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Current Protein & Peptide Science

Kedar Sharma, Arun Dhillon, Arun Goyal
β-mannanases have been shown to play an important role in various biological processes such as the cell wall component degradation, defence signalling in plants, the mobilization of storage reserves and in various industrial processes. To date, glycoside hydrolases (GHs) have been divided into 135 families and 14 clans from A to N based upon their sequence, overall structural fold and function. β-mannanases belong glycoside hydrolases and exist under four different glycoside hydrolase families, GH5, GH26, GH113 and GH134...
October 13, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Tzi Bun Ng, Jack Ho Wong
Antifreeze proteins are ice-binding or ice-structuring proteins that prevent water from freezing by adsorbing to the ice surface and stopping the growth of minute ice crystals to large crystals in a non-colligative manner. The antifreeze proteins are found in species like fish, arthropods, plants, algae, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. The diversity, distribution and classification of antifreeze proteins were highlighted in this review. Antifreeze proteins help the organisms adapt to and survive in subzero temperature environments...
October 12, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Javier A Linares-Pastén, Anna Aronsson, Eva Nordberg Karlsson
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) have gained increased interest as prebiotics during the last years. XOS and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) can be produced from major fractions of biomass including agricultural by-products and other low cost raw materials. Endo-xylanases are key enzymes for the production of (A)XOS from xylan. As the xylan structure is broadly diverse due to different substitutions, diverse endo-xylanases have evolved for its degradation. In this review structural and functional aspects are discussed, focusing on the potential applications of endo-xylanases in the production of differently substituted (A)XOS as emerging prebiotics, as well as their implication in the processing of the raw materials...
September 23, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Wei-Gang Wang, Wei-Xia Sun, Bao-Shan Gao, Xin Lian, Hong-Lan Zhou
The current lack of complete understanding of the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant barrier to its early diagnosis and treatment. Cell cycle arrest plays an important role in the protection of renal tubular epithelial cells and maladaptive repair following AKI. G1 phase cell arrest serves as a protective mechanism following AKI, avoiding replication of damaged DNA. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) are closely associated with G1 cell cycle arrest during the very early phase of cellular damage and can serve as an ideal biomarker to predict AKI...
September 15, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Seyed Jalal Kiani, Tahereh Taheri, Sima Rafati, Katayoun Samimi-Rad
RNA-binding proteins play critical roles in the regulation of gene expression. Among several families of RNA-binding proteins, PUF (Pumilio and FBF) proteins have been the subject of extensive investigations, as they can bind RNA in a sequence-specific manner and they are evolutionarily conserved among a wide range of organisms. The outstanding feature of these proteins is a highly conserved RNA-binding domain, which is known as the Pumilio-homology domain (PUM-HD) that mostly consists of eight tandem repeats...
September 14, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yue Xu, Qiang Zhang, Song Zeng, Zijiang Zhang, Xiaopeng Hu
In the past decade, rapid developments in stem cell studies have occurred. Researchers have confirmed the plasticity of bone marrow stem cells and the repair and regeneration effects of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells on solid organs. These findings have suggested the possibility of using bone marrow to repair and regenerate injured organs. Recent studies on the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Plerixafor (AMD3100) on mouse acute kidney injury models have confirmed that the use of bone marrow may be an effective therapeutic measure...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Chen Xiaohong, Lv WenLv, Liu ZhongHua, Shen Bo, Cao XueSen, Nie YuXin, Yu JiaWei, Xu JiaRui, Ding XiaoQiang, Zou JianZhou
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an effective therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, acute kidney injury (AKI) may occur after TACE due to the contrast agent and cytotoxic anticancer drugs used in this procedure. Post-TACE AKI is not an unusual event, and may adversely affect patient outcome. Coexisting situations including cirrhosis, renal insufficiency, diabetes and hypertension play a role in the development of HCC, and may predispose patients to AKI after TACE. Most post-TACE are transient and reversible, while prolonged AKI may predict a decreased survival...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Wenjun Shang, Zhigang Wang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications of various serious conditions, and early diagnosis is therefore critical for the treatment of AKI. Increase of the classic AKI biochemical markers such as serum creatinine is not evident until renal function is irreversibly damaged, which adds to the difficulties of early identification of AKI and results in an increase of the mortality rate. In order to improve the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis prediction of AKI, novel early markers of AKI are required...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Chao Zhang, Cheng Yang, Tongyu Zhu
Erythropoietin (EPO), recognized early as a tissue protective agent, can trigger anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic processes to delimit injury and promote repair by binding tissue-protective receptor (TPR). However, only at a high dosage can EPO exert tissue protective effect, which may elicit severe side-effects at the meantime. Helix B surface peptide (HBSP), a 11-amnio acid sequence derived from the non-erythropoietic helix B of EPO, not only shows higher affinity to TPR but also plays a more specific and powerful role in tissue protection without erythropoietic side-effects...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yufang Zhang, Weiwei Chen, Yuanyuan Wu, Bin Yang
The renoprotection of erythropoietin (EPO) and its derivatives such as helix B surface peptide (HBSP) have attracted a great deal of attention from scientists and clinicians alike. The evolutional achievement in the dissociation of tissue protection and erythropoiesis is obtained through HBSP characterisation and synthesis. We performed a series of studies using EPO mostly, as well as HBSP, in a variety of biological models subjected to transplant-related renal injuries such as ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and/or immunosuppressant nephrotoxicity...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Chao Hu, Chao Zhang, Cheng Yang
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is manifested by inflammation, and an early feature in the pathogenesis is the accumulation of immune cells in the kidney. Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a peculiar T cells subtype, serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Due to the difference between type I and type II subsets, NKT cells were supposed to play a dual role in IR-related tissue injury. Furthermore, membrane receptors and clinical immunosuppressive agents remain involved in the modulation of NKT cell function...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Hongfeng Huang, Jingyi Zhou, Jianghua Chen
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications in critically ill patients, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. AKI usually occurs after major surgery, severe infection or drug-induced nephrotoxicity and is associated with prolonged hospital stays, increased costs and adverse clinical outcomes. The diagnosis of AKI is currently based on decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output, and increased serum creatinine. Novel biomarkers are required for early identification of patients with AKI to allow timely therapy and improve patient outcomes...
