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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905863/associations-between-omega-3-fatty-acids-selenium-content-and-mercury-levels-in-wild-harvested-fish-from-the-dehcho-region-northwest-territories-canada
#1
Ellen S Reyes, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Katherine M Kornobis, Rhona M Hanning, Shannon E Majowicz, Karsten Liber, Ken D Stark, George Low, Heidi K Swanson, Brian D Laird
To better understand the risks and benefits of eating wild-harvested fish from the Northwest Territories, Canada, levels of total mercury (HgT) and selenium (Se) and composition of omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) were measured in muscle tissue of fish harvested from lakes in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Average HgT levels ranged from 0.057 mg/kg (cisco) to 0.551 mg/kg (northern pike), while average n-3 FA concentrations ranged from 101 mg/100 g (burbot) to 1,689 mg/100 g (lake trout). In contrast to HgT and n-3 FA, mean Se concentrations were relatively similar among species...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905861/sodium-bisulfite-pyrosequencing-revealed-that-developmental-exposure-to-environmental-contaminant-mixtures-does-not-affect-dna-methylation-of-dna-repeats-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#2
Daniel Desaulniers, Cathy Cummings-Lorbetskie, Nanqin Li, Gong-Hua Xiao, Leonora Marro, Nasrin Khan, Karen Leingartner
Hypomethylation of DNA repeats has been linked to diseases and cancer predisposition. Human studies suggest that higher blood concentrations of environmental contaminants (EC) correlate with levels of hypomethylation of DNA repeats in blood. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of in utero and/or lactational exposure to EC on the methylation of DNA repeats (LINE-1 and identifier element) in Sprague-Dawley rat pups at birth, at postnatal day (PND) 21, and in adulthood (PND78-86). From gestation day 0 to PND20, dams were exposed to a mixture "M" of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg), at 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898270/a-method-for-quantitative-risk-appraisal-for-pesticide-risk-assessments
#3
Roger C Cochran, John H Ross
Pesticide risk assessments are fraught with uncertainties that arise from the process of estimating exposure to and toxicity of chemicals. Regulatory agencies resolve those uncertainties in a health-protective (conservative) manner, typically acknowledging only inter- and intraspecies uncertainties quantitatively. Other uncertainties may be acknowledged qualitatively, but those safety factors (SF) are not enumerated. Quantitative risk appraisal may be used to enumerate the multiplicative SF generated by conservative assumptions regarding uncertainties...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767405/estimating-relative-bioavailability-of-soil-lead-in-the-mouse
#4
Karen D Bradham, William Green, Hunter Hayes, Clay Nelson, Pradeep Alava, John Misenheimer, Gary L Diamond, William C Thayer, David J Thomas
Lead (Pb) in soil is an important exposure source for children. Thus, determining bioavailability of Pb in soil is critical in evaluating risk and selecting appropriate strategies to minimize exposure. A mouse model was developed to estimate relative bioavailability of Pb in NIST SRM 2710a (Montana 1 Soil). Based on Pb levels in tissues, the mean relative bioavailability of this metal in this soil was 0.5. Estimates of relative bioavailabilities derived from mouse compared favorably with those obtained in juvenile swine...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767392/testing-of-schefflera-vinosa-extract-in-mammalian-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-for-potential-toxicity-genetic-damage-and-role-of-oxidation
#5
Natália Helen Ferreira, Kelly Jacqueline Barbosa de Andrade, Luís Fernando Leandro, Nathália Oliveira Acésio, Suzana Amorim Mendes, Lucas Silva Cintra, Ana Helena Januário, Denise Crispim Tavares
The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Schefflera vinosa (SV), a plant with schistosomicidal activity, as well as its influence on DNA damage induced by different mutagens, methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in V79 cells and Swiss mice. Schefflera vinosa extract produced cytotoxicity at concentrations of 312.5 µg/ml or higher using the XTT cell proliferation assay kit. Treatment of V79 cell cultures with the highest SV concentration tested (150 µg/ml) significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei (MN) compared to controls...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767391/assessment-of-genotoxic-mutagenic-and-recombinogenic-potential-of-water-resources-in-the-parana%C3%A3-ba-river-basin-of-brazil-a-case-study
#6
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754820/an-extended-one-generation-reproductive-toxicity-test-of-1-2-4-triazol-5-one-nto-in-rats
#7
Emily May Lent, Lee C B Crouse, Allison M Jackovitz, Erica E Carroll, Mark S Johnson
Nitrotriazolone (1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO), an insensitive, energetic material used in explosive formulations, induced testicular toxicity and oligospermia in repeated-dose oral toxicity tests in rats. To evaluate whether NTO produces additional reproductive and developmental effects, a modified extended one-generation reproductive toxicity test was conducted. Rats were provided ad libitum access to NTO in drinking water at 0-, 144-, 720-, or 3600-mg/L NTO. Treatment of the parental generation began 2 (females) and 4 (males) wk premating and continued until weaning of litters...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754797/acute-effects-of-air-pollution-on-enteritis-admissions-in-xi-an-china
