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Current Protein & Peptide Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799503/understanding-the-role-and-mechanism-of-carbonic-anhydrase-v-in-obesity-and-its-therapeutic-implications
#1
Aarfa Queen, Parvez Khan, Amir Azam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
Obesity is a metabolic syndrome leading to several health problems such as hypertension, heart attack, type II diabetes, and even cancer. Carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) is a mitochondrial enzyme which is directly associated with the glucose homeostasis and considered as a promising target for obesity and other associated diseases in humans. So far, numerous inhibitors have been designed to inhibit the catalytic activity of CAVA with an assumption for its possible therapeutic uses against type II diabetes and other metabolic diseases...
August 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799502/mitochondrial-dynamics-and-proteins-related-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
Athanasios Alexiou, Bilal Nizami, Faez Iqbal Khan, Georgia Soursou, Charalampos Vairaktarakis, Stylianos Chatzichronis, Vasilis Tsiamis, Vasileios Manztavinos, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the occurrence of proteins misfolding lead to neuronal death, resulting in Age-related Dementia and Neurodegenerative diseases as well as Frailty. Functional, neurophysiologic and biochemical alterations within the mitochondrial populations can reveal deficits in brain energy metabolism resulting in Mild Cognitive Impairment, abnormal neural development, autonomic dysfunction and other mitochondrial disorders. Additionally, in cases of Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease, a significant number of proteins seems to form unordered and problematic structures, leading through unknown mechanisms to pathological conditions...
August 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762306/emerging-targets-and-latest-proteomics-based-therapeutic-approaches-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Munazza Tamkeen Fatima, Zeyaul Islam, Ejaj Ahmad, Parveen Salahuddin
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is achieved by the interplay among various components and pathways inside a cell. Dysfunction in proteostasis leads to protein misfolding and aggregation which is ubiquitously associated with many neurodegenerative disorders, although the exact role of these aggregate in the pathogenesis remains unknown. Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and others are characterized by the conversion of specific proteins aggregates into protein inclusions and/or plaques in degenerating brains...
July 31, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745222/impact-of-hydroxyl-radical-modified-human-serum-albumin-autoantigens-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Md Asad Khan, Khursheed Alam, Ghulam Md Ashraf, M Moshahid A Rizvi
Free radicals are important mediators for cell toxicity and pathogenesis of diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been generated broadly in inflammatory diseases including autoimmune diseases. ROS have been not only associated with the initiation and progression of the autoimmune response but also in amplification and exploring to novel epitopes, through the unveiling of antigenic determinants. This review explores the involvement of ROS in the pathophysiology of non-organ specific autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
July 25, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745221/rheumatic-heart-disease-pathogenesis-and-vaccine
#5
L Guilherme, S Freschi de Barros, K F Köhler, S R Santos, F Morais Ferreira, W R Silva, R Alencar, E Postol, J Kalil
Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) follow untreated S. pyogenes throat infections in children who present susceptible genes that favor the development of autoimmune reactions. In this review, we focus on the genes that confer susceptibility and on the autoimmune reactions that occur due to molecular mimicry between human-tissue proteins and streptococcal M protein. Polyarthritis is the initial manifestation, which can evolve to carditis and severe valve damage; these culminate in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) or Sydenham's chorea, which affects the central nervous system...
July 25, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745223/structure-function-of-serine-and-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-their-inhibitors
#6
Parveen Salahuddin, Amit Kumar, Asad U Khan
Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria has emerged as a major health threat that occurs because these bacteria actively produce β-lactamases responsible for the inactivation of β-lactam antibiotics. The first β lactamase was reported in E. coli back in 1940, before the release of the first antibiotic penicillin in clinical settings. Later on, large numbers of β-lactamases have been discovered in Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria as well as mycobacteria. Currently, numerous three-dimensional structures of serine and metallo-β-lactamases have been solved...
July 24, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714397/prognostic-value-of-copeptin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-general-population-to-end-stage-renal-disease
#7
Edyta Golembiewska, Anna Machowska, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is released in response to osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli and plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The main function of AVP is the control of fluid homeostasis by inducing water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells. Produced in hypothalamus from a larger precursor, pre-proAVP, AVP is produced in equimolar amounts to copeptin, a glycopeptide with yet unknown biologic function...
