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Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Brunelli da Ros Peruch, Brenna Lepaus Monteiro, Rafaela Aires, Cristina Martins E Silva, Marco Cesar Cunegundes Guimaraes, Elisardo Corral Vasquez, Breno Valentim Nogueira
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of severe and long-term disability in adult individuals. Treatment of this disease is limited by the narrow therapeutic window in which intervention is crucial. An alternative therapy for stroke could be cellular growth factors, which participate in several pathways that mediate neuronal cell death. METHODS: We evaluated the neuroprotective ability of different doses of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg/day) in the mouse model of global cerebral ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 80 minutes...
July 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Roghayyeh Baghban, Safar Farajnia, Younes Ghasemi, Mojtaba Mortazavi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Naser Samadi
BACKGROUND: Although Pichia pastoris is an outstanding host among conventional expression systems for production of recombinant proteins, a new interest have been emerged to this system due to the inherent advantages and new developments in this expression host. The potential for secretory and soluble expression of heterologous glycoproteins in P. pastoris proposed this system as a candidate for the production of complex eukaryotic proteins. METHODS: Several new developments have been occurred in different areas related to P...
July 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Xinyan Chen, Yumei Chen, Xueyan Lin, Shan Su, Xiaoman Hou, Qian Zhang, Yongjie Tian
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Many targeted ovarian cancer patients are resistant to olaparib treatment. Here we seek to understand the underlying molecular events and search for potential combinational therapeutics to surmount the intrinsic olaparib resistance in human ovarian cancer. METHODS: The cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and cell viability was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Protein expressions of ERK, P38, JNK, ERK5, LC3, N-CADHERIN, α-SMA were determined by western blotting...
July 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Chiara Sueri, Sara Gasparini, Simona Balestrini, Angelo Labate, Antonio Gambardella, Emilio Russo, Antonio Leo, Silvia Casarotto, Francesca Pittau, Michele Trimboli, Vittoria Cianci, Michele Ascoli, Salvatore M Cavalli, Giulia Ferrigno, Umberto Aguglia, Edoardo Ferlazzo
BACKGROUND: diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy are objectively measurable variables associated to the development of epilepsy or the propensity to generate seizures. Identification of biomarkers could be helpful for differential diagnosis and for tailored therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVE: this review focuses on diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy, including genetic, serological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological variables. METHODS: references were mainly identified through PubMed search until December 2017 and backtracking of references in pertinent studies...
July 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Cynthia Bean, Sharonda Harris, Augustina Addison, Kedra Wallace
HELLP syndrome is a disorder associated with serious maternal morbidity and mortality. Distinguishing HELLP from other pregnancy related disorders is often challenging and may result in delay of treatment. Differential diagnoses include acute fatty liver of pregnancy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, antiphospholipid syndrome, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and are reviewed in this chapter. While there is not any current treatment for HELLP, the mainstay of treatment involves maternal stabilization and timely delivery...
July 11, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Laiba Arshad, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Mh Busra Fauzi
BACKGROUND: 3,5-Bis[4-(diethoxymethyl)benzylidene]-1-methyl-piperidin-4-one (BBP), a novel synthetic curcumin analogue has previously been shown to manifest potent immunosuppressive effects on the in vitro phagocytosis process of human neutrophils. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, BBP was investigated for its in vivo innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by different humoral and cellular immune factors. METHODS: Male Balb/c mice were orally fed with BBP (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days and immunized with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) on day 0 for determination of adaptive responses...
July 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Noriko Iwamoto, Kotoko Yokoyama, Megumi Takanashi, Atsushi Yonezawa, Kazuo Matsubara, Takashi Shimada
BACKGROUND: Infliximab (IFX) is a chimeric therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated inflammatory immune diseases. However, despite of an initial good clinical response, decreasing of response in long-term treatment is a common observation. OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that IFX level in circulation has a correlation with clinical bioavailability. Therefore, management of IFX dosage for individual manifestation by IFX monitoring may be valuable for the improvement of therapeutic response...
