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Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A

Xun Li, Hongzhuan Tan, Meiling Luo, Xinrui Wu, Xin Huang, Shujin Zhou, Lin Shen, Yue He, Yi Liu, Li Hu, Mengshi Chen, Shimin Hu, Shi Wu Wen
In the production of fireworks, various pollutants including particles of metals and organic compounds are released into the environment. Although the adverse effects of these air pollutants are known, the impact on pregnant women residing in this area remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal exposure to fireworks production chemicals and frequency of preterm birth in Liuyang, China. Maternal exposure to fireworks production was estimated at the residential district level and assessed using factory density, which was defined as the number of fireworks factories per 1000 residents in each district...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Clay M Nelson, Kevin Li, Daniel R Obenour, Jonathan Miller, John C Misenheimer, Kirk Scheckel, Aaron Betts, Albert Juhasz, David J Thomas, Karen D Bradham
Interest in improved understanding of relationships among soil properties and arsenic (As) bioaccessibility has motivated the use of regression models for As bioaccessibility prediction. However, limits in the numbers and types of soils included in previous studies restrict the usefulness of these models beyond the range of soil conditions evaluated, as evidenced by reduced predictive performance when applied to new data. In response, hierarchical models that consider variability in relationships among soil properties and As bioaccessibility across geographic locations and contaminant sources were developed to predict As bioaccessibility in 139 soils on both a mass fraction (mg/kg) and % basis...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Victor Hugo Fuentes-Delgado, María Consolación Martínez-Saldaña, María Luisa Rodríguez-Vázquez, Miguel Arturo Reyes-Romero, José Luis Reyes-Sánchez, Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez
Little information is apparently available regarding the nephrotoxic effects induced by pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of low doses of methyl parathion (MP) on the structure and function of the kidney of male Wistar rats. A corn oil (vehicle) was administered to control rats, whereas treated rats received MP at 0.56 mg/kg orally (1/25 of LD50), every third day, for 8 weeks. At the end of each week following MP exposure, creatinine and glucose levels were measured in plasma, while glucose, inorganic phosphate, total proteins, albumin, and activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were determined in urine...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Lidiane Nunes Barbosa, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Priscila Luiza Mello, Hans Garcia Garces, Jéssica Luana Chechi, Tarsila Frachin, Luciana Curtolo De Barros, Sandra De Moraes Guimenes Bosco, Eduardo Bagagli, Ary Fernandes Júnior, Benedito Barraviera, Lucilene Delazari Dos Santos
Bothrops insularis, known as the golden lancehead snake, has its natural habitat restricted to Queimada Grande Island on the southern coast of Brazil. This culture-dependent study aimed to identify microorganisms obtained from the mouth, eyes, and cloaca of this species. Swabs from 20 snakes were collected for fungal and bacterial isolation. DNA was extracted from all samples, and identification was performed by amplifying the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions and the 16S rDNA gene, respectively. All strains were identified and deposited in the GenBank nucleotide database...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Fei Yang, Isaac Yaw Massey, Jian Guo, Shu Yang, Yuepu Pu, Weiming Zeng, Hongzhuan Tan
Microcystins (MC) produced by species of cyanobacteria including Microcystis, Anabaena, and Aphanizomenon are a group of monocyclic hepatotoxins posing serious threat to public health. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic and frequently encountered microcystin variant in the environment, and thus removal of this toxin using bacteria was shown to be a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective method that avoids utilization of chemicals that may produce potentially harmful by-products. The aim of this study was to determine whether a novel indigenous bacterial community designated YFMCD1 was effective in destroying MC...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jacqueline Morais Alves, Luís Fernando Leandro, Juliana Marques Senedese, Pâmela Tinti de Castro, Daiane Eleutério Pereira, Flávia Aparecida Resende, Débora Leite Campos, Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva, Eliana Aparecida Varanda, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Denise Crispim Tavares
In view of the biological activities and growing therapeutic interest in oleoresin obtained from Copaifera multijuga, this study aimed to determine the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of this oleoresin (CMO) and its chemical marker, diterpene (-)-copalic acid (CA). The micronucleus (MN) assay in V79 cell cultures and the Ames test were used for in vitro analyses, as well as MN and comet assays in Swiss mice for in vivo analyses. The in vitro genotoxicity/mutagenicity results showed that either CMO (30, 60, or 120 µg/ml-MN assay; 0...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Naveena Yanamala, Elena R Kisin, Dmitriy W Gutkin, Michael R Shurin, Martin Harper, Anna A Shvedova
