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Current Protein & Peptide Science

Sung Woo Kim, Hongyu Chen, Wanpuech Parnsen
The high inclusion of dietary protein and the imbalance of amino acid (AA) composition in animal husbandry result in inefficient utilization of protein resources and increased nitrogen excretion. Therefore, an efficient approach to alleviate the nitrogen excretion and increase the utilization of protein resources is to formulate the AA-balance protein-restricted diet with crystalline AA supplementation. Nowadays, it is essential to thoroughly understand the regulatory mechanisms of AAs on body metabolism and their vital roles in protein-restricted diets...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jing Wang, Haifeng Ji
Protein is essential to growth and metabolism. Many factors influence dietary protein digestion and utilization in the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics have attracted increasing attention in recent years owing to their broad health benefits, which may include a positive influence on the digestion and utilization of proteins. Several observations support their potential role in protein digestion. For example, probiotics can regulate the intestinal microflora and thereby influence intestinal bacteria related to proteolysis...
May 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Guangyong Zhao
Cattle supply important amounts of nutritious products such as beef and milk for human consumption. However, cattle excrete large amounts of feces and urine with low utilization rate of dietary crude protein (CP). These not only negatively affect the global environment by emission of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and N bleaching the soil and underground water, but also increase the feed cost. The low nitrogen (N) utilization rate of cattle could possibly result from the activity of rumen microorganisms degrading feed protein...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jianwen He, Huiduo Guo, Weijiang Zheng, Wen Yao
Stress shows both direct- and indirect-effects on the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular on the mucus physiology and the composition of microbiota. Mucus mainly consists of heavily glycosylated proteins called mucins, which are secreted by goblet cells. The gut mucus layer is a pivotal part of the intestinal protection and colonized by commensal microbes, essential for the development and health of the host. There is a symbiotic interaction between intestinal microbiota and the host cells...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jianfei Zhao, Xiaoya Zhang, Hongbin Liu, Michael A Brown, Shiyan Qiao
Dietary protein and its metabolites, amino acids are essential nutrients for human and animals. Accumulated researches revealed that the gut microbiota mediate the crosstalk between protein metabolism and host immune response. Gut microbes are involved in the digestion, absorption, metabolism and transformation process of dietary protein in the gastrointestinal tract. Amino acids can be metabolized into numerous microbial metabolites, and these metabolites participate in various physiological functions related to host health and diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Liyuan Hao, Qiang Shan, Jingya Wei, Fengtao Ma, Peng Sun
Lactoferrin (lactotransferrin; Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein and one of the most important bioactivators in milk and other external secretions. It has numerous biological roles, including the regulation of iron absorption and modulation of immune responses, and has anti-microbial, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Lf regulates the quantity of iron absorbed in the intestine via its role in iron transport and can also chelate iron, directly or indirectly. Notably, it has been used as an adjuvant therapy for some intestinal diseases...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Dongsheng Che, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk, Ibrahim Abd El-Razek, Adams Seidu, Naydia Ekua Ekuful, Guixin Qin, Hailong Jiang, Lianyu Yang
There are some disparities between pharmacological and toxicological xenobiotic receptor (xenosensors) pathways. These variations include receptor models that indicate several toxic patterns. Such models have demanded some update from traditional medical receptor relations studied by pharmacologists. These may include the response time, the molecular level, and unclear directions of toxicological metabolism. Xenosensors activities were affected by many factors that include genetic elements, physiological status, xenobiotic complication, and species-specific variations...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Chen Lv, Songcai Liu, Jichao Xia, Lei Xu, Yunyun Cheng, Wenyue Li, Yu Zhang, Gang Wang, Wenzhen Wei, Hongyu Shi, Shan Huang, Nan Wang, Linlin Hao
Dietary protein intake as a critical regulatory factor of bone metabolism is a vital element to regulate nutritional status of mammals. Under the action of protease, dietary protein is digested into peptides and free amino acids (FAAs). Then, the metabolites are absorbed by enterocytes and metabolized in various organs of mammals. The dietary protein intake regulates bone metabolism generally via two aspects, dietary itself and signaling transduction. At the dietary level, different kinds of amino acids (AAs) of dietary protein may affect various protein metabolism of bone by regulating proteasome depending on proteolysis and protein synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Mathias Hallberg, Anja Sandström
Substance P (SP) is associated with pain and inflammatory processes and is released from terminals of specific sensory nerves. This undecapeptide that mediates its effects through the neurokinin type 1 (NK1) receptor, is rapidly degraded in vivo to smaller fragments. The heptapeptide SP(1-7) with a hitherto unknown receptor, is a major bioactive fragment and displays often opposite actions to those induced by SP. Hence, SP(1-7) elicits anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic effects. These observations have attracted a substantial interest and in this mini-review the efforts to transform the heptapeptide SP(1-7) into more drug-like small-molecule SP(1-7) peptidomimetics as a potential new class of analgesics are summarized...
