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Current Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779478/exosomes-in-therapy-engineering-pharmacokinetic-and-future-applications
#1
Claudia Arenaccio, Chiara Chiozzini, Flavia Ferrantelli, Patrizia Leone, Eleonora Olivetta, Maurizio Federico
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cells release vesicles of different sizes under both physiological and pathological conditions. On the basis of the respective biogenesis, extracellular vesicles are classified as apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes. Among these, exosomes are considered tools for innovative therapeutic interventions, especially when engineered with effector molecules. The delivery functions of exosomes are favored by a number of typical features. These include their small size (i...
May 20, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773058/non-cardiomyocytes-in-heart-regeneration
#2
Jie Feng, Yandong Li, Yu Nie
Heart failure represents a challenging clinical and public health problem and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanistically, loss of cardiomyocytes leads to decompensated ventricular remodeling, which eventually progressed to cardiac failure. Regenerative medicine aimed to supplement functional cardiomyocytes is supposedly a promising approach for the effective treatment of heart failure. Over the past decades, investigations on heart regeneration have revealed the regulating networks of cardiomyocyte proliferation...
May 17, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773057/nucleophagy-plays-a-major-role-in-human-diseases
#3
Nian Fu, XueFeng Yang, Linxi Chen
Nucleophagy is a selective autophagy, which selectively remove damaged or non-essential nuclear material from a cell by the autophagy pathway. Additionally, nucleophagy is crucial for promoting cell longevity and ensure body proper function. Increasing evidences have shown that nucleophagy may play a major role in such human diseases as degenerative disorders, tumorigenesis, malnutrition and metabolic disorders, parakeratosis and psoriasis. Studies indicated that nucleophagy can improve degenerative disorders by delaying premature cell senescence, prevent malnutrition and metabolic disorder via maintaining nuclear structure and releasing nutrients for energy production, and alleviate parakeratosis and psoriasis...
May 17, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766802/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-molecular-mechanisms-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#4
Lifeng Wang, Jun Ren
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a common public health problem and a common cause of chronic liver diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development and progression of NAFLD remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has depicted an essential role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of steatosis and later progression into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. With the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, ER stress is provoked to turn on the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
May 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756578/endocrine-disrupting-chemical-induced-pollution-of-metabolic-pathways-a-case-of-shifting-paradigms-with-implications-for-vascular-diseases
#5
Rajiv Janardhanan
The latter half of the twentieth century has witnessed a humongous spurt in the use of synthetic chemicals in a wide variety of industrial and agricultural applications are leading to niche specific perturbations affecting every trophic level of the ecosystems due to unmitigated environmental contamination. Despite the incremental usefulness of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as pesticides and plasticizers, their statutory impact on environmental health is assuming worrisome proportions. The EDCs can disrupt physiological homeostasis resulting in developmental and reproductive abnormalities...
May 14, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756577/molecular-targets-and-natural-compounds-in-drug-development-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-pain
#6
Anna Woodbury, Myles R McCrary, Shan P Yu
This chapter explores therapeutic targets and the anti-inflammatory nature of some naturally-occurring compounds and the current or potential use of these compounds in the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain states. We will review the mechanisms of chronic inflammatory pain, the molecular targets of selected natural compounds in inhibiting inflammatory pain, and the traditional and current approaches to treating pain using these compounds. Previous research on experimental as well as clinical pain will be summarized from in vitro to animal and human models...
May 14, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749311/role-of-the-ldl-receptor-related-protein-1-in-regulating-protease-activity-and-signaling-pathways-in-the-vasculature
#7
Dianaly T Au, Allison L Arai, William E Fondrie, Selen C Muratoglu, Dudley K Strickland
Aortic aneurysms represent a significant clinical problem as they largely go undetected until a rupture occurs. Currently, an understanding of mechanisms leading to aneurysm formation is limited. Numerous studies clearly indicate that vascular smooth muscle cells play a major role in the development and response of the vasculature to hemodynamic changes and defects in these responses can lead to aneurysm formation. The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is major smooth muscle cell receptor that has the capacity to mediate the endocytosis of numerous ligands and to initiate and regulate signaling pathways...
