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Current Drug Targets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325146/hypersexuality-as-a-neuropsychiatric-disorder-the-neurobiology-and-treatment-options
#1
Hatta Sidi, Muna Asiff, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Hypersexuality refers to abnormally increased or extreme involvement in any sexual activity. It is clinically challenging, presents trans-diagnostically and there is extensive medical literature addressing nosology, pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric aspects. Classification includes deviant behaviours, diagnosable entities related to impulsivity, and obsessional phenomena. Some clinicians view an increase in sexual desire as 'normal' while psychodynamic theorists consider it ego-defensive at times alleviating unconscious anxiety rooted in intrapsychic conflicts...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325145/nanotechnology-as-potential-tool-for-sirna-delivery-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Hernán Cortés, Sergio Alcalá-Alcalá, Arturo Ávalos-Fuentes, Nestor Mendoza-Muñoz, David Quintanar-Guerrero, Gerardo Leyva-Gómez, Benjamín Florán
The lack of an outright treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) is a pivotal concern in medicine and has driven the search for novel alternatives for treating the disease. Among the proposed approaches, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapy is attracting significant attention as a potential method for the treatment of PD; however, siRNAs delivery possesses potential drawbacks, such as reduced stability in blood circulation and low capacity for reaching the target site. Therefore, siRNA delivery to the brain is a key issue that remains unsolved to date...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325144/therapeutic-potential-and-outlook-of-alternative-medicine-for-osteoporosis
#3
Tao Wang, Qian Liu, William Tjhioe, Jinmin Zhao, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang, Renxiang Tan, Mengyu Zhou, Jiake Xu, Haotian Feng
Osteoporosis, a bone disease resulting in loss of bone density and microstructure quality, is often associated with fragility fractures, and the latter imposes a great burden on the patient and society. Although there are several different treatments available for osteoporosis such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, Denosumab, and parathyroid hormone some concern has been raised regarding the inherent side effects of their long term use. It would be of great relevance to search for alternative natural compounds, which could complementarily overcome the limitations of the currently available therapy...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322161/the-use-of-methylphenidate-in-cancer-patients-a-review
#4
Beatrice Andrew, Chong Guan Ng, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar
BACKGROUND: One of the goals of cancer treatment is symptoms management especially at the end stage. The common symptoms in cancer include pain, fatigue, depression and cognitive dysfunction. The available treatment options for symptom management are limited. Methylphenidate, a psychostimulant, may be of benefit for these patients. In this report, we review the use of methylphenidate for symptoms control in cancer patients. METHOD: Electronic literature search on PubMed was conducted using the following keywords: methylphenidate, cancer, carcinoma, oncology, oncological and tumour...
March 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302036/pharmacological-effects-of-turmeric-on-learning-memory-and-expression-of-muscarinic-receptor-genes-m1-m3-and-m5-in-stress-induced-mouse-model
#5
Aliya Khalid, Rabia Shakeel, Saira Justin, Ghazala Iqbal, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Saadia Zahid, Touqeer Ahmed
Stress is involved in memory impairment by multiple mechanisms including activation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis, which in turn activates release of corticosterone in blood. Cholinergic system blockade by muscarinic antagonist like scopolamine, also impairs memory. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of turmeric (20mg/kg) on learning and memory and cholinergic system in a mouse model of stress along with cholinergic blockade. METHODS: Restrained stress was induced and cholinergic receptors were blocked using scopolamine in mice...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#6
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302034/co-morbid-erectile-dysfunction-ed-and-antidepressant-treatment-in-a-patient-a-management-challenge
#7
Maszaidi Zainol, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Shaiful Ismail, Muhammad Hizri Hatta, Najwa Baharudin, Arun Ravindran
Across the globe, antidepressants (AD) and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are commonly prescribed psychopharmacological agents for patients with co-morbid mental-health problem and sexual dysfunction (SD). The serotonergic and/or noradrenergic ADs, although is an effective agent are not without SD side-effects, especially erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is an inability to achieve, or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse during the phases of male's sexual arousal. It is recognized as an important reason why non-adherence to treatment was observed in patients who are on AD...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294046/notch-signalling-pathways-and-their-importance-in-the-treatment-of-cancers
#8
Seong Lin Teoh, Srijit Das
The Notch pathway is an evolutionarily conserved, intercellular signalling system which is present in all multicellular organisms and mammals. The Notch pathway plays an important role in the embryonic development as it controls cell proliferation, cell differentiation and binary cell fate decisions. In the present review, we discuss the Notch signalling pathway components i.e. Notch receptors, ligands, effector, and their regulators. Interestingly, the Notch signalling pathway is dysregulated in many cancers...
