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Current Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919208/is-metformin-a-therapeutic-paradigm-for-colorectal-cancer-insight-into-the-molecular-pathway
#1
Zar Chii Thent, Nurul Hannim Zaidun, Fairuz Azmi, Mu Izuddin Senin, Haszianaliza Haslan, Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the major leading causes of cancer related morbidity and mortality. Apart from the conventional anti-neoplastic agents, metformin, a biguanide anti-diabetic agent, has recently found to have anti-cancer property. Several studies observed the effect of metformin towards its anti-cancer effect on colon or colorectal cancer in diabetic patients. However, only a few studies showed its effect on colorectal cancer in relation to the non-diabetic status. The present review aimed to highlight the insight into the molecular pathway of metformin towards colorectal cancer in the absence of diabetes mellitus...
December 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894236/virulence-factor-targeting-of-the-bacterial-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-for-vaccine-and-therapeutics
#2
Trevor Kane, Katelyn Carothers, Shaun Lee
Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen capable of causing a range of infections in humans from gastrointestinal disease, skin and soft tissue infections, to severe outcomes such as sepsis. Staphylococcal infections in humans can be frequent and recurring, with treatments becoming less effective due to the growing persistence of antibiotic resistant S. aureus strains. Significant research into virulence factors produced by S. aureus have yielded many important findings regarding specific mechanisms that contribute to its overall pathogenesis...
November 28, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894237/new-insight-in-improving-therapeutic-efficacy-of-antipsychotic-agents-an-overview-of-improved-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-performance-efficacy-upgradation-and-future-prospects
#3
Zahid Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that rigorously affect patient personality, critical thinking, and perceptional ability. High prevalence, global dissemination and limitations of conventional pharmacological approaches compel a significant burden to the patient, medical professionals and the healthcare system. To date, numerous orally administered therapies are available for the management of depressive disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, bipolar disorders and autism spectrum problems. However, poor water solubility, erratic oral absorption, extensive first-pass metabolism, low oral bioavailability and short half-lives are major factors which limit the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of these agents...
November 25, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890000/reproductive-toxicity-of-t-cells-in-early-life-abnormal-immune-development-and-postnatal-diseases
#4
Han-Xiao Liu, Aifang Jiang, Ting Chen, Wen Qu, Hui-Yi Yan, Jie Ping
Immunity is a balanced status with adequate biological defenses to recognize and fight "non-self", as well as adequate tolerance to recognize "self". To maintain this immune homeostasis, a well-organized T cell immune network is required, which in part depends on the well-controlled development of alternative effector T cells, with different cytokine repertoires. Recent research has pointed that developing fetal T cells network is a remarkably sensitive toxicological target for adverse factors in early life...
November 24, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890001/editorial-inflammasome-complex-in-health-and-disease-new-pharmacological-perspectives
#5
Mario D Cordero, Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848884/understanding-the-structural-basis-for-inhibition-of-cyclin-dependent-kinases-new-pieces-in-the-molecular-puzzle
#6
Nayara M Bernhardt Levin, Val Oliveira Pintro, Maurício Boff de Ávila, Bruna Boldrini de Mattos, Walter F De Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) comprise an important protein family for development of drugs, mostly aimed for use in treatment of cancer but there is also potential for development of drugs for neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Since the early 1990s, structural studies have been carried out on CDKs, in order to determine the structural basis for inhibition of this protein target. OBJECTIVE: Our goal here is to review recent structural studies focused on CDKs...
November 16, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829351/recent-updates-in-imperative-natural-compounds-for-healthy-brain-and-nerve-function-a-systematic-review-of-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Nima Sanadgol, Shahram Shahraki Zahedani, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Roghayeh Khalseh, Gullam Reza Barbari, Mohammad Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: The evolution of the 'Green' movement in western society has changed attitudes in the general population who now perceive natural compounds as being inherently harmless and more desirable than artificial chemical products. OBJECTIVE: Considering the growing interest towards introducing naturally emerged medicines, the purpose of this review was to overview the ongoing research into prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. METHOD: This review was carried out by searching bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Scopus for studies reported between 1th January 2008 to 30rd January 2016 on MS patients or animal models of MS, investigating the beneficial effects of natural compounds in MS treatment...
