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Current Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721818/eurycoma-longifolia-a-potential-phytomedicine-for-the-treatment-of-cancer-evidence-of-p53-mediated-apoptosis-in-cancerous-cells
#1
Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia is a well-documented herbal medicine that has gained widespread recognition due to its versatile pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-malarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-diabetic, anti-rheumatism and anti-ulcer. Plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies evidenced their excellent anti-proliferative and anticancer efficacy against various types of human cancers. OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed to critically analyze the therapeutic viability and anticancer efficacy of Eurycoma longifolia in the treatment of cancer and also to propose its molecular and translational mechanism of cytotoxicity against cancerous cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699515/cell-wall-associated-factors-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-as-major-virulence-determinants-current-perspectives-in-drugs-discovery-and-design
#2
Gurdyal Singh, Arbind Kumar, Pratibha Maan, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacteria genus is responsible for deadly diseases like tuberculosis and leprosy. Cell wall of bacteria belonging to this genus is unique in many ways. It plays a major role in pathogenesis and intracellular survival inside the host. In intracellular pathogens, their cell wall acts as molecular shield and interacts with host cell milieu to modulate host defense responses. Unique role of cell wall associated factors that play crucial roles in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial cell wall components like Antigen 85 complex, Glycosyltransferases (GTs), LM (lipomannan) and LAM (lipoarabinomannan), mAGP Complex, lipolytic enzyme have been categorically documented...
July 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699514/monoterpenes-as-perspective-to-chronic-pain-management-a-systematic-review
#3
Daniele Nascimento Gouveia, Lícia Tairiny Santos Pina, Thallita Kelly Rabelo, Wagner Barbosa da Rocha Santos, Jullyana S S Quintans, Adriana Gibara Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Individuals with chronic diseases have persistent pain as the main symptom, which can often reduce their life quality and functional capacity. The suffering of patients results from the interaction of aversive perception of pain with physical disability, social and family isolation, financial worries and fear of mutilation and death. As an individual and subjective phenomenon that involves many complex aspects, chronic pain should be evaluated and treated in its various components...
July 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699513/parp-inhibitor-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-breast-ovarian-prostate-and-pancreatic-cancers-an-update-of-clinical-trials
#4
Dalia Kamel, Christopher Gray, Jagdeeb Walia, Vikaash Kumar
PARP inhibitors appear to offer a promising role in the accompaniment of many of the cytotoxic agents used in the present day to combat cancer proliferation in BRCA1/2 deficient tumors. Current species of PARP inhibitors have yet to demonstrate a superior effect to that of existing therapies when administered as a single agent; however, they have appeared to amplify the effect of these existing chemotherapies when utilized together. This suggests that PARP inhibitors could play an effective maintenance role in current cancer-combating strategies...
July 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676002/recent-advances-in-polymer-based-wound-dressings-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-foot-ulcer-an-overview-of-state-of-the-art
#5
Zahid Hussain, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Haliza Katas, Fahad Hussain
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are the chronic, non-healing complications of diabetic mellitus which compels a significant burden to the patients and the healthcare system. Peripheral vascular disease, diabetic neuropathy, and abnormal cellular and cytokine/chemokine activity are among the prime players which exacerbate the severity and prevent wound reapir. Unlike acute wounds, DFUs impose a substantial challenge to the conventional wound dressings and demand the development of novel and advanced wound healing modalities...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676001/antitumor-activity-of-polysaccharides-an-overview
#6
Ling Chen, Gangliang Huang
BACKGROUND: Polysaccharides are widely found in animals, plants and micro- organisms, and are closely related to various physiological functions. It is one of the four basic substances that constitute life activities. Polysaccharide has antitumor, antivirus, antioxidant, immune regulation and other biological activities. OBJECTIVE: Because the polysaccharide has significant antitumor effect and small side-effects, it has become the focus of the current antitumor drug research...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676000/urinary-bone-turnover-markers-as-target-indicators-for-monitoring-bisphosphonate-drug-treatment-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#7
Sohyea Kwon, Anne Wang, Cheryl Sadowski, Nese Yuksel, Michael Roman Doschak
Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease characterized by bone micro-architecture degradation contributing to fragility fractures. Currently, determining bone mineral density (BMD) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most reliable form of diagnosing osteoporosis and managing pharmacological treatment regimens. However, changes in BMD occur slowly (i.e., several months) and DXA does not reflect the metabolic rate of bone turnover. Alternatively, biochemical bone turnover markers (BTM) are metabolic indicators released into serum and/or urine, and their quantity reflects the metabolic activity of bone...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675999/subduing-the-green-eyed-monster-bridging-the-psychopharmacological-and-psychosocial-treatment-perspective-in-understanding-pathological-jealousy
