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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A

Karen D Bradham, William Green, Hunter Hayes, Clay Nelson, Pradeep Alava, John Misenheimer, Gary L Diamond, William C Thayer, David J Thomas
Lead (Pb) in soil is an important exposure source for children. Thus, determining bioavailability of Pb in soil is critical in evaluating risk and selecting appropriate strategies to minimize exposure. A mouse model was developed to estimate relative bioavailability of Pb in NIST SRM 2710a (Montana 1 Soil). Based on Pb levels in tissues, the mean relative bioavailability of this metal in this soil was 0.5. Estimates of relative bioavailabilities derived from mouse compared favorably with those obtained in juvenile swine...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Natália Helen Ferreira, Kelly Jacqueline Barbosa de Andrade, Luís Fernando Leandro, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Suzana Amorim Mendes, Lucas Silva Cintra, Ana Helena Januário, Denise Crispim Tavares
The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Schefflera vinosa (SV), a plant with schistosomicidal activity, as well as its influence on DNA damage induced by different mutagens, methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in V79 cells and Swiss mice. Schefflera vinosa extract produced cytotoxicity at concentrations of 312.5 µg/ml or higher using the XTT cell proliferation assay kit. Treatment of V79 cell cultures with the highest SV concentration tested (150 µg/ml) significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei (MN) compared to controls...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Emily May Lent, Lee C B Crouse, Allison M Jackovitz, Erica E Carroll, Mark S Johnson
Nitrotriazolone (1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO), an insensitive, energetic material used in explosive formulations, induced testicular toxicity and oligospermia in repeated-dose oral toxicity tests in rats. To evaluate whether NTO produces additional reproductive and developmental effects, a modified extended one-generation reproductive toxicity test was conducted. Rats were provided ad libitum access to NTO in drinking water at 0-, 144-, 720-, or 3600-mg/L NTO. Treatment of the parental generation began 2 (females) and 4 (males) wk premating and continued until weaning of litters...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Chen Xu, Hai-Dong Kan, Yan-Ni Fan, Ren-Jie Chen, Jiang-Hong Liu, Ya-Fei Li, Yao Zhang, Ai-Ling Ji, Tong-Jian Cai
The correlation between enteritis, a common digestive disease, and exposure to ambient air pollutants has not been examined in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this study was to determine whether an association between short-term air pollution exposure and outpatient visits for enteritis in Xi'an, China, occurred using a time-series investigation. Daily baseline data from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, were obtained. The overdispersed Poisson generalized additive model was used to analyze the association between air pollutant levels and frequency of enteritis...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Roger L Dos Santos, Lais O Dellacqua, Nathalie T B Delgado, Wender N Rouver, Priscila L Podratz, Leandro C F Lima, Mariela P C Piccin, Silvana S Meyrelles, Helder Mauad, Jones B Graceli, Margareth R Moyses
Based on the antioxidant properties of pomegranate, this study was designed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract on damage associated with hypertension and aging in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. The influence of pomegranate consumption was examined on systolic blood pressure (SBP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) coronary activity, oxidative stress, and vascular morphology. Four- or 28-wk-old SHR model rats were treated for 30 d, with terminal experimental animal age being 8 and 32 wk, respectively, with either pomegranate extract (SHR-PG) or filtered water (SHR)...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Joana Madureira, Inês Paciência, João Cavaleiro-Rufo, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes
Allergic diseases have been on the rise in many countries over the past few decades and indoor exposure may be a possible cause. An overall investigation of children's health status and residential indoor air pollutants known or suspected to affect respiratory health was conducted in the homes of primary schoolchildren during winter in Porto, Portugal. In a case-control study (30 case children with asthma and 38 controls) and over a 1-wk monitoring period, air sample collection was conducted in children's bedrooms for the analysis of 12 volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes, particulate matter (PM)2...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Aleksandra Nikolić-Kokić, Ana Mijušković, Nikola Tatalović, Jelena Nestorov, Marko Miler, Zorana Oreščanin-Dušić, Milan Nikolić, Verica Milošević, Duško Blagojević, Mihajlo Spasić, Čedo Miljević
The use of atypical antipsychotic drugs (APD) was reported to be associated with adverse effects on the kidneys. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether APD exerted their adverse effects by interfering with the renal antioxidant defense system. Male 3-mo-old Wistar rats were treated for 28 d with ziprasidone (ZIP), clozapine (CLO), or sertindole (SER) using a daily dose recommended for antipsychotic drug therapy. The expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) type 1 and type 2, catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity were measured in the kidneys...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Stacy Wolff, Garry Brown, Jingjing Chen, Keith Meals, Cammi Thornton, Steve Brewer, James V Cizdziel, Kristine L Willett
The goal of this study was to compare total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish muscle tissue and assess consumption health risks of fish collected from three north Mississippi lakes (Sardis, Enid, and Grenada) that are extensively used for fishing and recreation. Largemouth bass (LMB; n = 64), channel catfish (CC; n = 72), and white crappie (WC; n = 100), which represent a range of trophic levels, were collected during spring 2013 and 2014. Creel data estimated that anglers harvested approximately 370,000 kg of WC, 27,000 kg of CC, and 15,000 kg of LMB from the lakes annually...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Min Qiu, Yong-He Dong, Feng Han, Jian-Min Qin, Hao-Nan Zhang, Jian-Xi Du, Xin-Min Hao, Yu-Mei Yang
It is well known that various traditional Chinese medicines produce antiarrhythmic actions. The aims of this study were to examine whether total flavones derived from Choerospondias axillaris folium (TFCF) also produced antiarrhythmic effects using a rat model of aconitine-induced arrhythmia and to compare these observations with the effects of total flavones of Choerospondias axillaris fructus (TFC). Wistar rats were orally administered TFC (0.2 g/kg) or TFCF (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 g/kg) daily for 7 d. Subsequently, aconitine iv at 25 µg/kg was used to induce arrhythmia in these animals...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Yang Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Tongwang Yang, Jing Yang, He Wang, Gang Wu
