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Current Protein & Peptide Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079013/natural-product-inhibitors-of-topoisomerases-review-and-docking-study
#1
L Scotti, F J B Mendonça Júnior, F F Ribeiro, J F Tavares, M S Da Silva, J M Barbosa Filho, M T Scotti
Since ancient times, natural products have been used in treating various diseases effectively and safely. Nowadays, these natural compounds are submitted to sophisticated methodologies from isolation, computing, analytical, and even serving as pharmacophore suggestions for synthesis. The substances extracted from marine species, plants, and microorganisms present activities beneficial to our health, including protection against malignant tumors. The topoisomerase enzymes play an important role in DNA metabolism, and searching for enzyme inhibitors is an important target in the search for new anticancer drugs...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079012/antioxidant-peptides-from-terrestrial-and-aquatic-plants-against-cancer
#2
Marquez-Rios Enrique, Del-Toro-Sánchez Carmen Lizette
Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, the search for new and less aggressive treatments is currently the focus of the anticancer research. An attractive alternative for this purpose is the use of bioactive peptides from plants. Plants live everywhere on Earth, both on land and in water, and they are a major source of diverse molecules with pharmacological potential as antioxidant peptides. Hence, this review focuses on the importance of the antioxidant activity of terrestrial and aquatic plant peptides against cancer throughout several mechanisms...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079011/molecular-mechanisms-of-anticancer-effects-of-phytoestrogens-in-breast-cancer
#3
Chia-Jung Hsieh, Ya-Ling Hsu, Ya-Fang Huang, Eing-Mei Tsai
Phytoestrogens derived from plants exert estrogenic as well as antiestrogenic effects and multiple actions within breast cancer cells. Chemopreventive properties of phytoestrogens have emerged from epidemiological observations. In recent clinical research studies, phytoestrogens are safe and may even protect against breast cancer. In this brief review, the molecular mechanisms of phytoestrogens on regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, estrogen receptors, cell signaling pathways, and epigenetic modulations in relation to breast cancer are discussed...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079010/discovery-of-natural-product-proteasome-inhibitors-as-novel-anticancer-therapeutics-current-status-and-perspectives
#4
Hui Wang, Qingzhu Yang, Ping Dou, Huanjie Yang
Natural products serve as a main resource for drug discovery. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is one of the primary intracellular protein degradation systems, which is responsible for the degradation of most short-lived, mis-folded and aged proteins. The proteasome is a validated target for cancer treatment, since cancer cells are more reliant on high levels of proteasome activity to maintain the dynamic protein homeostasis required for enhanced metabolism and unrestricted proliferation inherent in cancer cells...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079009/emerging-roles-of-calreticulin-in-cancer-implications-for-therapy
#5
Kavya Venkateswaran, Amit Verma, Anant Narayan Bhatt, Anju Shrivastava, Kailash Manda, Hanumantharao G Raj, Ashok Prasad, Christophe Len, Virinder S Parmar, Bilikere Dwarakanath
Calreticulin (CRT), initially identified as a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, has emerged as a multifunctional protein with roles in calcium homeostasis, molecular chaperoning and cell adhesion. Emerging evidence suggests its involvement in tumorigenesis facilitating proliferation, migration, and adhesion. CRT translocated to the cell surface (ecto-CRT) serves as a phagocytic signal for immunogenic cell death (ICD) mediated through dendritic cells (DCs) and cytotoxic T-cell activation thereby making tumors susceptible to immunotherapy-based anti-cancer strategies...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079008/walking-a-tightrope-a-perspective-of-resveratrol-effects-on-breast-cancer
#6
Caterina Bartolacci, Cristina Andreani, Augusto Amici, Cristina Marchini
It is an acknowledged fact that health benefits are derived from fruit- and vegetables-enriched diets. In particular, polyphenols, compounds bearing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, are ascribed for most of such beneficial effects. Among them, resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in numerous plant species, and more notably in grapes, has widely piqued the interest of the scientific community by virtue of its anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Moreover, evidence claiming resveratrol ability to hinder processes underlying all the three steps of carcinogenesis (tumor initiation, progression and metastasization) has propelled an incredibly massive number of studies aimed at enquiring its eventual clinical potential in the fight against cancer...
