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Current Drug Metabolism

John M Corkery, Barbara Loi, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Fabrizio Schifano
Background Misuse of gammahydroxybutrate (GHB) and its prodrugs gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (1,4-BD) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in recreational and sexual settings, e.g. 'chemsex'. Objective and method This paper presents an overview of GHB pharmacotoxicology and provides analyses of cases in the LGBT population associated with use of these substances extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database, to which notification is voluntary...
November 8, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Jiaguo Huang, Huizi Wu
Overdosing of the drugs, drug-drug interaction or drug related adverse effects are the risk factors of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Since the use of some nephrotoxic drugs is still unavoidable in clinic, to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of nephrotoxicity of these drugs is critical to decrease the incidence of kidney injury. Early detection of drug-induced nephrotoxicity and reduce the therapeutic side effects are still accessible approaches to avoid the end stage of renal failure. Therefore, the discovery or development of the early and accurate diagnostic biomarkers is an effective prevention strategy for drug-induced kidney impairment...
November 8, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Juan Eduardo Megias-Vericat, David Martinez-Cuadron, Maria Jose Herrero, Salvador F Alino, Jose Luis Poveda, Miguel Angel Sanz, Pau Montesinos
BACKGROUND: Anthracyclines in combination with cytarabine have been the standard therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for decades with high efficacy. However, the majority of patients will show initial resistance or will relapse after initial complete remission. Genetic variability in genes involved in anthracyclines metabolic pathway could be one of the causes of the interindividual differences in clinical outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of published studies in AML cohorts was carried out in order to analyze the influence of polymorphisms in genes of anthracycline metabolism on efficacy and toxicity...
November 1, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Oladimeji Aladelokun, Jose Manautou, Li Wang
The study of the mechanisms of liver regeneration is quite an intriguing field that has been extensively modeled. Through the process of compensatory proliferation of the hepatocytes, the liver mass is restored after loss of up to two-thirds of the entire mass. Cyclic nucleotides are intracellular second messengers which are involved in the transduction of a diverse array of stimuli, mediating metabolic and growth regulation. The relationship between cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling and liver regeneration has somehow been elusive to pioneer researchers in the field of liver regeneration...
November 1, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Thao T D Tran, Phuong H L Tran, Wei Duan
Efficient colon-specific drug delivery has been demonstrated recently in the treatment of various diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis (inflammatory bowel disease), and colorectal cancer. Of all strategies, the conjugation of a model drug to a carrier (with or without spacers) has been recognized as promising for targeting the colon. This is because the conjugation method releases large amounts of the drug while reducing the amount of the drug released in the stomach and small intestine. This review focuses on the design of linkage conjugates that carry out specific delivery to the colon...
October 31, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Kamal Kishore Chaudhary, Gautam Kumar, Anusheel Varshney, M K Meghvansi, Syed Farook Ali, K Karthik, Kuldeep Dhama, Sazada Siddiqui, R K Kaul
Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce ('khejri') is an important tree that occurs worldwide in arid regions. It has been mentioned in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicines as having several clinical properties. Different parts of this plant are used in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Iran for treating various ailments such as leprosy, leucoderma, dysentery, asthma, bronchitis, piles, jaundice and muscular tremors. Since all parts of the tree are useful, it is called 'Kalp Taru' or 'Wonder Tree' in India...
October 31, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Ting Luo, Long Gao, Xiaowei Chen, Meng Niu, Ke Xu
With the rapid development of nanoparticles in drug delivery system, a lot of interest in the genotoxicity evaluation of nanocarriers has emerged currently. In this article, we review the results that have been reported in the literature, with a focus on data generated from the standard genotoxicity assays. The data include genotoxicity results from the in vitro and in vivo Comet assay, in vitro and in vivo micronucleus assay, in vitro and in vivo chromosomal aberration (CA) assay, Ames test, phosphorylated histone H2Ax (ɤ-H2Ax) foci formation detection, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay, and mammalian cell mutation assay...
October 31, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Vinu Wilson, Subir Kumar Maulik
Herbal drugs are being used worldwide in a variety of disorders with the misguided belief that they are absolutely safe compared to drugs of modern medicine. This trend is also evident in debilitating neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cerebrovascular accident, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. However, unlike drugs of modern medicine, herbal drugs are complex products containing multiple pharmacologically active constituents. The nature and relative amounts of these constituents vary due to diverse factors such as but not limited to source of the plant(s), local environmental conditions, parts of the plant used, storage, method of extract preparation, accidental contamination or intentional adulteration...
October 31, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Sung-Min Choi, Chin-Yang Kang, Beom-Jin Lee, Jun-Bom Park
Recently, pharmaceutical research has focused on in vitro-in vivo correlation as a novel challenge and in silico modeling has been an important component of this. As in silico models are highly representative of practical use, regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have recognized and utilized in silico modeling in decision making; this allows pharmaceutical organizations to use Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for decision-making, which may aid the financial efficiency of a clinical trial...
October 31, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Simone Nagel, Elizabeth M Streicher, Marisa Klopper, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden
BACKGROUND: The first-line TB antibiotic isoniazid (INH) serves as a central component of combined first-line anti-tuberculosis drug therapy. However, resistance to INH has hindered the functioning of this drug. Resistance is caused by several known and unknown mutations in genes/regions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), followed by selection of these mutants in the presence of the drug. INH resistance can be categorised as either "high-level" (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of > 1µg/mL to INH) or "low-level" (MIC between 0...
