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Current Protein & Peptide Science

Xiaoju Tang, Ling Sun, Gang Wang, Bojiang Chen, Fengming Luo
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1), a member of the RUNX family, is one of the key regulatory proteins in vertebrates. RUNX1 is involved in embryonic development, hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and immune response. In the past few decades, studies mainly focused on the effect of RUNX1 on acute leukemia and cancer. Only few studies about the function of RUNX1 in the pathological process of pulmonary diseases have been reported. Recent studies have demonstrated that RUNX1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal and epithelial compartments of the developing and postnatal lung and that it plays a critical role in the lipopolysaccharide induced lung inflammation by regulating the NF-κB pathway...
October 9, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Tsutomu Arakawa
TOYOPEARL particles are cross-linked hydroxylated methacrylic polymers available in different pore and particle sizes. They are conjugated with different ligands to generate ion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and affinity resins. They have excellent physical and chemical properties. A mixed-mode resin, TOYOPEARL MX-Trp-650M, is made of this particle with tryptophan conjugated via N-terminal amino group and hence has both hydrophobic/aromatic side chain and carboxyl group. In this review, I will summarize the properties of the TOYOPEARL particles and MX-Trp-650M resin and application of this resin for purification of proteins and in some detail the separation of disulfide (SS)-scrambled oligomers of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)...
October 9, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Tsutomu Arakawa
Proteins often generate structure isoforms naturally or artificially due to, for example, different glycosylation, disulfide scrambling, partial structure rearrangement, oligomer formation or chemical modification. The isoform formations are normally accompanied by alterations in charged state or hydrophobicity. Thus, isoforms can be fractionated by reverse-phase, hydrophobic interaction or ion exchange chromatography. We have applied mixed-mode chromatography for fractionation of isoforms for several model proteins and observed that cation exchange Capto MMC and anion exchange Capto adherence columns are effective in separating conformational isoforms and self-associated oligomers...
October 9, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Mohammad Khalid Zia, Tooba Siddiqui, Syed Saqib Ali, Ahmed Abdur Rehman, Haseeb Ahsan, Fahim Halim Khan
In the last few decades, advances in the cancer chemotherapy have been a marked success. A large number of anticancer drugs currently in use include drugs based on platinum complexes such as cisplatin, base analogues such as 5-florouracil and some ruthenium drugs. This review provides a bird's eye view of interaction of a number of clinically important drugs currently in use that show covalent or non-covalent interaction with serum proteins. . Platinum drug-cisplatin interacts covalently and alters the function of the key plasma protease inhibitor molecule -alpha-2-macroglobulin and induces the conformational changes in the protein molecule and inactivates it...
October 2, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jianzhao Gao, Zhonghua Wu, Gang Hu, Kui Wang, Jiangning Song, Andrzej Joachimiak, Lukasz Kurgan
Selection of proper targets for the X-ray crystallography will benefit biological research community immensely. Several computational models were proposed to predict propensity of successful protein production and diffraction quality crystallization from protein sequences. We reviewed a comprehensive collection of 22 such predictors that were developed in the last decade. We found that almost all of these models are easily accessible as webservers and/or standalone software and we demonstrated that some of them are widely used by the research community...
