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Current Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413979/drug-resistance-of-enzalutamide-in-crpc
#1
Xuedong Chen, Jieyang Lu, Liqun Xia, Gonghui Li
Enzalutamide (MDV3100, XTANDI ) is a second generation androgen receptor inhibitor that is designed for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and has prolonged survival time. Although Enzalutamide was also associated with such significant benefits, The majority of treated patients, innate or acquired resistance invariably arises, but the mechanisms of mdv3100 resistance have not yet been clearly clarified. Nevertheless, because the better knowledge of the genetic landscape of MDV3100 is under way, resistance to MDV3100 could be basically divided in two distinct pathways, either dependent or independent of the androgen receptor activity...
April 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413980/therapeutic-applications-of-liposomal-based-drug-delivery-and-drug-targeting-for-immune-linked-inflammatory-maladies-a-contemporary-view-point
#2
Mahfoozur Rahman, Sarwar Beg, Amita Verma, Imran Kazmi, Dines Kumar Patel, Firoz Anwar, Vikas Kumar
Immune-based inflammatory diseases are immune related dysregulation in different sites of body, which includes rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis, etc. Advancements in molecular research have facilitated investigation of their pathogenesis which is involved with inflammatory cytokines cells and several genes. The available drug therapy provides suboptimal therapeutic effects and higher adverse effects. Emergence of liposomal systems of the drugs meant for the above mentioned disease have gained wider importance due to in their high treatment efficacy by means of optimal therapeutic drug delivery...
April 14, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413978/advances-and-challenges-in-drug-design-of-ppar%C3%AE-ligands
#3
Vinicius Gonçalves Maltarollo, Thales Kronenberger, Björn Windshügel, Carsten Wrenger, Gustavo Henrique Goulart Trossini, Kathia Maria Honorio
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors activated by endogenous fatty acids and prostaglandins that are classified into three types: α, γ and δ, which have different functions and tissue distribution. PPAR modulators have been exploited to the treatment of important metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, which are considered relevant epidemic diseases currently. Along the last decades, several studies have reported structural differences between the three PPAR subtypes associated with the discovery of selective ligands, dual and pan-agonists...
April 14, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382860/dysregulation-of-lncrnas-in-placenta-and-pathogenesis-of-preeclampsia
#4
Xuejing Song, Xiucui Luo, Quansheng Gao, Yuhuan Wang, Qing Gao, Wei Long
Preeclampsia, a gestational disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria twenty weeks into pregnancy, is one of the leading causes of fetal and maternal mortality. Although multiple genetic and environmental factors are found to be related to the preeclampsia risk, the pathogenic pathways remain largely undefined. The placenta plays a critical role in the fetal development by carrying out the barrier, fetal-maternal exchange, and endocrine functions during pregnancy. Accumulated data indicated that the expression of multiple long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) is dysregulated in preeclamptic placentas...
April 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382859/serum-he4-level-as-a-biomarker-for-prediction-of-gynecologic-cancer-recurrence
#5
Jinping Li, Haibin Chen, John R Curcuru, Sheena Patel, Taylor O Johns, Dimple Patel, Hua Qian, Shi-Wen Jiang
Recurrence is a major determinant of cancer patient survival and is linked to diagnostic time, stage of cancer, drug resistance, metastatic status, and other factors. Recurrence could be a more specific and treatment-relevant factor than survival, a factor potentially affected by some general elements beyond cancer biology. In a clinical setting, accurate and early prediction of recurrence greatly facilitates the optimal treatment of cancer patients. Numerous studies have shown that serum HE4 is a useful biomarker for the management of gynecological cancers...
April 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378693/hematoma-expansion-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-mechanisms-targeting-the-coagulation-cascade-and-platelet-activation
#6
Sherrefa R Burchell, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Hematoma expansion (HE), defined as a greater than 33% increase in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume within the first 24 hours, results in significant neurological deficits, and enhancement of ICH-induced primary and secondary brain injury. An escalation in the use of oral anticoagulants has led to a surge in the incidences of oral anticoagulation-associated ICH (OAT-ICH), which has been associated with a greater risk for HE and worse functional outcomes following ICH. The oral anticoagulants in use include vitamin K antagonists, and direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors...
