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Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Jing Lu, Zhenning Wang, Mengrou Ren, Guoren Huang, Baochen Fang, Xiujuan Bu, Yanhui Liu, Shuang Guan
In the study, we investigated the antibacterial activity and mechanism of gallic acid against Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria. Gallic acid showed strong antimicrobial activity against the two bacteria. Furthermore, the antibacterial mechanism of gallic acid (0, 3, 6, 12 mM ) was performed by membrane integrity assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) assay. The results showed that gallic acid notably increased the released material absorption value at 260, 280 nm and electric conductivity in a dose-dependent manner...
October 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Jéssica P Costa, Md T Ul-Islam, Pauline S Santos, Paula B Ferreira, George L S Oliveira, Marcus V O B Alancer, Marcia F C J Paz, Éverton L F Ferreira, Chistiane M Feitosa, Antonia M G L Citó, Damião P Sousa, Ana Amelia C Melo-Cavalcante
Phytol (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol; PHY), the alcoholic diterpenoid is particularly interesting due to its diverse activities found in literature. This study evaluated in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity of PHY. For this we conducted DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS•+ (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical scavenging tests as in vitro, while Saccharomyces cerevisiae test as in vivo. For in vitro tests, trolox and for in vivo test hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were taken as standard and stressor, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Yung-Hao Wong, Chia-Chiun Chiu, Chih-Lung Lin, Ting-Shou Chen, Bo-Ren Jheng, Yu-Ching Lee, Jeremy Chen, Bor-Sen Chen
In recent years, many systems biology approaches have been used with various cancers. The materials described here can be used to build bases to discover novel cancer therapy targets in connection with computer-aided drug design (CADD). A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of cancer will provide more choices and correct strategies in the development of multiple target drug therapies, which is quite different from the traditional cancer single target therapy. Targeted therapy is one of the most powerful strategies against cancer and can also be applied to other diseases...
October 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Zhizhen Chen, Liping Wang, Tianshu Xu, Qifei Wang, Lishan Kang, Qi Zhao
Bispecific antibodies with binding specificities for two different antigens have prompted a lot of interest into their development and application. Currently, more than ten bispecific antibodies have been clinically validated for the treatment of various diseases, including cancers and inflammatory diseases. Intensive studies in antibody engineering drive the generation of different bispecific antibody formats that differ in size and shape. However, the most prominent formats, such as IgG-single-chain (sc) Fv or dual-variable domain (DVD) IgG, deviating from the natural IgG structure, may lead to manufacturing difficulties or increase the potential risk of immunogenicity...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Fernando de Andrés, Adrián Llerena
Intra- and/or inter-individual variability in drug response is mainly a result of either sub-therapeutic or supratherapeutic plasma levels of the active drugs and their metabolites, with this variability mainly being influenced by differences in the rate of drug metabolism. Indeed, drug metabolism is largely determined by genetic polymorphism in the CYP enzymes, which are responsible for approximately 85% of the drug metabolism process. However, this genetic heterogeneity can accurately predict actual drug metabolizing capacity (oxidation phenotype) for some individuals: poor metabolizers (PMs), who cannot produce the drug metabolizing enzymes, and 20% of ultra-rapid metabolizers...
September 26, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Yasser Omar, Naglaa Abd El Khalik Gobba, Mohammed Abdalla Hussein
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used against infections caused by Gram-negative microorganisms. Nephrotoxicity is the main limitation to its therapeutic use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of astaxanthin on the renal damage generated by gentamicin in rats, in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. The daily oral administration of the astaxanthin at a concentration of 50 mg/kg for 15 days to gentamicin (80 mg/kg...
