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Current Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494749/alcohol-addiction-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-subtype-5-and-its-ligands-how-they-all-come-together
#1
Jaya Kumar, Zalina Ismail, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Najwa Baharuddin, Hermizi Hapidin, Yvonne-Tee Get Bee, Ernie Yap, Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamed
In the past decade, many studies have highlighted the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) modulators in attenuating alcohol-related biological effects such as alcohol consumption, alcohol-seeking and relapse-like behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that pharmacological agents acting at mGlu5 could be promising tools in curbing inebriation. mGlu5s are present abundantly in brain regions known to be involved in emotion regulation, motivation and drug administration. On a cellular level, they are primarily located at the postsynaptic part of the neuron where the receptor is functionally linked to various downstream proteins that are involved in cell signaling and gene transcription that mediate the alcohol-induced neuroplasticity...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494748/the-novelty-of-bupropion-as-a-dopaminergic-antidepressant-for-the-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#2
Kanit Tha Deang, Hatta Sidi, Hazli Zakaria, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Muhammad Hatta, Kok Wei Wee
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder that is prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involved numerous challenges, such as a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delayed the necessary assessment and proper treatment for the debilitating medical condition. Adult ADHD would also be misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the facts that this medical condition is being masked by his or her high level of intellectuality achievement...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482783/nano-phytosome-a-developing-platform-for-herbal-anti-cancer-agents-in-cancer-therapy
#3
Afshin Babazadeh, Mahdi Zeinali, Hamed Hamishehkar
Cancer is one of the main cause of death in the world and remains a major challenge for current chemotherapy that has not yet been cured in an efficient manner. Nanotechnology opened a pioneer field in cancer therapy by modifying significant properties of drugs and their carriers. Nanotechnology utilizes various nanostructures to transport anti-cancer agents to the interest site of action. The greater stability of nanophytosomes is due to formation of a chemical links between phospholipid molecules and phytoactive agents...
May 7, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464774/personalizing-psychological-treatment-along-the-ibd-journey-from-diagnosis-to-surgery
#4
Julia Menichetti, Gionata Fiorino, Elena Vegni
Personalized medicine is becoming a widespread effort to provide the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. However, it lacks of consideration for nonmedical factors, such as patient preferences and psychosocial factors, that should not be avoided. The present study summarizes the psychosocial difficulties experienced by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during different phases of the disease in order to identify methods to assess psychosocial risk factors and personalize treatment strategies...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464773/the-role-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-sexuality-road-to-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#5
Raja Lope Adam, Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Hazli Zakaria, Srijit Das, Khairi Che Mat
Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460609/application-of-plasmonic-gold-nanoparticle-for-drug-delivery-system
#6
Jin-Ho Lee, Jeong-Woo Choi
Various kinds of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely developed as a promising theranostic probe in biomedical fields. Particularly, colloidal gold nanoparticle (GNP) have been extensively utilized as theranostic probe for molecular imaging and drug delivery owing to their unique physiochemical properties with excellent biocompatibility. This review will outline the progress along this line and discuss about gold nanoparticle synthesis method for controlled geometry (spherical, rod and cage), surface functionalization (covalent and non-covalent) and associated in vitro/in vivo cytotoxicity as well as some of interesting diagnostic (imaging) and therapeutic (photo-thermal, drug delivery) applications...
April 27, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460608/early-hematoma-enlargement-in-primary-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
Du Cao, Qi Li, Peichun Fu, John Zhang, Jun Yang
Early hematoma growth is not uncommon in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. It is a devastating complication that independently predicts poor outcome. The early hematoma enlargement is usually defined as an absolute increase in hematoma volume of greater than 33% on repeat CT scan. To date, no ideal animal model can mimic the exact pathophysiological process of early hematoma growth. Novel imaging predictors such as CT angiography spot sign and CT blend sign may predict early hematoma growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage...
April 27, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460607/a-therapeutic-target-of-cerebral-hemorrhagic-stroke-matrix-metalloproteinase-9
#8
Baoqi Dang, Xiaochun Duan, Zhong Wang, Weichun He, Gang Chen
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), also known as collagenase B, is one of the most important members of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) family. It degrades the main components of the cerebral vascular basement membrane, including type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, and it plays an important role in the pathological and physiological processes in the central nervous system. This article reviews the role of MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of diseases such as brain hemorrhage, hemorrhagic transformation after cerebral infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and brain injury...