May 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
A Seidu, Che Dongsheng, Qin Guixin, Jiang Hailong, Rui Han, Cornelius Tlotliso Sello
The relation between dietary fiber and wellbeing of human and other monogastrics has recently became a hot topic as showed in an increasing number of publication of the related research. The aim of this review is to describe through a logical approach the scientific suggestion linking possible benefits of dietary fiber on nutritional components and their effect on the gastrointestinal composition in relation to disease conditions in humans or animals. Dietary fiber plays a key role in influencing blood glucose or insulin concentrations, stool bulkiness, reduce the pH within the digestive tract, synthesize volatile fatty acids (VFA), reduce intestinal transit time, stimulate growth of intestinal microbes, and constructively enhance various blood parameters...
May 7, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Fengyu Liu, Yulong Yang, Yajing Zhou
Precise duplication of the human genome is constantly threatened by a variety of genotoxic insults. During S-phase, those damaged template bases could be overcome by DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways that bypass such obstacles instead of repairing them, allowing replicative machinery to resume beyond the offending lesions. Two distinct strategies of DDT, template switching and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), are employed in eukaryotes. In the former process, the newly synthesized sister chromatid is utilized as an undamaged template to restart recombination-dependent DNA synthesis in an error-free manner...
April 30, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Silvia Grottelli, Egidia Costanzi, Matthew J Peirce, Alba Minelli, Barbara Cellini, Ilaria Bellezza
Protein function is dependent on assumption of the correct three-dimensional structure, achieved through the folding process. As a central element in ensuring cellular homeostasis, proteostasis i.e. the control of correct protein folding, trafficking and degradation, is a highly regulated process ensured by three integrated molecular pathways: i) the unfolded protein response (UPR) which is activated by the engulfment of misfolded proteins and results in protein re-folding through the expression of chaperones; ii) the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) which 'flags' misfolded proteins with ubiquitin, directing them to the 26S proteasome for proteolytic degradation; iii) autophagy that, through lysosomes, removes misfolded or aggregated proteins...
April 30, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Xiaomo Wu, Liqiang Weng, Jinyan Zhang, Xiaolong Liu, Jianqing Huang
The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases (PMCAs) are responsible for the clearance of Ca2+ out of cells after intracellular Ca2+ transients. Cooperating with Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs) and Ca2+ buffering proteins, PMCAs play an essential role in maintaining the long-term cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase was first discovered in red blood cell membrane about 50 years ago, and then other PMCA isoforms and alternatively spliced variants had been identified from different tissues and different developmental stages, revealing a surprising complexity of the PMCA family...
April 16, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Sebastian Kwiatkowski, Anna Kiersztan, Jakub Drozak
Carnosine (b-alanyl-L-histidine) and its methylated derivatives: anserine (b-alanyl-Np-methyl-L-histidine) and balenine (b-alanyl-Nt-methyl-L-histidine) are abundant constituents of excitable tissues of vertebrates. While carnosine and anserine are present at high concentrations and in variable proportions in skeletal muscle and brain of most vertebrates, balenine appears to be rather more abundant in marine mammals and certain reptilian species. Since the discovery of these compounds at the beginning of 20th century, numerous studies have been devoted to identification of the biochemical and physiological properties of carnosine and related dipeptides...
February 26, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Sarah R Dennison, Frederick Harris, Manuela Mura, David A Phoenix
Anionic antimicrobial peptides (AAMPs) with net charges ranging from -1 to -8 have been identified in frogs, toads, newts and salamanders across Africa, South America and China. Most of these peptides show antibacterial activity and a number of them are multifunctional, variously showing antifungal activity, anticancer action, neuropeptide function and the ability to potentiate conventional antibiotics. Antimicrobial mechanisms proposed for these AAMPs, include toroidal pore formation and the Shai-Huang-Matsazuki model of membrane interaction along with pH dependent amyloidogenesis and membranolysis via tilted peptide formation...
February 26, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Aurelie Crepin, Stefano Caffarri
Oxygenic photosynthesis provides energy and oxygen for almost all forms of life on earth. This process is based on the energy of photons, which is used to split water and use its electrons to reduce carbon atoms to create organic molecules and thus fix the light energy into a chemical form. Two photosystems working in series are involved in light harvesting and conversion. Both are multi-protein supercomplexes composed of a core complex, where the photochemical reaction takes place, and an antenna system involved in light harvesting...
February 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Golam Jalal Ahammed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Xiaojian Yin, Xin Wang, Setsuko Komatsu
Seed germination and plant growth are key stages in the plant life cycle and they are affected by abiotic stresses. Protein phosphorylation is commonly involved in key regulatory process, which mediates plant growth/development and stress responses. In plant, phosphoproteins play roles in stress responses and provide basic backbone in complex signaling networks. The mechanism of plant responses to abiotic stresses has been uncovered through study of protein phosphorylation. Recently, new methods for enrichment of phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins have been developed...
February 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Juan Wu, Bo Wang, Xiaoyun Xin, Dongtao Ren
Plant architecture, the three-dimensional organization of the plant body, includes the branching pattern and the size, shape, and position of organs. Plant architecture is genetically controlled and is influenced by environmental conditions. The regulations occur at most of the stages from the first division of the fertilized eggs to the final establishment of plant architecture. Among the various endogenous regulators, protein kinases and their associated signaling pathways have been shown to play important roles in regulating the process of plant architecture establishment...
February 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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