March 29, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378692/can-we-predict-disease-course-with-clinical-factors
#7
Zsuzsanna Vegh, Zsuzsanna Kurti, Petra Anna Golovics, Laszlo Lakatos
The disease phenotype at diagnosis and the disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) show remarkable heterogeneity across patients. In recent population-based epidemiological and referral cohort studies, the evolution of disease phenotype of CD and UC varied significantly. Most CD and severe UC patients still requires hospitalization or surgery/colectomy during follow-up. A change in the natural history of IBD with improved outcomes in parallel with tailored positioning of aggressive immunomodulator and biological therapy has been suspected according to the recently available literature...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356029/oncogenic-role-of-set-i2pp2a-for-gynecologic-cancers
#8
Shi-Wen Jiang, Siliang Xu, Haibin Chen, Jiayin Liu, Ping Duan
SET (SE translocation, SET) is an evolutionarily conserved gene broadly expressed in various human tissues, especially in the gonadal and neural system. As a multitasking protein, SET is involved in essential cell processes such as histone modification, chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, gene transcription, and androgen synthesis. Recent studies showed that SET is overexpressed in breast cancers, ovary cancers and a variety of other malignancies. The strong correlation between SET expression levels and survival of ovarian cancer patients, and SET-mediated activation of androgen synthesis, strongly indicated that this factor may play a significant role in gynecologic cancers...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356028/the-application-of-nanomaterials-in-stem-cell-therapy-for-some-neurological-diseases
#9
Guilong Zhang, Ahsan Ali Khan, Hao Wu, Lukui Chen, Yuchun Gu, Ning Gu
Stem cell therapy provides great promising therapeutic benefits for various neurological disorders. Cell transplantation has emerged as cell replacement application for nerve damage. Recently, nanomaterials obtain wide development in various industrial and medical fields, and nanoparticles have been applied to neuro-medical field for tracking and treating nervous system diseases. Combining stem cell with nanotechnology has raised more and more attentions; and it has demonstrated that it has huge effects on clinical diagnosis and therapeutics in multiple central nervous system diseases, meanwhile, improving prognosis...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356027/natural-polyphenols-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Syed Badrul Syarifah Noratiqah, Isa Naina-Mohamed, Mohamed S Zulfarina, H M S Qodriyah
Neurodegenerative disease is an incurable disease which involves the degeneration or death of the nerve cells. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease discovered in 1906 by Alois Alzheimer, a German clinical psychiatrist and neuroanatomist. The main pathological hallmarks of this disease are the formation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangle (NFT). The accumulation of the amyloid protein aggregates in the brain of AD patients leads to oxidative stress and inflammation...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#11
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325145/nanotechnology-as-potential-tool-for-sirna-delivery-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Hernán Cortés, Sergio Alcalá-Alcalá, Arturo Ávalos-Fuentes, Nestor Mendoza-Muñoz, David Quintanar-Guerrero, Gerardo Leyva-Gómez, Benjamín Florán
The lack of an outright treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) is a pivotal concern in medicine and has driven the search for novel alternatives for treating the disease. Among the proposed approaches, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapy is attracting significant attention as a potential method for the treatment of PD; however, siRNAs delivery possesses potential drawbacks, such as reduced stability in blood circulation and low capacity for reaching the target site. Therefore, siRNA delivery to the brain is a key issue that remains unsolved to date...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325144/therapeutic-potential-and-outlook-of-alternative-medicine-for-osteoporosis
#13
Tao Wang, Qian Liu, William Tjhioe, Jinmin Zhao, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang, Renxiang Tan, Mengyu Zhou, Jiake Xu, Haotian Feng
Osteoporosis, a bone disease resulting in loss of bone density and microstructure quality, is often associated with fragility fractures, and the latter imposes a great burden on the patient and society. Although there are several different treatments available for osteoporosis such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, Denosumab, and parathyroid hormone some concern has been raised regarding the inherent side effects of their long term use. It would be of great relevance to search for alternative natural compounds, which could complementarily overcome the limitations of the currently available therapy...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322161/the-use-of-methylphenidate-in-cancer-patients-a-review
#14
Beatrice Andrew, Chong Guan Ng, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar
BACKGROUND: One of the goals of cancer treatment is symptoms management especially at the end stage. The common symptoms in cancer include pain, fatigue, depression and cognitive dysfunction. The available treatment options for symptom management are limited. Methylphenidate, a psychostimulant, may be of benefit for these patients. In this report, we review the use of methylphenidate for symptoms control in cancer patients. METHOD: Electronic literature search on PubMed was conducted using the following keywords: methylphenidate, cancer, carcinoma, oncology, oncological and tumour...
