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Current Drug Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088890/nanoparticles-as-a-carrier-system-for-drug-delivery-across-blood-brain-barrier
#1
Alika Sarkar, Ismat Fatima, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Usman Sayeed, M Kalim A Khan, Salman Akhtar, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Alvina Farooqui, Mohammad Haris Siddiqui
Brain, the center of the nervous system and an integral part the body, is protected by two anatomical and biochemical dynamic barriers- Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) and Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier (BCSFB). Blood-Brain Barrier is a highly complex multi-cellular organized structure that protects the brain from harmful substances and invading organisms from the bloodstream and thus protecting it from diseases and injuries. However, it also significantly precludes the delivery of drug to the brain, thus, preventing treatment of a number of neurological disorders...
January 13, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059039/studies-on-the-metabolism-of-nitrogen-compounds-by-prof-j-w-gorrod
#2
Mert Ulgen, Neval Sevinc
The scientific research papers by Professor John William Gorrod who died in December 2015 are reviewed. He was one of the most important scientists in the area and investigated mainly the biological oxidation of nitrogen containing drugs and xenobiotics. In this review, more than 200 papers belong to him are evaluated, most of which involved the results from in vitro microsomal oxidative metabolism of nitrogen containing xenobiotics. These studies include the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke constituents, aromatic amines, aminophenols, rubber and aminobiphenyls, the assay for ferriheamoglobinemia forming compounds, metabolism of aralkyl azo compounds, aromatic amines, aromatic azaheterocycles, synthesis of N-oxidative metabolites i...
January 5, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059038/toxicities-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-cancer-pharmacotherapy-management-with-clinical-pharmacology
#3
Ken-Ichi Fujita, Hiroo Ishida, Yutaro Kubota, Yasutsuna Sasaki
A number of molecularly targeted anticancer drugs that efficiently inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases, so-called receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have been developed. Although these receptor TKIs are generally well tolerated, unexpected toxicities sometimes occur in various organs. TKI-induced adverse events not only lower the quality of life of cancer patients but also reduce dose intensity, and sometimes result in treatment discontinuation. To reduce adverse drug events and increase treatment efficacy, oncologists and clinical pharmacologists have made efforts to establish strategies to treat patients via optimal selection and dosing of TKIs...
January 5, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059037/status-epilepticus-an-overview
#4
Venkata Ramesh Yasam, V Senthil, Satya Lavanya Jakki, N Jawahar
Status epilepticus (SE) is an emergency situation, where immediate and effective treatment is required in least possible time as it is associated with neuronal damage, systemic complications, substantial morbidity and mortality depending on status type, duration, age and etiology. In the past few years, morbidity and mortality rate were improved, probably may be due to aggressive use of anti-epileptic drugs in emergency situations. Present literature gives an overview of the conditions leading to SE and its management guidelines in hospital and out of hospital setting emphasizing on the available drug therapies...
January 5, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059036/reduction-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-using-nanocarriers-a-review
#5
Michaela Fojtu, Jaromir Gumulec, Tibor Stracina, Martina Raudenska, Anna Skotakova, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam, Petr Babula, Marie Novakova, Michal Masarik
BACKGROUND: Anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin (DOX) is a very potent and extensively prescribed chemotherapeutic drug. It is widely utilized in the therapy of variety of haematological and solid tumours, although its administration is commonly accompanied with several severe side effects. The most serious one is a development of dose-dependent and cumulative cardiotoxicity. In the course of time, many strategies have been investigated in order to avoid or at least to diminish DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction; these include reduction of toxic effect by co-administration with iron chelators (dexrazoxane), trastuzumab, taxanes, statins, and ACE-inhibitors...
