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Current Protein & Peptide Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521712/biomarkers-for-sarcopenia-reductionism-vs-complexity
#1
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Cesari, Matteo Tosato, Federico Marini, Ester Manes-Gravina, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
Sarcopenia, the progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength/function, is a major health issue in older adults, given its high prevalence and the burdensome clinical ramifications. The absence of a unified operational definition for sarcopenia has hampered its full appreciation by healthcare providers, researchers and policy-makers. At the same time, this unresolved debate and the complexity of musculoskeletal aging pose major challenges to the identification of clinically meaningful biomarkers...
May 15, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521711/mini-heme-proteins-designability-of-structure-and-diversity-of-functions
#2
Jagdish Rai
Natural heme proteins may have heme bound to poly-peptide chain as a cofactor via non-covalent forces or heme as a prosthetic group may be covalently bound to the proteins. Nature has used porphyrins in diverse functions like electron transfer, oxidation, reduction, ligand binding, photosynthesis, signaling, etc. by modulating its properties through diverse protein matrices. Synthetic chemists have tried to utilize these molecules in equally diverse industrial and medical applications due to their versatile electro-chemical and optical properties...
May 15, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521710/physicochemical-and-structural-studies-on-shaping-of-%C3%AE-hairpin-in-proteins-as-a-first-stage-of-amyloid-formation
#3
Joanna Makowska
The aggregation of proteins or their digested fragments through β-sheet structures has a great significance because it leads to neurodegenerative diseases, which are a problem of the aging societies of the developed countries. Short peptides are typically used as models to study the formation of specific structures. However, while the formation of α-helical structure was investigated thoroughly, until recently, there have been much fewer studies on the formation of β-structure. In this review, recent experimental and theoretical studies of β-hairpin-forming peptides, both model alanine-based systems, and those based on the fragments of real proteins, are summarized with regard to the role of hydrophobic, local, and Coulombic interactions...
May 15, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474566/computational-methods-to-predict-protein-functions-from-protein-protein-interaction-networks
#4
Bihai Zhao, Jianxin Wang, Fang-Xiang Wu
Predicting functions of proteins is a key issue in the post-genomic era. Some experimental methods have been designed to predict protein functions. However, these methods cannot accommodate the vast amount of sequence data due to their inherent difficulty and expense. To address these problems, a lot of computational methods have been proposed to predict the function of proteins. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the current techniques for computational prediction of protein functions. We begin with introducing the formal description of protein function prediction and evaluation of prediction methods...
May 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462693/sarcopenia-in-patients-with-advanced-liver-disease
#5
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Antonio Gasbarrini
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and function, affecting up to 70% of patients with advanced liver disease. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by an altered glucose metabolism, lipid oxidation, ketogenesis and protein catabolism, leading to the loss of adipose and muscle tissue. The gastrointestinal dysfunction of cirrhotic patients results in inadequate nutrients intake and is responsible for muscle weakness thus limiting physical exercise and perpetuating the reduction of muscle mass. Recently, alterations of hormonal pathways involved in muscle growth, increased intestinal permeability and changes in the gut microbiota composition have been reported in cirrhotic patients...
April 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440187/genetic-modifications-of-icosahedral-plant-virus-based-nanoparticles-for-vaccine-and-immunotherapy-applications
#6
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Vaccine development is one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine. Vaccines made of live-attenuated pathogens can revert to virulent live strains, which causes safety concerns. On the other hand, the use of purified antigenic components as subunit vaccines is safer, but less effective, as these components induce lower levels of protective immunity. Multiple copy presentation of an antigenic determinant in a well-ordered and well-defined orientation on a nanosized particle can mimic the natural host-pathogen surface interaction to provide antigen stability and immunogenicity similar to that of conventional vaccines with improved safety...
April 24, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393701/defense-related-proteins-from-chelidonium-majus-l-as-important-components-of-its-latex
#7
Robert Nawrot
The aim of this review is to cover most recent research on plant pathogenesis- and defense-related proteins from latex-bearing medicinal plant Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae) in the context of its importance for latex activity, function, pharmacological activities, and antiviral medicinal use. These results are compared with other latex-bearing plant species and recent research on proteins and chemical compounds contained in their latex. This is the first review, which clearly summarizes pathogenesis-related (PR) protein families in latex-bearing plants pointing into their possible functions...
