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Current Protein & Peptide Science

Ankita Solanki, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Thomas P Johnston, Kedar S Prabhavalkar
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe sight-threatening complication of diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina and is the most common cause of vision impairment and blindness among diabetic patients. DR develops as a result of various changes in the ocular environment. Such changes include accelerated mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production, and formation of acellular capillaries. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one of the major culprits in causing DR. Under physiological conditions, MMPs cause remodeling of the extracellular matrix in the retina, while under pathological conditions, they induce retinal cell apoptosis...
September 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Cesar Lopez-Camarillo, Dolores Gallardo-Rincon, Erika Ruiz-Garcia, Horacio Astudillo de la Vega, Laurence A Marchat
Epithelial ovarian cancer is a serious public health problem worldwide with the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic cancers. The current standard-of-care for the treatment of ovarian cancer is based on chemotherapy based on adjuvant cisplatin/carboplatin and taxane regimens that represent the first-line agents for patients with advanced disease. The DNA repair activity of cancer cells determines the efficacy of anticancer drugs. These features make DNA repair mechanisms a promising target for novel cancer treatments...
September 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Maria-Eugenia DeCastro, Juan-Jose Escuder-Rodriguez, Maria-Esperanza Cerdan, Manuel Becerra, Esther Rodriguez-Belmonte, Maria-Isabel Gonzalez-Siso
β-galactosidases (EC., which hydrolyze lactose to glucose and galactose, have two main applications in the food industry: the production of low-lactose milk and dairy goods for lactose intolerant people, and the generation of galacto-oligosaccharides by transgalactosylation reactions. Due to their thermostability, β-galactosidases from thermophilic microorganisms are very interesting for industrial processes, as high temperatures can increase the initial productivity of the enzyme, provide higher solubility of substrates, and prevent microbial contamination...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Mohamed A Eldeeb, Mohamed A Ragheb
The majority of tRNA studies has focused on tRNA molecules as pivotal player in the fundamental process of protein synthesis. Mounting studies have unveiled further functions for tRNA beyond protein synthesis, including non-ribosomal amino acid transfer, and regulation of targeted proteolysis. Post-translational N-terminal arginylation of protein fragments, a non-ribosomal amino acid transfer, is one of the crucial ways by which tRNA participates in various protein degradation trajectories and influences global cellular functions...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Arkadiusz Urbanski, Grzegorz Rosinski
Despite much research on the insect immune system, hormonal regulation of its activity is not well-understood. Previous research on insect neuroendocrinology suggests that neuropeptides may play an important role in the regulation of the insect immune system. Especially recent studies dealing for example with adipokinetic hormones, bursicon or insulin-like peptides provided deeper insights on this issue showing that neuropeptides can modulate various aspects of insect immune responses, both at the molecular and cellular level...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Evandro Fei Fang, Lynn Froetscher, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Tzi Bun Ng
Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a common vegetable in Asia and it is distinctive for its bitter taste. As an ingredient in folk medicine, research from different laboratories in recent years supports its potential medicinal applications with anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV activities in both in vitro and animal studies. In this short review, we summarize herein the recent progress in the antitumor aspect of bitter melon with a focus on the underlying molecular mechanisms. Further mechanistic studies as well as clinical trials are necessary to further verify its medicinal applications...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Chen Ling, Yuanhui Zhang, Jun Li, Wenli Chen, Changquan Ling
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced in China for thousands of years. As a complementary and alternative treatment, herbal medicines that are frequently used in the TCM are the most accepted in the Western world. However, animal materials, which are equally important in the TCM practice, are not well-known in other countries. On the other hand, the Chinese doctors had documented the toxic profiles of hundreds of animals and plants thousand years ago. Furthermore, they saw the potential benefits of these materials and used their toxic properties to treat a wide variety of diseases, such as heavy pain and cancer...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Liang Zhang, Tzi Bun Ng, Jenny Ka Wing Lam, Shi Wei Wang, Lixing Lao, Kalin Yanbo Zhang, Stephen Cho Wing Sze
We discuss the diverse biological activities, therapeutic potential, and clinical applications of peptides and proteins isolated from various yams species including Dioscorea opposita Thunb (Chinese yam), D alata, D japonica (Japanese yam), D pseudojaponica, D batatas (Korea yam), and D cayenensis. Yam peptides and proteins have many pharmacological activities including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, estrogen-stimulating, osteogenic, angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibiting, carbonic anhydrase and trypsin inhibiting, chitinase, anti-insect, anti-dust mite, lectin, and anti-proliferative activities...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Rong Zhou, Zhaokun Liu, Yeni N Zhang, Tzi Bun Ng, Fang Liu
For centuries, mushrooms have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicine in Asia. Apart from polysaccharides and some small-molecule components, such as flavones, ployphenols and terpenes, mushrooms produce a large number of pharmaceutically active proteins, which have become popular sources of natural antitumor, antimicrobial, immunoenhancing agents. These bioactive proteins include lectins, laccases, ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), nucleases, and fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs). The review is to summarize the characters of structure and bioactivities involved in antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and immunoenhancing activities of proteins from edible mushrooms, to better understand their mechanisms, and to direct research...
