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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534713/the-influence-of-thermal-comfort-on-the-quality-of-life-of-nursing-home-residents
#1
Ana Mendes, Ana Luísa Papoila, Pedro Carreiro-Martins, Lívia Aguiar, Stefano Bonassi, Iolanda Caires, Teresa Palmeiro, Álvaro Silva Ribeiro, Paula Neves, Cristiana Pereira, Amália Botelho, Nuno Neuparth, João Paulo Teixeira
Thermal comfort (TC) parameters were measured in 130 rooms from nursing homes (NH), following ISO 7730:2005 in order to evaluate the influence of winter season TC indices on quality of life (QoL) in older individuals. Mean radiant temperature (mrT), predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percent of dissatisfied people (PPD) indices, and the respective measurement uncertainties were calculated using Monte Carlo Method. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was conducted from September 2012 to April 2013, during the winter season TC sampling campaign...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532321/-210-polonium-bioaccessibility-assessment-in-algae-for-human-consumption-an-in-vitro-gastrointestinal-digestion-method
#2
Donatella Desideri, Maria Assunta Meli, Carla Roselli, Laura Feduzi, Lucia Ugolini
The occurrence and mobility of natural radioactive element as (210)Polonium ((210)Po) in 13 commercial algae consumed in Italy by humans were determined because the effects on human health need to take into account the bioavailability of these elements. The simulation of gastrointestinal (GIT) digestion was divided into three stages and was accomplished using three different artificial solutions: saliva, gastric, and synthetic bile-pancreas solution. The same sample was treated in two different ways: a) only gastric digestion and b) complete GIT digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas solution)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524814/genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-effects-in-exfoliated-buccal-and-nasal-cells-of-chromium-and-cobalt-exposed-electroplaters
#3
Georg Wultsch, Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Miroslav Mišík, Tahereh Setayesh, Monika Waldherr, Pavel Vodicka, Ludmila Vodickova, Siegfried Knasmüller
Results of a number of studies indicate that electroplaters have increased cancer risks as a consequence of exposure to genotoxic metals such as chromium (VI) and nickel. These effects may be due to induction of damage of the genetic material which plays a key role in the etiology of cancer, and it was found that workers in galvanization factories exhibited increased levels of DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic stability in workers of a bright plating factory who are exposed to chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524808/determination-of-safe-and-critical-nanoparticles-exposure-to-welders-in-a-workshop
#4
J F Gomes, R M Miranda
The present study examined consequences of "safe" versus "critical" exposure to nanoparticles (NP) released during welding operations. With this aim in mind, a set of measurements regarding NP emissions was undertaken in a workshop during welding by metal active gas of carbon steel using different mixtures of argon (Ar) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as different process parameters which might influence emission of (NP). If these measurements were conducted in several locations away from the welding sources, the graphical representation of the obtained observations with time enabled definition of "safe" and "critical" regions within a welding workshop in terms of welder's exposure...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524802/effects-of-occupational-silica-exposure-on-oxidative-stress-and-immune-system-parameters-in-ceramic-workers-in-turkey
#5
Hatice Gul Anlar, Merve Bacanli, Servet İritaş, Ceylan Bal, Türker Kurt, Engin Tutkun, O Hinc Yilmaz, Nursen Basaran
Silica is the second most common element after oxygen, and therefore, exposures to crystalline silica dust occur in a large variety of occupations such as metal foundries, constructions, and ceramic, quarry, and pottery industries. Since crystalline silica exposure has been linked with silicosis, lung cancer, and other pulmonary diseases, adverse effect attributed to this element has be a cause for concern worldwide. Silica dust exposure in workers is still considered to be important health problem especially in developing countries...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524801/association-of-ugt2b7-ugt1a9-abcg2-and-il23r-polymorphisms-with-rejection-risk-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#6
Heloísa Lizotti Cilião, Rossana Batista Oliveira Camargo-Godoy, Marilesia Ferreira de Souza, Mariana Bisarro Dos Reis, Lorena Iastrenski, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino, Silvia Regina Rogatto, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus
Despite advances in testing compatibility between donor and recipient, graft rejection remains a current concern. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that codify altered enzymes of metabolism, drug transport, and the immune system may contribute to graft rejection in transplant patients. This study examined the association between SNPs present in genes of these processes and occurrence of graft rejection episodes in 246 kidney transplant patients, 35% of which were diagnosed with rejection. Genotype-gene expression associations were also assessed...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524771/mercury-levels-in-parturient-and-newborns-from-aveiro-region-portugal
#7
Ana Catarina Alves, Marta S Monteiro, Ana Luísa Machado, Mário Oliveira, Ana Bóia, Ana Correia, Nuno Oliveira, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
Since the outbreak of methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning in Japan and Iraq, mercury (Hg) is classified as well-established teratogen. The Portuguese region of Aveiro faced some decades ago an environmental Hg contamination due to activities from a chlor-alkali plant. Until now, no apparent evaluation was conducted regarding prenatal exposure to Hg in this area. The main objectives of this study were to: i) assess maternal and fetal exposure to Hg in the Aveiro region using noninvasive biological matrices; ii) examine the influence of variables that may contribute to Hg exposure during pregnancy; and iii) improve knowledge regarding metal accumulation and distribution over the maternal-fetal-placental unit...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524767/immune-biomarkers-in-older-adults-role-of-physical-activity