April 6, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393700/mammalian-pseudokinase-trib3-in-normal-physiology-and-disease-charting-the-progress-in-old-and-new-avenues
#8
Tiit Örd, Tõnis Örd
Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) is a mammalian gene that is upregulated in response to several types of cell death-inducing cellular stress. The TRIB3 protein is a pseudokinase, a protein kinase-like scaffold with impaired catalytic activity. However, research has revealed it to be prolific at forming protein-protein interactions. By binding to and regulating the activity of several key proteins, including the protein kinase Akt and transcription factors ATF4, CHOP and NF-κB, TRIB3 is at a junction of several signaling pathways...
April 6, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356045/pathophysiological-implications-of-dipeptidyl-peptidases
#9
Akira Sato, Hisakazu Ogita
Dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs) belong to one of the protease families classified under EC 3.4.14 in the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. DPPs family consists of eight members in the mammalian species. They play a role in oligopeptide N-terminal processing and degradation of bioactive peptides. Over the past 20 years, most of the studies have been focused on DPP 4 that has important roles in metabolism and immunity. A large number of pharmacological inhibitors against DPP 4 have been tested rigorously and some of them are now used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity...
March 29, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355998/bioactive-molecule-loaded-drug-delivery-systems-to-optimize-bone-tissue-repair
#10
João Augusto Oshiro, Mariana Rillo Sato, Cassio Rocha Scardueli, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes Oliveira, Marina Paiva Abuçafy, Marlus Chorilli
Bioactive molecules such as peptides and proteins can optimize the repair of bone tissue; however, the results are often unpredictable when administered alone, owing to their short biological half-life and instability. Thus, the development of bioactive molecule-loaded drug delivery systems (DDS) to repair bone tissue has been the subject of intense research. DDS can optimize the repair of bone tissue owing to their physicochemical properties, which improve cellular interactions and enable the incorporation and prolonged release of bioactive molecules...
March 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317484/redox-systems-antioxidants-and-sarcopenia
#11
Bertrand Fougère, Gabor Abellan van Kan, Bruno Vellas, Matteo Cesari
According to the free-radical theory of aging, oxidative stress is a key contributor to the onset of age-related conditions by inducing structural and functional alterations in several cellular components. Although innate defenses exist for limiting the occurrence of such detrimental effects, their ability to counteract the continuous and large production of reactive oxygen species becomes increasingly inefficient with aging. In this context, interventions aimed at preserving the homeostatic balance between oxidant production and antioxidant protection may be beneficial on the pathophysiological modifications and clinical manifestations featuring the aging process...
March 17, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215168/contributions-of-the-interaction-between-dietary-protein-and-gut-microbiota-to-intestinal-health
#12
Ning Ma, Yanan Tian, Yi Wu, Xi Ma
There is growing recognition that composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota can be modulated by the dietary proteins which in turn impact health. The amino acid composition and digestibility of proteins, which are influenced by its source and amount of intake, play a pivotal role in determining the microbiota. Reciprocally, it appears that the gut microbiota is also able to affect protein metabolism which give rise to the view that function between the microbiota and protein can proceed in both directions...
February 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190389/phosphoproteomics-protein-phosphorylation-in-regulation-of-seed-germination-and-plant-growth
#13
Xiaojian Yin, Xin Wang, Setsuko Komatsu
Seed germination and plant growth are key stages in the plant life cycle and they are affected by abiotic stresses. Protein phosphorylation is commonly involved in key regulatory process, which mediates plant growth/development and stress responses. In plant, phosphoproteins play roles in stress responses and provide basic backbone in complex signaling networks. The mechanism of plant responses to abiotic stresses has been uncovered through study of protein phosphorylation. Recently, the methods for enrichment of phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins have been developed...
