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Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Beniamin Grabarek, Dominika Wcisło-Dziadecka, Barbara Strzałka-Mrozik, Jolanta Adamska, Urszula Mazurek, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the expression of genes - TNF-α, IFN- γ , depending on the time and concentration of IL-12 used to expose the Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF) cells. METHODS: The material for the Study included NHDF exposed to IL-12 in various IL-12 concentrations (1/10/100 ng/ml) and exposure time (0,5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h, 24h), compared to the control. Changes in gene expression were evaluated with the use of the RTqPCR method...
January 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Mona Saffarzadeh
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), extruded decondensated chromatin entangled with neutrophil proteases, have been first identified in neutrophils stimulated with bacteria or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) via activation of NADPH oxidase and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Although the first findings demonstrated the beneficial role of NET formation by trapping the bacteria and limiting their dissemination, numerous studies in the recent decade revealed the multifunctional aspects of NET formation which manifests itself not only in the context of anti-microbial effect but also as a pathological trigger...
January 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Silvia Fischer
The innate immune system protects against infectious microbes by the recognition of pathogen- associated molecular patterns, which serve to detect pathogens on the host cell surface or in endosomes by pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-1-like receptors, mannose-receptor, or retinoic acid-inducible gene-1- like receptors that initiate proper host defense mechanisms. In addition to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, a series of endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns, such as nucleic acids, are recognized by pattern recognition receptors, which serve as body´s own alarm signals under sterile conditions, such as ischemic injuries, trauma, tumors, tissue transplants, or autoimmune diseases...
January 10, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Mujde Eryilmaz, Suna Sibel Gurpinar, Ismail Murat Palabiyik, Haluk Guriz, Devran Gerceker
BACKGROUND: The genus Lactobacillus has recently been the focal point of researchers due to their ability to produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify vaginal Lactobacillus sp. by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequence, to investigate into antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites produced by these isolates and to determine the quantities of lactic acid, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in secondary metabolites using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography...
January 10, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Sidra Rehman, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Bushra Ijaz, Zahra Jabeen, Sheikh Riazuddin
BACKGROUND: Plants extracts and their bioactive constituents can provide alternative approach for new treatment. Pakistani flora reveals huge, largely untapped source of potential antiviral constituents. OBJECTIVE: High cost concerns of direct-acting anti-HCV drugs limit their employment specifically in developing countries like Pakistan. Therefore discovery of inexpensive and nontoxic agents are needed for HCV treatment. METHODOLOGY: In this study we used plasmid constructs of pCR3...
January 4, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Elena Neumann, Rebecca Hasseli, Uwe Lange, Ulf Müller-Ladner
Chronic inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and local hypoxia lead to synovial cell activation causing severe joint damage in chronic-inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The pro-inflammatory and joint-destructive property of the increased release of extracellular nucleic acids has been demonstrated for extracellular mitochondrial DNA and oxidized DNA using an arthritis model. Microparticles derived from different cells are able to transport nucleic acids to distant cells and promote cellular activation in RA...
January 2, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ceccarelli Elena, Mattaliano Chiara, Brazzi Angelica, Marinetti Adriana Chiara, Nigi Laura, Chirico Chiara, Corallo Claudio, Fioravanti Antonella, Giordano Nicola
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids are powerful and effective anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. They have a wide use in the treatment of different diseases, even though their side effects, such as hypertension, osteoporosis and, in particular, diabetes, are well known. They can exacerbate hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus or facilitate the development of a metabolic disease in apparently healthy subjects, the so called steroid-induced diabetes mellitus. This last is an independent risk factor for other complications associated with the use of glucocorticosteroids...
January 2, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Anna-Kristina Kluever, Elisabeth Deindl
Extracellular RNA (eRNA), composed of mainly rRNA e.g. released upon cell injury, has previously been shown to have three main detrimental functions in the context of cardiovascular disease: (1) to promote tissue edema by activating the VEGF signal transduction cascade, disrupting endothelial tight junctions and increasing intercellular permeability; (2) to induce thrombus formation by activating the contact phase system of intrinsic blood coagulation; and (3) to increase inflammation by stimulating leukocyte adhesion and transmigration and the mobilization of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
January 2, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ravi Prakash Srivastava, Pooja Dixit, Lav Singh, Praveen C Verma, Gauri Saxena
There is a growing trend of herbal medicines in India as well as other parts of the world. The use of herbal medicines alone or alongside prescription drugs for disease management is quite common now. We hereby carry out a review of dominant species of Selinum mainly S. vaginatum C.B. Clarke and S. wallichianum (DC.) Raizada & H.O. Saxena which are potent source of herbal medicine and whose potential is still not exploited. They are found in Northern Himalayas in the states of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India, and also distributed in adjoining countries like China, Nepal, and West Pakistan...
December 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Quan Guo, Qing Yang, Jun Li, Guipeng Liu, Igor Nikoulin, Steve Jia
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most common cancers in female reproductive system and deadliest gynecological cancer in the United States. Standard treatments by surgery and platinum based chemotherapy are not satisfied for the patients with high risk of relapse. Advances in molecular biology for EOC development have brought several targeted therapies to benefit recurrent patients. Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) may be one of most successful classes of targeted therapies with three approved medicines...