January 5, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017133/editorial-frontier-view-on-drug-discoveries-for-different-diseases
#6
EDITORIAL
Mohammad Amjad Kamal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928943/the-physiological-pathophysiological-significance-of-vitamin-d-in-cancer-cardiovascular-disorders-and-beyond
#7
Manaf AlMatar, Husam AlMandeal, Essam A Makky, Begüm Kayar, Emel Yarar, Işıl Var, Fatih Köksal
Vitamin D, a molecular precursor of the potent steroid hormone calcitriol, has a crucial functions and roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Tellingly, Calcitriol has been shown to regulate various cellular signalling networks and cascades that have crucial role in cancer biology and diagnostics. Mounting lines of evidences from previous clinical and preclinical investigations indicate that the deficiency of vitamin D may contribute to the carcinogenesis risk. Concomitantly, recent reports suggested that significant reduction in the cancer occurrence and progression is more likely to appear after vitamin D supplementation...
December 7, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908257/ginkgo-biloba-as-an-alternative-medicine-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-in-dementia-and-other-psychiatric-disorders
#8
Sandeep Kumar Singh, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are the most common health problems in the worldwide population. Current medicines against these conditions have undesired side effects or limited effectiveness. These disadvantageous pharmacological and therapeutic characteristics provoke a low adherence to treatment in an important percentage of patients with mental disorders. Since ancient times, ethnically different groups have been using plants extracts as medicines for the treatment of mental conditions including dementia, depression and anxiety disorders...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#9
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894245/recent-advances-in-understanding-of-kinetic-interplay-between-phase-ii-metabolism-and-efflux-transport
#10
Shuai Wang, Huijie Xing, Mengjing Zhao, Danyi Lu, Zhijie Li, Dong Dong, Baojian Wu
Mechanistic understanding of the metabolism-transport interplay assumes great importance in pharmaceutical fields because the knowledge can help to interpret drug/xenobiotic metabolism and disposition studies as well as the drug-drug interactions in vivo. About 10 years ago, it started to recognize that cellular phase II metabolism is strongly influenced by the excretion (efflux transport) of generated metabolites, a kinetic phenomenon termed "phase II metabolism-transport interplay". This interplay is believed to have significant effects on the pharmacokinetics (bioavailability) of drugs/chemicals undergoing phase II metabolism...
November 28, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890006/recent-updates-on-the-systemic-and-local-safety-of-intranasal-steroids
#11
Tae Young Jang, Young Hyo Kim
Allergic rhinitis is a global health problem, and its prevalence rate and socioeconomic burden continue to increase. Intranasal steroid (INS) is the first treatment choice in the majority of patients, because of its ability to effectively control allergic symptoms. However, patients and clinicians are concerned about the potential adverse effects of prolonged INS use. In the present study, the systemic bioavailabilities of several commercially available INSs were researched, and then systemic safeties were reviewed with focus on suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and their effects on pediatric growth...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890005/mechanism-based-inhibitors-from-phytomedicine-risks-of-hepatotoxicity-and-their-potential-hepatotoxic-substructures
#12
Lili Wang, Xin He, Chunhuan Jin, Gregory Ondieki
The adverse reactions and side effects associated with use of herbal medicines, especially their damaging effects on the liver have increasingly been reported worldwide. Some of the herbal ingredients have the potential risk of herb-induced liver injury but their hepatotoxicity mechanisms and associated risk factors are not well characterized until now. Xenobiotics are catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes into highly reactive metabolites, which can covalently bind to the enzyme itself and subsequently cause mechanism-based inhibition (MBI)...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903219/prediction-of-plasma-concentration-time-profiles-of-drugs-in-humans-from-animals-following-oral-administration-an-allometric-approach
#13
Iftekhar Mahmood
BACKGROUND: Allometric scaling is regularly used for the prediction of human pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters from animal PK studies. The predicted human PK parameters can also be used for the prediction of plasma concentration-time profiles in humans. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this work is to predict human concentration-time profiles of drugs (one-compartment model) following oral administration using animal oral pharmacokinetic parameters. METHODS: Six drugs from the literature were chosen that were described by one-compartment model in both humans and animals following oral administration...