Humans exposed to asbestos and/or asbestiform fibers are at high risk of developing many lung diseases including asbestosis, lung cancer, and malignant mesothelioma. However, the disease-causing potential and specific metabolic mechanisms and pathways associated with various asbestos/asbestiform fiber exposures triggering different carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic outcomes are still largely unknown. The aim of this this study was to investigate gene expression profiles and inflammatory responses to different asbestos/asbestiform fibers at the acute/sub-acute phase that may be related to delayed pathological outcomes observed at later time points...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jacqueline D Carter, Nageswara R Madamanchi, George A Stouffer, Marschall S Runge, Wayne E Cascio, Haiyan Tong
Studies have linked exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (PM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism underlying observed adverse vascular effects. Advanced age is one factor known to decrease antioxidant defenses and confer susceptibility to the detrimental vascular effects seen following PM exposure. The present study was designed to investigate the vasomotor responses following ultrafine PM exposure in wild type (WT) and superoxide dismutase 2-deficient (SOD2+/-) mice that possess decreased antioxidant defense...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Fan He, Yuanxin Tian, Zhenlin Xu, Lin Luo, Jinyi Yang, Hong Wang, Yuanming Sun, Qingfeng Du, Yudong Shen
Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) contamination raised concerns as a result of migration from food packaging and environmental exposure. Because of the adverse effects of PAE reported in humans, the aim of this study was to examine the ability to screen for the detection these chemicals as an indicator of potential exposure. Too develop a sensitive screening test to determine PAE, a specific polyclonal antibody against phthalic acid (PA), the hydrolysate of PAEs, was used as a marker of total PAEs. This method involved the use of 4-aminophthalic acid (APA) as an immunizing hapten to generate antibody...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Chih-Cheng Chen, Chun-Yuh Yang
Air pollution exposure has been reported to influence blood pressure. However, only a few epidemiological studies demonstrated association between ambient air pollution exposure and acute hypertensive events. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gaseous air pollutants exposure and hospital admissions for hypertension in Taipei, Taiwan. Data on hospital admissions for hypertension and ambient air pollution in Taipei were obtained for the 2009-2013 period. An odds ratio (OR) for number of hospital admissions for hypertension associated with each interquartile range increase in each gaseous air pollutant was calculated using a case-crossover approach, after controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
S Crovella, R R Moura, S Cappellani, F Celsi, E Trevisan, M Schneider, A Brollo, E M Nicastro, F Vita, L Finotto, G Zabucchi, V Borelli
The presence of asbestos bodies (ABs) in lung parenchyma is considered a histopathologic hallmark of past exposure to asbestos fibers, of which there was a population of longer fibers. The mechanisms underlying AB formation are complex, involving inflammatory responses and iron (Fe) metabolism. Thus, the responsiveness to AB formation is variable, with some individuals appearing to be poor AB formers. The aim of this study was to disclose the possible role of genetic variants of genes encoding inflammasome and iron metabolism proteins in the ability to form ABs in a population of 81 individuals from North East Italy, who died after having developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Shu Yang, Lv Chen, Cong Wen, Xian Zhang, Xiangling Feng, Fei Yang
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), the most common microcystin (MC) present in water is known to pose a significant threat to human health especially hepatotoxicity. However, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying MC-LR-induced hepatic cellular damage still remain to be determined. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play key roles in cellular processes including development, cell proliferation and responsiveness to stress. Thus, this study aimed to examine, whether miRNAs were involved in the observed MC-LR-mediated liver damage using miRNA profiling of a human normal liver cell line HL7702 using high-throughput sequencing techniques...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Yu-Syuan Luo, Shinji Furuya, Weihsueh Chiu, Ivan Rusyn