September 20, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Marilina Garcia-Aranda, Alfonso Serrano, Maximino Redondo
Clusterin is a multifunctional glycoprotein whose role in cells has generated a great controversy in recent years. Since its discovery, numerous studies have linked clusterin expression deregulation with various physio-pathological processes such as cancer or Alzheimer's disease. Although the results of such investigations have sometimes been contradictory, mainly due to the dichotomous role of clusterin isoforms, it has been demonstrated that this protein is involved in diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair or the acquisition of cell resistance against multiple conventional therapies...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Ines Katrin Cerk, Lisa Wechselberger, Monika Oberer
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the key-enzyme for the release of fatty acids (FAs) from triacylglycerol (TG) stores during intracellular lipolysis producing FAs used for energy production. There is growing evidence that the products and intermediates from lipolytic breakdown during the FA mobilization process also have fundamental regulatory functions affecting cell signaling, gene expression, metabolism, cell growth, cell death, and lipotoxicity. Regulation of ATGL is therefore vital for maintaining a defined balance between lipid storage and mobilization...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Adélaïde Jacq, Vincent Burlat, Elisabeth Jamet
Plant cell walls are composite structures surrounding cells and involved in both mechanical support and perception of their environment. They are mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95% of their mass) and proteins (5-10%). The cell wall proteins (CWPs) contribute to the arrangements and modifications of polymer networks and to cell-to-cell communication. The structure and composition of cell walls are not uniform in the whole plants, but rather specialized in different cell types to fulfil different functions...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Hong Chen, Chengyu Liu, Cheng Cheng, Ling Zheng, Kun Huang
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with multiple complications, including cardiomyopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Diabetic complications are the major cause of disability and death in diabetic patients. Apelin, a recently identified adipokine peptide, has been found to play important roles in diabetic complications. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of apelin in the pathogenesis of different diabetic complications. We also propose that similar to insulin resistance or leptin resistance, diabetics may also show apelin resistance...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Han Kee Ong, Benjamin P C Soo, Kai Ling Chu, Sheng-Hao Chao
X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) is a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Cells contain two protein isoforms of XBP-1, the active isoform (XBP-1S) and the inactive isoform (XBP-1U). Induction of UPR leads to the generation of XBP-1S while XBP-1U is dominant in ER stress-free cells. XBP-1S is a transcriptional activator and regulates the expression of a subset of UPR genes. Importantly, recent studies have demonstrated the essential role of XBP-1S in various human diseases, such as viral infections...
September 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Athanasios Alexiou, Georgia Soursou, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Several years after the first publication of Barker's Hypothesis the identification of common patterns and pathways between genetic and epigenetic risk factors in neurodegenerative disorders is still an open problem. For the cases of Alzheimer's disease and Autism and by taking into consideration the increasing number of diagnosed cases globally, scientists focused on commonly expressed and related proteins like Amyloid beta and the mechanisms of their underlying dysfunctionalities. In this review paper, an attempt to specify significant correlations between proteins linked to Autism Spectrum Disorders and Alzheimer's Disease is presented...
September 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Andrey A Svistunov, Vadim V Tarasov, Svetlana A Shakhmardanova, Susanna S Sologova, Ekaterina T Bagaturija, Vladimir N Chubarev, Pavel A Galenko-Yaroshevsky, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
Urotensin II (UT II) is an important factor of cellular homeostasis. This regulatory peptide is involved in the pathophysiology of many disorders. For example, it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases, stressful and adaptive reactions of the body, in the development of cardiovascular pathologies, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, liver cirrhosis, renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, reproductive dysfunction, progression of psychosomatic, psychoendocrinal and psychiatric disorders...
August 29, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Mohd Tarique, Chaman Saini, Huma Naz, Raza Ali Naqvi, Faez Iqbal Khan, Alpana Sharma
Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by non-cultivable bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. Ridley and Jopling classified the disease into five polar forms, Tuberculoid (TT) and Lepromatous (LL), in between two forms of the disease Borderline tuberculoid (BT), Borderline (BB) and Borderline lepromatous (BL) are laid. The tuberculoid type (BT/TT) leprosy patients show good recall of cell-mediated immune (CMI) response and Th1 type of immune response, while lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients show defect in cell-mediated immunity to the causative agent and Th2 type of immune response...