September 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Hee-Jin Choi, Hee-Jung Choi, Mi-Joo Park, Tae-Wook Chung, Myungsoo Joo, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Hyun-Wook Chang, Jong-Keun Son, Ki-Tae Ha
BACKGROUND: The root barks of Ulmus davidiana Nakai (Ulmaceae) is a traditional Korean medicinal plant used for treating inflammatory disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the Nrf2 activating effect of U. davidiana and founded a novel candidate for Nrf2 activator from its ingredient compounds. METHODS: The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. The Nrf2 activity was examined by luciferase-reporter assay and western blot analysis. The expression of Nrf2-dependent anti-oxidant genes was estimated by RT-PCR...
September 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Anis Fadhlina Izyani Awang, Sahena Ferdosh, Zaidul Islam Sarker, Hassan Ibrahim Sheikh, Kashif Ghafoor, Kamaruzzaman Yunus
Stereospermum fimbriatum is one of medicinal plants that has been claimed to be used traditionally to treat several illnesses such as stomachache, earache, skin irritation and postpartum illness. The genus of this plant is known to possess medicinal properties in every part of the plant. Therapeutic potential of S. fimbriatum is anticipated based on numerous previous studies that documented variety of phytochemical contents and bioactivity of the genus. The most reported bioactivities of its genus are antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal and analgesic activity...
September 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Wei Xu, Xiuhua Yan, Rong Shao, Ligen Chen, Zengguang Ke
Castor cake is the residue in castor oil production in which many active components exist and the major one of which is ricinine. In this study, optimization of extraction of ricinine from castor cake using ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) was investigated to obtain high yield and purity by Box-Behnken design (BBD) response surface design. The optimal condition of extraction were achieved: ultrasound power 342 W, extracting time 5 min, microwave power 395 W, non significant factor of liquid/solid ratio 1:10...
September 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Uğur Serbes, Özlem Dağdeviren Özsöylemez, Gül Özcan
We aim to determine the regulation of apoptosis by paclitaxel-induced and understand cancer dynamics to treatment targets for HeLa cells by identifying of decrease/increase genes expression on HeLa cells. In this study, the anti-tumor effects of Paclitaxel (PAC) on HeLa cells have been studied in order to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of these effects. PAC has been applied to HeLa cells in 6 different doses (3, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120 nM) for 48 hours and the IC50 dose MTT method, has been determined with apoptic index (AI) DAPI...
September 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Shirin Mahmoodi, Navid Nezafat, Abolfazl Barzegar, Monica Negahdaripour, Ali-Reza Nikanfar, Nosratollah Zarghami, Younes Ghasemi
Breast cancer (BC) remains as one of the important causes of cancer deaths among women globally. Therefore, finding an effective treatment for BC is really needed. Cancer immunotherapy, as an emerging field, has a notable role in BC therapy. Peptide vaccines possess an outstanding role among different strategies in cancer immunotherapy. In vaccine design for cancer, induction of cellular and humoral immune responses should be considered. In the current study, cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes were evoked from human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), mucin 1 protein (MUC1), and heparanase antigenic proteins; and helper T lymphocytes (HTL) epitopes were determined from survivin protein by various immunoinformatics servers...
September 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Rani Mansuri, Md Yousuf Ansari, Sindhuprava Rana, Jagbir Singh, Sahil Sinha, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Pradeep Das
Glucose-1-Phosphate Thymidylyltransferase (RmlA) is one of the enzymes in rhamnose biosynthesis pathway, where rhamnose act as linker of peptidoglycan and arabinogalacton in the cell wall, therefore RmlA is a potential enzyme for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). To go into the depth of the structure for exploring binding regions, homology model of RmlA was built in Prime, Schrodinger v9.2. The model with lowest Discrete Optimized Potential Energy (DOPE) score of -35524.17 kcal/mol and RMSD of 0...
September 9, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Narjes Ebrahimi, Sara Rasoul-Amini, Ali Niazi, Nasrollah Erfani, Ali Moghadam, Alireza Ebrahiminezhad, Younes Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Multifunctional nanostructures have received great deal of attention in biomedical area due to their capabilities in the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Silver and iron oxide nanoparticles, owing to their specific characteristics, are considered to develop bifunctional hybrid nanoparticles for magnetic delivery of silver nanoparticles as cytotoxic agent toward cancer cells. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to explore the in-vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of three different silver-iron oxide binary hybrid nanoparticles on human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line...
