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Current Drug Metabolism

Jeonghwan Lee, Sejoong Kim
The kidneys play a pivotal role in most drug-removal processes and are important when evaluating drug safety. Kidney dysfunction resulting from various drugs is an important issue in clinical practice and during the drug development process. Traditional in vivo animal experiments are limited with respect to evaluating drug efficacy and nephrotoxicity due to discrepancies in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between humans and animals, and static cell culture experiments cannot fully reflect the actual microphysiological environment in humans...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Anam Akram, Sara Khalil, Sobia Ahsan Halim
BACKGROUND: Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with an incidence rate of 1.3 million cases per year. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a promising drug target in cancer treatment. HSP90 is required to activate numerous eukaryotic proto-oncogenic protein kinases, hence play a prominent role in cancer. METHOD: We reviewed fifty five articles to highlight the importance of HSP90 in NSCLC and the recent developments of its inhibitors...
March 7, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Hong Wang, Guoxiu Cao, Guangji Wang, Haiping Hao
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are a class of important phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), playing essential roles in the homeostasis of endobiotics as well as the dispositional behavior of exogenous compounds. The expression and enzyme activity of UGTs are regulated by multiple dimensions of mechanisms and can be influenced by diverse factors. Thus, the intensive research of its regulatory network is pivotal for better understanding about the physiological, pathological, and therapeutic significance of UGTs...
March 7, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Abida Batool, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Sajid Rashid
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as progressive multifaceted and multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder which causes dementia among elderly people. Although, researchers in this field have put considerable efforts for the investigation of novel and appropriate therapeutic measures towards the cure of AD, unfortunately, no effective prevention therapy for this disease is available till date. In fact, various aspects involved in the onset and progression of AD are still disputed or uncovered. However, to achieve definite and direct cure of AD, researcher's attention has been drawn towards exploration of new therapeutics targets...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Mohammad M Zarshenas, Ramin Ansari, Amirhossein Dadbakhsh, Maryam Mohammadi
Among various neurological disorders, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an expanding global immune-related inflammatory disease with complex etiologies. There is increasing demand for the use and administration of natural medicaments for this disorder. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a school of medicine and a medicinal plants-based resource for clinical studies put forward by Persian scholars. This paper aims to gather and study the effectiveness of all medicinal plants from the most popular Persian pharmacopeias...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Tatiana V Kirichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Igor A Sobenin, Alexander N Orekhov
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis affecting cerebral and pre-cerebral arteries is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Medications of botanical origin are often characterized by good tolerability and are suitable for long-term treatment. Therefore, phytotherapy provides an interesting possibility for developing new therapies for prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications that could be used at preclinical stages of the disease...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Saeideh Jalali, Amir Zarrinhaghighi, Saman Sadraei, Younes Ghasemi, Amirhossein Sakhteman, Pouya Faridi
Background The plant Nardostachys jatamansi from Valerianaceae family is a well known antidepressant plant and has historically been used in traditional medicine. As N. jatamansi contains many different compounds, to identify its mechanisms of action, we need a network-based study. Network-based studies are becoming an increasingly important tool in understanding the mechanisms of actions of drugs. Systems pharmacology (SP) and bioinformatics are two emerging tools that use computation to develop an understanding of drug actions in molecular and cellular levels...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Zahra Shahpiri, Mohammad Reza Mehri, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Mahdi Rezaei, Azade Raeesdana, Roja Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches, make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Dandan Zheng, Jinglong Wang, Shengrong Guo, Zhongxi Zhao, Feihu Wang
BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles play an important role in the area of drug delivery and have been applied in lung cancer treatments for the purposes of controlled release and cancer cell targeting. METHOD: A review covering various nanoparticle formulations for lung cancer therapy is presented. The pharmacodynamic models for evaluating anti-lung cancer drugs are summarized upon drug administration routes. Moreover, the current clinical applications of nano-drugs for lung cancer treatments are also reviewed, including the administration routes, dose forms, and clinical trials...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Talib Hussain, Shrestha Bajpai, Mohd Saeed, Muhammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
There is a long history of traditional medicine for serving world population. For the prevention and treatment of cancer numerous medicinal herbs from entire world including India are being used traditionally. Whenever we talk about treatment of cancer, medicinal plants always have been on the top. For the prevention and treatment of cancer, herbal medicines have played an important role. Countless anticancer plants have been recognized with the help of innovative techniques including isolation and structure elucidation that implement their beneficial effect by increasing immunity of the body, inducing antioxidant action, endorsing making of shielding enzymes, hindering cancer triggering enzymes and hormones, and exciting DNA restoration mechanism...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Selvan Ravindran, Jitendra Kumar Suthar, Rutuja Rokade, Pooja Deshpande, Pooja Singh, Ashutosh Pratinidhi, Rajeshree Khambadkhar, Srushti Utekar
Background Medical application of nanotechnology is termed as Nanomedicine and is widely used in healthcare industries. Nanotechnology has helped Physicians, Scientists and Technologists to understand the changes in cellular levels to develop nanomedicines and address the challenges faced by the healthcare sectors. Nanoparticles with less than 1nm in size have been used as drug delivery and gene delivery systems to accelerate the drug action in humans. Size of nanomaterials is akin to that of biomolecules and expected to have better interactions...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Elena Antelmi, Giuseppe Plazzi