#8
Chen Xu, Hai-Dong Kan, Yan-Ni Fan, Ren-Jie Chen, Jiang-Hong Liu, Ya-Fei Li, Yao Zhang, Ai-Ling Ji, Tong-Jian Cai
The correlation between enteritis, a common digestive disease, and exposure to ambient air pollutants has not been examined in a comprehensive manner. The aim of this study was to determine whether an association between short-term air pollution exposure and outpatient visits for enteritis in Xi'an, China, occurred using a time-series investigation. Daily baseline data from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, were obtained. The overdispersed Poisson generalized additive model was used to analyze the association between air pollutant levels and frequency of enteritis...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924719/quantification-of-obeche-wood-allergen-development-of-a-sensitive-sandwich-elisa-for-occupational-exposure-assessment
#9
S Kespohl, P Campo, E Zahradnik, S Maryska, A Aranda-Guerrero, J Rodriguez, T Brüning, M Raulf
Obeche wood is a prominent cause of allergic occupational asthma. To reduce the risk of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated sensitization it is important to assess airborne obeche wood allergen concentrations at exposed workplaces. Therefore, a highly sensitive obeche wood allergen immunoassay was developed and applicability was proven on airborne passive dust samples in Spanish wood workshops. Obeche wood sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were developed. Test specificity was verified by different wood and mold extracts...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924718/co-activation-of-cultured-human-natural-killer-cells-enhanced-function-and-decreased-inhibition
#10
Doris Urlaub, Rauf Bhat, Birgitta Messmer, Carsten Watzl
Natural killer (NK) cells are important immune effector cells that protect the organism against viral infections and cancer. The cytotoxic activity of NK cells is induced by the engagement of a number of different activating surface receptors and controlled by inhibitory receptors to ensure self-tolerance. Resting NK cells need to be co-activated by involvement of at least two distinct activating receptors in order to induce their functional activity. However, in cultured NK cells, which have been expanded in cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2, the engagement of a single activating receptor may be sufficient to induce their function...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924717/effects-of-benzo-a-pyrene-aromatic-amines-and-a-combination-of-both-on-cyp1a1-activities-in-rt-4-human-bladder-papilloma-cells
#11
Sabine Plöttner, Lilian Annika Bastian, Heiko Udo Käfferlein, Thomas Brüning
The interaction of arylamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is of particular interest in the etiology of bladder cancer. The aim of this study was to (1) examine the metabolic capacity of RT-4 human bladder papilloma cells and (2) investigate the influence of aromatic amines on the induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activity and their effects on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced CYP1A1 activities. Cells were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of BaP, 1- or 2-naphthylamine (NA), 2-, 3-, or 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), and binary mixtures consisting of 1 µM BaP and different concentrations of each arylamine...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924716/allergen-quantification-in-surface-dust-samples-from-german-day-care-centers
#12
Ingrid Sander, Heinz-Dieter Neumann, Anne Lotz, Christina Czibor, Eva Zahradnik, Angelika Flagge, Inga Faller, Martin Buxtrup, Thomas Brüning, Monika Raulf
Indoor allergens are among the main causes of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Allergen exposure is not limited to private homes. Mite, cat, and dog allergens were measured in day care centers to determine whether these concentrations detected might exert significant influence on human health. In 20 day care centers across North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the surfaces of 171 rooms were vacuumed 4 times a year to collect dust (1340 samples in total). In all samples, domestic mite antigens (DM) and the main allergens of cats (Fel d 1) and dogs (Can f 1) were quantified using enzyme immunoassays...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924715/perfluoroalkyl-acids-pfaas-and-anthropometric-measures-in-the-first-year-of-life-results-from-the-duisburg-birth-cohort
#13
Eman Alkhalawi, Monika Kasper-Sonnenberg, Michael Wilhelm, Wolfgang Völkel, Jürgen Wittsiepe
In the context of the Duisburg Birth Cohort, this retrospective cohort study provides results of internal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) in 156 mother-child pairs, and investigates whether and to what extent in utero exposure of these chemicals at German background levels exerts an effect on newborn and infant weight and length, and weight in relation to length expressed by ponderal index, in order to examine whether any reduction in weight is disproportionate to length...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924714/biomonitoring-of-mycotoxins-in-urine-pilot-study-in-mill-workers
#14
Wolfram Föllmann, Nurshad Ali, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Gisela H Degen
