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Current Protein & Peptide Science

P Chellapandi, A Prisilla
Clostridium botulinum group III strains are able to produce cytotoxins, C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin, along with botulinum neurotoxin types C and D. C2 toxin and C3 exotoxin produced from this organism are the most important members of bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase superfamily. Both toxins have distinct pathophysiological functions in the avian and mammalian hosts. The members of this superfamily transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to specific eukaryotic target proteins. The present review describes the structure, function and evolution aspects of these toxins with a special emphasis to the development of veterinary vaccines...
December 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Moumita Basu, Vishal Kumar, Pratyoosh Shukla
Xylanases are crucial enzymes to hydrolyse the xylan of plant hemicellulose in order to complete the carbon cycle. Xylanases have been used widely in a variety of industries ranging from food and feed industry to pulp and paper industry. Most of the industrial processes which using xylanase requires a thermostable and alkali stable enzyme. Therefore it is desired to produce high thermostable and alkali stable xylanase with high activity. In this review a number of molecular techniques are used in this genomic era have been utilized to enhance physiological properties of xylanases for greater commercial application in the industries...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Hao Liu, Xing Wu, Jianliang Sun, Shicheng Chen
It has been well known that laccases can directly or indirectly catalyze oxidation of a broad species of phenols, amines and many other electron acceptors. However, laccases as biocatalyst in "green" ionic liquids (ILs) media instead of conventional solvents are less known and regarded as an innovative research direction. The presence of ILs can either inhibit or stimulate laccase activity, strongly depending on water-miscibility and kosmotropic natures of ILs. In addition, enzyme source, mediator, pH as well as water content are very important factors which influence laccase activity and stability...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Puneet Kumar Singh, Vishal Kumar, Ruby Yadav, Pratyoosh Shukla
Inulinase has attracted attention due to their number of applications in various industries viz. pharmaceuticals, food and bioethanol. Enzymes due to their unique properties and enormous power of catalysis at very wide range of temperature are always in demand in industries. There are certain techniques which are employed to improve the productivity of enzymes as well as enhancing their catalytic activity. Modeling of structure of inulinase will provide an overview of the catalytic domain and help in improvising catalytic potential...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Brett Dallas Hill, Andrew Zak, Eshita Khera, Fei Wen
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are nanoscale biological structures consisting of viral proteins assembled in a morphology that mimics the native virion but do not contain the viral genetic material. The possibility of chemically and genetically modifying the proteins contained within VLPs makes them an attractive system for numerous applications. As viruses are potent immune activators as well as natural delivery vehicles of genetic materials to their host cells, VLPs are especially well suited for antigen and drug delivery applications...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Bianca M Scicchitano, Gigliola Sica
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly...
November 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yu-An Huang, Zhu-Hong You, Xing Chen
Drug-Target Interactions (DTI) play a crucial role in discovering new drug candidates and finding new proteins to target for drug development. Although the number of detected DTI obtained by high-throughput techniques has been increasing, the number of known DTI is still limited. On the other hand, the experimental methods for detecting the interactions among drugs and proteins are costly and inefficient. Therefore, computational approaches for predicting DTI are drawing increasing attention in recent years...
November 21, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jahangir Imam, Pratyoosh Shukla, Nimai Prasad Mandal, Mukund Variar
The structure and function of proteins involved in plant-microbe interactions is investigated through large-scale proteomics technology in a complex biological sample. Since the whole genome sequences are now available for several plant species and microbes, proteomics study has become easier, accurate and huge amount of data can be generated and analyzed during plant-microbe interactions. Proteomics approaches are highly important and relevant in many studies and showed that only genomics approaches are not sufficient enough as much significant information are lost as the proteins and not the genes coding them are final product that is responsible for the observed phenotype...
November 21, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Da-Som Kim, Jeong-Ran Choi, Jeong-Ae Ko, Kangmin Kim
Bacterial luminescence is the end-product of biochemical reactions catalyzed by the luciferase enzyme. Nowadays, this fascinating phenomenon has been widely used as reporter and/or sensors to detect a variety of biological and environmental processes. The enhancement or diversification of the luciferase activities will increase the versatility of bacterial luminescence. Here, to establish the strategy for luciferase engineering, we summarized the identity and relevant roles of key amino acid residues modulating luciferase in Vibrio harveyi, a model luminous bacterium...
November 21, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Sukanta S Bhattacharya, Jagjit S Yadav
Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a structurally conserved but functionally diverse group of heme-containing mixed function oxidases found across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms of the microbial world. Microbial P450s are known to perform diverse functions ranging from the synthesis of cell wall components to xenobiotic/drug metabolism to biodegradation of environmental chemicals. Conventionally, many microbial systems have been reported to mimic mammalian P450-like activation of drugs and were proposed as the in-vitro models of mammalian drug metabolism...
November 21, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Raushan Kumar Singh, Jung-Kul Lee, Chandrabose Selvaraj, Ranjitha Singh, Jinglin Li, Sang-Yong Kim, Vipin C Kalia
Proteins are one of the most multifaceted macromolecules in living systems. Proteins have evolved to function under physiological conditions and, therefore, are not usually tolerant of harsh experimental and environmental conditions. The growing use of proteins in industrial processes as a greener alternative to chemical catalysts often demands constant innovation to improve their performance. Protein engineering aims to design new proteins or modify the sequence of a protein to create proteins with new or desirable functions...