#8
Vanessa Valdiglesias, María Sánchez-Flores, Ana Maseda, Laura Lorenzo-López, Diego Marcos-Pérez, Ana López-Cortón, Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs, Blanca Laffon, José C Millán-Calenti, Eduardo Pásaro
Aging is associated with a decline in the normal functioning of the immune system. Several studies described the relationship between immunological alterations, including immunosenescence and inflammation, and aging or age-related outcomes, such as sarcopenia, depression, and neurodegenerative disorders. Physical activity is known to improve muscle function and to exert a number of benefits on older adult health, including reduced risk for heart and metabolic system chronic diseases. However, the positive influence of physical activity on the immune system has not been elucidated...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524760/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-hepg2-and-chemical-composition-of-polar-extracts-from-the-ruderal-species-coleostephus-myconis-l-rchb-f
#9
Sílvia M F Bessada, João C M Barreira, J Santos, Carla Costa, Filipa B Pimentel, Maria João Bessa, João Paulo Teixeira, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
Coleostephus myconis (L.) Rchb.f. (Asteraceae) is a highly disseminated plant species with ruderal and persistent growth. Owing to its advantageous agronomic properties, C. myconis might have industrial applications. However, this species needs to be comprehensively characterized before any potential use. In a previous study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of different C. myconis tissues were characterized. This investigation was extended to examine the cytotoxic potential of selected plant tissues (flowers and green parts) using a HepG2 cell line by utilizing the lysosomal neutral red uptake assay or mitochondrial (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524757/wood-smoke-exposure-of-portuguese-wildland-firefighters-dna-and-oxidative-damage-evaluation
#10
Ana Abreu, Carla Costa, Susana Pinho E Silva, Simone Morais, Maria do Carmo Pereira, Adília Fernandes, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, João Paulo Teixeira, Solange Costa
Portugal is among the European Union countries most devastated by forest fires each year. In the last three decades, more than 3.8 million hectares of forest were burned. Wildland firefighters are exposed to a variety of hazards, including many toxic combustion products that may lead to deleterious health effects. Epidemiological studies showed a positive association between firefighting and several chronic diseases, including cancer. Results from biomonitoring studies in firefighters, particularly concerning genotoxicity evaluation, constitute a valuable tool for investigating important occupational hazards...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524728/a-reduction-in-dna-damage-in-neural-tissue-and-peripheral-blood-of-old-mice-treated-with-caffeine
#11
Adriani Paganini Damiani, Michelle Lima Garcez, Larissa Letieli de Abreu, Taís Helena Tavares, Carina Rodrigues Boeck, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade
Studies on caffeine consumption have shown a negative correlation with development of some diseases with subsequent beneficial manifestations. Our aim was to assess the effects of caffeine on peripheral blood and neural tissue DNA in young adult and aged mice. Male Swiss mice (age 2-3 or 16-18 months, respectively) were treated with a caffeine solution (0.3 g/l) for 4 weeks, while controls received water. After the treatments, blood and hippocampal cells (for a comet assay) and femurs (for a micronucleus [MN] test) were collected...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494199/fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-enhances-allergic-sensitization-in-balb-c-mice
#12
Alejandro R Castañeda, Keith J Bein, Suzette Smiley-Jewell, Kent E Pinkerton
Ambient particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution, exacerbates airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Studies showed that PM possesses adjuvant-like properties that enhance the allergic inflammatory response; however, the mechanism (or mechanisms) by which PM enhances the allergic response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to assess how exposure to fine PM collected from Sacramento, CA, shapes the allergic airway immune response in BALB/c mice undergoing sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418274/the-gulf-long-term-follow-up-study-gulf-study-biospecimen-collection-at-enrollment
#13
Lawrence S Engel, Richard K Kwok, Aubrey K Miller, Aaron Blair, Matthew D Curry, John A McGrath, Dale P Sandler
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) explosion in the Gulf of Mexico led to the largest ever marine oil spill by volume. The GuLF STUDY is investigating possible adverse human health effects associated with oil spill activities. One objective of the study was to utilize biological specimens from study participants to examine spill-related adverse health effects. This study describes the methods for collecting, processing, shipping, and storing specimens during the enrollment phase of the study. GuLF STUDY participants living in Gulf States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and eastern Texas) were eligible to complete a home visit at enrollment, one to three years after the DWH explosion...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304234/antimutagenic-evaluation-of-traditional-medicinal-plants-from-south-america-peumus-boldus-and-cryptocarya-alba-using-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Erico R Carmona, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Jorge Parodi, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau
Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo") and Cryptocarya alba Mol. Looser ("Peumo") are medicinal shrubs with wide geographical distribution in South America. Their leaves and fruits are commonly used in traditional medicine because they exhibit natural medicinal properties for treatment of liver disorders and rheumatism. However, there are no apparent data regarding potential protective effects on cellular genetic components. In order to examine potential mutagenic and/or antimutagenic effects of these medicinal plants, the Drosophila melanogaster (D...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277035/ultrastructural-study-of-liver-and-lead-tissue-concentrations-in-young-mallard-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos-after-ingestion-of-single-lead-shot
#15
Alain Pineau, Bernard Fauconneau, Eric Plouzeau, Béatrice Fernandez, Nathalie Quellard, Pierre Levillain, Olivier Guillard
Lead (Pb) represents a serious threat to wildlife and ecosystems. The aim of this study was to examine the subcellular effects of dietary Pb pellet ingestion on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) livers. After ingestion of a single Pb shot (LS4 size class: 0.177 ± 0.03 g) in 41 mallard ducks (22 males and 19 females) versus 10 controls (5 males and 5 females) all 7-week old, a morphologic study was conducted by TEM (transmission electron microscopy) of liver at the subcellular level. The results in treated mallards showed at a magnification of 2 500 X that hepatic parenchyma was altered as evidenced by intralysosomal electron-dense deposits, which are compatible with Pb deposits...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277034/electron-paramagnetic-resonance-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-study-of-the-interactions-between-asbestiform-zeolite-fibers-and-model-membranes
#16
Michela Cangiotti, Michela Battistelli, Sara Salucci, Elisabetta Falcieri, Michele Mattioli, Matteo Giordani, Maria Francesca Ottaviani
Different asbestiform zeolite fibers of the erionite (termed GF1 and MD8, demonstrated carcinogenic) and offretite (termed BV12, suspected carcinogenic) families were investigated by analyzing the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of selected surfactant spin probes and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images in the presence of model membranes-cetyltrimethylammonium (CTAB) micelles, egg-lecithin liposomes, and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes. This was undertaken to obtain information on interactions occurring at a molecular level between fibers and membranes which correlate with entrance of fibers into the membrane model or location of the fibers at the external or internal membrane interfaces...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277037/fruit-extract-of-the-medicinal-plant-crataegus-oxyacantha-exerts-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-in-cultured-cells
#17
Ana Paula Oliveira de Quadros, Dania Elisa Christofoletti Mazzeo, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales, Fábio Ferreira Perazzo, Paulo Cesar Pires Rosa, Edson Luis Maistro
Crataegus oxyacantha, a plant of the Rosaceae family also known "English hawthorn, haw, maybush, or whitethorn," has long been used for medicinal purposes such as digestive disorders, hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, inducing diuresis, and preventing kidney stones. However, the predominant use of this plant has been to treat cardiovascular disorders. Due to a lack of studies on the genotoxicity of C. oxyacantha, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether its fruit extract exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, or clastogenic/aneugenic effects in leukocytes and HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cultured human cells, or mutagenic effects in TA100 and TA98 strains of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277036/toxicology-of-metals-and-metalloids-promising-issues-for-future-studies-in-environmental-health-and-toxicology
#18
Fernando Barbosa
The function and behavior of chemical elements in ecosystems and in human health probably comprise one of the most studied issues and a theme of great interest and fascination in science. Hot topics are emerging on an annual basis in this field. Bearing this in mind, some promising themes to explore in the field of metals and metalloids in the environment and in toxicology are highlighted and briefly discussed herein.
February 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140774/microcystin-accumulation-and-potential-effects-on-antioxidant-capacity-of-leaves-and-fruits-of-capsicum-annuum
#19
Damjana Drobac, Nada Tokodi, Biljana Kiprovski, Djordje Malenčić, Tamara Važić, Sonja Nybom, Jussi Meriluoto, Zorica Svirčev
Surface water, often used for irrigation purposes, may sometimes be contaminated with blooming cyanobacteria and thereby may contain their potent and harmful toxins. Cyanotoxins adversely affect many terrestrial plants, and accumulate in plant tissues that are subsequently ingested by humans. Studies were undertaken to (1) examine the bioaccumulation of microcystins (MCs) in leaves and fruits of pepper Capsicum annuum and (2) examine the potential effects of MCs on antioxidant capacity of these organs. Plants were irrigated with water containing MCs for a period of 3 mo...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095184/ecotoxicological-effects-of-larvicide-used-in-the-control-of-aedes-aegypti-on-nontarget-organisms-redefining-the-use-of-pyriproxyfen
#20
Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Evelyn Siqueira Caixeta, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
The continued widespread use of larvicides in Aedes aegypti control programs is still a necessary strategy, since there are no apparent efficient vaccines against arboviruses. However, chemical approaches may affect nontarget organisms and produce detrimental effects to environmental health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct toxicity testing for pyriproxyfen at different concentrations using Daphnia magna and Artemia salina as model organisms to evaluate the ecotoxicological parameters. This study describes the toxicological effects of pyriproxyfen on both microcrustaceans, which are widely used in bioassays because of their sensitivity to changes in hydrosphere...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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