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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A

Thierry Baussant, Marianne Nilsen, Elisa Ravagnan, Stig Westerlund, Sreerekha Ramanand
This study aimed at providing confidence in the predictability of the impacts of drill cuttings (DC) discharge on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. L. pertusa was exposed to DC from offshore exploration in the lab with the goal to assess precautionary thresholds of effects. Two exposure scenarios with DC were tested: a long-term (LT) pulsed exposure (12 weeks, peak concentrations: 2-50 mg/L, mean concentrations: 1-25 mg/L) and a short-term (ST) continuous exposure (2.5 weeks, mean concentrations: 4-42 mg/L)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
María Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, María Puerto, Sara Maisanaba, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Silvia Pichardo, Ana M Cameán
Essential oils from Origanum spp. exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities making them suitable for use as food additives. The incorporation of oregano essential oil in active food packaging is under study; however, it has been not authorized for this purpose thus far. In order to fulfill the requirements of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the aim of the present study was to determine the genotoxic potential of oregano essential oil using both the micronucleus (MN) test and comet (standard and enzyme-modified) assays in Wistar rats treated with 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight administered daily for 90 days...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Joyce G Rohan, Shawn M McInturf, Molly K Miklasevich, Chester P Gut, Michael D Grimm, James E Reboulet, William R Howard, Karen L Mumy
Exposure to fuels continues to be a concern in both military and general populations. The aim of this study was to examine effects of in vivo rat repeated exposures to different types of jet fuel utilizing microelectrode arrays for comparative electrophysiological (EP) measurements in hippocampal slices. Animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of four jet fuels, Jet Propellant (JP)-8, Jet A, JP-5, or synthetic Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuel via whole-body inhalation for 20 d (6 hr/d, 5 d/week for 28 d) and synaptic transmission as well as behavioral performance were assessed...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Sarah E Orr, Lucy Joshee, Jennifer Barkin, Christy C Bridges
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly relevant clinical condition that is characterized by the permanent loss of functional nephrons. Individuals with CKD may exhibit impaired renal clearance, which may alter corporal handling of metabolites and xenobiotics. Methylmercury (MeHg) is an important environmental toxicant to which humans are exposed to on a regular basis. Given the prevalence of CKD and ubiquitous presence of MeHg in the environment, it is important to understand how mercuric ions are handled in patients with CKD...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Antonia Concetta Elia, Gabriele Magara, Claudio Caruso, Loretta Masoero, Marino Prearo, Paola Arsieni, Barbara Caldaroni, Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr, Melissa Scoparo, Stefania Salvati, Paola Brizio, Stefania Squadrone, Maria Cesarina Abete
Arsenic (As) is a global contaminant of terrestrial and aquatic environments posing concern for environmental and human health. The effects of subacute concentrations of arsenic trioxide (AsIII ) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV ) were examined using Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK), human hepatocellular carcinoma (PLC/PRF/5), and epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC). Whole monolayer with suffering cells (confluence 100%, pyknosis and refractive cells; value scale = 2) led to identification of subacute As concentrations for the three cell lines...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jun-Kyoung Lee, Sang-Hyun Kim
Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) have widely been used in numerous applications including clothing, food packaging, and nonstick coating. With the widespread use of PFC, concerns regarding potential adverse health effects in humans and wildlife have increased. In spite of the known PFC-mediated immunotoxiciy, correlation with PFC and allergic inflammation still requires elucidation. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of four types of PFC (perfluoroheptanoic acid [PFHpA], perfluorononanoic acid [PFNA], perfluorodecanoic acid [PFDA], and perfluoroundecanoic acid [PFUnA]) on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation in the presence of high-affinity immunoglobulin (Ig) E receptor (FcεRI) cross-linking...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Mahesh Raj Nepal, Youra Kang, Mi Jeong Kang, Doo Hyun Nam, Tae Cheon Jeong