July 14, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707598/protein-tagging-destruction-and-infection
#8
Chetana Bhaskarla, Manoj Bhosale, Pip Banerjee, Nagasuma Chandra, Dipankar Nandi
Cells possess protein quality control mechanisms to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. In eukaryotes, the roles of the ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of cellular proteins is well established. Recent studies have elucidated protein tagging mechanisms in prokaryotes, involving transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA) and pupylation. In this review, newer insights and bioinformatics analysis of two distinct bacterial protein tagging machineries are discussed. The machinery for tmRNA-mediated tagging is present in several eubacterial representatives, e...
July 13, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699512/a-review-of-the-mechanism-of-action-of-amphibian-antimicrobial-peptides-focusing-on-peptide-membrane-interaction-and-membrane-curvature
#9
T V Vineethkumar, Sanil George
Research interests on amphibian antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are currently increasing because of their capability to combat microorganisms from both terrestrial and aquatic environments, which are the warehouses of human pathogens. The most remarkable feature of AMPs are their mechanism of action, primarily targeted to anionic membranes. Researchers have postulated many models to describe peptide- membrane interaction, which leads to membrane permeation/intracellular targeting. Despite these models information regarding the relationship between membrane curvature and peptide-membrane interaction is scarce...
July 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699511/striatal-enriched-tyrosine-protein-phosphatase-step-in-the-mechanisms-of-depressive-disorders
#10
Elizabeth Kulikova, Alexander Kulikov
Striatal-enriched tyrosine protein phosphatase (STEP) is expressed mainly in the brain. Its dysregulation is associated with Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome, drug abuse and stroke/ischemia. However, an association between STEP and depressive disorders is still obscure. The review discusses the theoretical foundations and experimental facts concerning possible relationship between STEP dysregulation and depression risk. STEP dephosphorylates and inactivates several key neuronal signaling proteins such as extracellular signal-regulating kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), stress activated protein kinases p38, the Src family tyrosine kinases Fyn, Pyk2, NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors...
July 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699510/cell-penetrating-peptides-a-promising-tool-for-the-cellular-uptake-of-macromolecular-drugs
#11
Peipei Zhu, Lan Jin
The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is a selective impermeable barrier for the internalization of most macromolecules. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) could cross the plasma membrane barrier to deliver various molecules into cells and are considered as a promising tool to deliver macromolecular drugs. However, the exact cellular uptake mechanisms of CPPs are still ambiguous. It was reported that the exact cellular uptake pathway was determined by numerous factors such as the amino acid sequences (hydrophobicity and net charge), extracellular CPP concentration, cargoes' properties, cell type and the temperature...
July 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637405/molecular-dynamics-simulations-challenges-and-opportunities-a-biologist-s-prospective
#12
Indu Kumari, Padmani Sandhu, Mushtaq Ahmed, Yusuf Akhter
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computational technique which is used to study biomolecules in virtual environment. Each of the constituent atoms represents a particle and hence the biomolecule embodies a multi-particle mechanical system analyzed within a simulation box during MD analysis. The potential energies of the atoms are explained by a mathematical expression consisting of different forces and space parameters. There are various software and force fields that have been developed for MD studies of the biomolecules...
June 21, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606038/site-related-effects-of-relaxin-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-through-nitric-oxide-signaling-an-updated-report
#13
Rachele Garella, Roberta Squecco, Maria Caterina Baccari
The peptide hormone relaxin (RLX), in addition to its effects on reproduction, has been reported to influence gastrointestinal motility. Interestingly, the digestive tract has been shown to express RLX receptors and the hormone appears to exert site-specific effects acting at the neural or at the smooth muscle level, mainly by a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanism. NO, released by the enteric nerves and/or smooth muscle cells, is one of the main mediators of gastrointestinal relaxation. In fact, in murine in vitro preparations, RLX depresses organ motility acting at the neural level in the stomach and at the muscular level in the small intestine; conversely, in the colon, this hormone paradoxically increases contractility operating at both neural and muscle levels...