July 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Arpita Roy, Navneeta Bharadvaja
BACKGROUND: Increased demand for compounds that are derived from natural source are gaining more and more importance. Plumbagin is a plant naphthoquinone which is present in several families, including Iridaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Ebenceae, Drosophyllaceae, Nepenthaceae and Droseraceae. Plumbagin possesses high therapeutic efficacy and minimal side effects. It has various pharmaceutical activities which include anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, neuroprotective and hypolipidemic activities...
June 29, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Qiao Jiang, Defeng Pan, Yu Yang, Ya Hu, Liang Fang, Pingping Shang, Yong Xia, Dongye Li
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate anti-apoptotic effects of Luteolin (Lut) on murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with Angiotensin (Ang) Ⅱ and to explore potential mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed in murine peritoneal macrophages using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements. The apoptotic rate was determined using Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of selected proteins was examined by western blotting...
June 29, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Taline B S Catelan, Camila C S Brum, Silvia C Heredia-Vieira, Bruno A Crispim, Alexeia B Grisolia, Rafael C S Santos, Claudia A L Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Plants of the genus Campomanesia belong to the family Myrtaceae and are very abundant in Cerrado areas. Teas from leaves of species of this genus are used for intestinal infections, combating obesity, stomach pathology, fever, among others. OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the chemical composition and antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ethanolic extract from leaves of Campomanesia pubescens (Mart. ex DC.) O. Berg. METHOD: For evaluation antioxidant activity, it was used the free radical DPPH and for determination of phenolic compounds was used Folin-Ciocalteau reagent...
June 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Aneta Wiktorek-Smagur, Katarzyna Hnatuszko-Konka
BACKGROUND: This review is intended to draw the attention of pharmaceutical and biotechnological communities to the untapped potential of the Scutellaria genus. Skullcaps, as they are more widely known, are found in one of the oldest materia medica in the world, that of ancient Chinese pharmacology, and their numerous wide range of medicinal bioactivities have been studied both in vivo and in vitro. For thousands of years, chemical compounds from the Scutellaria species have been safely used as antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or hepatoprotective factors...
June 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ananda T Dias, Marcos A S Leal, Tadeu C Zanardo, Gisele A Maziero, Marcella L Porto, Breno V Nogueira, Agata L Gava, Bianca P Campagnaro, Thiago M C Pereira, Silvana S Meyrelles, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Elisardo C Vasquez
BACKGROUND: By acting on multiple targets and promoting diverse actions, angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a pivotal role in vascular function. Recent studies suggested that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors exhibit therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effects of sildenafil on vascular disturbances were analyzed in a mouse model of Ang II-induced hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were used as untreated animals (Control) or infused with Ang II (1000 g/kg/min) for 28 days and treated with sildenafil (40 mg/kg/min) or vehicle (Ang II) during the last two weeks...
June 24, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Moritz Haaf, Gregor Leicht, Stjepan Curic, Christoph Mulert
BACKGROUND: The basic mechanism of pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia has barely changed in the last 60 years. Currently used medications allow the effective treatment of positive symptoms via antagonistic effects at dopamine receptors whereas the effect on negative and cognitive symptoms is most often negligible. METHODS: The observation that N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as ketamine transiently induce schizophrenia-like positive, negative and cognitive symptoms has led to a paradigm shift from dopaminergic to glutamatergic dysfunction in pharmacological models of schizophrenia...
June 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Rodrigo Simoes-Silva, Jorge Alfonso, Ana Gomez, Rudson J Holanda, Juliana C Sobrinho, Kayena D Zaqueo, Leandro S Moreira-Dill, Anderson M Kayano, Fernando P Grabner, Saulo L da Silva, Jose R Almeida, Rodrigo G Stabeli, Juliana P Zuliani, Andreimar M Soares
BACKGROUND: Research involving snake venom has gradually surpassed the simple discovery of new molecules using purification and structural characterization processes, and extended to the identification of their molecular targets and the evaluation of their therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, this only became possible due to constant progress in experimental biology and protein purification approaches. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to discuss the main components of snake venoms that have been investigated for biotechnological purposes, and to discover how these promising biomolecules were obtained with the satisfactory degree of purity that have enabled such studies...