April 27, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443504/potential-use-of-modulators-of-oxidative-stress-as-add-on-therapy-in-patients-with-anxiety-disorders
#9
Paolo Boldrini, Antonella Fusco, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Aldo Badiani, Luciano Saso
It is known that an increased oxidative stress is present in a wide range of diseases and, given the vulnerability of the central nervous system, its involvement has been in particular investigated in neurological and psychiatric diseases, including anxiety disorders. In this review we analyse the studies that have been conducted on the effects of oxidative stress modulators in anxiety, focusing on their possible clinical use. While preclinical studies have shown a clear anxiolytic-like effect of different oxidative stress modulators, less significant results have been obtained from clinical studies...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443503/kratom-and-future-treatment-for-the-opioids-addiction-and-chronic-pain-periculo-beneficium
#10
Ismaliza Ismail, Suzaily Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das, Loo Jiann Lin, Rosdinom Razali
Kratom (Mitragynaspeciosa), a natural existing plant found in South-East Asia, is tradi-tionally used as an herb to help to elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (μ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathway linked to μ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and GABA-ergic interneurons that express μ-opioid receptors were deliberated...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440186/the-double-roles-of-the-prostaglandin-e2-ep2-receptor-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#11
Xu Luo, Qiquan Zhu, Jie Zhang, Qin Huang, Zongyi Xie, Yuan Cheng
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a subtype of stroke, brings high morbidity and mortality to human beings. Multiple studies indicate that neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity resulted from the degradation products of blood clot play vital roles in ICH-induced secondary brain injury, which contributes to deterioration of neurological outcome. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a type of prostanoids commonly up-regulated in these progresses, is known to modulate numerous cellular and molecular processes and involve in various diseases, including ICH, cerebral ischemic, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etc...
April 24, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413979/drug-resistance-of-enzalutamide-in-crpc
#12
Xuedong Chen, Jieyang Lu, Liqun Xia, Gonghui Li
Enzalutamide (MDV3100, XTANDI ) is a second generation androgen receptor inhibitor that is designed for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and has prolonged survival time. Although Enzalutamide was also associated with such significant benefits, The majority of treated patients, innate or acquired resistance invariably arises, but the mechanisms of mdv3100 resistance have not yet been clearly clarified. Nevertheless, because the better knowledge of the genetic landscape of MDV3100 is under way, resistance to MDV3100 could be basically divided in two distinct pathways, either dependent or independent of the androgen receptor activity...
April 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413980/therapeutic-applications-of-liposomal-based-drug-delivery-and-drug-targeting-for-immune-linked-inflammatory-maladies-a-contemporary-view-point
#13
Mahfoozur Rahman, Sarwar Beg, Amita Verma, Imran Kazmi, Dines Kumar Patel, Firoz Anwar, Vikas Kumar
Immune-based inflammatory diseases are immune related dysregulation in different sites of body, which includes rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis, etc. Advancements in molecular research have facilitated investigation of their pathogenesis which is involved with inflammatory cytokines cells and several genes. The available drug therapy provides suboptimal therapeutic effects and higher adverse effects. Emergence of liposomal systems of the drugs meant for the above mentioned disease have gained wider importance due to in their high treatment efficacy by means of optimal therapeutic drug delivery...
April 14, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413978/advances-and-challenges-in-drug-design-of-ppar%C3%AE-ligands
#14
Vinicius Gonçalves Maltarollo, Thales Kronenberger, Björn Windshügel, Carsten Wrenger, Gustavo Henrique Goulart Trossini, Kathia Maria Honorio
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors activated by endogenous fatty acids and prostaglandins that are classified into three types: α, γ and δ, which have different functions and tissue distribution. PPAR modulators have been exploited to the treatment of important metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, which are considered relevant epidemic diseases currently. Along the last decades, several studies have reported structural differences between the three PPAR subtypes associated with the discovery of selective ligands, dual and pan-agonists...
