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Current Protein & Peptide Science

Anjali Khajuria, Nandni Sharma, Renu Bhardwaj, Puja Ohri
Plants, being sessile organisms, are challenged by variety of stresses in the form of abiotic and biotic components of environment. In such adverse conditions, plants evolve various adaptive strategies in order to survive. Among these strategies, accumulation of polyamines in plants helps to combat stress. Polyamines are ubiquitous low molecular weight compounds, which are now known to be involved in stress tolerance as suggested by various pieces of evidence during abiotic and biotic stress. The anti-stress properties of polyamines in plants are illustrated by their roles in modulation of morphological growth parameters, elevation of photosynthetic pigments, as well as declined content of stress indices, antioxidative enzymes, and non-enzymatic antioxidants content...
July 18, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Qingwei Zhang, Xiao Bai, Yang Liu, Kai Wang, Xilin Sun, Baozhong Shen
Connexins are a family of gap junction proteins widely distributed in human organs and tissues. Gap junctions are organized systems of intercellular protein channels that allow the exchange of ions, chemical signals, and energy substrates between two adjacent cells. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most abundant isoform of connexins in the heart which play an important role in myocardium disease. Numerous studies have shown that Cx43 was involved in tumor migration and invasion by mediating gap junctions between tumor cells and normal cells...
July 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Ghulam Murtaza, Adeel Siddiqui, Izhar Hussain
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are caused by vascular dysfunction. The enhanced sensitivity to vasoconstrictors, reduced endothelium-derived vasodilators nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) indicate CV dysfunction. In recent years, recombinant human relaxin, known as serelaxin, has emerged as a new vasoactive drug that is useful in acute heart failure. First part of this review article encompasses the role of endogenous relaxin in CV homeostasis. Subsequently, vascular effects of serelaxin and the underlying modes of action in comparison to other vasodilators are discussed...
July 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Reza Mirnejad, Iman Razeghian Jahromi, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Javad Zibaei Nejad, Pia Lopez-Jornet
The incidence of cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis, is increasing alarmingly. Clarifying the underlying causes is of the utmost importance and should be elucidated in order to reduce this growing trend. Periodontitis is known as a chronic destructive disease with sophisticated pathophysiological mechanisms that slowly impose negative effects not only on the oral tissues but also on distant organs. Additionally, it has been shown in many studies that atherosclerosis and periodontitis utilized common inflammatory signaling pathways and mediators...
June 24, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Evandro Fei Fang, Lynn Froetscher, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Tzi Bun Ng
Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a common vegetable in Asia and it is distinctive for its bitter taste. As an ingredient in folk medicine, research from different laboratories in recent years supports its potential medicinal applications with anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV activities in both in vitro and animal studies. In this short review, we summarize herein the recent progress in the antitumor aspect of bitter melon with a focus on the underlying molecular mechanisms. Further mechanistic studies as well as clinical trials are necessary to further verify its medicinal applications...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Chen Ling, Yuanhui Zhang, Jun Li, Wenli Chen, Changquan Ling
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced in China for thousands of years. As a complementary and alternative treatment, herbal medicines that are frequently used in the TCM are the most accepted in the Western world. However, animal materials, which are equally important in the TCM practice, are not well-known in other countries. On the other hand, the Chinese doctors had documented the toxic profiles of hundreds of animals and plants thousand years ago. Furthermore, they saw the potential benefits of these materials and used their toxic properties to treat a wide variety of diseases, such as heavy pain and cancer...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Liang Zhang, Tzi Bun Ng, Jenny Ka Wing Lam, Shi Wei Wang, Lixing Lao, Kalin Yanbo Zhang, Stephen Cho Wing Sze
We discuss the diverse biological activities, therapeutic potential, and clinical applications of peptides and proteins isolated from various yams species including Dioscorea opposita Thunb (Chinese yam), D alata, D japonica (Japanese yam), D pseudojaponica, D batatas (Korea yam), and D cayenensis. Yam peptides and proteins have many pharmacological activities including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, estrogen-stimulating, osteogenic, angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibiting, carbonic anhydrase and trypsin inhibiting, chitinase, anti-insect, anti-dust mite, lectin, and anti-proliferative activities...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Rong Zhou, Zhaokun Liu, Yeni N Zhang, Tzi Bun Ng, Fang Liu
For centuries, mushrooms have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicine in Asia. Apart from polysaccharides and some small-molecule components, such as flavones, ployphenols and terpenes, mushrooms produce a large number of pharmaceutically active proteins, which have become popular sources of natural antitumor, antimicrobial, immunoenhancing agents. These bioactive proteins include lectins, laccases, ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), nucleases, and fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs). The review is to summarize the characters of structure and bioactivities involved in antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and immunoenhancing activities of proteins from edible mushrooms, to better understand their mechanisms, and to direct research...
June 12, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jack Ho Wong, Tzi Bun Ng, Hexiang Wang, Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Charlene Cheuk Wing Ng, Xiuyun Ye, Jie Yang, Fang Liu, Chen Ling, Ki Chan, Xiujuan Ye, Wai Yee Chan
A variety of fungi, plants, and their different tissues are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve health, and some of them are recommended for dietary therapy. Many of these plants and fungi contain antifungal proteins and peptides which suppress spore germination and hyphal growth in phytopathogenic fungi. The aim of this article is to review antifungal proteins produced by medicinal plants and fungi used in Chinese medicine which also possess anticancer and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enzyme inhibitory activities...