September 9, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Olga Novikova, Olga Portnyagina, Tamara Solov Eva
Site-directed mutagenesis allows the elucidation of basic principles of membrane permeability and opens the possibility for modulation of functional states of porin channels. The review is aimed to show the advantages of using mutant and chemically modified porins for obtaining detailed information about molecular mechanisms that underlie the non-specific transmembrane diffusion. We summarized data regarding the affect of the point substitutions and the external loop deletions on electrophysiological properties of general porins...
September 5, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Francisco Boix, Anna Mrowiec, Manuel Muro
The morbidity and mortality after solid organ transplantation leads to poor outcomes in the long-term graft survival. There are many sources increasing bad outcomes within the post-transplant period reducing the quality of recipient´s life, such as rejection episodes, opportunistic infections as well as immunosuppression related morbidity. A complete understanding on the immune system responses against the allo-graft remains unknown. Recently, some pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-γ and IL-17, as well as IL-2, have been proposed as surrogate biomarkers able to predict the appearance of clinical event episodes...
September 2, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Asim Azhar, Ejaj Ahmad, Qamar Zia, Mohammad Owais, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Therapeutic proteins are engineered proteins produced in the laboratory for pharmaceutical use. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, the proteins can be generated in specific host cells under defined conditions. In the process of production of genetically engineered animals, the gene of interest can be added at a single cell stage to produce a cloned animal from genetically engineered cells. Several recombinant cytokines, clotting factors etc have been licensed and are currently being utilized for the treatment of cancer, infectious diseases, hemophilia, anemia, multiple sclerosis, and hepatitis B/C...
September 1, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Oliviero Carugo
Since the first and the last residues of a protein have peculiar properties, unique amongst all residues, they have been analyzed repeatedly during the last decades. In this brief review, I try to summarize, besides the biochemical roles, the five features that have attracted most attention: (i) the Euclidean distance between the N- and C-termini and its relevance to protein folding, (ii) the reason why the termini are solvent exposed, (iii) the backbone conformation of the termini, (iv) the amino acid composition of the termini, and (v) the role of the termini in protein crystallization...
August 22, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Eva Edilia Avila
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to examine the multiple activities of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in vertebrates. CONTENT: The largest AMP families are the cathelicidins and defensins, but several peptides derived from bigger proteins have also been reported. Cathelicidins are characterized by a conserved N-terminal pro-region and a variable region that encodes the C-terminal mature peptide. The β-defensins comprise a large family of AMPs that have diversified their functions, apparently without losing their antimicrobial activity...
August 13, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Renata Toth, Adel Toth, Csaba Vagvolgyi, Attila Gacser
The prevalence of Candida parapsilosis, an opportunistic human pathogenic fungal species, is increasing at an alarming rate in the hospital environment. Patients at risk for C. parapsilosis infection include those with immunosuppression, such as individuals with cancer, AIDS, and low birth weight premature neonates as well as patients that had undergone abdominal surgery. Neonatal candidiasis caused by C. parapsilosis has been widely reported across the globe. Various reports have shown that, compared to other Candida species, certain C...
August 13, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Pedro Jimenez-Sandoval, Laura Margarita Lopez-Castillo, Carlos H Trasviña-Arenas, Luis G Brieba
The number of protein folds in nature is limited, thus is not surprising that proteins with the same fold are able to exert different functions. The cysteine protease inhibitors that adopt an immunoglobulin-like fold (Ig-ICPs) are inhibitors encoded in bacteria and protozoan parasites. Structural studies indicate that these inhibitors resemble the structure of archetypical proteins with an Ig fold, like antibodies, cadherins or cell receptors. The structure of Ig-ICPs from four different protozoan parasites clearly shows the presence of three loops that form part of a protein-ligand interaction surface that resembles the antigen binding sites of antibodies...
August 13, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Diana Fabiola Díaz-Jiménez
Fungal pathogens affect a wide variety of hosts, such as human beings, plants, animals, and insects. The course of infection relies on the virulence grade of the fungus and the strength of the defense mechanisms of the host. Virulence factors are closely related to the cell surface; cell wall proteins have a crucial role in adhesion, hyphal development, hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, immunomodulation and surface variation. The enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis are not proper virulence factors, but they are necessary for cell function...
August 13, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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