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a rare chronic neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hallucinations and disrupted nocturnal sleep, usually with onset during childhood/adolescence. Pediatric NT1 is associated with limitations on children's activities and achievements, especially poor performance at school, difficulty with peers due to disease symptoms and comorbidities including depression, obesity, and precocious puberty. NT1 disease is caused by the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, most probably related to an autoimmune pathophysiology...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Asim Azhar, Qamar Zia, Shakeel Ahmad Ansari, Muhammad Amjad Kamal, Athanasios Alexiou, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology exploits materials and devices with a functional organization that has been engineered at the nanometre scale. The application of nanotechnology in neuroscience involves specific interactions with neurons and glial cells. This property is used for delivering drugs and other small molecules (such as genes, oligonucleotides and contrasting agents) across the blood brain barrier (BBB), an important requirement for delivering the drug successfully to the brain. Nanotechnology based approaches (NBA) favoured transcytosis-mediated delivery of nanoparticles to the brain by crossing the BBB...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Pedro Zuzarte, Angela Duong, Maria L Figueira, Atilio Costa Vitali, Gustavo Scola
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression are extremely prevalent and debilitating conditions. Evidence suggests there is a two-way relationship between depression and CVD. Inflammation is implicated in the pathophysiology of both conditions, thus representing a central candidate mediating the link between these disorders. Depression is consistently associated with increased inflammation and increased blood levels of inflammatory molecules. In recent years, studies have shown that depression significantly increases the risk of developing inflammatory-related diseases such as CVD, precipitated by the same inflammatory pathways involved in the pathophysiology of CVD...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Mohd Saeed, Fawaz D Alshammari, Md Jahoor Alam, Khan Mohd Sarim, Khurshid Ahmad, Talib Hussain, Mahvish Khan, Muhammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Cancer or abnormal growth of the cell is one of the major health problems of the world. There are about two hundred types of malignancies reported till date. In this review, a brief update on cancer, its causes and different types has been discussed along with updated statistics of patient's mortality. A brief overview of cervical cancer and its pathophysiology has been discussed with special emphasis on its causative agent, human papilloma virus (HPV). A brief introduction and update on genetics, molecular pathogenesis and prevalence of HPV and its role in cervical cancer have been added...
March 2, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Muhammad Torequl Islam, Shams Tabrez, Nasimudeen R Jabir, Murtaza Ali, Mohammad A Kamal, Lidiane da Silva Araujo, Jose Victor De Oliveira Santos, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira Da Mata, Rai Pablo Sousa De Aguiar, Ana Amelia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante
The popular drink, coffee (Coffea arabica) is under the great attention of late because of its promising pharmacological potential. Caffeine (the major constituent of coffee) is known for its prominent psychoactive impact. This review aims at highlighting the therapeutic potentials of caffeine and other five coffee components viz. caffeic acid, chlorogenic acids, cafestol, ferulic acid and kahweol and their suggested mechanisms of action. A number of pharmacological activities are attributed to these components that include anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects...
March 2, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Xi Du, Makafui Nyagblordzro, Lijun An, Xue Gao, Lemei Du, Yangyang Wang, Gregory Ondieki, Siambi Kikete, Xin He
Tripterigium wilfordii glycosides (TWG) demonstrate paramount bioactive effectiveness in the management of many autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and nephrotic syndrome. However, its side effects on the hepatic, nephrotic, reproductive, and cardiovascular systems have limited its immense therapeutic potentials. Triptolide (TP) and Celastrol (CL), the leading bioactive as well as toxic constituents of TWG, have been widely studied. These studies have documented the key mechanisms that trigger the toxic reactions and the precautionary measures that could prevent and reduce such reactions...
March 2, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Marilo Olivares-Vicente, Enrique Barrajon-Catalan, Maria Herranz-Lopez, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Jorge Joven, Jose Antonio Encinar, Vicente Micol
Edible plants such as Hibiscus sabdariffa, Lippia citriodora, Rosmarinus officinalis and Olea europaea, are rich in bioactive compounds that represent most of the phenolic compounds families and have exhibited potential benefits in human health. These plants have been commonly used in folk medicine for their potential therapeutic properties in human chronic diseases. Recent evidence on these plants leads to postulate that polyphenols may account for such effects. Nevertheless, the compounds or metabolites that are responsible for reaching the molecular targets are still unknown...
February 19, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Qingqing Han, Meng Niu, Hongshan Zhong, Qirun Wu
With the development of nanomaterials, nanoparticle-based therapeutics have found increasing application in various fields, including clinical and basic medicine. Real-time monitoring of nanoparticle-based therapeutics is considered critical to both pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. In this review, we discuss the different methods of real-time monitoring of nanoparticle-based therapeutics comprising different types of nanoparticle carriers, such as metal nanoparticles, inorganic nonmetallic nanoparticles, biodegradable polymer nanoparticles, and biological nanoparticles...
February 11, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Ghulam Md Ashraf, Asim Azhar, Ashraf Ali, Mohd Rehan, Qamar Zia, Mohammad Owais, Athanasios Alexiou, Ahmar Rauf, Magdah Ganash, Muhammad Amjad Kamal
Higher animals, especially the human beings have the privilege of employing advanced central nervous system (CNS) as well as the evolved immune system to ward off various onslaughts throughout their life. Alterations in inflammatory and neural regulatory pathways lead to several disorders that are now becoming the cause of concern across the world. Deregulation in bidirectional network, particularly in aging population, leads to several neurodegenerative diseases such as having dementia as a one of the major characteristics...
January 29, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
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