May 11, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749310/biological-and-psychological-influences-of-cross-sex-hormone-in-transgender
#8
Ling Shiao Ling, Hatta Sidi, Raja Adam Raja Lope, Srijit Das, Azlin Baharudin
Transgender is a complex state of bio-psycho-social dimension of human sexuality. It encompasses cognitive-emotional-behavior component that makes the person unique in his or her sexual expression. Transgender tend to use cross sex hormone in order to eradicate their secondary sexual characteristics and to facilitate the shift to their experienced gender. The common masculinising sex hormone use, i.e. Female to Male Treatment Options (FMTO) is testosterone and for feminising hormone i.e. Male to Female Treatment Options (MFTO) is a combination of estrogen with anti-androgen, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732966/anesthetics-mechanisms-a-review-of-putative-target-proteins-at-the-cellular-and-molecular-level
#9
Danuh Kim, Hyun Joo Kim, Seunghyun Ahn
Despite widespread clinical use of anesthetics, the exact mechanisms of anesthetic action are unclear. In terms of physiological action, a broad mechanism of general anesthesia including perturbations of neurotransmission has been suggested. The mechanism of anesthetic action at the molecular level is less clear, however. Specifically, how anesthetics affect neurons and glial cells and which proteins those anesthetics interact with remains to be explored. Several recent studies have investigated the molecular interactions between proteins and anesthetics...
May 1, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697029/effortless-and-effective-methodologies-in-the-discovery-of-novel-drug-targets-in-the-free-living-amoebae
#10
Abdul Mannan Baig
Despite advances in drug discovery and modifications in the chemotherapeutic regimens, human infections caused by free-living amoebae (FLA) have high mortality rates (~95%). The FLA that cause fatal human cerebral infections include Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. Novel drug-target discovery remains the only viable option to tackle these central nervous system (CNS) infection in order to lower the mortality rates caused by the FLA. Of these FLA, N. fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), while the A...
April 25, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697028/bacterial-multidrug-efflux-proteins-a-major-mechanism-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
Irshad Ahmad, Nighat Nawaz, Fatemeh Karimi Dermani, Alisa Khodadadi Kohlan, Massoud Saidijam, Simon G Patching
Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge, for which the mechanisms of resistance are varied and complicated. Bacterial multidrug efflux proteins are a major mechanism of antimicrobial resistance and therefore targets for drug development. Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically more resistant to many antibiotics and biocides due to their cell structure and the activity of multidrug efflux proteins. These transporters actively extrude antibiotics and other xenobiotics from the cytoplasm or surrounding membranes of cells to the external environment...
April 25, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697027/dna-related-enzymes-as-molecular-targets-for-antiviral-and-antitumoral-chemotherapy-a-natural-overview-of-the-current-perspectives
#12
Hugo A Garro, Carlos R Pungitore
BACKGROUND: The discovery of new chemotherapeutic agents still remains a continuous goal to achieve. DNA polymerases and topoisomerases act in nucleic acids metabolism modulating different processes like replication, mitosis, damage repair, DNA topology and transcription. It has been widely documented that Polymerases serve as molecular targets for antiviral and antitumoral chemotherapy. Furthermore, telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein with exacerbated activity in most of tumor cell lines, becoming as an emergent target in Cancer treatment...
April 25, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673309/sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-beyond-glucose-lowering
#13
Asli F Ceylan, Sidney Y Ren
Diabetes is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in worldwide. Management of blood glucose is critical for diabetic patients since diabetes carries risk for many diseases and disorders. Although there are several antidiabetic agents in the markets for a long time, some of the agents have dose-limiting side effects, such as hypoglycemia and weight gain which limits their ability to reduce cardiovascular complications. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are new class of antidiabetic agents which exerts their effects insulin-independent mechanism therefore they do not cause hypoglycemia in the diabetic patients...
April 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673308/withdrawn-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-fanconi-anemia-and-other-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-disorders
#14
(no author information available yet)
Withdrawn by the publisher.