March 9, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270085/the-hot-and-potential-targets-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treatment-in-recent-decade
#9
Dayong Shi, Jiao Luo, Lijun Wang, Qi Xu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been a great burden to the world and it's urgent to develop new treatment strategies. Many targets are currently available to aid in the drug discovery of this disease as our understanding of the pathophysiology of T2DM develops. This article is intended to provide a broad ranging overview of 14 prominent molecule targets currently being pursued for the treatment of diabetes, with regard to their therapeutic rationale, small molecule modulators and application prospects. These targets are roughly divided into four general areas that correlate with insulin secretion, act on the insulin sensitivity, and have an effect on the complications...
March 7, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260497/improved-protein-toxin-delivery-based-on-attempts-systems
#10
Yongzhuo Huang, Victor C Yang, Feng Li, Meong Cheol Shin, Huiyuan Wang, Kyoung Ah Min, Meng Zhang, Yingzhi Chen
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are wildly found in multiple species of plants, bacteria and fungi. As a special family of protein toxins, RIPs can inhibit protein synthesis and induce cell death via inactivating ribosome in eukaryotic cells. Thus, RIPs have been applied for anti-tumor therapy in the past two decades. However, because of poor cell permeability, nonselective mode of action for tumor cells, poor pharmacokinetic profiles and immunogenicity, their clinical application has been severely constrained...
March 1, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245771/current-drug-targets-in-obesity-pharmacotherapy-a-review
#11
Sangeeta P Bhat, Arun Sharma
Obesity, an impending global pandemic, is not being effectively controlled by current measures such as lifestyle modifications, bariatric surgery or available medications. Its toll on health and economy compels us to look for more effective measures. Fortunately, the advances in biology and molecular technology have been in our favour for delineating new pathways in the pathophysiology of obesity and have led to subsequent development of new drug targets. Development of anti-obesity drugs has often been riddled with problems in the past...
February 27, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228082/recent-advances-in-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-targeted-drug-discovery-for-type-ii-diabetes-and-obesity
#12
Neelesh Maheswari, Chandrabose Karthikeyan, Piyush Trivedi, N S Hari Narayana Moorthy
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an important therapeutic target for type II diabetes and obesity because of its pivotal role as a negative modulator in both insulin and leptin signalling pathways. Consequently, the discovery of PTP1B inhibitors has been the focus of researchers in both academia and pharmaceutical industry over the last two decades. Though, intense pharmaceutical research in this area has resulted in many potent PTP1B inhibitors, a vast majority of them possessed pTyr mimetic group such as phosphonates, carboxylic acids and sulphamic acids, which led to poor PTP1B selectivity and insufficient in vivo efficacy due to low cell permeability and bioavailability...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#13
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215172/the-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors-pde-5i-for-erectile-dysfunction-ed-a-therapeutic-challenge-for-psychiatrists
#14
Chong Siew Koon, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Ong Wan Xi, Muhammad Hizri Hatta, Cesar Alfonso
Erectile function (EF) is a prerequisite for satisfactory sexual intercourse (SI) and central to male sexual functioning. Satisfactory SI eventually leads to orgasm - a biopsychophysiological state of euphoria - leading to a sense of bliss, enjoyment and positive mental well being. For a psychiatrist, treating ED is self-propelled to harmonize these pleasurable experiences alongside with encouragement of physical wellness and sensuality. Hence, the role of PDE-5i is pivotal in the context of treating ED constitutes a therapeutic challenge...