June 12, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Tzi Bun Ng, Hexiang Wang, Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Jack Ho Wong, Charlene Cheuk Wing Ng, Xiuyun Ye, Jie Yang, Fang Liu, Chen Ling, Ki Chan, Xiujuan Ye, Wai Yee Chan
A variety of fungi, plants, and their different tissues are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve health, and some of them are recommended for dietary therapy. Many of these plants and fungi contain antifungal proteins and peptides which suppress spore germination and hyphal growth in phytopathogenic fungi. The aim of this article is to review antifungal proteins produced by medicinal plants and fungi used in Chinese medicine which also possess anticancer and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enzyme inhibitory activities...
June 12, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yinglu Feng, Zifei Yin, Daniel Zhang, Arun Srivastava, Chen Ling
The success of gene and cell therapy in clinic during the past two decades as well as our expanding ability to manipulate these biomaterials are leading to new therapeutic options for a wide range of inherited and acquired diseases. Combining conventional therapies with this emerging field is a promising strategy to treat those previously-thought untreatable diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has evolved for thousands of years in China and still plays an important role in human health. As part of the active ingredients of TCM, proteins and peptides have attracted long-term enthusiasm of researchers...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Senjam Sunil Singh, J H Wong, Tzi Bun Ng, Wayenbam Sobhachandra Singh, Robert Thangjam
Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune origin which have at least one non-catalytic domain that bind reversibly to specific mono or oligosaccharides. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves a broad range of medicinal practices sharing common concepts which have been developed in China and are based on a tradition of more than thousands of years. Plant materials which are commonly used in TCM as a complementary or alternative for Western medical treatments contain a considerable number of important lectins...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yau Sang Chan, Jack Ho Wong, Tzi Bun Ng
The genus Panax consists of a group of prized medicinal herbs. Major members of the Panax genus include P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. vietnamensis. They possess various bioactive constituents such as ginsenosides, saponins, polysaccharides and proteins. Many of them were reported to show beneficial effects on human health. Ginsenosides and saponins of ginsengs caught the sight of most researchers. Precise investigations revealed their roles on improvement of the functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and other functions...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Can Lyu, Fanfu Fang, Bai Li
Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is a water-soluble toxic peptide of which a various biological effects have been identified to be useful in anti-tumor therapy. In addition, Melittin also has anti-parasitic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, it is a very attractive therapeutic candidate for human diseases. However, melittin induces extensive hemolysis, a severe side effect that dampens its future development and clinical application. Thus, studies of melittin derivatives and new drug delivery systems have been conducted to explore approaches for optimizing the efficacy of this compound, while reducing its toxicity...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Sung Woo Kim, Hongyu Chen, Wanpuech Parnsen
The high inclusion of dietary protein and the imbalance of amino acid (AA) composition in animal husbandry result in inefficient utilization of protein resources and increased nitrogen excretion. Therefore, an efficient approach to alleviate the nitrogen excretion and increase the utilization of protein resources is to formulate the AA-balance protein-restricted diet with crystalline AA supplementation. Nowadays, it is essential to thoroughly understand the regulatory mechanisms of AAs on body metabolism and their vital roles in protein-restricted diets...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jing Wang, Haifeng Ji
Protein is essential to growth and metabolism. Many factors influence dietary protein digestion and utilization in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics have attracted increasing attention in recent years owing to their broad health benefits, which may include a positive influence on the digestion and utilization of proteins. Several observations support their potential role in protein digestion. For example, probiotics can regulate the intestinal microflora and thereby influence intestinal bacteria related to proteolysis...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Guangyong Zhao
Cattle supply important amounts of nutritious products such as beef and milk for human consumption. However, cattle excrete large amounts of feces and urine with low utilization rate of dietary crude protein (CP). These not only negatively affect the global environment by emission of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and N bleaching the soil and underground water, but also increase the feed cost. The low nitrogen (N) utilization rate of cattle could possibly result from the activity of rumen microorganisms degrading feed protein...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jianfei Zhao, Xiaoya Zhang, Hongbin Liu, Michael A Brown, Shiyan Qiao
Dietary protein and its metabolites, amino acids are essential nutrients for human and animals. Accumulated researches revealed that the gut microbiota mediate the crosstalk between protein metabolism and host immune response. Gut microbes are involved in the digestion, absorption, metabolism and transformation process of dietary protein in the gastrointestinal tract. Amino acids can be metabolized into numerous microbial metabolites, and these metabolites participate in various physiological functions related to host health and diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Liyuan Hao, Qiang Shan, Jingya Wei, Fengtao Ma, Peng Sun
Lactoferrin (lactotransferrin; Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein and one of the most important bioactivators in milk and other external secretions. It has numerous biological roles, including the regulation of iron absorption and modulation of immune responses, and has anti-microbial, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Lf regulates the quantity of iron absorbed in the intestine via its role in iron transport and can also chelate iron, directly or indirectly. Notably, it has been used as an adjuvant therapy for some intestinal diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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