April 19, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623837/new-light-on-an-old-friend-targeting-puma-in-radioprotection-and-therapy-of-cardiovascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
Ales Tichy, Jan Marek, Radim Havelek, Jaroslav Pejchal, Martina Seifrtova, Lenka Zarybnicka, Alzbeta Filipova, Martina Rezacova, Zuzana Sinkorova
This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the role of p53-upregulated mediator of apoptosis (PUMA) in molecular pathways with respect to its potential therapeutic applications. Particular emphasis is given to the PUMA´s role in ionizing radiation-induced signalling as radiotoxicity of normal tissue is mediated mostly via apoptosis. PUMA and its p53-dependent and p53-independent induction is described and potential use as a new target for the development of radioprotective agents is suggested...
April 5, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623836/microbial-biofilm-and-quorum-sensing-inhibition-endowment-of-medicinal-plants-to-combat-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#16
Dinesh Kumar Mehta, Rina Das
Continued emergence and spread of multidrug- resistant bacteria behooved the development of alternative treatment strategies, including antimicrobial drugs. A hopeful approach is to target cell-to-cell communications, commonly known as quorum-sensing (QS) and microbial biofilm formation. Quorum Sensing is machinery used by bacteria to determine their physiological behavior and coordinate gene expression based on the cell to cell signaling. Many physiological functions of bacteria are controlled by quorum sensings such as virulence, motility, sporulation, luminescence, and biofilm formation...
April 5, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623835/apoe4-may-be-a-promising-target-for-treatment-of-coronary-heart-disease-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Wei Chen, Fengzhong Jin, Guihua Cao, Rong Mei, Yayun Wang, Pan Long, Xiaoming Wang, Wei Ge
Alzheimer disease (AD) is most common neurodegenerative disorder of dementia, as we all know, ApoE4 is the greatest genetic risk factor of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Coronary heart disease (CHD) lead to one-fourth of all deaths in industrialized countries, it is reported that ApoE4 increases the risk of coronary heart disease as well. Furthermore, evidence show that coronary heart disease also increases the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Whether ApoE4 is a bridge connecting AD with CHD or not? And what are the special mechanism and therapeutic methods? Researchers found that cholesterol metabolic disorder is common causes and risk factors of AD and CHD...
April 5, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623834/the-molecular-targets-of-swertiamarin-and-its-derivatives-confer-anti-diabetic-and-anti-hyperlipidemic-effects
#18
Naisargee Patel, Rajeev Kumar Tyagi, Nikunj Tandel, Neeraj Garg, Nupur Soni
The herbal plant extract of Enicostemma littorale is widely used to medicate and treat type II Diabetes. This extract in medicine has shown its value in reducing blood glucose & lipid levels, and improving the kidney functioning, lipid profile, controlling blood pressure and heart rate. The well characterized chemical components such as iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides are present in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant. Swertiamarin, a secoiridoid glycoside, is identified as the lead compound that confers anti-hyperglycemic & anti-hyperlipidemic effects...
April 5, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618305/pro-inflammatory-cytokines-cellular-and-molecular-drug-targets-for-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-via-osteocyte
#19
Tiantian Wang, Xijie Yu, Chengqi He
Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat varieties of allergic and autoimmune diseases, however, long-term application results in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). Inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) play important regulatory roles in bone metabolism, but their roles in GIOP remain largely unknown. Osteocytes can modulate the formation and function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, directly via gap junctions, or indirectly by transferring molecule signaling...
April 4, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611487/complexation-of-bioelements-and-toxic-metals-by-polyphenolic-compounds-implications-for-health
#20
Sylwia Borowska, Malgorzata Michalina Brzoska, Michal Tomczyk
Nowadays growing interest in the possibility of prophylactic and therapeutic use of plant products rich in biologically active compounds has been observed. Among them special interest has been focused on polyphenol-rich products. Owing to multidirectional favourable action of polyphenols, products rich in these compounds are recommended as functional food in the case of civilization diseases. Moreover, data from studies in animal models show that polyphenols may be a promising preventive/therapeutic strategy for xenobiotics, including toxic heavy metals...
April 2, 2018: Current Drug Targets
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