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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A

Ana Marques, João Ferreira, Helena Abreu, Rui Pereira, Andreia Rego, João Serôdio, Gregor Christa, Isabel Gaivão, Mário Pacheco
The functional characterization of marine macroalgae toward their potential to strength genome protection is still scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the antigenotoxic potential of Ulva rigida, Fucus vesiculosus, and Gracilaria species in Drosophila melanogaster following dietary exposure and adopting the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART). All macroalgae displayed a genoprotection activity, namely against an exogenous challenge (streptonigrin). The action against subtler endogenous pressures was also noted indicating that supplementation level is a critical factor...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Volker Bornemann, Stephen C Werness, Lauren Buslinger, Susan S Schiffman
The aim of this study was to (1) determine if the organochlorine artificial sweetener sucralose is metabolized in rat intestine with repeated dosing and (2) examine whether sucralose might bioaccumulate in rat adipose tissue. Sucralose was administered to 10 rats by gavage daily for 40 days at an average dosage of 80.4 mg/kg/day. The dosages were within the range utilized in historical toxicology studies submitted for regulatory approval in North America, Europe, and Asia. Feces and urine were collected individually from each animal for every 24-hr period during the 40-day dosing period...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Alex J Olson, Trevor Cyphers, Gretchen Gerrish, Colin Belby, Tisha C King-Heiden
The widespread use of lead (Pb) shot in shooting activities, including at former shooting ranges, continues to pose environmental risks. The La Crosse River Marsh (located in Wisconsin, USA) is a biologically diverse urban riparian wetland with a legacy of Pb-contaminated sediment resulting from its use as a trap shooting range from 1929-1963. Within the shot fall zone, shot densities exceed 43,000 pellets/m2 and surface sediments exceed 25,000 mg/kg in some areas. This study used the Zebrafish as a model to determine the acute toxicity of these contaminated sediments...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Gabriel Adan Araujo Leite, Thamiris Moreira Figueiredo, Tainá Louise Pacheco, Marina Trevizan Guerra, Janete Aparecida Anselmo-Franci, Wilma De Grava Kempinas
Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in different countries due to the increase of obesity, bad eating habits, and sedentary lifestyle. Rosuvastatin reduces serum cholesterol; however, several studies associated statin exposure with male reproduction impairment. Ascorbic acid (AA) is an antioxidant substance that plays a protective role in the male reproductive system. Male rats were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 10), which received saline solution 0.9%, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin, 150 mg/day of AA or 3 or 10 mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin associated with 150 mg/day of AA from post-natal day (PND) 23 until PND 53...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Chih-Cheng Chen, Chun-Yuh Yang
The relationship between exposure to ambient air pollutants and hospital admissions for appendicitis is not known. This study examined whether an association existed between air contaminant levels and frequency of hospital admissions for appendicitis in Taipei, Taiwan. Ambient air pollution and hospital admission data for Taipei were obtained for 2009-2013. Relative risk (RR) of hospital admissions was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Hugo Vianna Silva Rody, Douglas da Costa Gontijo, Victor Peçanha de Miranda Coelho, Marília Contin Ventrella, Rodrigo Maia de Pádua, Luciano Gomes Fietto, João Paulo Viana Leite
Plant species from the Ficus genus are widely used as food, and in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agents, although some of these species are known to produce adverse effects. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the chemical composition as well as in vitro antioxidant and mutagenic activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves from F. adhatodifolia and F. obtusiuscula. Phytochemical screening using thin-layer chromatography identified 6 classes of secondary metabolites in the extracts...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Aleksandra Nikolić-Kokić, Nikola Tatalović, Jelena Nestorov, Milica Mijović, Ana Mijusković, Marko Miler, Zorana Oreščanin-Dušić, Milan Nikolić, Verica Milošević, Duško Blagojević, Mihajlo Spasić, Čedo Miljević
