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Current Drug Targets

Francesca Fioredda
The inherited form of Severe Chronic Neutropenia called Severe Congenital Neutropenia (SCN) is an intrinsic defect of neutrophils maturation. SCN affected patients are at risk to develop lethal in-fections and to transform into myelodisplasia (MDS) and/or acute laeukemia(AL). Use of Granulocyte-Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) has significantly improved the prognosis of affected patients, but the only definitive cure for the disease is Haematopoietic Stem Cell Trans-plantation (HSCT). Overall Survival of SCN patients has been assessed at around 85% after 3 years from transplantation ...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Qun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Glycan-binding proteins are widely distributed in human and play an essential role in biological processes. Their involvements in inflammatory and immune responses make it increasingly likely that the glycan-binding proteins may represent valuable therapeutic targets. OBJECTIVE: The current review aims to provide information on recent advancements in clinical developments of antibodies against glycan-binding proteins as potential targets. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There are several therapeutic antibodies being developed targeting glycan-binding proteins, including CD22, CD33, DEC-205, and CD62P, for different diseases...
March 8, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Syahrir Zaini, N G Chong Guan, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Nor Zuraida Zainal, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Siti Hadijah Shamsudin
: Cancer patients are commonly associated with various physical and psychological symptoms. In view of this matter, palliative care is usually given to relieve those symptoms, improve quality of life, and increase medication adherence. Antidepressants are generally accepted for the treatment of depression among patients with or without cancer. Some other potential benefits of these medications have been experienced in clinical practice. Therefore, this study aimed to review the use of antidepressant for physical and psychological symptoms in cancer...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Ewelina Perdas, Robert Stawski, Dariusz Nowak, Maria Zubrzycka
Liquid biopsy is a minimally invasive detection method for molecular biomarkers such as miRNA and cell free DNA in body fluids. Deregulations of miRNA are involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), one the most common endocrine malignancy. The most widespread common mutations detected in papillary thyroid cancers are BRAF mutations. Many studies indicate that the BRAF mutation is related to deregulation of miRNA. p53 has an important role in cell cycle control, DNA repair and apoptosis. Moreover, the p53 can regulate the expression of miRNAs and thus participate in thyroid oncogenesis...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Patricia Giuliani, Mariachiara Zuccarini, Marzia Carluccio, Sihana Ziberi, Patrizia Di Iorio, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain malignancy. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of stem-like cells (GSCs) inside the tumor with high self-renewal, resistance to chemotherapy and invasiveness/migration potential is associated with poor GBM prognosis. GSC aggressiveness seems to be linked to an important process involved in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for several biochemical changes and the acquisition of a more mesenchymal phenotype by GSCs, that enhance their migration, invasiveness and resistance to apoptosis...
February 26, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Ghulam Jilany Khan, Li Sun, Sara Khan, Shengtao Yuan, He Nongyue
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tumor growth, development, progression, metastasis, invasion and resistivity against drugs, solely depends on the recruitment of surrounding cells, extra cellular matrix and tumor microenvironment (TME). TME is directly as well as indirectly associated with cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF). The interactions of CAF with tumor surrounding cells, their origination, activation, transformation and ability to recruit other non-tumor cells for the clemency of tumor, are very complex and under active research since long...
February 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) has gained widespread recognition due to its versatile pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-diabetic, ergogenic, insecticidal, anti-rheumatism, bone protection, and anti-ulcer effects. OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically overview the literature and summarizes the antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antifungal trends of E...
February 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Rosana H C N Freitas, Carlos A M Fraga
BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) comprises a family of proteins that act as transcription factors promoting the expression of many genes. Activation of NF-κB biochemical cascades is associated with the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammation, among other physiological responses. However, genetic abnormalities and continuous stimulation of the NF-κB-IKKβ pathway are directly related to many types of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as to the genesis and survival of tumor cells...
February 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Francesco Patalano, Konstantinos Kostikas, Caterina Brindicci
Both asthma and COPD are complex, heterogeneous conditions comprising a wide range of phenotypes, some of which are refractory to currently available treatments. Elucidation of these phenotypes and identification of biomarkers with which to recognize them and guide appropriate treatment remains a priority. This review describes the utility of blood eosinophils as a surrogate biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation, a common feature of specific asthma and COPD phenotypes. The role of blood eosinophils in airway disease is described, as is their relevance in reflecting airway eosinophilia...
February 12, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Francesco Facchinetti, Paola Bordi, Paola Bini, Livia Bidin, Roberta Camisa, Marcello Tiseo
INTRODUCTION: Several reports attest the feasibility and the favorable outcomes of kinase inhibitors administration through feeding tubes or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies (PEG), mainly in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients exposed to first-generation compounds. Here we present the case of an ALK-positive NSCLC patient who achieved cerebral and extra-cranial disease response with ceritinib (a novel ALK inhibitor) administered through a nasogastric tube (NGT). We moreover provide a review gathering clinical successes obtained with targeted agents intake through NGT or PEG...
February 12, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Subhajit Dasgupta, Jenny-Jaramillo Gomez, Inderjit Singh, Mushfiquddin Khan
BACKGROUND: Cell signaling through nitric oxide (NO) is a multifaceted mechanism, which regulates metabolic activities and fate in different tissues. The peroxynitrite (ONOO-) formed as reaction product of nitric oxide radical and superoxide interacts with cell membrane phospholipids and proteins causing damage. OBJECTIVE: The reaction kinetics to form nitrotyrosine (ONOO-tyrosine) and/or nitrosylated cysteine (ONOO-cysteine) in protein molecules during posttranslational modification and nitration of lipids are therefore critical in determining cells' signaling mechanism for survival or apoptosis...
