to control values...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Eşref Demir, Ricard Marcos
Graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are widely used in nanomedicine, and other fields, due to their unique physicochemical properties including high tensile strength, ultra-light weight, thermal and chemical stability, and reliable semi-conductive electronic properties. Although extensive amount of data exist describing their adverse effects including potential genotoxicity, few studies using gene mutation detection approaches in mammalian cells are available, which represents an important gap for risk estimations...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Lucélia Moraes-Silva, Cláudia Sirlene Oliveira, Nilce Coelho Peixoto, Maria Ester Pereira
Mercury (Hg), a divalent metal, produces adverse effects predominantly in the renal and central nervous systems. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of copper (Cu) in prevention of mercuric mercury (Hg2+ )-mediated toxic effects as well as the role metallothioneins (MT) play in this protective mechanism in young rats. Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with saline (Sal) or CuCl2 .2H2 O (Cu 2.6 mg/kg/day) from 3 to 7 days old and with saline or HgCl2 (Hg 3.7 mg/kg/day) from 8 to 12 days old...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Rodrigo de Cássio da Silva, Sonia Regina Grötzner, Daniele Dietrich Moura Costa, Juan Ramón Esquivel Garcia, Juan Muelbert, Valéria Freitas de Magalhães, Francisco Filipak Neto, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro
Many tropical freshwater ecosystems are impacted by cyanobacteria blooms increasing the risk of cyanotoxins exposure to aquatic organisms while human populations may be exposed by eating fish, drinking water, or dermal swimming. However, few toxicological data are available on the influence of cyanobacteria blooms in particular, cylindrospermopsin (CYN) on Brazilian neotropical fish. A number of studies demonstrated the ability of CYN to bioaccumulate in freshwater organisms and consequently enter the human food chain...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
J López-Luna, M M Camacho-Martínez, F A Solís-Domínguez, M C González-Chávez, R Carrillo-González, S Martinez-Vargas, O F Mijangos-Ricardez, M C Cuevas-Díaz
Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received increasing attention due to their widespread therapeutic and agricultural applicability. In the environmental field, dry powder- and ferrofluid-suspended cobalt ferrite NPs were found to be useful for removing heavy metals and metalloids from water, while diluted suspensions of cobalt ferrite NP have been promisingly applied in medicine. However, the potential toxicological implications of widespread exposure are still unknown. Since cobalt ferrite NPs are considered residual wastes of environmental or medical applications, plants may serve as a point-of-entry for engineered nanomaterials as a result of consumption of these plants...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Daniela Morais Leme, Andrea Sehr, Tamara Grummt, Jenifer Pendiuk Gonçalves, Thiago Jacomasso, Sheila Maria Brochado Winnischofer, Francine Bittencourt Potrich, Carolina Camargo de Oliveira, Edvaldo da Silva Trindade, Danielle Palma de Oliveira
Several synthetic dyes are used by textile industry for supplying the market of colored clothes. However, these chemicals have been associated with a variety of adverse human health effects, including textile dermatitis. Thus, there is a growing concern to identify textile dyes potentially as skin immunotoxicants. The aim of this in vitro study was to characterize the immunotoxic potential of reactive (Reactive Green 19 [RG19], Reactive Blue 2 [RB2], Reactive Black 5 [RB5]) and disperse (Disperse Red 1 [DR1]) textile dyes using a dermal cell line...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Duck Soo Lim, Tae Hyun Roh, Min Kook Kim, Yong Chan Kwon, Seul Min Choi, Seung Jun Kwack, Kyu Bong Kim, Sungpil Yoon, Hyung Sik Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
N-nitrosamines and their precursors found in cosmetics may be carcinogenic in humans. Thus the aim of this study was to carry out risk assessment for N-nitrosamines (N-nitrosodiethanolamine [NDELA], N-nitrosodiethylamine [NDEA]) and amines (triethanolamine [TEA], diethanolamine [DEA]) levels in cosmetics determined using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) procedures. NDELA and NDEA concentrations were present at levels of "not detected" (N.D.) to 596.5 μg/kg and N...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Olaf Holz, Karsten Heusser, Meike Müller, Horst Windt, Katharina Schwarz, Christoph Schindler, Jens Tank, Jens M Hohlfeld, Jens Jordan
Increased adverse health effects in older subjects due to exposure to ambient air pollutants may be related to the inflammatory response induced by these contaminants. The aim of this study was to assess airway and systemic inflammatory responses in older healthy subjects to a controlled experimental exposure with spark-generated elemental carbon black ultrafine particles (cbUFPs) and ozone (O3 ). Twenty healthy subjects, age 52-75 years, were exposed on three occasions separated by at least 8 weeks. The exposures to filtered air (FA), to cbUFP (50 μg/m3 ), or to cbUFP in combination with 250 ppb ozone (cbUFP + O3 ) for 3 h with intermittent exercise were performed double blind, and in random order...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
N Chernoff, D J Hill, I Chorus, D L Diggs, H Huang, D King, J R Lang, T-T Le, J E Schmid, G S Travlos, E M Whitley, R E Wilson, C R Wood
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxin associated with numerous species of freshwater cyanobacteria throughout the world. It is postulated to have caused an episode of serious illnesses in Australia through treated drinking water, as well as lethal effects in livestock exposed to water from farm ponds. Toxicity included effects indicative of both hepatic and renal dysfunction. In humans, symptoms progressed from initial hepatomegaly, vomiting, and malaise to acidosis and hypokalemia, bloody diarrhea, and hyperemia in mucous membranes...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Byung-Mu Lee, Hyung Sik Kim, Young Jin Chun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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