December 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Kaskamol Chanpokapaiboon, Pichayatri Khoonrit, Gorawit Yusakul, Thaweesak Juengwatanatrakul, Waraporn Putalun, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Seiichi Sakamoto, Satoshi Morimoto
BACKGROUND: Pueraria candollei var. mirifica (P. candollei), known as White Kwao Krua in Thai, has long been used in traditional Thai medicine for the symptoms of menopause due to the potent estrogenic activity exhibited by the isoflavonoids and chromenes it contains. Recently, health hazards caused by P. candollei-derived products have been arisen in Japan, and demands for analytical methods to standardize the P. candollei have been increasing. Previously, we have focused on quantifying the unique P...
December 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Pérez-Escalante Emmanuel, Cariño-Cortés Raquel, Fernández-Martínez Eduardo, I Ortiz Mario, Muñoz-Pérez Víctor Manuel, Sánchez-Crisóstomo Isabel B Jiménez-Ángeles Luis Isabel, Jiménez-Ángeles Luis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second and third most frequent cancer in women and men, respectively; indeed, CRC is placed as the fourth world's most deadly cancer (after lung, liver, and stomach cancer). The incidence of CRC is strongly influenced by nutrition and the high fat/high carbohydrate Western-style diet. CRC is one of the most intensively studied cancer types, partly because of its high prevalence, but also because of the existence of its precursor lesions, tubular or villous adenomas, and more recently serrated adenomas...
December 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ewa Białecka-Florjańczyk, Agata Fabiszewska, Bartłomiej Zieniuk
Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites belonging to polyphenol classes, widely spread throughout the plant kingdom. The name "phenolic acids", in general, describes phenols that possess one carboxylic acid functionality and they could be divided into three major subclasses: hydroxybenzoic, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxyphenylacetic acids. The great interest in phenolic acids is associated with their high potential for food preservation (antioxidant and antimicrobial activity) and, last but not least, high therapeutic potential...
December 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Javaid Alam, Ibrahim Jantan, Endang Kumolosasi, Mohd Azlan Nafiah, Muhammed Ahmed Mesaik
BACKGROUND: Standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus has been shown to possess inhibitory effects on cellular and humoral immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats and Balb/c mice. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the standardized extract of P. amarus was investigated for its suppressive effects on type II collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (TCIA) in Sprague Dawley rats. METHOD: The major components of the extracts, lignans and phenolic compounds were analysed by using a validated reversed phase HPLC and LC-MS/MS...
December 11, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Nickolas Rigopoulos, Eleni Thomou, Αntonios Kouloumpis, Eleni Rafaela Lamprou, Varvara Petropoulea, Dimitrios Gournis, Efthymios Poulios, Haralampos C Karantonis, Efstathios Giaouris
In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Banana Peel Extract (BPE), and characterized using UV- Vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). UV - Vis absorbance spectroscopy showed the characteristic plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 433 nm. Nanoparticle size (between 5 and 9 nm) was measured using AFM, whereas their crystallinity was shown by XRD. FTIR identified the ligands that surround the nanoparticle surface...
December 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Maria Mantzorou, Constantinos Giaginis
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common and costly public health issue. The bacterium Escherichia coli is mainly responsible for most uncomplicated UTIs. Cranberry antibacterial effects have extensively been studied in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of action of its bioactive components and their clinical benefits against UTIs. In this aspect, the present review aims to critically analyze the current clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of supplementing cranberry products against UTIs in different subpopulations...
December 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Kazuki Iwashita, Masahiro Mimura, Kentaro Shiraki
This review article presents the concepts of aggregates, coaggregates, and liquid droplet of proteins and compares the concentrated states in the presence of small additives to control their formation and dissociation. The aggregates composed of single protein molecules result mainly from hydrophobic interactions between unfolded protein molecules. Thus, the aggregation of protein can be effectively suppressed by small additives that increase the solubility of hydrophobic solutes, typically arginine (Arg) and chaotropes...
December 3, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Alberto Cingolani, Carlo Francesco Grottoli, Raffaella Esposito, Tomaso Villa, Filippo Rossi, Giuseppe Perale
The further functionalization of natural existing biomaterials is a very efficient method to introduce additional advanced characteristics on a unique structural composition and architecture. As an example, different animal sources, if properly treated, can be used to develop bone xenograft active in hard tissues regeneration. In this sense, it is also important to consider that the selected process has to take into consideration the intrinsic variability of the base material itself and possibly being able to compensate for it...
November 28, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Marcin Opł Awski, Konrad Dziobek, Iwona Adwent, Dariusz Dabrus, Beniamin Grabarek, Nikola Zmarzł Y, Andrzej Plewka, Dariusz Boroñ
BACKGROUND: Endoglin is a marker of active, proliferating endothelial cells of blood vessels. In many cancers, it is present in both peripheral vessels and vessels located inside tumor. Endoglin is more specific and sensitive compared to other tumor angiogenesis markers. It is suggested that endoglin can be considered a reliable marker of disease outcome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the expression of endoglin and to determine its potential usefulness as a complementary molecular marker of endometrial cancer...
November 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Ehsan Mahdinia, Ali Demirci, Aydin Berenjian
BACKGROUND: Benefits of vitamin K have been reported by many studies recently, due to its ability to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and its potential benefits against osteoporosis. Specifically, menaquinone-7 (MK-7), being the most potent form of vitamin K, has definitely received most of the attention. Currently, solid or static liquid fermentation strategies are utilized for industrial production of MK-7 by Bacillus strains. However, these strategies face fundamental operational and scale-up issues as well as intense pellicle and biofilm formations which is problematic in static liquid fermentation, due to heat and mass transfer inefficiencies they create...
November 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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