November 17, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Chen Meng, Li-Bin Guo, Xiaolong Liu, Yih-Hsin Chang, Yao Lin
With the rapid development of targeted therapy and our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, drug repurposing is becoming trendy in drug development field. Drugs that display promising therapeutic effects towards multiple diseases tend to target important signaling proteins. Insulin resistance and obesity are strongly associated and both are reported to be correlated with cancer, suggesting they may be linked via some critical pathways. Signal transducers and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is an important transcription factor involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, inflammation, and angiogenesis...
November 17, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Lei Wang, Zhu-Hong You, Xing Chen, Xin Yan, Gang Liu, Wei Zhang
Identification of interaction between drugs and target proteins plays an important role in discovering new drug candidates. However, through the experimental method to identify the drug-target interactions remain to be extremely time-consuming, expensive and challenging even nowadays. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new computational methods to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTI). In this article, a novel computational model is developed for predicting potential drug-target interactions under the theory that each drug-target interaction pair can be represented by the structural properties from drugs and evolutionary information derived from proteins...
November 14, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Guohua Huang, Fengxia Yan, Duoduo Tan
Drug discovery and development is not only a time-consuming and labor-intensive process but also full of risk. Identifying targets of small molecules helps evaluate safety of drugs and find new therapeutic applications. The biotechnology measures a wide variety of properties related to drug and targets from different perspectives, thus generating a large body of data. This undoubtedly provides a solid foundation to explore relationships between drugs and targets. A large number of computational techniques have recently been developed for drug target prediction...
November 14, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Ruby Yadav, Puneet Kumar Singh, Pratyoosh Shukla
Probiotic supplements in food industry have attracted a lot of attention and shown a remarkable growth in this field. Metabolic engineering (ME) approaches enable understanding their mechanism of action and increases possibility of designing probiotic strains with desired functions. Probiotic microorganisms generally referred as industrially important lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which are involved in fermenting dairy products, food, beverages and produces lactic acid as final product. A number of illustrations of metabolic engineering approaches in industrial probiotic bacteria have been described in this review including Transcriptomic studies of Lactobacillus reuteri and improvement in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis yield in Lactobacillus casei LC2W...
November 11, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Shanmugam Anusuya, Manish Kesherwani, Antonydhason Vimala, Shanmugam Gnanendra, D Velmurugan, Michael Gromiha
Identifying the interactions between drugs and target proteins is a key step in drug discovery. This not only aids to understand the disease mechanism, but also helps to identify unexpected therapeutic activity or adverse side effects of drugs. Hence, drug-target interaction prediction becomes an essential tool in the field of drug repurposing. The availability of heterogeneous biological data on known drug-target interactions enabled many researchers to develop various computational methods to decipher unknown drug-target interactions...
November 7, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Tianyuan Shi, Xuesong Sun, Qing-Yu He
With the rapid increase of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activities have been widely applied in the treatment of bacterial infection. Meanwhile, AgNPs also have anticancer activities to different cell lines. The toxic effects of AgNPs depend on concentration, size, shape, coated materials and surrounding environments. In order to better understand the antibacterial and antitumor effects of AgNPs, various investigations have been carried out to uncover the molecular mechanism of action...
November 7, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Ozge Bayraktar, Elif Ozkirimli, Kutlu O Ulgen
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) overexpression and elevated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels have been correlated with many disease states from cancer to inflammatory diseases to diabetes. Even though the discovery of SK1 inhibitors has been considered as effective chemotherapeutic agents, poor potency, lack of selectivity and poor pharmacokinetic properties have been major problems in the first generation SK1 inhibitors. Thus, there is an urgent need for the discovery of in vivo stable selective SK1 inhibitors with improved potency...
November 7, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jian-Yu Shi, Jia-Xin Li, Bo-Lin Chen, Yong Zhang
Experimental approaches to identify drug-target interactions (DTIs) among a large number of chemical compounds and proteins are still costly and time-consuming. As an assistant, computational approaches are able to rapidly infer potential drug or target candidates for diverse screenings in a large scale. The most difficult scenario (S4) of screenings tries to explore the pairwise interacting candidates between newly designed chemical compounds (new potential drugs) and proteins (new target candidates). Few of current computational approaches can be applied to the inference of potential DTIs in S4 because the new potential drugs have no known target and the new target candidates have no existing drug at all...
November 7, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yan-Jing Wang, Faez Iqbal Khan, Qin Xu, Dong-Qing Wei
The mitochondrial carrier family (solute carrier family 25) is a super family of nuclear-encoded transporters localized on the inner mitochondrial membranes. In human, the mitochondrial carrier family has 53 members, all with a ternary structure of six transmembrane α-helices. The structure of mitochondrial carrier family has three repeats of conservative motifs. The members of this family connect the inter membrane space and matrix of mitochondria, and transport various important small molecules across the inner membrane...
November 7, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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