Atypical antipsychotics produce severe side effects including myocarditis that may be attributed to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of clozapine, ziprasidone, and sertindole on rat heart morphology and determine whether redox imbalane plays a role in development of histopathological changes. Adult 3-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with recommended daily dose for selected drugs. After 4 week treatment histopathological analysis of the heart was performed and expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes determined...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Min Kook Kim, Kyu-Bong Kim, Kyungsil Yoon, Sam Kacew, Hyung Sik Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Potential biomarkers of skin sensitization in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages were investigated as alternatives to animal experiments and risk assessment. The concentrations that resulted in a cell viability of 90% (CV90) and 75% (CV75) were calculated by using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST)-1 assay and used to analyze the skin sensitization potency of 23 experimental materials under equivalent treatment conditions. In addition, the expression of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-31, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was analyzed utilizing Western blotting...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Xiang Li, Kai Tang, Xu-Rui Jin, Ying Xiang, Jing Xu, Li-Li Yang, Nan Wang, Ya-Fei Li, Ai-Ling Ji, Lai-Xin Zhou, Tong-Jian Cai
Air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), exerting heavy economic burden on both individuals and societies. However, there is no apparent report regarding the influence of air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), and ozone (O3 ) on financial burden to individuals and societies suffering from T2D. This study aimed to determine whether short-term (no more than 16 d) air pollution exposure was associated with T2D-related length of stay (LOS) and hospitalization expenses incurred by patients...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Katiuska Tuttis, Daryne Lu Maldonado Gomes da Costa, Higor Lopes Nunes, Ana Flávia Leal Specian, Juliana Mara Serpeloni, Lourdes Campaner Dos Santos, Eliana Aparecida Varanda, Wagner Vilegas, Wilner Martínez-Lopez, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus
Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk., popularly known as curriola, is commonly used in Brazil as medicinal plant to treat worm infections, dysentery, pain, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. At present the safety of this extract when used therapeutically in human remains to be determined. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine cytotoxicity, antiproliferative, and antimutagenic actions of this extract. The hydroalcoholic extract from P. ramiflora leaves consisted of flavonoids identified and quantified as myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (13...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Douglas Costa Gontijo, Marisa Alves Nogueira Diaz, Geraldo Célio Brandão, Pablo Costa Gontijo, Alaíde Braga de Oliveira, Luciano Gomes Fietto, João Paulo Viana Leite
Plant extracts exist as a complex matrix which serves as a source of numerous bioactive metabolites. The ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection-coupled electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry technique was used to characterize the aqueous extract from leaves of Alchornea glandulosa (EAG), a species popularly used to treat gastrointestinal problems as an antiulcer agent. Quantification of phenolic derivatives was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3 ) methods...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
David R Mattie, Teresa R Sterner, Gunda Reddy, David R Steup, Errol Zeiger, Dean J Wagner, Katherine Kurtz, Wayne C Daughtrey, Brian A Wong, Darol E Dodd, James T Edwards, John P Hinz
Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) jet fuel is a synthetic organic mixture intended to augment petroleum-derived JP-8 jet fuel use by the U.S. armed forces. The FT SPK testing program goal was to develop a comparative toxicity database with petroleum-derived jet fuels that may be used to calculate an occupational exposure limit (OEL). Toxicity investigations included the dermal irritation test (FT vs. JP-8 vs. 50:50 blend), 2 in vitro genotoxicity tests, acute inhalation study, short-term (2-week) inhalation range finder study with measurement of bone marrow micronuclei, 90-day inhalation toxicity, and sensory irritation assay...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Gabriele Magara, Antonia Concetta Elia, Kristian Syberg, Farhan R Khan
The microplastic "vector effect" has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polyethylene microplastic beads (PE MP) on accumulation and associated oxidative stress responses attributed to fluoranthene (Flu) in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis. Blue mussels were exposed for 96 h to four treatment groups: Flu-only, MP-only, Flu and MP coexposure, and Flu-incubated MP. Treatments were conducted at a low and high concentration (50 μg/L and 100  Flu μg/L and 100, and 1000 MP/mL)...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Fernanda Rosário, Peter Hoet, António José Arsénia Nogueira, Conceição Santos, Helena Oliveira