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant that is a liver and kidney carcinogen. Conjugation of TCE with glutathione (GSH) leads to formation of nepthrotoxic and mutagenic metabolites postulated to be critical for kidney cancerdevelopment; however, relatively little is known regarding their tissue levels as previous analytical methods for their detection lacked sensitivity. Here, an LC-MS/MS-based method for simultaneous detection of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-glutathione (DCVG), S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), and N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NAcDCVC) in multiple mouse tissues was developed...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Shang-Shyue Tsai, Yi-Hao Weng, Ya-Wen Chiu, Chun-Yuh Yang
Previous studies suggested an elevated risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) among farmers. To date, no apparent study examined the association between farming and NHL in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether farmers in Taiwan exhibited an increased risk of mortality attributed to NHL. To this end, a mortality odds ratio (MOR) study was conducted to estimate the relative risk of mortality attributed to NHL for farmers in Taiwan. Data on the decedents enrolled in this investigation were derived from the death certificate database for the period 1997-2009...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Caroline Ajonina, Christopher Buzie, Julia Möller, Ralf Otterpohl
To increase current knowledge on the epidemiology of protozoan parasites in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the occurrence of Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii in raw and treated wastewater was investigated. Samples were collected from WWTP twice a month over a period of 8 months. Determination of protozoa was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and light microscopy. After concentration and purification of wastewater samples, DNA extraction was conducted followed by PCR amplification of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of E...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Kristine Krajnak, G R Miller, Stacey Waugh
Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Caio Alexandre Santos Caxico Vieira, Jodnes Sobreira Vieira, Marisa Silva Bastos, Vittor Zancanela, Leandro Teixeira Barbosa, Eliane Gasparino, Ana Paula Del Vesco
The aim of this study was to examine whether (1) severe changes in salinity produced increased stress, and (2) vitamin C supplementation might reduce the observed damage in Nile tilapia. The parameters measured included condition factor, survival rate, and gene expression of catalase (CAT), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione synthase (GSS), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The investigation was conducted with 160 Nile tilapia divided into four treatment groups: freshwater; 7 or 21 parts per thousand (‰) salinity, all fed a basal diet; as well as a fourth treatment group consisting of fish kept at 21‰ salinity fed a diet supplemented with vitamin C (1500 mg/kg)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jingjing Han, Cheng Ji, Yichen Guo, Rui Yan, Ting Hong, Yuanyan Dou, Yan An, Shasha Tao, Fenju Qin, Jihua Nie, Chen Ji, Han Wang, Jian Tong, Wei Xiao, Jie Zhang
The neurotoxic effects attributed to the pesticide fenvalerate (FEN) are well-established. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin (MLT) was able to protect against FEN-induced behavior, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neurogenesis using zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Zebrafish exposed to 100 μg/L FEN for 120 h exhibited decreased swimming activity accompanied by downregulated expression of neurogenesis-related genes (Dlx2, Shha, Ngn1, Elavl3, and Gfap), suggesting that neurogenesis were impaired...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Kristian Syberg, Anne Nielsen, Farhan R Khan, Gary T Banta, Annemette Palmqvist, Per M Jepsen
Microplastics (MP) are contaminants of environmental concern partly due to plastics ability to sorb and transport hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC). The importance of this "vector effect" is currently being debated in the scientific community. This debate largely ignores that the co-exposures of MP and HOC are mixtures of hazardous agents, which can be addressed from a mixture toxicity perspective. In this study, mixture effects of polyethylene microbeads (MP) and triclosan (TCS) (a commonly used antibacterial agent in cosmetics) were assessed on the marine copepod Acartia tonsa...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Guangfang Shao, Suping Zhang, Jihua Nie, Jianxiang Li, Jian Tong
Changes in diurnal rhythmicity in blood pressure (BP) are associated with hypertension and consequent cardiovascular damage. The involvement of diurnal rhythmicity as a pathogenic factor in hypertension is not fully understood. Since the hormone melatonin (MLT) regulates circadian rhythm, it was also of interest to determine whether this hormone played a role in hypertension-related alterations in circadian rhythm. Thus the aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms underlying MLT-mediated antihypertension...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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