September 7, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Jing-Jing Wang, Xu-Qiao Feng, Yang Yu, Zhen Zhang, Yu-Hui Du, Rong-Jian Su, Bai-Qing Zhang
Physalis pubescens L. (P. pubescens) is an edible plant used in folk medicine in China. There is traditional, but not scientific, evidence for the anti-tumour effects of P. pubescens. This study aimed to identify whether, or not, antioxidants rich in phenols and flavonoids from fruits and calyxes of P. pubescens can be a candidate for the further development of an anti-hepatoma fraction, and if such biological effects coupled with reactive oxygen species (ROS) changes, can provide a direction for subsequent biological action...
September 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Futa Mimoto, Taichi Kuramochi, Hitoshi Katada, Tomoyuki Igawa, Kunihiro Hattori
Monoclonal antibodies are currently the most attractive therapeutic modality in a broad range of disease areas, including infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and oncology. Fc engineering is one attractive application to maximize the value or overcome the drawbacks of monoclonal antibodies for therapeutic use. With the Fc region, antibodies bind to several types of receptors, such as Fc gamma receptors, a complement receptor, and a neonatal Fc receptor. Through this interaction with the receptors, antibodies demonstrate unique functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, complement dependent cytotoxicity, agonistic activity, and endosomal recycling...
August 24, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Lili Wang, Tianlei Ying
Protein-based therapeutics has become one of the most rapidly growing and successful drug class in the clinic. However, there are still a number of key challenges that need to be addressed before the full therapeutic potential of protein drugs can be realized. Of note, many biologically active proteins have very short in vivo half-lives, a fact that has greatly hindered their clinical applications. Consequently, several different strategies including polyethylene glycol modification and fusion with Fc or albumin have been developed and implemented to prolong the serum half-life of protein therapeutics...
August 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Yu Zhao, Kun Zhao, Kai Jiang, Shanshan Tao, Yunxia Li, Wenwen Chen, Shumeng Kou, Chenrong Gu, Zongrui Li, Lusheng Guo, Kelvin Xi Zhang
Plants of Cassia genus is a large tropical genus with about 600 species which were widely used as folk medicines in China and India. This genus has been known to possess various biological activity, such as antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, antimutagenic activity, etc. The presented review summarizes the isolated and characterized flavonoids from various Cassia species and their reported biological activity. It will provide reference basis for their further research and development of the Cassia genus...
August 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Antonio L G Júnior, Márcia F C J Paz, Marcus V O B Alencar, Md T Islam, Paulo M P Ferreir, Ana A C Melo-Cavalcante
Toxicity assessment is an important tool in drug discovery and development. PT-31 (3-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-imidazolidine-2,4-dione) is an imidazolidine-2,4-dione analogue of clonidine that displays a dose-dependent analgesic profile and synergism with morphine. This study investigated genotoxic and mutagenic effects of PT-31 in Swiss mice. For this ten mice (M1:F1) per group were treated with PT-31 intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg. The DMSO (0.5%) and 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide ( i.p.) were taken as negative (NC) and positive controls, respectively...
August 11, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ekin Ergin, Arın Dogan, Mahmut Parmaksiz, A Eser Elcin, Y Murat Elcin
Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (TR-FRET) is a fluorescence based technique which enables the analysis of molecular interactions in biochemical processes. Principle of TR-FRET is based on time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) measurement and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between donor and acceptor molecules. Donor and acceptor molecules must show spectral overlap and should be in close proximity to each other and display suitable dipole orientation to generate FRET signal. The specific signal is acquired from desired molecules via interactions of donor and acceptor molecules...
August 9, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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