April 14, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382860/dysregulation-of-lncrnas-in-placenta-and-pathogenesis-of-preeclampsia
#15
Xuejing Song, Xiucui Luo, Quansheng Gao, Yuhuan Wang, Qing Gao, Wei Long
Preeclampsia, a gestational disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria twenty weeks into pregnancy, is one of the leading causes of fetal and maternal mortality. Although multiple genetic and environmental factors are found to be related to the preeclampsia risk, the pathogenic pathways remain largely undefined. The placenta plays a critical role in the fetal development by carrying out the barrier, fetal-maternal exchange, and endocrine functions during pregnancy. Accumulated data indicated that the expression of multiple long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) is dysregulated in preeclamptic placentas...
April 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382859/serum-he4-level-as-a-biomarker-for-prediction-of-gynecologic-cancer-recurrence
#16
Jinping Li, Haibin Chen, John R Curcuru, Sheena Patel, Taylor O Johns, Dimple Patel, Hua Qian, Shi-Wen Jiang
Recurrence is a major determinant of cancer patient survival and is linked to diagnostic time, stage of cancer, drug resistance, metastatic status, and other factors. Recurrence could be a more specific and treatment-relevant factor than survival, a factor potentially affected by some general elements beyond cancer biology. In a clinical setting, accurate and early prediction of recurrence greatly facilitates the optimal treatment of cancer patients. Numerous studies have shown that serum HE4 is a useful biomarker for the management of gynecological cancers...
April 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378693/hematoma-expansion-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-mechanisms-targeting-the-coagulation-cascade-and-platelet-activation
#17
Sherrefa R Burchell, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Hematoma expansion (HE), defined as a greater than 33% increase in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume within the first 24 hours, results in significant neurological deficits, and enhancement of ICH-induced primary and secondary brain injury. An escalation in the use of oral anticoagulants has led to a surge in the incidences of oral anticoagulation-associated ICH (OAT-ICH), which has been associated with a greater risk for HE and worse functional outcomes following ICH. The oral anticoagulants in use include vitamin K antagonists, and direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors...
March 29, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443505/targeted-therapy-of-ovarian-cancer-with-angiogenesis-inhibitors
#18
Ping Duan, Lili Fan, Quansheng Gao, Mukunda Silwal, Mulan Ren, Yang Shen, Wanglei Qu
Specific blocking of interactions between ligands and receptors along the angiogenic pathways represent an effective approach for enhancing the efficacy as well as reducing adverse effects of chemotherapy. Over the past decade, there was a rapid progression in the application of this therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment. Anti-angiogenic therapy is the most promising targeted therapy for ovarian cancer. The addition of bevacizumab to conventional chemotherapy, either in the first-line setting or at disease relapse, may improve overall survival (OS) of ovarian cancer patients, at least in a subset of patients with poor prognosis...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378692/can-we-predict-disease-course-with-clinical-factors
#19
Zsuzsanna Vegh, Zsuzsanna Kurti, Petra Anna Golovics, Laszlo Lakatos
The disease phenotype at diagnosis and the disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) show remarkable heterogeneity across patients. In recent population-based epidemiological and referral cohort studies, the evolution of disease phenotype of CD and UC varied significantly. Most CD and severe UC patients still requires hospitalization or surgery/colectomy during follow-up. A change in the natural history of IBD with improved outcomes in parallel with tailored positioning of aggressive immunomodulator and biological therapy has been suspected according to the recently available literature...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356029/oncogenic-role-of-set-i2pp2a-for-gynecologic-cancers
#20
Shi-Wen Jiang, Siliang Xu, Haibin Chen, Jiayin Liu, Ping Duan
SET (SE translocation, SET) is an evolutionarily conserved gene broadly expressed in various human tissues, especially in the gonadal and neural system. As a multitasking protein, SET is involved in essential cell processes such as histone modification, chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, gene transcription, and androgen synthesis. Recent studies showed that SET is overexpressed in breast cancers, ovary cancers and a variety of other malignancies. The strong correlation between SET expression levels and survival of ovarian cancer patients, and SET-mediated activation of androgen synthesis, strongly indicated that this factor may play a significant role in gynecologic cancers...
March 28, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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