November 8, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809746/phytochemicals-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#8
Grazia D’Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Qingwei Ruan, Zhuowei Yu, Francesco Panza, Antonio Daniele, Antonio Greco, Davide Seripa
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggested the use of phytochemicals to delay the onset and the progression of AD. OBJECTIVE: To review the role of phytochemicals that have the potential to treat AD. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted from existing literature that draws on phytochemicals used in the treatment of AD patients. Selection criteria included: 1) age≥60 years; 2) diagnosis of AD according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria, and 3) acceptable clinical measures of cognitive impairment, disability, quality of life, and global clinical assessments...
November 2, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804849/when-neighbors-talk-colon-cancer-cell-invasion-and-tumor-microenvironment-myofibroblasts
#9
Jolien Bridelance, Zuzanna Drebert, Olivier De Wever, Marc Bracke, Ilse M Beck
Historically, the word cancer is derived from the Latin cancer, as the red swollen arteries near a tumor reminded the physician Galenus and his fellow Romans of a red crab. Currently, cancer remains the disease to beat as it remains a leading cause of death worldwide (WHO). Tumors do not simply consist out of cancer cells, as they can recruit normal cells, which will form the tumor-associated stroma. These stromal cells together with the extracellular matrix, constitute the tumor microenvironment. Reciprocal communication between tumor-associated stromal cells and cancer cells is important for the induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion...
October 28, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784214/cellular-repressor-of-e1a-stimulated-genes-a-new-potential-therapeutic-target-for-atherosclerosis
#10
Chenghui Yan, Xiaoxiang Tian
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is a major risk factor attributed to several important cardiovascular events, particularly coronary artery disease and stroke. The pathological process of atherosclerosis is considered to be dynamic and complicated, which involves into the interaction between a variety of cell types within arteries and cells that migrate into the wall. Human cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) is original found as a transcription factor because it can antagonize transcriptional activation and cellular transformation induced by the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein...
October 26, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784215/epigenetic-effects-of-environmental-chemicals-on-reproductive-biology
#11
Maria Strazzullo, Maria Rosaria Matarazzo
Mammalian reproduction is a complex phenomenon. Human fertility is highly impacted from environmental exposure to toxicants as well as nutrients. The burden of environmental stimuli is heavy and multifaceted. The contaminant sources are many, often occult, and at present, the wide range of positive and negative consequences on the ecosystem and the human health is only partially understood. Compounds deriving from industrial manufacturing, pesticides, waste accumulation and burning are only some examples of the contaminants daily impacting human life...
October 25, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758704/plant-derived-compounds-as-potential-source-of-novel-anti-biofilm-agents-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Pooi Yin Chung
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common Gram-negative bacterium associated with nosocomial and life-threatening chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. This pathogen is well-known for its ability to attach to surfaces of indwelling medical devices to form biofilms, which consist of a regular array of extracellular polymers. Tenaciously bound to the surface of devices and inherently resilient to antibiotic treatment, P. aeruginosa poses a serious threat in clinical medicine and contributes to the persistence of chronic infections...
October 19, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739372/phosphoinositide-3-kinases-as-the-novel-therapeutic-targets-for-the-inflammatory-diseases-current-and-future-perspectives
#13
Preeti Vyas, Divya Vohora
Recent findings have publicized phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3Ks) as novel therapeutic targets, which are also purported to be involved in the complex pathophysiology of inflammatory and various other diseases. They are recognized to participate in the inflammatory cellular responses by modulating the growth, development and proliferation of various immune cells and hence, affect the release of various cytokines and other inflammatory mediators involved in these manifestations. The review presents a brief synopsis of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway along with the current and future prospects of targeting PI3Ks for various diseases, like malignant, autoimmune, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurological disorders etc...