June 12, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yinglu Feng, Zifei Yin, Daniel Zhang, Arun Srivastava, Chen Ling
The success of gene and cell therapy in clinic during the past two decades as well as our expanding ability to manipulate these biomaterials are leading to new therapeutic options for a wide range of inherited and acquired diseases. Combining conventional therapies with this emerging field is a promising strategy to treat those previously-thought untreatable diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has evolved for thousands of years in China and still plays an important role in human health. As part of the active ingredients of TCM, proteins and peptides have attracted long-term enthusiasm of researchers...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Senjam Sunil Singh, J H Wong, Tzi Bun Ng, Wayenbam Sobhachandra Singh, Robert Thangjam
Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune origin which have at least one non-catalytic domain that bind reversibly to specific mono or oligosaccharides. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves a broad range of medicinal practices sharing common concepts which have been developed in China and are based on a tradition of more than thousands of years. Plant materials which are commonly used in TCM as a complementary or alternative for Western medical treatments contain a considerable number of important lectins...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yau Sang Chan, Jack Ho Wong, Tzi Bun Ng
The genus Panax consists of a group of prized medicinal herbs. Major members of the Panax genus include P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. vietnamensis. They possess various bioactive constituents such as ginsenosides, saponins, polysaccharides and proteins. Many of them were reported to show beneficial effects on human health. Ginsenosides and saponins of ginsengs caught the sight of most researchers. Precise investigations revealed their roles on improvement of the functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and other functions...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Can Lyu, Fanfu Fang, Bai Li
Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is a water-soluble toxic peptide of which a various biological effects have been identified to be useful in anti-tumor therapy. In addition, Melittin also has anti-parasitic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, it is a very attractive therapeutic candidate for human diseases. However, melittin induces extensive hemolysis, a severe side effect that dampens its future development and clinical application. Thus, studies of melittin derivatives and new drug delivery systems have been conducted to explore approaches for optimizing the efficacy of this compound, while reducing its toxicity...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Bassam H Sabha, Fuad Alzahrani, Hussein A Almehdar, Vladimir N Uversky, Elrashdy M Redwan
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is one of the milk components that is produced by the lactating mammary glands and released to the milk in the form of vesicles. MFGM surrounds milk fat globule secreted by the milk producing cells and has a complex structure containing various lipids (e.g., triacylglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol), proteins and other macromolecules. Among the proteinaceous components of MFGM is lactadherin, also known as milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein (MFG-E8). Being one of the main proteins present in MFGM, lactadherin is related to milk secretion, has antimicrobial and antiviral effects, and plays important roles in the immune defense as one of the immune system molecules...
June 7, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Oliviero Marinelli, Massimo Nabissi, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Luciana Torquati, Consuelo Amantini, Giorgio Santoni
BACKGROUND: The co-stimulatory B7 family members are cell-surface protein ligands, binding to receptors on lymphocytes to regulate immune responses. One of them is the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ligand (ICOS-L). This protein is expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), but it can also be expressed by endothelial cells, lung epithelium and in tumour microenvironment cells. ICOS-L is important for memory and effector T cells during the specific humoral immune responses, but its role in cancer is not yet understood...
June 7, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Luciano A Benedini, Noelia L Gonzalez Vidal, Maria Alejandra Gonzalez
Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory syndrome that affects mainly the intestine, but also other organs. This ailment is also affected by the physicochemical behavior of gluten as such. From the medical standpoint, this pathology results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. At the same time, gliadin (the alcohol-soluble fraction of gluten) along with other related oligomers, such as 33-gliadin, present high immunogenicity and are responsible for triggering of this disease. Within CD characterization, there are mainly two different approaches to carry out this study; one focuses on its chronic phase, while the other deals with its initial stages...
May 31, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yen-Wei Huang, Chun-Ting Lee, Ta-Chen Wang, Yun-Chung Kao, Chih-Hui Yang, Yu-Mei Lin, Keng-Shiang Huang
Dengue fever has become an imminent threat to international public health because of global warming and climate change. The World Health Organization proclaimed that more than 50% of the world's population is at risk of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Therefore, developing a clinically approved vaccine and effective therapeutic remedy for treating dengue fever is imperative. Peptide drug development has become a novel pharmaceutical research field. This article reviews various peptides-based antimicrobial agents targeting three pathways involved in the DENV lifecycle...
May 31, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Shreya Pramanik, Basir Ahmad
Arranging into well-organized fibrillar aggregate, commonly known as amyloid fibril is an inherent property of any polypeptide chain. Amyloid fibrils are associated with a number of severe human pathologies like the Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type2 diabetes and many more. Recent studies suggest that most of the fibrils are inert and extremely stable, thus could be used for the bio-nanotechnological applications. As the native state is protected by evolution from aggregation under physiological condition, understanding the structure of aggregation precursor state (APS) will be of extreme importance to decode mechanism of its formation and prevention...
May 20, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Sergei Khrapunov
The thermodynamic analyses of proteins, protein-ligands and protein-nucleic acid complexes involves the entropy-enthalpy (S-H) compensation phenomenon. We have examined the question whether the observed compensation is artificial or reflects anything more than the well-known laws of statistical thermodynamics (so-called extra-thermodynamic compensation). We have shown that enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) is mainly the trivial consequence of the basic thermodynamic laws and there are no experimental evidences for existence of the extra-thermodynamic compensation...
May 20, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Sung Woo Kim, Hongyu Chen, Wanpuech Parnsen
The high inclusion of dietary protein and the imbalance of amino acid (AA) composition in animal husbandry result in inefficient utilization of protein resources and increased nitrogen excretion. Therefore, an efficient approach to alleviate the nitrogen excretion and increase the utilization of protein resources is to formulate the AA-balance protein-restricted diet with crystalline AA supplementation. Nowadays, it is essential to thoroughly understand the regulatory mechanisms of AAs on body metabolism and their vital roles in protein-restricted diets...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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