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Current Drug Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908257/ginkgo-biloba-as-an-alternative-medicine-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-in-dementia-and-other-psychiatric-disorders
#1
Sandeep Kumar Singh, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are the most common health problems in the worldwide population. Current medicines against these conditions have undesired side effects or limited effectiveness. These disadvantageous pharmacological and therapeutic characteristics provoke a low adherence to treatment in an important percentage of patients with mental disorders. Since ancient times, ethnically different groups have been using plants extracts as medicines for the treatment of mental conditions including dementia, depression and anxiety disorders...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#2
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894245/recent-advances-in-understanding-of-kinetic-interplay-between-phase-ii-metabolism-and-efflux-transport
#3
Shuai Wang, Huijie Xing, Mengjing Zhao, Danyi Lu, Zhijie Li, Dong Dong, Baojian Wu
Mechanistic understanding of the metabolism-transport interplay assumes great importance in pharmaceutical fields because the knowledge can help to interpret drug/xenobiotic metabolism and disposition studies as well as the drug-drug interactions in vivo. About 10 years ago, it started to recognize that cellular phase II metabolism is strongly influenced by the excretion (efflux transport) of generated metabolites, a kinetic phenomenon termed "phase II metabolism-transport interplay". This interplay is believed to have significant effects on the pharmacokinetics (bioavailability) of drugs/chemicals undergoing phase II metabolism...
November 28, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890007/a-current-perspective-on-the-inhibition-of-cholinesterase-by-natural-and-synthetic-inhibitors
#4
Anzer A Shah, Showkat A Ganie, Mohammad A Kamal, Tanveer Ali Dar
Majority of the observed cognitive and behavioral changes in Alzheimer's diseaseare postulated to be due to the deficiencies in cholinergic pathways of the brain. Enhancement of cholinergic transmission may thus stimulate the cholinergic receptors or prolong the availability of acetylcholine in synaptic cleft and hence improve the Alzheimer's disease associated symptoms. Of these two, the inhibition of cholinesterases (Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase) by cholinesterase inhibitors is suggested to be a promising strategy...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890006/recent-updates-on-the-systemic-and-local-safety-of-intranasal-steroids
#5
Tae Young Jang, Young Hyo Kim
Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem, and its prevalence rate and socioeconomic burden continue to increase. Intranasal steroid (INS) is the first treatment choice in the majority of patients, because of its ability to effectively control allergic symptoms. However, patients and clinicians are concerned about the potential adverse effects of prolonged INS use. In the present study, the systemic bioavailabilities of several commercially available INSs were researched, and then systemic safeties were reviewed with focus on suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and their effects on pediatric growth...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890005/mechanism-based-inhibitors-from-phytomedicine-risks-of-hepatotoxicity-and-their-potential-hepatotoxic-substructures
#6
Lili Wang, Xin He, Chunhuan Jin, Gregory Ondieki
The adverse reactions and side effects associated with use of herbal medicines, especially their damaging effects on the liver have increasingly been reported worldwide. Some of the herbal ingredients have the potential risk of herb-induced liver injury but their hepatotoxicity mechanisms and associated risk factors are not well characterized until now. Xenobiotics are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes into highly reactive metabolites, which can covalently bind to the enzyme itself and subsequently cause mechanism-based inhibition (MBI)...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903219/prediction-of-plasma-concentration-time-profiles-of-drugs-in-humans-from-animals-following-oral-administration-an-allometric-approach
#7
Iftekhar Mahmood
BACKGROUND: Allometric scaling is regularly used for the prediction of human pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters from animal PK studies. The predicted human PK parameters can also be used for the prediction of plasma concentration-time profiles in humans. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this work is to predict human concentration-time profiles of drugs (one-compartment model) following oral administration using animal oral pharmacokinetic parameters. METHODS: Six drugs from the literature were chosen that were described by one-compartment model in both humans and animals following oral administration...