November 21, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848888/immunotherapy-in-liver-diseases-a-balance-between-immunity-and-tolerance
#14
Alaknanda Mishra, Pramod K Upadhyay, Perumal Nagarajan
In today's context when liver diseases have spread across countries and people of all ages, it is of high importance to consider novel methods of non-toxic and long lived therapeutics. Among various therapies, immunotherapy for acute and chronic liver diseases is rapidly moving to the forefront among treatment options in hepatology medicine. Liver has a unique immuno- biological advantage which is utilized to maintain a balance between immunity and tolerance. This intricate balance of hepatic immune cells can be modulated to effect treatments in various liver diseases...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848887/metabolism-and-toxicological-implications-of-commonly-used-chemopreventive-drugs-against-breast-cancer-carcinogenesis
#15
Aliyu Muhammad, Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Ochuko Lucky Erukainure, Ibrahim Malami, Hadiza Sani, Hafsat Abdullahi Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been reported to be among the frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide despite advances in early detection and treatment. Several drugs are currently used for chemoprevention as a result of a number of drawbacks associated with breast cancer therapy. AIM: This review focuses on the metabolism and toxicological implications of these drugs against breast cancer/carcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY: Relevant articles on the commonly used anti-breast cancer drugs (raloxifene, tamoxifen, anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane) used in chemoprevention were searched using the major scientific databases including Scopus, Embase, PubMed/ Medline, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842486/advances-and-implications-in-nanotechnology-for-lung-cancer-management
#16
Sana Sarkar, Khwaja Osama, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Usman Sayeed, M Kalim A Khan, Mohd Haris Siddiqui, Salman Akhtar
Lung cancer is one of the most important chronic diseases in the field of respiratory medicine. Conventional treatment strategies for lung cancer include chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy. These current therapies lack specificity and are limited by undesirable toxicities in normal cells, as well as a high rate of recurrence.Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of lung cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional therapies. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor cells by employing two mechanisms: passive and active targeting...
November 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809744/recent-updates-on-the-application-of-protein-protein-interaction-network-in-drug-discovery
#17
Alexiou Athanasios, Vairaktarakis Charalampos, Tsiamis Vasileios, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Protein to protein interactions (PPI) have been studied in great detail during the last decade. The informations derived from PPI analysis can be very helpful for large scale construction of different networks and the disambiguation of functional orthologs within of homologous sequence complexes. Several experimental techniques offered great tools for high throughput network mapping applications, although as long as the data increases massively, new computational methods arise to overcome the processing requirements for time and cost...
November 2, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784209/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-flibanserin-s-effects-and-adverse-events-in-women-with-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder
#18
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Yunes Panahi, Ali Kabir, Khaled Rahmani, Milad Hosseinialhashemi
The efficacy and safety of flibanserin in the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is controversial. We reviewed existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of flibanserin in treating HSDD, and performed a meta-analysis of reported effects. Literature search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library to find all trials on the efficacy of flibanserin in HSDD. Meta-analysis was performed using fixed- and random-effects models. Egger's test and "trim and fill" methods were used for the assessment of publication bias and imputation of potentially missing studies, respectively...
October 25, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758703/the-ever-changing-face-of-antibiotic-resistance-prevailing-problems-and-preventive-measures
#19
Hemlata Hemlata, Arif Tasleem Jan, Archana Tiwari
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem exacerbated due to selective pressure of antimicrobial agents, spontaneous mutation, recombination and horizontal gene transfer. Of the different mechanisms that led to spread of resistance, one notorious phenomenon is the generation of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) preferably TEM, SHV, OXA and CTX-M. Their production and frequent mobilization through horizontal gene transfer, made bacteria to exhibit resistance against a broad range of antibiotics. Resilient development of resistance among bacteria hampers available treatment options against different infections in the health care system...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756198/e-mhk-0103-mineraxin%C3%A2-a-novel-nutraceutical-with-biological-properties-in-menopausal-conditions
#20
Lola Corzo, Susana Rodríguez, Ramón Alejo, Lucía Fernández-Novoa, Gjumrakch Aliev, Ramón Cacabelos
Menopause is a natural event in women´s lives leading to the cessation of menstruation and the reproductive function due to loss of the ovarian follicular function. Menopause-derived estrogen deprivation and related endocrine factors are linked to some symptoms of middle-aged women, such as hot flashes, aches, joint pain, stiffness, depressed mood, bone degeneration, nutritional dysfunction, or difficulty to maintain body mass. Clinical approaches to these problems often involve hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and other modalities of therapeutic intervention...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
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