Although the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has adopted several in vitro methods with reasonable predictive capacity, alternative methods for identifying skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers with reliability and simplicity are still required for more efficient and economic prediction. The present study was to design an in vitro system with the use of a β-galactosidase-expressing E. coli culture for simpler but sufficiently accurate classification of skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Seulah Lee, Hee Ra Park, Joo Yeon Lee, Jung-Hyun Cho, Hye Min Song, Ah Hyun Kim, Wonjong Lee, Yujeong Lee, Seung-Cheol Chang, Hyung Sik Kim, Jaewon Lee
Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxin known to produce neurotoxicity characterized by ataxia, skeletal muscle weakness, cognitive impairment, and numbness of the extremities. Previously, investigators reported that high-dose (50 mg/kg) ACR impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and increased neural progenitor cell death; however, the influence of subchronic environmentally relevant low dose-(2, 20, or 200 μg/kg) ACRs have not been examined in adult neurogenesis or cognitive function in mice. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether low-dose ACR adversely affected mouse hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Yeo-Jung Kwon, Nam-Hyeon Cho, Dong-Jin Ye, Hyoung-Seok Baek, Yeon-Sang Ryu, Young-Jin Chun
Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), a well-known oncogene, has garnered wide attention because of its tumor-specific expression pattern and actions as a carcinogenic factor. Although CYP1B1 might play a crucial role in carcinogenesis, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic involvement in cancer development remain unclear. The present study investigated the manner in which CYP1B1 promotes survival of various cancer cells. Treatment with 2,2',4,6'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS), a specific CYP1B1 inhibitor, significantly inhibited cell viability in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines, including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HL-60, and U937 cells...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Duck Soo Lim, Seung Kwang Lim, Min Kook Kim, Yong Chan Kwon, Tae Hyun Roh, Seul Min Choi, Sungpil Yoon, Hyung Sik Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), a type of nitrosamine, is a possible human carcinogen that may form in cosmetic products. The aim of this study was to examine the formation and inhibition of NDELA through chemical reactions of secondary amines including mono-ethanolamine, di-ethanolamine (DEA), and tri-ethanolamine (TEA), and sodium nitrite (SN) under varying conditions such as pH, temperature, and fluorescent, ultraviolet (UV), and visual light (VIS) using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. In a mixture of TEA and SN under acidic conditions pH 2, residual NDELA concentrations rose significantly under various storage conditions in the following order: 50°C > 40°C > UV (2 W/m2 ) > VIS (4000 lux) > fluorescent light > 25°C > 10°C...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jeong-Hyeon Kim, Kyeong-A Kim, Young-Jun Shin, Haram Kim, Arshad Majid, Ok-Nam Bae
Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain the structure and function of blood vessels and are readily exposed to exogenous and endogenous toxic substances in the circulatory system. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) circulate in the blood and differentiate to EC, which are known to participate in angiogenesis and regeneration of injured vessels. Dysfunction in EPC contributes to cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes, but the precise molecular mechanisms underlying diabetic EPC abnormalities are not completely understood...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Christian Sonne, Pall S Leifsson, Jens Søndergaard, Rune Dietz
Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) are at the top of the Arctic food web and therefore might biomagnify high total mercury (Hg) concentrations in organs and tissues. The aim of this study was to determine histopathology and Hg concentrations in liver and kidneys from 15 North East Greenland narwhals (3 subadult females, 8 adult females, 3 subadult males, and 1 adult male) and compare data with previous observations of 12 North West Greenland specimens (1 subadult female, 4 adult females, 1 subadult male, and 6 adult males)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Paulo F V Bizerra, Anilda R J S Guimarães, Marcos A Maioli, Fábio E Mingatto
Imidacloprid (IMD) is a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in crops, pets, and on farm animals for pest control. Several studies were conducted examining the adverse effects of IMD on animals often exhibiting hepatic damage. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of IMD on bioenergetics of mitochondria isolated from rat liver. Imidacloprid (50-200 µM) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption and ATP production without markedly affecting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Donatella Desideri, Carla Roselli, Laura Feduzi, Lucia Ugolini, Maria Assunta Meli