November 21, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848888/immunotherapy-in-liver-diseases-a-balance-between-immunity-and-tolerance
#8
Alaknanda Mishra, Pramod K Upadhyay, Perumal Nagarajan
In today's context when liver diseases have spread across countries and people of all ages, it is of high importance to consider novel methods of non-toxic and long lived therapeutics. Among various therapies, immunotherapy for acute and chronic liver diseases is rapidly moving to the forefront among treatment options in hepatology medicine. Liver has a unique immuno- biological advantage which is utilized to maintain a balance between immunity and tolerance. This intricate balance of hepatic immune cells can be modulated to effect treatments in various liver diseases...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848887/metabolism-and-toxicological-implications-of-commonly-used-chemopreventive-drugs-against-breast-cancer-carcinogenesis
#9
Aliyu Muhammad, Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Ochuko Lucky Erukainure, Ibrahim Malami, Hadiza Sani, Hafsat Abdullahi Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been reported to be among the frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide despite advances in early detection and treatment. Several drugs are currently used for chemoprevention as a result of a number of drawbacks associated with breast cancer therapy. AIM: This review focuses on the metabolism and toxicological implications of these drugs against breast cancer/carcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY: Relevant articles on the commonly used anti-breast cancer drugs (raloxifene, tamoxifen, anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane) used in chemoprevention were searched using the major scientific databases including Scopus, Embase, PubMed/ Medline, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842486/advances-and-implications-in-nanotechnology-for-lung-cancer-management
#10
Sana Sarkar, Khwaja Osama, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Usman Sayeed, M Kalim A Khan, Mohd Haris Siddiqui, Salman Akhtar
Lung cancer is one of the most important chronic diseases in the field of respiratory medicine. Conventional treatment strategies for lung cancer include chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy. These current therapies lack specificity and are limited by undesirable toxicities in normal cells, as well as a high rate of recurrence.Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of lung cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional therapies. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor cells by employing two mechanisms: passive and active targeting...
November 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809744/recent-updates-on-the-application-of-protein-protein-interaction-network-in-drug-discovery
#11
Alexiou Athanasios, Vairaktarakis Charalampos, Tsiamis Vasileios, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Protein to protein interactions (PPI) have been studied in great detail during the last decade. The informations derived from PPI analysis can be very helpful for large scale construction of different networks and the disambiguation of functional orthologs within of homologous sequence complexes. Several experimental techniques offered great tools for high throughput network mapping applications, although as long as the data increases massively, new computational methods arise to overcome the processing requirements for time and cost...
November 2, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784209/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-flibanserin-s-effects-and-adverse-events-in-women-with-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder
#12
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Yunes Panahi, Ali Kabir, Khaled Rahmani, Milad Hosseinialhashemi
The efficacy and safety of flibanserin in the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is controversial. We reviewed existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of flibanserin in treating HSDD, and performed a meta-analysis of reported effects. Literature search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library to find all trials on the efficacy of flibanserin in HSDD. Meta-analysis was performed using fixed- and random-effects models. Egger's test and "trim and fill" methods were used for the assessment of publication bias and imputation of potentially missing studies, respectively...
October 25, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758703/the-ever-changing-face-of-antibiotic-resistance-prevailing-problems-and-preventive-measures
#13
Hemlata Hemlata, Arif Tasleem Jan, Archana Tiwari
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem exacerbated due to selective pressure of antimicrobial agents, spontaneous mutation, recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Of the different mechanisms that led to spread of resistance, one notorious phenomenon is the generation of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) preferably TEM, SHV, OXA and CTX-M. Their production and frequent mobilization through horizontal gene transfer, made bacteria to exhibit resistance against a broad range of antibiotics. Resilient development of resistance among bacteria hampers available treatment options against different infections in the health care system...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756198/e-mhk-0103-mineraxin%C3%A2-a-novel-nutraceutical-with-biological-properties-in-menopausal-conditions
#14
Lola Corzo, Susana Rodríguez, Ramón Alejo, Lucía Fernández-Novoa, Gjumrakch Aliev, Ramón Cacabelos
Menopause is a natural event in women´s lives leading to the cessation of menstruation and the reproductive function due to loss of the ovarian follicular function. Menopause-derived estrogen deprivation and related endocrine factors are linked to some symptoms of middle-aged women, such as hot flashes, aches, joint pain, stiffness, depressed mood, bone degeneration, nutritional dysfunction, or difficulty to maintain body mass. Clinical approaches to these problems often involve hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and other modalities of therapeutic intervention...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739371/bacteria-from-marine-sponges-a-source-of-new-drugs
#15
Fehmida Bibi, Muhammad Faheem, Esam I Azhar, Muhammad Yasir, Sana Akhter Alvi, Mohammad A Kamal, Ikram Ullah, Muhammad I Nasser
Sponges are rich source of bioactive natural products synthesized by the symbiotic bacteria belonging to different phyla. Due to a competition for space and nutrients the marine bacteria associated with sponges could produce more antibiotic substances. To explore the proactive potential of marine microbes extensive research has been done. These bioactive metabolites have some unique properties that are pharmaceutically important. To date, majority of these metabolites have been identified from marine invertebrates of which sponges predominate...