Contamination of grains with mycotoxins results in a dietary background exposure of the general population. In occupational settings such as during processing of raw materials as in milling, an additional mycotoxin exposure by inhalation is possible. Biomonitoring is an integrative approach to assess human exposure from various sources and by all routes. To investigate possible workplace exposure to mycotoxins, a pilot study was conducted that compared levels of urinary biomarkers in mill workers to those in a control group with dietary mycotoxin intake alone...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924713/acetylcholinesterase-and-neuropathy-target-esterase-activities-in-11-cases-of-symptomatic-flight-crew-members-after-fume-events
#15
Astrid R R Heutelbeck, Catherine Bornemann, Martina Lange, Anke Seeckts, Michael M Müller
In modern aviation, so-called fume events such as exposure to an unknown mixture of chemicals introduced into the aircraft cabin with bleed air drawn off at the engines may occur. Human exposure may result in (neuro)toxic symptoms described as so-called "aerotoxic syndrome." Currently, among other agents organophosphates (OP) are regarded as a likely cause of the observed adverse effects. After fume events 11 flight crew members (9 female/2 male; ages 23-58 yr) were admitted for a medical examination within 5 d post exposure...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924712/cytotoxicity-of-carbon-nanohorns-in-different-human-cells-of-the-respiratory-system
#16
Franziska Schramm, Martina Lange, Pia Hoppmann, Astrid Heutelbeck
One of the new synthetic carbon-based nanomaterials is carbon nanohorns (CNH). A potential risk for employees of production processes is an unintentional intake of these nanomaterials via inhalation. Once taken up, nanoparticles might interact with cells of different tissues as well as with intercellular substances. These interactions may have far-reaching consequences for human health. Currently, many gaps in available information on the CNH toxicological profile remain. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of CNH particles on human epithelial cells of the respiratory system with special consideration given to different particle sizes...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924711/occupational-risk-factors-for-relapse-free-survival-in-bladder-cancer-patients
#17
Silvia Selinski, Hannah Bürger, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Thomas Otto, Frank Volkert, Oliver Moormann, Hartmut Niedner, Jan G Hengstler, Klaus Golka
The influence of occupational risk factors on bladder cancer development is well investigated. However, studies on the influence on bladder cancer prognosis are rare. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate the time to first relapse in the follow-ups of three case-control series from Dortmund, Neuss, and Lutherstadt Wittenberg, Germany. Relapse-free survival of in total 794 urinary bladder cancer patients (Dortmund 174, Neuss 407, Lutherstadt Wittenberg 213) was derived from medical records. Cox regression models were used to determine the impact of profession and exposure to bladder carcinogens if the risk factor was present in at least four cases...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924710/occupational-risk-factors-for-prostate-cancer-in-an-area-of-former-coal-iron-and-steel-industries-in-germany-part-1-results-from-a-study-performed-in-the-1980s
#18
Silvia Dickhut, Wolfgang Urfer, Susanne Reich, Tiemo Bandel, Karl-Dieter Bremicker, Wolfgang Neugebauer, Jürgen Sökeland, Hermann M Bolt, Klaus Golka
Prostate cancer is the most frequent occurring malignancy in men in many Western countries. Unfortunately, only a few studies on occupational risk factors have been published. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate possible occupational risk factors in a former center of coal, iron, and steel industries the greater Dortmund area, located in the western part of Germany. In three local departments of urology, a total of 238 prostate cancer cases and 414 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia as controls were requested to provide information for all jobs ever performed for 6 mo or longer...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924709/occupational-risk-factors-for-prostate-cancer-in-an-area-of-former-coal-iron-and-steel-industries-in-germany-part-2-results-from-a-study-performed-in-the-1990s
#19
Sabina Krech, Silvia Selinski, Hannah Bürger, Jan G Hengstler, Peter Jedrusik, Jasmin Hodzic, H-Jürgen Knopf, Klaus Golka
Currently, there is no established occupational risk factor for prostate cancer. However, in the 1980s, a hospital-based case-control study in the greater Dortmund area showed an elevated risk for hard coal miners and, based on few cases, for painters and varnishers. Therefore, approximately 10 yr later, a similar study regarding prostate cancer was performed in this area. In total, 292 patients with prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy and 313 controls who underwent transurethral resection of a benign prostatic hyperplasia were investigated by questionnaire...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924708/has-dry-cold-weather-an-impact-on-the-skin-condition-of-cleanroom-workers
#20
Wobbeke Weistenhöfer, Wolfgang Uter, Hans Drexler
In previous epidemiological studies irritant skin changes were reported significantly more frequently under dry/cold ambient air conditions. The aim of this study was to assess whether a similar effect might be observed in cleanroom workers, occupationally exposed to strictly controlled ambient conditions. This investigation examined 690 employees of a semiconductor production company in Germany, one half in winter (n = 358) and the other half in spring (n = 332). In both waves, both cleanroom workers, who used occlusive gloves predominantly during the entire shift, and employees in the administration, serving as the control group, were included...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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