January 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059044/natural-product-inhibitors-of-histone-deacetylases-as-new-anticancer-agents
#7
Aysegul Hanikoglu, Ferhat Hanikoglu, Tomris Ozben
Acetylation and deactylation of histones are important determinants of gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from histones leading to suppression and regulation of epigenetic gene expression. Current studies have demonstrated that HDAC-inhibitors (HDACIs) inducing histone hyperacetylation are promising novel agents in cancer treatment. HDACIs have been shown to have significant anticancer effects with negligible toxicity in the preclinical studies. Ongoing clinial trials are being performed to investigate the efficiency of HDACIs in human cancers...
January 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059043/natural-products-as-anticancerous-therapeutic-molecules-with-special-reference-to-enzymatic-targets-topoisomerase-cox-lox-and-aromatase
#8
Swati Singh, Manika Awasthi, Veda P Pandey, Upendra Dwivedi
Cancer, characterized by uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cells, is affecting millions of people every year and estimated as the second leading cause of death. Its successful treatment yet remains a challenge due to the lack of selectivity, toxicity and the development of multi-drug resistant cells to the currently available drugs. Plant derived natural products hold great promise for discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals against cancer as evident by the fact that out of 121 drugs prescribed for cancer treatment till date, 90 are derived from plant sources...
January 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059042/alkaloids-as-cyclooxygenase-inhibitors-in-anticancer-drug-discovery
#9
Muhammad Ali Hashmi, Afsar Khan, Umar Farooq, Sehroon Khan
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and anticancer drug discovery is a very hot area of research at present. There are various factors which control and affect cancer, out of which enzymes like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) play a vital role in the growth of tumor cells. Inhibition of this enzyme is a very useful target for the prevention of various types of cancers. Alkaloids are a diverse group of naturally occurring compounds which have shown great COX-2 inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo...
January 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059041/antitumor-activity-of-isosteroidal-alkaloids-from-the-plants-in-the-genus-veratrum-and-fritillaria
#10
Yuanhong Shang, Qingdan Du, Simei Liu, Maksorvor Staadler, Shu Wang, Dongdong Wang
Isosteroidal alkaloids are a category of promising bioactive compounds which mostly exist in plants of genus Veratrum and Fritillaria. The pharmacological activities of isosteroidal alkaloids include antihypertensive, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, antithrombosis, among others. Recently, some studies show that this kind of alkaloids exhibited significant antitumor activity. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review focusing on their antitumor activity and mechanism of their antitumor activity. To fill the gap, in this review, we summarized antitumor effects of the isosteroidal alkaloids from genus Veratrum and Fritillaria on different tumors and the mechanisms of their antitumor activity...
January 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059040/natural-products-targeting-egfr-signaling-pathways-as-potential-anticancer-drugs
#11
Xiaoyu Wang, Linfeng Xu, Yuanzhi Lao, Hongmei Zhang, Hongxi Xu
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) belongs to ErbB family of tyrosine kinases, which plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and metastasis. In addition, tumors develop resistance to EGFR inhibitors due to the presence or development of point mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the receptor. There is an urgent need to develop new anti-EGFR agents with strong therapeutic activities. As the majority of anticancer drugs are of natural origin, natural products are a valuable source for the identification and development of novel treatment options for cancer...
January 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049392/chondroitin-sulfate-cs-lyases-structure-function-and-application-in-therapeutics
#12
Aruna Rani, Seema Patel, Arun Goyal
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) are the chief natural polysaccharides which reside in biological tissues mainly in extracellular matrix. These CS along with adhesion molecules and growth factors are involved in central nervous system (CNS) development, cell progression and pathogenesis. The chondroitin lyases are the enzyme that degrade and alter the CS chains and hence modify various signalling pathways involving CS chains. These CS lyases are substrate specific, can precisely manipulate the CS polysaccharides and have various biotechnological, medical and therapeutic applications...
January 2, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029078/nutrition-and-exercise-in-sarcopenia
#13
Stephen D Anton, Azumi Hida, Robert Mankowski, Andrew Layne, Lawrence Solberg, Arch G Mainous, Thomas W Buford
Sarcopenia is a debilitating condition that involves loss of muscle mass and function, which affects virtually everyone as they age, and can lead to frailty and ultimately disability. In growing recognition of the importance of both muscle strength and muscle mass relative to body size in contributing to functional decline, recent definitions have now incorporated grip strength and a correction for body mass as part of the key criteria that define sarcopenia. With this new definition, a much larger population of older adults are now at risk of sarcopenia...