#8
Farah Deena Abdul Samad, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Nurul Hazwani Hatta
Human being is not spared from a broad-ranged emotional state, including being jealous. Jealousy has both affective-cognitive and behavioural-evaluative dimension where the person perceives, or experiences a real threat on a valued relationship. As this complex emotion becomes irrational and not amenable to reason, it later transforms into a dangerously 'green-eyed monster'. This perilous situation which is viewed as pathological jealousy is a form of delusion, which is maintained by a fixed and false reasoning in an originally entrusted intimate relationship...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641524/the-bio-psycho-social-dimension-in-women-s-sexual-desire-argumentum-ad-novitatem
#9
Nur Syazwani Roslan, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Hatta Sidi, Najwa Baharuddin, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussein
Sexual desire includes complex motivation and drive. In the context of biological and cognitive-emotive state art of science, it is often a neglected field in medicine. With regard to the treatment, study on women's sexual function received less attention compared to the men's sexuality. In the past, this endeavor was relatively not well disseminated in the scientific community. Recently, there was a revolutionized surge of drug targets available to treat women with low sexual desire. It is timely to review the relevant biological approach, especially in the context of pharmacotherapy to understand this interesting clinical entity which was modulated by numerous interactive psychosocial inter-play and factors...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641523/radiosensitizing-effect-of-electrochemotherapy-a-systematic-review-of-protocols-and-efficiency
#10
Zohre Rezaee, Ali Yadollahpour, Samaneh Rashidi, Pramod S Kunwar
OBJECTIVE: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a combination of electroporation (EP) and chemotherapy and has been reported as a potential radiosensitizing agent for radiation therapy. The main objective of this study was to systematically review of the literature to evaluate the effectiveness of ECT in sensitization of tumors to ionization radiation. In addition, the clinical considerations and mechanisms of action of radiosensitizing effect are discussed. METHODS: The databases of Medline (PubMed), Embase, Scopus, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Biomed central, Science Direct, and Google scholar up to March 30th 2017 were explored...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641522/advances-on-ppar%C3%AE-research-in-the-emerging-era-of-precision-medicine
#11
Pinyi Lu, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Due to their ability to preserve pancreatic beta cell function and reduce insulin resistance, TZDs have become one of the most prescribed classes of medications for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and initial use in 1997...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641521/lncrna-hotair-polymorphisms-association-with-cancer-susceptibility-in-different-tumor-types
#12
Gerardo Botti, Francesca Collina, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Gabriella Aquino, Margherita Cerrone, Giuseppina Liguori, Vincenzo Gigantino, Maria Gabriella Malzone, Monica Cantile
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non coding RNAs (ncRNA) molecules affect gene and protein expression and generate genetic variability influencing the risk of tumor diseases. HOTAIR is locates at the heart of the cell memory gene program and represents a prototype of long non coding RNA (LncRNA) due to its capacity to regulate in-trans a distant chromosome landscape. Aberrant expression of HOTAIR is frequently associated with pathogenesis and mostly with metastatic progression of several human cancers...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641520/try-to-remember-interplay-between-memory-and-substance-use-disorder
#13
Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamed, Jaya Kumar, Ernie Yap, Isa Naina Mohamed, Hatta Sidi, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das
Memories associated with substance use disorders, or substance-associated cues increase the likelihood of craving and relapse during abstinence. There is growing consensus that manipulation of synaptic plasticity may reduce the strength of substance abuse-related memories. On the biological front, there are new insights that suggest memories associated with substance use disorder may follow unique neurobiological pathways that render them more accessible to pharmacological intervention. In parallel to this, research in neurochemistry has identified several potential candidate molecules that could influence the formation and maintenance of long-term memory...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#14
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641518/grp78-influences-chemoresistance-and-prognosis-in-cancer
#15
Jenifer B Gifford, Reginald Hill
Resistance to therapy is a major hindrance to patient survival in cancer, underscoring a critical need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for chemoresistance. Research has demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a significant role in allowing cells to survive conditions that would normally elicit cell death. Specifically, elevated expression of GRP78, the master regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), has been shown to induce chemoresistance and serves as a indictor of poor prognosis in patients...