June 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Alexander S Keller, T C Stevenson Keller, Leon J DeLalio, Guleer Shahab, Yang Yang, Sara Murphy, Xiaohong Shu, Brant E Isakson
Replacement therapies have revolutionized treatment paradigms in metabolic diseases by restoring defective enzymes and supplementing missing downstream metabolites. Through most of the 20th century, no targeted therapies existed for these conditions, the only treatment options available focusing on symptoms rather than the underlying disorders. Improved understanding of the molecular pathways underlying metabolic disease has allowed not only supplementation of missing metabolites and reduction of upstream substrates, but replacement of defective or missing enzymes...
June 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Jiawei Chen, Liandong Hu, Guang Yang, Qiaofeng Hu
Insulin (INS) has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Due to its large molecular weight and short half-life, it has been usually been administered subcutaneously accompanied with side effects such as the possibility of hypoglycemia episodes, weight gain and inadequate post-meal glucose control. In order to overcome these limitations, alternative delivery routes of insulin are expected to provide better safety and compliance for the patient. Non-invasive insulin delivery system represents one of the most challenging goals for pharmaceutical industry...
June 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ryan L Setten, Helen L Lightfoot, Nagy A Habib, John J Rossi
Oligonucleotide drug development has revolutionised the drug discovery field allowing the notoriously "undruggable" genome to potentially become "druggable". Within this field, 'small' or 'short' activating RNAs (saRNA) are a more recently discovered category of short double stranded RNA with clinical potential. SaRNAs promote endogenous transcription from target loci, a phenomenon widely observed in mammals known as RNA activation (RNAa). The ability to target a particular gene is dependent on the sequence of the saRNA...
June 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Janko Ignjatovic, Urban Svajger, Matjaz Ravnikar, Peter Molek, Darko Zadravec, Alenka Paris, Borut Strukelj
BACKGROUND: Development of new recombinant biotechnology products has greatly expanded in the field of modern pharmacy and medicine. Since biological recombinant molecules are sensitive, simple or composed proteins, their function is heavily dependent of their structure. In addition to their efficacy, biological medicinal products could show side effects such as immunogenicity. METHODS: Therefore, detection and characterization of protein structural variants is essential during development and quality control of therapeutic proteins that might trigger immunogenic response in organism...
June 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ingy Moustafa Hashad, Nancy Mahmoud Hossni, Mohamed Farouk Abdel Rahman, Mohamed Shehata, Gamal Shaban, Mohamed Zakaria Gad
BACKGROUND: Despite the significance of the traditional risk factors, recently published studies have suggested that inflammatory processes and variations in the genetics of the inflammatory system may participate in the initiation of atherosclerosis and its complications. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible association between CD14 C(-260)T (rs2569190) gene polymorphism and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in the Egyptian population. METHODS: We enrolled 100 acute myocardial infarction patients in addition to 107 healthy controls...
June 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Manisha Pandey, Hira Choudhury, Ong Cai Yeun, Hoh Mei Yin, Tan Win Lynn, Celine Lee Yen Tine, Ng Sin Wi, Kelly Chau Chui Yen, Cheng Swee Phing, Prashant Kesharwani, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Bapi Gorain
BACKGROUND: Targeting chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor tissues and achieving accumulation with ideal release behavior for desired therapy requires an ideal treatment strategy to inhibit division of rapid growing cancerous cells and as an outcome improve patient's quality of life. However, majority of the available anticancer therapies are well known for their systemic toxicities and multidrug resistance. METHODS: Application of nanotechnology in medicine have perceived a great evolution during past few decades...
June 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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