February 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137209/txnip-in-metabolic-regulation-physiological-role-and-therapeutic-outlook
#15
Naif Mohammad Alhawiti, Saeed Almahri, Mohammad Azhar Aziz, Shuja Shafi Malik, Sameer Mohammad
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) also known as thioredoxin binding protein-2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein that interacts and negatively regulates expression and function of Thioredoxin (TXN). Over the last few years TXNIP has attracted considerable attention due to its wide-ranging functions impacting several aspects of energy metabolism. TXNIP acts as an important regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism through pleiotropic actions including regulation of β-cell function, hepatic glucose production, peripheral glucose uptake, adipogenesis, and substrate utilization...
January 30, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124606/cytochrome-p450-structure-function-and-clinical-significance-a-review
#16
Manikandan Palrasu, Siddavaram Nagini
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are membrane-bound hemoproteins that play a pivotal role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Induction or inhibition of CYP enzymes is a major mechanism that underlies drug-drug interactions. CYP enzymes can be transcriptionally activated by various xenobiotics and endogenous substrates through receptor-dependent mechanisms. CYP enzyme inhibition is a principal mechanism for metabolism-based drug-drug interactions. Many chemotherapeutic drugs can cause drug interactions due to their ability to either inhibit or induce the CYP enzyme system...
January 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117001/the-antioxidant-activities-of-polysaccharides-and-their-derivatives
#17
Xinya Mei, Chengkun Yi, Gangliang Huang
Polysaccharides are a kind of biological macromolecules with immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-radiation, anti-inflammation, anti-fatigue and anti-aging effects. These effects are related to their antioxidant properties. The action mechanisms of antioxidation and scavenging free radicals for polysaccharides were reviewed. The polysaccharides contain plant polysaccharides, animal polysaccharides and microbial polysaccharides. The recent research progresses and our work on antioxidant properties of polysaccharides and their derivatives were summarized...
January 23, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117002/b3-adrenoceptor-control-of-lower-gen%C3%A4-tour%C3%A4-nary-tract-organs-and-funct%C3%A4-on-in-male-an-overv%C3%A4-ew
#18
Ecem Kaya, Suresh C Sikka, Didem Yilmaz Oral, Isil Ozakca, Serap Gur
BACKGROUND: The sympathetic nervous system is one component of the nervous regulatory system of the physiological function of the lower genitourinary tract. Our knowledge on the role of this sympathetic system has advanced during the last decade due to the characterization of b3-adrenoceptors (b3-ARs) in the urogenital system. OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the pharmacological and molecular evidence supporting the functional roles of β3-AR in male genitourinary tissues of various species...
January 20, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078985/designing-isoform-selective-inhibitors-against-classical-hdacs-for-effective-anticancer-therapy-insight-and-perspectives-from-in-silico
#19
Shabir Ahmad Ganai
Histone deacetylase inhibitors, the small molecules modulating the biological activity of histone deacetylases are emerging as potent chemotherapeutic agents. Despite their considerable therapeutic benefits in disease models, the lack of isoform specificity culminates in debilitating off target effects, raising serious concerns regarding their applicability. This emphasizes the pressing and unmet medical need of designing isoform selective inhibitors for safe and effective anticancer therapy. Keeping these grim facts in view, the current article sheds light on structural basis of off-targeting...
January 12, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068895/can-surgery-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-be-personalized
#20
Antonino Spinelli, Alessandra Marano, Claudio Bacchelli, Nicolò Maria Mariani, Marco Montorsi, Paulo Gustavo Kotze
In the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) despite advances in medical therapies, surgery has maintained a leading role in the management of complications of the disease, as well as in cases of failure of medical therapy. Surgery has become more and more minimally invasive, struggling for a difficult balance between guidelines and personalized treatment tailored on the single patient's need. In the present paper, the authors discuss the possible role for a personalization in debated fields of surgical treatment of Crohn&s disease and ulcerative colitis...
January 5, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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