October 13, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719661/neuroprotective-effects-of-ellagitannins-a-brief-review
#14
Silvia Tejada, William Setzer, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Nady Braidy, Olga Gortzi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Neurodegenerative diseases are growing inexorably as the population ages, with enormous economic and social costs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that by 2040, neurodegenerative diseases will overtake cancer to become the second leading cause of natural death, after cardiovascular diseases. Recent investigations suggest that the combination of genes and environmental toxins may contribute to the risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, intervention strategies aimed at reducing exposure to risk factors such as life style, smoking, diet, vitamin deficiencies, chemical exposure and pollution are warranted...
October 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719660/neuroprotective-and-neurotoxic-implications-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-a%C3%AE-interaction-therapeutic-options-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Touqeer Ahmed
Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and loss of cholinergic neurons. The localization of Aβ plaques particularly in the cholinergic neuron-rich areas has led to the discovery that Aβ binds to α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with very high affinity. This discovery has led to extensive exploration of the possible outcomes of this binding, ranging from the subcellular signaling pathways to its effects on behavioral and cognitive functions...
October 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719659/cardioprotective-effects-of-the-polyphenol-hydroxytyrosol-from-olive-oil
#16
Silvia Tejada, Samuel Pinya, Maria Del Mar Bibiloni, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons, Antoni Sureda
The Mediterranean diet includes olive oil as its primary source of fat. This diet is frequently associated to longevity and a lower incidence of chronic diseases thanks to its biological activities and health effects. Apart from oleic acid, olive oil contains many bioactive components including polyphenols that have been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polyphenols may for the most part be responsible for the protective effects against cardiovascular diseases associated with olive oil...
October 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719658/aspirin-intolerance-experimental-models-for-bed-to-bench
#17
Masamichi Yamashita
Aspirin is the oldest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and it sometimes causes asthma-like symptoms known as aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which can be serious. Unwanted effects of aspirin (aspirin intolerance) are also observed in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, a type I allergy disease, and aspirin-induced urticaria (AIU). However the target and the mechanism of the aspirin intolerance are still unknown. There is no animal or cellular model of AERD, because its pathophysiological mechanism is still unknown, but it is thought that inhibition of cyclooxygenase by causative agents lead to an increase of free arachidonic acid, which is metabolized into cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) that provoke airway smooth muscle constriction and asthma symptoms...
October 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697035/protective-effects-of-dietary-flavonoids-in-diabetic-induced-retinal-neurodegeneration
#18
Dalia Ibrahim Al-Dosary, Abdullah Saleh Alhomida, Mohammad Shamsul Ola
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the serious complications of diabetes and the leading cause of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Neurodegeneration has been recognized as initiating factor in causing the retinal damage, which leads to micro-vascular damage in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that damages neurons in the diabetic retina. Various therapeutic approaches for effective attenuation of increased oxidative stress by antioxidants have emerged...
October 3, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660056/inflammasome-in-dendritic-cells-immunobiology-implications-to-diseases-and-therapeutic-strategies
#19
Isabel Ferreira, Joana Liberal, João Martins, Ana Silva, Bruno M Neves, Maria Teresa Cruz
An intricate interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells is crucial for an effective immune response during disease, infection and vaccination. This interplay is manly performed by dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) with unparalleled capacity to translate innate to adaptive immunity. They effectively recognize and uptake antigens, migrate to lymphoid tissues, and activate naïve T-cells. To enable rapid pathogen detection DCs utilize numerous germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that recognize conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
September 21, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633387/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-roles-in-ischemic-cardiovascular-disease
#20
Xiangwei Liu, Aijun Sun
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity, incurring a major burden of medical care. Even with increasing application of emergent recanalization (PCI and CABG) therapy, ischemia and ischemic reperfusion injury remain as the dominant pathological process that damages cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) is a multifunctional enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of aldehydes. Accumulating data have shown that ALDH2 can help restore mitochondria function by eliminating toxic aldehyde and participating in cellular signaling important for cell adaption and survival...
September 12, 2016: Current Drug Targets
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