June 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641517/the-case-for-cannabinoid-cb1-receptors-as-a-target-for-bronchodilator-therapy-for-%C3%AE-agonist-resistant-asthma
#16
John Ashton, Robert J Hancox
Although b2-receceptor agonists are powerful bronchodilators and are at the forefront of asthma symptom relief, patients who use them frequently develop partial resistance to them. This can be a particularly serious problem during severe attacks, where high dose b2-agonist treatment is the front line therapy. Alternative bronchodilators are urgently needed. In this article we review the evidence for the bronchodilator effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and suggest that the mechanism of action for these effects are sufficiently independent of the mechanisms of standard bronchodilators to warrant clinical investigation...
June 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606049/the-blood-brain-barrier-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-therapy-an-overview
#17
Satya Lavanya Jakki, V Senthil, Venkata Ramesh Yasam, Mjn Chandrasekar, C Vijayaraghavan
Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is the most frequent age related neurodegenerative disorder. It represents 70% of all dementia. Millions of people have been affected by AD worldwide. It is a complex illness characterized pathologically by accumulation of protein aggregates of amyloid and neurofibrillary tangles containing hyperphosphorylated neuronal tau protein. AD requires drugs that can circumvent the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which is not a simple physical barrier between blood and brain, but acts as an iron curtain, allowing only selective molecules to enter the brain...
June 12, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606032/metformin-a-new-era-for-an-old-drug-in-the-treatment-of-immune-mediated-disease
#18
Mark Schuiveling, Nadia Vazirpanah, Timothy R D J Radstake, Maili Zimmermann, Jasper C A Broen
Metformin, a widely prescribed blood glucose normalizing antidiabetic drug, is now beginning to receive increasing attention due to its potential anti-inflammatory properties. Metformin suppresses immune responses mainly through its direct effect on the cellular functions of various immune cell types by induction of AMPK and subsequent inhibition of mTORC1, and by inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production. Among key immune events, this results in inhibited monocyte to macrophage differentiation and restrained inflammatory capacity of activated macrophages...
June 12, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606050/insights-into-the-targeting-potential-of-thymoquinone-for-therapeutic-intervention-against-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
Md Abul Barkat, Harshita Abul, Javed Ahmad, Mohammad Ahmed Khan, Sarwar Beg, Farhan Jalees Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive phytoconstituent obtained from Nigella sativa (black seeds). It has promising potential in cancer prevention. OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that TQ can modulate signaling pathways responsible for cancer progression, thus enhances the efficacy and improve safety profile of clinically used anticancer drugs. METHOD: TQ acts on cell cycle and inhibits progression from G1 to S phase by targeting various proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E, and p27)...
June 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595536/neuroprotective-effects-of-drug-induced-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#20
Junwei Ma, Yibin Wang, Zhong Wang, Haiying Li, Zhimin Wang, Gang Chen
Cerebrovascular diseases often cause neurological deficits. Experimental studies have shown that drug-induced hypothermia alleviates brain damage and plays a neuroprotective role, thereby reducing mortality and ameliorating neurological deficits. Therefore, drug-induced hypothermia has an important research value and is further considered in the clinical setting. However, drug-induced hypothermia is also associated with side effects, such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, suppressed immune function, infection, electrolyte imbalance, glucose metabolism disorders, and skeletal muscle tremor...
June 6, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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