October 31, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Barbara Mostacci, Rocco Liguori, Arrigo Fg Cicero
Peripheral neuropathies are damages to or disorders of the peripheral nervous system including radiculopathies, plexopathies, mono-, multi- and polyneuropathies. The etiopathogenetic mechanisms include genetic, traumatic, toxic, metabolic, infectious, nutritional, inflammatory and paraneoplastic causes. The treatment of peripheral neuropathies should primarily address their contributing causes. However, symptomatic therapy is also key in these conditions, particularly in pain relief. Several nutraceuticals have been used in the treatment of peripheral neuropathies and seem promising, due to assumed neurotrophic action, low toxicity and favorable metabolic profile...
October 31, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan, Anish Khan, Abdullah M Asiri, Basma Galeb Alhogbia, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Recently the decoration of graphene with metallic nanoparticles by a synchronized reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has gained energy. Metal-decorated carbon substrates, for example, carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide have been of mind boggling excitement to the scientific group all through the past three decades on account of different potential applications.The utilization of graphene oxide as the nano scale substrates for the formation of nanocomposites with metal oxides is a novel thought to acquire a hybrid which would show both the properties of GO as an interesting paper-shape material and the elements of single nano-sized metal particles...
October 16, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Mariya A Toropova
Metabolism of therapeutic agents in organism is extremely important from a point of view of drug discovery. Unfortunately, experimental estimation of phenomena related to metabolism is available for the limited number of substances. Under such circumstances, the development of computational method to predict endpoints related to metabolism of therapeutic agents becomes attractive alternative for expensive and time-consuming experiments. There are a group of semi-empirical calculations, which are a convenient compromise between a necessity to carry out experiments and the desire to involve in the practical analysis a bigger amount of molecular features related to the impact of different substances on metabolism...
October 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Thao Tran
Approximately 60% of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in today's pharmaceutical industry are poorly water soluble drugs, and they are classified as BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class II compounds. Within the scope of this review, nanoprecipitation methods for poorly water soluble drugs as well as solvent removal techniques will be discussed.
October 4, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Iffat Zareen Ahmad, Mohammad Kuddus, Asad Ahmad, Heena Tabassum, Abdul Mabood
Nanostructured material is a solid material with at least one dimension in the nanoscale range. Desired control of the properties and effects of nanostructures can invent new devices and technologies, as the physical and chemical properties of nanostructures are distinctly different from those of a single atom or its bulk phase. This difference in the properties is due to different spatial structures and shapes, phase changes, energetics, electronic structure, chemical reactivity, and catalytic properties of large, finite systems, and their assemblies...
October 2, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
P V Mohanan, V G Reshma, S Syama, S Sruthi, S C Reshma, N S Remya
The urge for the development and manufacture of new and effective antimicrobial agents are particularly demanding especially in the present scenario of emerging multiple drug resistant microorganisms. A promising initiative would be to converge nanotechnology to develop novel strategies for antimicrobial treatment. The distinct nano scale properties confer impressive antimicrobial capabilities to nanomaterials that could be exploited. Nanotechnology particularly modulates the physicochemical properties of metals and metal oxides rendering it suitable for various applications compared to their bulk counterparts...
September 25, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Sandra Pisonero-Vaquero, Diego Luis Medina
Lysosomotropic molecules are taken up into lysosomes in vitro and in vivo. Many drugs approved for clinical medicine are lysosomotropic agents, characterized by promoting particular effects including cytoplasmic vacuolization, increase in number and size of lysosomes, inhibition of their enzymes and accumulation of undegraded material, leading mainly to phospholipidosis. Despite lysosomotropism has been extensively described and studied, the pathophysiological significance of this process is still not well understood...
September 25, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Vincenzo Tufarelli, Elisabetta Casalino, Angela G D'Alessandro, Vito Laudadio
Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites present in the human and animal diet, and numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich food ingredients. To date, the research on natural antioxidants as an alternative to synthetic products is of great interest among scientists. The present review emphasizes the importance of knowing the contents and the quality of phenolic compounds present in the natural food. The aim of the present review is also a critical analysis of achievements related to polyphenols action in livestock production with a particular emphasis on their antioxidant-related properties both in vitro and in vivo...
September 25, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Limin Ning, Benwei Zhu, Tao Gao
BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles have been exploited for nanobiotechnology applications for the last two decades. New insights of the nanomaterials as promising agent for cancer diagnosis and therapy have just started to emerge. Due to the size- and shape-dependent optical, electrical and thermal properties, gold nanoparticles are being developed as diagnostic reagents, drug carriers, contrast agents, photothermal agents and radiosensitisers. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to summarize the latest advances of gold nanoparticles in cancer treatment...
September 25, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Minakshi Prasad, Koushlesh Ranjan, Basanti Brar, Ikbal Shah, Upendra Lalmbe, J Manimegalai, Bhavya Vashisht, Madhusudan Gaury, Pawan Kumar, Sandip Kumar Khurana, Gaya Prasad, Jagveer Rawat, Vikas Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Rekha Rao
Viruses are the most devastating pathogens of almost all life forms including humans and animals. Viruses can replicate very fast and may affect any metabolic and physiological function of the host cell. Therefore, it has been a challenge to develop a universal and common treatment against viral pathogens, in contrast to bacterial pathogens. Virus-host interaction is a complex phenomenon and often is virus- and host cell-specific. Exciting new insights into the molecular pathogenesis and host-virus interactions have been gained over the past few decades...
September 24, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
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