March 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302036/pharmacological-effects-of-turmeric-on-learning-memory-and-expression-of-muscarinic-receptor-genes-m1-m3-and-m5-in-stress-induced-mouse-model
#15
Aliya Khalid¥, Rabia Shakeel¥, Saira Justin, Ghazala Iqbal, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Saadia Zahid, Touqeer Ahmed
Stress is involved in memory impairment by multiple mechanisms including activation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis, which in turn activates release of corticosterone in blood. Cholinergic system blockade by muscarinic antagonist like scopolamine, also impairs memory. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of turmeric (20mg/kg) on learning and memory and cholinergic system in a mouse model of stress along with cholinergic blockade. METHODS: Restrained stress was induced and cholinergic receptors were blocked using scopolamine in mice...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#16
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302034/co-morbid-erectile-dysfunction-ed-and-antidepressant-treatment-in-a-patient-a-management-challenge
#17
Maszaidi Zainol, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Shaiful Ismail, Muhammad Hizri Hatta, Najwa Baharudin, Arun Ravindran
Across the globe, antidepressants (AD) and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are commonly prescribed psychopharmacological agents for patients with co-morbid mental-health problem and sexual dysfunction (SD). The serotonergic and/or noradrenergic ADs, although is an effective agent are not without SD side-effects, especially erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is an inability to achieve, or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse during the phases of male's sexual arousal. It is recognized as an important reason why non-adherence to treatment was observed in patients who are on AD...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294046/notch-signalling-pathways-and-their-importance-in-the-treatment-of-cancers
#18
Seong Lin Teoh, Srijit Das
The Notch pathway is an evolutionarily conserved, intercellular signalling system which is present in all multicellular organisms and mammals. The Notch pathway plays an important role in the embryonic development as it controls cell proliferation, cell differentiation and binary cell fate decisions. In the present review, we discuss the Notch signalling pathway components i.e. Notch receptors, ligands, effector, and their regulators. Interestingly, the Notch signalling pathway is dysregulated in many cancers...
March 9, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270085/the-hot-and-potential-targets-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treatment-in-recent-decade
#19
Dayong Shi, Jiao Luo, Lijun Wang, Qi Xu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been a great burden to the world and it's urgent to develop new treatment strategies. Many targets are currently available to aid in the drug discovery of this disease as our understanding of the pathophysiology of T2DM develops. This article is intended to provide a broad ranging overview of 14 prominent molecule targets currently being pursued for the treatment of diabetes, with regard to their therapeutic rationale, small molecule modulators and application prospects. These targets are roughly divided into four general areas that correlate with insulin secretion, act on the insulin sensitivity, and have an effect on the complications...
March 7, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260497/improved-protein-toxin-delivery-based-on-attempts-systems
#20
Yongzhuo Huang, Victor C Yang, Feng Li, Meong Cheol Shin, Huiyuan Wang, Kyoung Ah Min, Meng Zhang, Yingzhi Chen
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are wildly found in multiple species of plants, bacteria and fungi. As a special family of protein toxins, RIPs can inhibit protein synthesis and induce cell death via inactivating ribosome in eukaryotic cells. Thus, RIPs have been applied for anti-tumor therapy in the past two decades. However, because of poor cell permeability, nonselective mode of action for tumor cells, poor pharmacokinetic profiles and immunogenicity, their clinical application has been severely constrained...
March 1, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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