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), with their important properties, are being used in a range of sectors from industry to medicine, leading to increased human exposure. Hence, their toxicity potential needs to be comprehensively evaluated. It was postulated that within small-sized (≤20 nm) polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNP), minor size differences may significantly induce different toxicity profiles and involve varying cellular pathways. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of differing size AgNP with 10 nm (AgNP10) and 20 nm (AgNP20) (up to 100 µg/ml), as well as to ionic silver as AgNO3 for 24 and 48 h, using the human lung cell line A549...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Allison M Jackovitz, Keith A Koistinen, Emily M Lent, Desmond I Bannon, Michael J Quinn, Mark S Johnson
Substances used as explosives in munitions by the military often result in environmental releases through manufacturing, testing, training, and combat activities. The toxicity of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (nitrotriazolone or NTO) was evaluated following oral exposure in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to determine if environmental releases result in unacceptable risks to avian populations. In an acute test at the limit dose (2000 mg/kg), one female was ataxic, exhibited tremors, and showed signs of neurological toxicity approximately 24 h after dosing...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Meredith E Bohannon, Tom E Porter, Emma T Lavoie, Mary Ann Ottinger
The upper Hudson River was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) Aroclor mixtures from the 1940s until the late 1970s. Several well-established biomarkers, such as induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, were used to measure exposure to PCBs and similar contaminants in birds. In the present study, Japanese quail eggs were injected with a PCB mixture based upon a congener profile found in spotted sandpiper eggs at the upper Hudson River and subsequently, RNA was extracted from hatchling liver tissue for hybridization to a customized chicken cDNA microarray...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Roger Diegel, Brad Black, Jean C Pfau, Tracy McNew, Curtis Noonan, Raja Flores
An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) has been reported in Libby, Montana, where extensive exposures to fibrous amphiboles occurred due to mining and use of asbestos-laden vermiculite. In addition, positive antinuclear autoantibody tests are associated with exposure to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA) in both humans and mice. Among 6603 subjects who underwent health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), 13.8% were diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, with prevalence values for the most common SAID being significantly higher than expected in the United States...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Cristina Monteiro, José Miguel P Ferreira de Oliveira, Francisco Pinho, Verónica Bastos, Helena Oliveira, Francisco Peixoto, Conceição Santos
Cadmium (Cd) accumulation is known to occur predominantly in kidney and liver; however, low-level long-term exposure to Cd may also result in bone damage. Few studies have addressed Cd-induced toxicity in osteoblasts, particularly upon cell mitochondrial energy processing and putative associations with oxidative stress in bone. To assess the influence of Cd treatment on mitochondrial function and oxidative status in osteoblast cells, human MG-63 cells were treated with Cd (up to 65 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant defense mechanisms such as total antioxidant activity (TAA) and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Gayle DeLong
Birth rates in the United States have recently fallen. Birth rates per 1000 females aged 25-29 fell from 118 in 2007 to 105 in 2015. One factor may involve the vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Shortly after the vaccine was licensed, several reports of recipients experiencing primary ovarian failure emerged. This study analyzed information gathered in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which represented 8 million 25-to-29-year-old women residing in the United States between 2007 and 2014...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Eşref Demir, Ricard Marcos
Graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are widely used in nanomedicine, and other fields, due to their unique physicochemical properties including high tensile strength, ultra-light weight, thermal and chemical stability, and reliable semi-conductive electronic properties. Although extensive amount of data exist describing their adverse effects including potential genotoxicity, few studies using gene mutation detection approaches in mammalian cells are available, which represents an important gap for risk estimations...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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