February 9, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190388/protein-kinases-in-shaping-plant-architecture
#14
Juan Wu, Bo Wang, Xiaoyun Xin, Dongtao Ren
Plant architecture, the three-dimensional organization of the plant body, includes the branching pattern and the size, shape, and position of organs. Plant architecture is genetically controlled and is influenced by environmental conditions. The regulations occur at most of the stages from the first division of the fertilized eggs to the final establishment of plant architecture. Among the various endogenous regulators, protein kinases and their associated signaling pathways have been shown to play important roles in regulating the process of plant architecture establishment...
February 9, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190387/engineering-crops-for-future-a-phosphoproteomics-approach
#15
Vinay Kumar, Tushar Khare, Mansi Sharma, Shabir Hussain Wani
Abiotic stresses like salinity, drought, heat, metal, radiation and oxidative stress, and especially their combinations are major limiting factors for growth and productivity of the crops. Various molecular and biochemical processes governing the plant responses to abiotic stresses have often been investigated and hold the key for producing high-yielding and abiotic stress-tolerant crops. Plant responses to abiotic stresses are dynamic and intricate, and vary with type, level, and duration of the stress involved, as well as on the type of tissue under stress...
February 9, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164758/angiotensin-peptides-as-at2-receptor-agonists
#16
Mathias Hallberg, Jonas Sävmarker, Anders Hallberg
In 2004, the first nonpeptide selective angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist was reported. This nonpeptide (C21), which, exerts anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions in vivo, has been extensively explored and is currently in clinical trials. Subsequently, a large number of related drug-like AT2R agonists have been disclosed. Reviews that summarize known structure-activity relationships (SAR) of nonpeptide AT2R agonists have recently appeared in the literature; however, very few reviews discuss the role of angiotensin peptides as AT2R agonists...
February 3, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079013/natural-product-inhibitors-of-topoisomerases-review-and-docking-study
#17
L Scotti, F J B Mendonça Júnior, F F Ribeiro, J F Tavares, M S Da Silva, J M Barbosa Filho, M T Scotti
Since ancient times, natural products have been used in treating various diseases effectively and safely. Nowadays, these natural compounds are submitted to sophisticated methodologies from isolation, computing, analytical, and even serving as pharmacophore suggestions for synthesis. The substances extracted from marine species, plants, and microorganisms present activities beneficial to our health, including protection against malignant tumors. The topoisomerase enzymes play an important role in DNA metabolism, and searching for enzyme inhibitors is an important target in the search for new anticancer drugs...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079012/antioxidant-peptides-from-terrestrial-and-aquatic-plants-against-cancer
#18
Marquez-Rios Enrique, Del-Toro-Sánchez Carmen Lizette
Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, the search for new and less aggressive treatments is currently the focus of the anticancer research. An attractive alternative for this purpose is the use of bioactive peptides from plants. Plants live everywhere on Earth, both on land and in water, and they are a major source of diverse molecules with pharmacological potential as antioxidant peptides. Hence, this review focuses on the importance of the antioxidant activity of terrestrial and aquatic plant peptides against cancer throughout several mechanisms...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079011/molecular-mechanisms-of-anticancer-effects-of-phytoestrogens-in-breast-cancer
#19
Chia-Jung Hsieh, Ya-Ling Hsu, Ya-Fang Huang, Eing-Mei Tsai
Phytoestrogens derived from plants exert estrogenic as well as antiestrogenic effects and multiple actions within breast cancer cells. Chemopreventive properties of phytoestrogens have emerged from epidemiological observations. In recent clinical research studies, phytoestrogens are safe and may even protect against breast cancer. In this brief review, the molecular mechanisms of phytoestrogens on regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, estrogen receptors, cell signaling pathways, and epigenetic modulations in relation to breast cancer are discussed...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079010/discovery-of-natural-product-proteasome-inhibitors-as-novel-anticancer-therapeutics-current-status-and-perspectives
#20
Hui Wang, Qingzhu Yang, Ping Dou, Huanjie Yang
Natural products serve as a main resource for drug discovery. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the primary intracellular protein degradation systems, which is responsible for the degradation of most short-lived, mis-folded and aged proteins. The proteasome is a validated target for cancer treatment, since cancer cells are more reliant on high levels of proteasome activity to maintain the dynamic protein homeostasis required for enhanced metabolism and unrestricted proliferation inherent in cancer cells...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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