This study aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of toxic elements, including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in five commercial algae consumed by humans in Italy. The degree of bioaccessibility of these elements may have important implications for human health. Simulation of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion was divided into three stages through use of synthetic saliva, gastric, and bile-pancreas solutions. After pre-treatment with a saliva solution, seaweed samples underwent one of the following treatments: (1) simulated gastric digestion only or (2) simulated complete GIT digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Karolini Zuqui Nunes, Mirian Fioresi, Vinicius Bermond Marques, Dalton Valentim Vassallo
The mechanisms involved in vascular reactivity alterations promoted by copper (Cu) overload were investigated. Thoracic aorta obtained from male Wistar rats were cut into rings and exposed for 1 h to 10 µg/ml Cu. Exposure to Cu decreased the contractile responses of aortic rings to phenylephrine (PHE). Removal of endothelium and subsequent administration of N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), tetrahydrobiopterin, aminoguanidine, diethyldithiocarbamic acid, catalase, or tetraethylammonium increased contractile responses...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Adrieli Sachett, Fernanda Bevilaqua, Rafael Chitolina, Cristiane Garbinato, Henrique Gasparetto, Jacir Dal Magro, Greicy M Conterato, Anna M Siebel
The occurrence of ractopamine (RAC) hydrochloride in water bodies is of significant concern due to its ecological impacts and toxicity to humans. RAC hydrochloride is a β-adrenergic agonist drug used as a feed additive to (1) improve feed efficiency, (2) rate of weight gain, and (3) increase carcass leanness in animals raised for their meat. This drug is excreted by animals in urine and introduced into the environment affecting nontarget organisms including fish. In wastewater released from farms, RAC concentrations were detected from 0...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jessica Kratchman, Bing Wang, George Gray
Rodent species are commonly used in traditional toxicology testing guidelines to predict human health toxicity outcomes. The use of a consistent species in test guidelines is important for maintaining consistency and comparability between tests and testing guidelines. This recommendation was operationalized for this study as the implicit assumption of uniform species and species-sex sensitivities. This investigation analyzed the uniformity assumption using data from National Toxicology Program Technical Reports (and where applicable Toxicity Reports), which provide data from both short-term and chronic rodent toxicity tests...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Xun Li, Hongzhuan Tan, Meiling Luo, Xinrui Wu, Xin Huang, Shujin Zhou, Lin Shen, Yue He, Yi Liu, Li Hu, Mengshi Chen, Shimin Hu, Shi Wu Wen
In the production of fireworks, various pollutants including particles of metals and organic compounds are released into the environment. Although the adverse effects of these air pollutants are known, the impact on pregnant women residing in this area remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal exposure to fireworks production chemicals and frequency of preterm birth in Liuyang, China. Maternal exposure to fireworks production was estimated at the residential district level and assessed using factory density, which was defined as the number of fireworks factories per 1000 residents in each district...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Clay M Nelson, Kevin Li, Daniel R Obenour, Jonathan Miller, John C Misenheimer, Kirk Scheckel, Aaron Betts, Albert Juhasz, David J Thomas, Karen D Bradham
Interest in improved understanding of relationships among soil properties and arsenic (As) bioaccessibility has motivated the use of regression models for As bioaccessibility prediction. However, limits in the numbers and types of soils included in previous studies restrict the usefulness of these models beyond the range of soil conditions evaluated, as evidenced by reduced predictive performance when applied to new data. In response, hierarchical models that consider variability in relationships among soil properties and As bioaccessibility across geographic locations and contaminant sources were developed to predict As bioaccessibility in 139 soils on both a mass fraction (mg/kg) and % basis...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Victor Hugo Fuentes-Delgado, María Consolación Martínez-Saldaña, María Luisa Rodríguez-Vázquez, Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero, José Luis Reyes-Sánchez, Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez
Little information is apparently available regarding the nephrotoxic effects induced by pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of low doses of methyl parathion (MP) on the structure and function of the kidney of male Wistar rats. A corn oil (vehicle) was administered to control rats, whereas treated rats received MP at 0.56 mg/kg orally (1/25 of LD50), every third day, for 8 weeks. At the end of each week following MP exposure, creatinine and glucose levels were measured in plasma, while glucose, inorganic phosphate, total proteins, albumin, and activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were determined in urine...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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