October 12, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719626/metabolic-inhibitors-as-antiparasitic-drugs-pharmacological-biochemical-and-molecular-perspectives
#16
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Niladri Mukherjee, Prajna Gayen, Priya Roy, Santi P Sinha Babu
Human diseases caused by the infectious parasites have been one of the major problems throughout the evolutionary journey. Protozoan and metazoan parasitic infections result in a large number of deaths, disabilities and socio-economic loss worldwide to date. Despite our best efforts of developing suitable antiparasitics, these infections take a massive toll on human health. The prevalence of emerging resistance to the existing drugs, lack of efficacy and toxic side effects came out as added complications. Being enlisted under 'neglected' category, serious diseases like leishmaniases, filariases, trypanosomiases etc...
October 4, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697027/drug-metabolism-and-pharmacokinetics-of-dammarane-triterpenoids
#17
Sainan Zhanga, Yuqing Zhao
Dammarane triterpenoids are widely distributed in plants and possess various bioactivities and pharmacological effects. In this review, we focus on the advances in drug metabolism of dammarane triterpenoids, particularly from the aspect of drug design and development, including radiolabel, absorption (A), distribution (D), metabolism (M), excretion (E), pharmacokinetics (PK), which could describe behaviors of dammarane triterpenoids more accurately, and were helpful for the systematic and consistent research and development of dammarane triterpenoids...
October 3, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654898/recent-advances-in-drug-delivery-of-polymeric-nano-micelles
#18
Zarith Asyikin Binti Abdul Aziz, Akil Ahmad, Siti Hamidah Mohd-Setapar, Hashim Hassan, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
In clinical studies, drugs with hydrophobic characteristic usually reflect low bioavailability, poor drug absorption, and inability to achieve the therapeutic concentration in blood. The production of poor solubility drugs, in abundance, by pharmaceutical industries calls for an urgent need to find the alternatives for resolving the above mentioned shortcomings. Poor water solubility drugs loaded with polymeric micelle seems to be the best alternative to enhance drugs solubility and bioavailability. Polymeric micelle, formed by self-assembled of amphiphilic block copolymers in aqueous environment, functioned as solubilizing agent for hydrophobic drug...
September 21, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654899/genetic-and-non-genetic-determinants-of-the-pharmacological-activity-of-statins
#19
Marta Karaźniewicz-Łada, Anna Główka, Jakub Mikołajewski, Juliusz Przysławski
Statins are cholesterol-lowering agents which belong to the group of the most commonly prescribed drugs. The use of statins has become the standard treatment in patients with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases. However, many clinical studies have shown that 13 - 75% of patients fail to achieve LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol target levels. The clinical implications of insufficient response include cardiovascular complications caused by atherosclerosis leading to acute myocardial infarction, stroke and death...
September 19, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549807/current-therapeutics-their-problems-and-thiol-metabolism-as-potential-drug-targets-in-leishmaniasis
#20
Kuljit Singh, Gaurav Garg, Vahab Ali
Leishmaniasis is one of six diseases most neglected regarded by World Health Organization which is predominant in developing countries having economic issues. Clinically, among the 21 different forms of Leishmania, visceral leishmaniasis is most fatal, serious disease, affecting several organs of the 22 body such as liver and spleen. Limited numbers of drugs against leishmaniasis are available for the treatment and 23 also no suitable vaccine is available for the control of leishmaniasis. However, the drugs currently used for treatment 24 of leishmaniasis are having serious side effects as well as drug resistance issues...
August 19, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
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