June 12, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595526/sarcopenia-an-overview-on-current-definitions-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Matteo Cesari, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Elena Ortolani, Giulia Savera, Sara Salini, Alex N Sisto, Anna Picca, Emanuele Marzetti
Sarcopenia, the progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength/function associated with aging, increases the risk of a vast array of adverse health outcomes, including falls, morbidity, loss of independence, disability, and mortality. As such, sarcopenia poses a huge socioeconomic burden in developed countries. The development and implementation of effective interventions against sarcopenia is therefore a public health priority. A preliminary, fundamental step in such a process entails the agreement of researchers, healthcare professionals and policy-makers around a unique operational definition of sarcopenia...
June 6, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595527/creatine-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-for-building-muscle-mass-review-of-the-potential-mechanisms-of-action
#15
Farnaz Farshidfar, Mark A Pinder, Semone B Myrie
Creatine, a very popular supplement among athletic populations, is of growing interest for clinical applications. Since over 90% of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle metabolism is a widely studied area. While numerous studies over the past few decades have shown that creatine supplementation has many favorable effects on skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, including enhancing muscle mass (growth/hypertrophy); the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
June 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554316/beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate-hmb-from-experimental-data-to-clinical-evidence-in-sarcopenia
#16
Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite derived from leucine and its ketoacid alpha-ketoisocaproate. Leucine has a role in regulating protein synthesis in muscle cells, and HMB seems to be a key active metabolite in such regulation. HMB has been shown to modulate muscle protein degradation by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, to up-regulate protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway, and to stabilize cell membranes via the rate limiting enzyme to cholesterol synthesis HMG- coenzyme A reductase...
May 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521712/biomarkers-for-sarcopenia-reductionism-vs-complexity
#17
Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Cesari, Matteo Tosato, Federico Marini, Ester Manes-Gravina, Roberto Bernabei, Francesco Landi, Emanuele Marzetti
Sarcopenia, the progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength/function, is a major health issue in older adults, given its high prevalence and the burdensome clinical ramifications. The absence of a unified operational definition for sarcopenia has hampered its full appreciation by healthcare providers, researchers and policy-makers. At the same time, this unresolved debate and the complexity of musculoskeletal aging pose major challenges to the identification of clinically meaningful biomarkers...
May 15, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521711/mini-heme-proteins-designability-of-structure-and-diversity-of-functions
#18
Jagdish Rai
Natural heme proteins may have heme bound to poly-peptide chain as a cofactor via non-covalent forces or heme as a prosthetic group may be covalently bound to the proteins. Nature has used porphyrins in diverse functions like electron transfer, oxidation, reduction, ligand binding, photosynthesis, signaling, etc. by modulating its properties through diverse protein matrices. Synthetic chemists have tried to utilize these molecules in equally diverse industrial and medical applications due to their versatile electro-chemical and optical properties...
May 15, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521710/physicochemical-and-structural-studies-on-shaping-of-%C3%AE-hairpin-in-proteins-as-a-first-stage-of-amyloid-formation
#19
Joanna Makowska
The aggregation of proteins or their digested fragments through β-sheet structures has a great significance because it leads to neurodegenerative diseases, which are a problem of the aging societies of the developed countries. Short peptides are typically used as models to study the formation of specific structures. However, while the formation of α-helical structure was investigated thoroughly, until recently, there have been much fewer studies on the formation of β-structure. In this review, recent experimental and theoretical studies of β-hairpin-forming peptides, both model alanine-based systems, and those based on the fragments of real proteins, are summarized with regard to the role of hydrophobic, local, and Coulombic interactions...
May 15, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474566/computational-methods-to-predict-protein-functions-from-protein-protein-interaction-networks
#20
Bihai Zhao, Jianxin Wang, Fang-Xiang Wu
Predicting functions of proteins is a key issue in the post-genomic era. Some experimental methods have been designed to predict protein functions. However, these methods cannot accommodate the vast amount of sequence data due to their inherent difficulty and expense. To address these problems, a lot of computational methods have been proposed to predict the function of proteins. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the current techniques for computational prediction of protein functions. We begin with introducing the formal description of protein function prediction and evaluation of prediction methods...
May 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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