Cerium (Ce)-containing compounds are now widely applied in medicine, agriculture, and animal breeding. However, the effects of Ce on humans, especially on the central nervous system (CNS), remain to be determined. In order to investigate whether Ce exposure affected the CNS, the aim of this study was to expose female ICR mice to varying nanoparticle sizes of 35 nm and 300 nm, and to a mixture of 1-5 µM cerium dioxide (CeO2) particles through intranasal (i.n.) instillation at daily dose of 40 mg/kg body weight...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jie Yang, Zhuxia Zhang, Shuyuan Jiang, Ming Zhang, Jun Lu, Lihua Huang, Tao Zhang, Kerui Gong, Shaochun Yan, Zhanjun Yang, Guo Shao
Vanadate is a transition element that present in nature and was shown to be a nonspecific inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases. It was reported that vanadium (Vd) compounds exhibit antitumor actions in several cancer cell lines. This study aimed to examine the antiproliferative and apoptotic actions of different concentrations of sodium vanadate (NaVd) (+5) in esophageal squamous carcinoma cell line EC109 by determining the protein expression levels of cyclin D1 and caspase-3 following incubation for various times from 15 min up to 4 h...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Dong-Sheng Huo, Jian-Fang Sun, Baifeng Zhang, Xu-Sheng Yan, He Wang, Jian-Xin Jia, Zhan-Jun Yang
Cognitive dysfunction is known to be influenced by circulating sex steroidal hormones. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effect and possible protective mechanism of testosterone (T) on cognitive performance in male rats induced by intrahippocampal injections of beta amyloid 1-42 oligomers (Aβ1-42). Treatment with T as evidenced by the Morris water maze (MWM) test significantly shortened escape latency and reduced path length to reach the platform compared to the control (C). During probe trials, the T group displayed a significantly greater percent of time in the target quadrant and improved the number of platform crossings compared with C, flutamide (F), an antiandrogen, and a combined F and T group...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jian-Xin Jia, Cheng-Li Cui, Xu-Sheng Yan, Bai-Feng Zhang, Wei Song, Dong-Sheng Huo, He Wang, Zhan-Jun Yang
Synaptic changes are closely associated with cognitive deficits. In addition, testosterone (T) is known to exert regulative effects on synaptic plasticity. T may improve cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but the underlying mechanisms of androgenic action on cognitive performance remain unclear. The aim of this study was thus to examine the protective mechanism attributed to T on cognitive performance in an AD senescence, accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) animal model. Using Golgi staining to quantify the dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 region, molecular biomarkers of synapse function were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western blot...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Carla Roselli, Donatella Desideri, Maria Assunta Meli, Ivan Fagiolino, Laura Feduzi
Essential and toxic elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), mass spectrometry (MS), and atomic absorption (AS) in meat of 14 migratory birds originating from central and northern Europe to provide baseline data regarding game meat consumed in central Italy. In all samples analyzed, cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (total) levels were <0.326 mg/kgww. For nonessential or toxic elements, arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), stannous (Sn), thallium (Tl), tellurium (Te), titanium (Ti), cerium (Ce), lantanium (La), and uranium (U) concentrations were <0...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Ron House
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Joachim D Pleil, Jon R Sobus
Exposure-based risk assessment employs large cross-sectional data sets of environmental and biomarker measurements to predict population statistics for adverse health outcomes. The underlying assumption is that long-term (many years) latency health problems including cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma are triggered by lifetime exposures to environmental stressors that interact with the genome. The aim of this study was to develop a specific predictive method that provides the statistical parameters for chronic exposure at the individual level based upon a single spot measurement and knowledge of global summary statistics as derived from large data sets...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Cristiano Trindade, Giovana Vera Bortolini, Bárbara Segalotto Costa, Joanna Carra Anghinoni, Temenouga Nikolova Guecheva, Ximena Arias, Maria Verónica Césio, Horácio Heinzen, Dinara Jaqueline Moura, Jenifer Saffi, Mirian Salvador, João Antonio Pêgas Henriques
Grapes are one of the most commonly consumed fruit, in both fresh and processed forms; however, a significant amount is disposed of in the environment. Searching for a use of this waste, the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from organic and conventional Vitis labrusca leaves were determined using V79 cells as model. The antigenotoxic activity was analyzed by the alkaline comet assay using endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzymes. The antimutagenic property was assessed through the micronucleus (MN) formation, and antioxidant activities were assessed using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(●)) radical scavenging, as well as with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity assays...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Amoret Bunn, Janelle Downs, Christian Jeitner, Taryn Pittfield, Jennifer Salisbury
Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, tribal leaders, and the public are faced with understanding and evaluating the effects of cleanup activities on species, populations, and ecosystems. While engineers and managers understand the processes involved in different remediation types such as capping, pump and treat, and natural attenuation, there is often a disconnect between (1) how ecologists view the influence of different types of remediation, (2) how the public perceives them, and (3) how engineers understand them...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Mariana T Farcas, Elena R Kisin, Autumn L Menas, Dmitriy W Gutkin, Alexander Star, Richard S Reiner, Naveena Yanamala, Kai Savolainen, Anna A Shvedova
Over the past several years there has been an increased number of applications of cellulosic materials in many sectors, including the food industry, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, to date, there are few studies investigating the potential adverse effects of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The objective of this study was to determine long-term outcomes on the male reproductive system of mice upon repeated pharyngeal aspiration exposure to CNC. To achieve this, cauda epididymal sperm samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, motility, morphological abnormalities, and DNA damage...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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