August 29, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Syed Mohd Danish Rizvi, Talib Hussain, Gehad M Subaiea, Shazi Shakil, Adnan Ahmad
Breast cancer cases in women are increasing at an alarming rate globally and extensive research is being conducted to identify a breakthrough medicine against this dreadful disease. In fact, researchers are looking for fresh targets to develop novel treatment strategies for cancer of the breasts. In this article, 'amyloid precursor protein' or (APP) and its processing enzymes are deeply studied so as to explore the same as prospective targets for breast cancer treatment. Even though most of the studies on APP and its processing enzymes have been performed on neuronal cells owing to their linkage with Alzheimer's disease, they are omnipresent on various non-neuronal cells also...
August 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Leonardo Fernández Rodríguez, Rosa Helena Bustos, Carlos Daniel Zapata, Julio César García, Edwin Jáuregui, Ghulam Ashraf
Currently it is well known that all biological drugs, including those with a fully human structure, are capable of inducing a host immune response known as immunogenicity [1]. The presence of ADAs can condition the drug´s level and action, thus modifying the therapeutic effect and even the safety profile by its mechanism of action - neutralizing or non-neutralizing - and / or an increase in its clearance. Immunogenicity is a dynamic factor to be taken into account in biological therapy, especially in long-term treatments, and as a relevant aspect in the assessment of secondary response loss [2]...
August 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Gulam Rabbani, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Khurshid Ahmad, Inho Choi
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is necessary for most of the biological processes and requisite for host-pathogen communication. Most of the threatening human diseases are caused by different types of interactions of proteins with their prior infected proteins or with pathogen's proteins. Understanding of involved mechanisms of interacting pairs, functional domains and characterizing specific molecular interaction of host and pathogen is critical. In this era of advanced research in medical and pharmaceutical sciences, the treatment of severe diseases is being tackled at genetic and PPI level...
August 28, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Showkat Ahmad Bhawani, Ahmad Husaini, Fasihuddin Badruddin Ahmad, Mohd Razip Asaruddin
Proteins have played avery important role in the drug industry for developing treatments of various diseases such as auto-immune diseases, cancer, diabetes, mental disorder, metabolic disease, and others. Therapeutic proteins have high activity and specificity but they have some limitations such as short half-life, poor stability, low solubility and immunogenicity, so they cannot prolong their therapeutic activity. These shortcomings have been rectified by using polymers for the conjugation with proteins. The conjugates of protein-polymer improves the half-lives, stability and makes them non-immunogenic...
August 21, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Aarfa Queen, Parvez Khan, Amir Azam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
Obesity is a metabolic syndrome leading to several health problems such as hypertension, heart attack, type II diabetes, and even cancer. Carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) is a mitochondrial enzyme which is directly associated with the glucose homeostasis and considered as a promising target for obesity and other associated diseases in humans. So far, numerous inhibitors have been designed to inhibit the catalytic activity of CAVA with an assumption for its possible therapeutic uses against type II diabetes and other metabolic diseases...
August 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Athanasios Alexiou, Bilal Nizami, Faez Iqbal Khan, Georgia Soursou, Charalampos Vairaktarakis, Stylianos Chatzichronis, Vasilis Tsiamis, Vasileios Manztavinos, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and the occurrence of proteins misfolding lead to neuronal death, resulting in Age-related Dementia and Neurodegenerative diseases as well as Frailty. Functional, neurophysiologic and biochemical alterations within the mitochondrial populations can reveal deficits in brain energy metabolism resulting in Mild Cognitive Impairment, abnormal neural development, autonomic dysfunction and other mitochondrial disorders. Additionally, in cases of Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease, a significant number of proteins seems to form unordered and problematic structures, leading through unknown mechanisms to pathological conditions...
August 10, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Munazza Tamkeen Fatima, Zeyaul Islam, Ejaj Ahmad, Parveen Salahuddin
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is achieved by the interplay among various components and pathways inside a cell. Dysfunction in proteostasis leads to protein misfolding and aggregation which is ubiquitously associated with many neurodegenerative disorders, although the exact role of these aggregate in the pathogenesis remains unknown. Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and others are characterized by the conversion of specific proteins aggregates into protein inclusions and/or plaques in degenerating brains...
July 31, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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