February 12, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Nur Fathiah Mohd Radzi, Noor Akmal Shareela Ismail, Ekram Alias
There are accumulating studies reporting vitamin E in general exhibits bone protective effects. This systematic review, however discusses the effects of a group of vitamin E isomers, tocotrienols in preventing bone loss through osteoclast differentiation and activity suppression. This review is aimed to discuss the literature reporting the effects of tocotrienols on osteoclasts, the cells specialized for resorbing bone. Literature search for relevant studies was conducted using SCOPUS and PUBMED MEDLINE. The inclusion criteria were original research articles published that reported the effect of any tocotrienol isomers or treatment with mixture containing tocotrienols on osteoclasts...
February 6, 2018: Current Drug Targets
S N Sunilgowda, Devipriya Nagarajan, Devipriya Nagarajan
Radiotherapy is the most widely used treatment method for average and advanced lung cancer patients. Moreover, the clinical toxicities caused by radiotherapy are categorized into acute radiation pneumonitis and late pulmonary fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex physiological process involves many signaling molecules and proteins like adaptor proteins, and transcriptional factors. It was identified as a significant mechanism for fibrosis, wound healing and also cancer. A variety of biomarkers have appeared in radiation-induced lung EMT, some of which are acquired (N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin, etc...
February 6, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Ahmed Alaa Kassem
BACKGROUND: Drug toxicity and inefficacy are commonly experienced problems with drug therapy failure. To face these problems, extensive research work took place aiming to design new dosage forms for drug delivery especially nanoparticulate systems. These systems are designed to increase the quantity of the therapeutic molecule delivered to the desired site concurrently with reduced side effects. In order to achieve this objective, nanocarriers must principally display suitable drug vehiculization abilities and a controlled biological destiny of drug molecules...
February 6, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Simran Kaur, Alo Nag, Ajay Kumar Singh, Kulbhushan Sharma
Peroxisomal proliferator receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a class of nuclear hormone receptor family involved in insulin sensitization. In addition, PPARγ has a key role in the protection against oxidative stress and inflammation through regulation of NFkappaB levels and cross-talk with the Nrf-2 pathway. Also, its role in the modulation of immune response is substantial. Radiation-induced oxidative stress is the sole determinant of damage to hematopoietic, gastrointestinal system and immune system suppression. Uncontrolled exposure to normal cells during radiotherapy raises the demand for novel and efficient radioprotectors...
January 30, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Ankit Jain, Romi Kumari, Ankita Tiwari, Amit Verma, Amita Tripathi, Akanksha Shrivastava, Sanjay K Jain
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology deals with the manufacturing of materials at the atomic and molecular scale. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology denotes those structures which are nearly in the 1-100 nm size regime in at least one dimension. OBJECTIVE: Nanotechnology in drug delivery has been evidenced into nanocarriers that possess distinct properties both in vitro and in vivo, which may be used in targeting drugs to various diseases especially tumors...
January 30, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Baohui Xu, Haojun Xuan, Yasunori Iida, Masaaki Miyata, Ronald L Dalman
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a chronic degenerative inflammatory disease. Multi-factors including genetic, environmental and lifestyles determine the onsets and progression of AAAs. Currently surgical repair remains the only effective aneurysm treatment, but no pharmacological therapy is available for limiting further enlargement of small AAAs and fetal rupture. OBJECTIVE: This article is to review our current understanding of angiotensin II (Ang II) and its type 1 receptor (AT1) in AAA pathogenesis as well as the translational potential of AT1 receptor blocker (ARB) treatment for treating clinical AAA disease...
January 22, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Hiroki Tanaka, Naoki Unno, Yuko Suzuki, Hideto Sano, Tatsuro Yata, Tetsumei Urano
BACKGROUND: An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which affects approximately 10% of Japanese men aged ≥ 65 years, is frequently associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and other lifestyle-related diseases. The development of an AAA is attributed to chronic inflammation concomitant with arteriosclerotic changes. However, an accurate pathomechanism associated with AAA remains uncertain, and questions such as why only a particular group/percentage of patients with arteriosclerosis develop aneurysms and how diabetes suppresses aneurysm development remain unanswered...
January 22, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Xiang Chen, Hongling Yu, Xijie Yu
BACKGROUND: High bone mass (HBM) disorders are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous bone diseases characterized by increased bone density on radiographs, due to progressive bone overgrowth or impaired bone resorption, or both. Some HBM cases are secondary to other diseases, such as chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Despite the great advance in gene diagnostic technology, the majority of HBM individuals remain undiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we will summarize the clinical, radiological and biochemical characteristics of HBM cases due to varying etiologies, since these features are helpful in the differential diagnosis of HBM...
January 22, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Hirona Kugo, Tatsuya Moriyama, Nobuhiro Zaima
Background Adipose tissue plays a role in the storage of excess energy as triglycerides (TGs). Excess fat accumulation causes various metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. It has been reported that ectopic fat deposition and excess TG accumulation in non-adipose tissue might be important predictors of cardiometabolic and vascular risk. For example, ectopic fat in perivascular tissue promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation in the arterial wall. Objective Recently, it has been reported that ectopic fat (adipocyte) in the vascular wall of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is present in both human and experimental animal models...
January 15, 2018: Current Drug Targets
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