December 27, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000554/a-homodimer-model-can-resolve-the-conundrum-as-to-how-cytochrome-p450-oxidoreductase-and-cytochrome-b5-compete-for-the-same-binding-site-on-cytochrome-p450c17
#14
Jessica K Holien, Michael W Parker, Alan J Conley, C Jo Corbin, Raymond J Rodgers, Lisandra L Martin
Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase (P450c17) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of cortisol in the zona fascicula of the adrenal cortex, and the synthesis of androgen precursors in the adrenal zona reticularis and the gonads. Each of these reactions require electrons transferred by the electron donor cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. The 17-hydroxylation of its substrate occurs in all cells where P450c17 is expressed. Remarkably, a second, subsequent reaction, namely the 17,20-lyase activity, only occurs in the zona reticularis and gonads...
December 20, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964700/parvalbumin-as-a-pleomorphic-protein
#15
Eugene A Permyakov, Vladimir N Uversky, Sergei E Permyakov
Parvalbumin (PA) is a classical small, mostly cytosolic Ca2+-binding protein of the EF-hand superfamily expressed in vertebrates in a tissue- and cell-specific manner, serving as a magnesium/calcium buffer. In the last decade novel data were published on structural peculiarities of PA, likely affecting its functionality. This review sums up these findings and discusses their potential physiological significance.
December 13, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915984/structure-function-and-evolution-of-clostridium-botulinum-c2-and-c3-toxins-insight-to-poultry-and-veterinary-vaccines
#16
P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034297/chemical-classification-of-cyclic-depsipeptides
#17
Lien Taevernier, Evelien Wynendaele, Bert Gevaert, Bart De Spiegeleer
Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are a family of cyclic peptide-related compounds, of which the ring is mainly composed of amino- and hydroxy acid residues joined by amide and ester bonds (at least one), leading to a wide diversity of fascinating chemical structures. They differ in both their ring structure and their side chains, especially by the nature of the unusual and non-amino acid building blocks. To date, however, there is no overall uniform chemical classification system available for CDPs and naming of the diverse family members is done rather arbitrarily...
November 28, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875966/recombinant-approaches-for-microbial-xylanases-recent-advances-and-perspectives
#18
Moumita Basu, Vishal Kumar, Pratyoosh Shukla
Xylanases are crucial enzymes to hydrolyse the xylan of plant hemicellulose in order to complete the carbon cycle. Xylanases have been used widely in a variety of industries ranging from food and feed industry to pulp and paper industry. Most of the industrial processes which using xylanase requires a thermostable and alkali stable enzyme. Therefore it is desired to produce high thermostable and alkali stable xylanase with high activity. In this review a number of molecular techniques are used in this genomic era have been utilized to enhance physiological properties of xylanases for greater commercial application in the industries...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875965/stimulation-of-laccase-biocatalysis-in-ionic-liquids-a-review-on-recent-progress
#19
Hao Liu, Xing Wu, Jianliang Sun, Shicheng Chen
It has been well known that laccases can directly or indirectly catalyze oxidation of a broad species of phenols, amines and many other electron acceptors. However, laccases as biocatalyst in "green" ionic liquids (ILs) media instead of conventional solvents are less known and regarded as an innovative research direction. The presence of ILs can either inhibit or stimulate laccase activity, strongly depending on water-miscibility and kosmotropic natures of ILs. In addition, enzyme source, mediator, pH as well as water content are very important factors which influence laccase activity and stability...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875964/bioengineering-for-microbial-inulinases-trends-and-applications
#20
Puneet Kumar Singh, Vishal Kumar, Ruby Yadav, Pratyoosh Shukla
Inulinase has attracted attention due to their number of applications in various industries viz. pharmaceuticals, food and bioethanol. Enzymes due to their unique properties and enormous power of catalysis at very wide range of temperature are always in demand in industries. There are certain techniques which are employed to improve the productivity of enzymes as well as enhancing their catalytic activity. Modeling of structure of inulinase will provide an overview of the catalytic domain and help in improvising catalytic potential...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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