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Current Protein & Peptide Science

Andriy Zakalskiy, Nataliya Stasyuk, Mykhailo Gonchar
The goal of the review is description of the main characteristics of creatinine deiminase (CDI), an important bioanalytical tool for creatinine (Crn) assay. Crn is an essential metabolite for diagnostics of kidney disfunction and some other diseases, a biomarker to control the hemodialysis procedure, as well as an important analyte for sport medicine (estimation of general physiological status of athletes). We have described the important sources for CDI isolation, cloning of the corresponding gene, the construction of microbial recombinant strains, overproducing CDI, and characteristics of the enzyme from different microorganisms...
November 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Deepankar Sharma, Kushagri Singh, Kavita Singh, Abha Mishra
L-asparaginase is a valuable protein therapeutic drug utilized for the treatment of leukemia and lymphomas. Administration of asparaginase leads to asparagine starvation causing inhibition of protein synthesis, growth, and proliferation of tumor cells. Besides its clinical significance, the enzyme also finds application in the food sector for mitigation of a cancer-causing agent acrylamide. The numerous applications ensue huge market demands and create a continued interest in the production of cost-effective, more specific, less immunogenic and stable formulations which can cater both the clinical and food processing requirements...
November 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Joao Pacífico Bezerra-Neto, Flavia Cezekalski de Araújo, José Ribamar Costa Ferreira Neto, Manassés Daniel da Silva, Valesca Pandolfi, Flavia Figueira Aburjaile, Tetsu Sakamoto, Roberta Lane de Oliveira Silva, Ederson Akio Kido, Lidiane Lindinalva Barbosa Amorim, José Miguel Ortega, Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon
The plasma membrane forms a permeable barrier that separates the cytoplasm from the external environment, defining the physical and chemical limits in each cell in all organisms. The movement of molecules and ions into and out of cells is controlled by the plasma membrane as a critical process for cell stability and survival, maintaining essential differences between the composition of the extracellular fluid and the cytosol. In this process aquaporins (AQPs) figure as important actors, comprising highly conserved membrane proteins that carry water, glycerol and other hydrophilic molecules through biomembranes, including the cell wall and membranes of cytoplasmic organelles...
November 1, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
S Shreya, D Malavika, V Raj Priya, N Selvamurugan
Formation of new bone by osteoblasts is mediated via the activation of signaling pathways, such as TGFβ, BMP, and Wnt. A number of transcription factors participate in the signaling cascades that are tightly regulated by other regulatory factors. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are one such class of regulatory factors that play an essential role in influencing chromatin architecture and regulate the expression of the genes that play a role in osteoblast differentiation by the mechanism of deacetylation. Four classes of HDACs have been identified namely, class I, class II A, class II B, class III and class IV...
October 31, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Seidu Adams, Dongsheng Che, Guixin Qin, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk, Jiang Hailong, Han Rui
L-Homoarginine (hArg) ((2S)-amino-6-Carbamimidamidohexanoic acid) is a non-essential cationic amino acid that may be synthesised from the lysine catabolism or the transamination of its precursor (Arginine: Arg). These processes involve the use of the ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), an enzyme from the urea cycle or the arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), an enzyme from the creatine biosynthesis pathway. These enzymes are tissue-specific, hence they synthesised L-hArg in animals and human organs such as the liver, kidneys, brains, and the small intestines...
October 26, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Mónica Rodriguez-Bolaños, Ruy Perez-Montfort
Triosephosphate isomerase is the fifth enzyme in glycolysis and its canonical function is the reversible isomerization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Within the last decade multiple other functions, that may not necessarily always involve catalysis, have been described. These include variations in the degree of its expression in many types of cancer and participation in the regulation of the cell cycle. Triosephosphate isomerase may function as an auto-antigen and in the evasion of the immune response, as a factor of virulence of some organisms, and also as an important allergen, mainly in a variety of seafoods...
October 26, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Nikhil Shri Sahajpal, Rajesh Kumar Goel, Alka Chaubey, Rohit Aurora, Subheet Kumar Jain
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged adults around the world. The proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are the se-vere vision threatening stages of the disorder. Although, a huge body of research exists in elaborat-ing the pathological mechanisms that lead to the development of DR, the certainty and the correla-tion amongst these pathways remain ambiguous. The complexity of DR lies in the multifactorial pathological perturbations that are instrumental in both the disease development and its progression...
September 28, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Ran Wei, Libin Guo, Qingshui Wang, Jin Miao, Hang Fai Kwok, Yao Lin
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a cell membrane protein that binds to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) on the effector T cells and transduces immunosuppressive signals. It is now clear that the expression of the PD-L1 protein on the tumor cell surface is critical for tumor cells to escape immunosuppression. At present, more attention is focused on the transcriptional regulation of PDL1 mRNA. However, PD-L1 protein is the functional unit involved in immunotherapy response. It is essential to deeply understand how this membrane protein is regulated post-transcriptionally in tumors and immune cells...
September 27, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Jean-Etienne Rl Morlighem, Gandhi Radis-Baptista
Since the beginning of written history, diverse texts have reported the use of enzymatic preparations in food processing and have described the medicinal properties of crude and fractionated venoms to treat various diseases and injuries. With the biochemical characterization of enzymes from distinct sources and bioactive polypeptides from animal venoms, the last sixty years have testified the advent of industrial enzymology and protein therapeutics, which are currently applicable in a wide variety of industrial processes, household products, and pharmaceuticals...
September 26, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Ankita Solanki, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Thomas P Johnston, Kedar S Prabhavalkar
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe sight-threatening complication of diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina and is the most common cause of vision impairment and blindness among diabetic patients. DR develops as a result of various changes in the ocular environment. Such changes include accelerated mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production, and formation of acellular capillaries. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are one of the major culprits in causing DR. Under physiological conditions, MMPs cause remodeling of the extracellular matrix in the retina, while under pathological conditions, they induce retinal cell apoptosis...
September 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Cesar Lopez-Camarillo, Dolores Gallardo-Rincon, Erika Ruiz-Garcia, Horacio Astudillo de la Vega, Laurence A Marchat
Epithelial ovarian cancer is a serious public health problem worldwide with the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic cancers. The current standard-of-care for the treatment of ovarian cancer is based on chemotherapy based on adjuvant cisplatin/carboplatin and taxane regimens that represent the first-line agents for patients with advanced disease. The DNA repair activity of cancer cells determines the efficacy of anticancer drugs. These features make DNA repair mechanisms a promising target for novel cancer treatments...
September 13, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Maria-Eugenia DeCastro, Juan-Jose Escuder-Rodriguez, Maria-Esperanza Cerdan, Manuel Becerra, Esther Rodriguez-Belmonte, Maria-Isabel Gonzalez-Siso
β-galactosidases (EC., which hydrolyze lactose to glucose and galactose, have two main applications in the food industry: the production of low-lactose milk and dairy goods for lactose intolerant people, and the generation of galacto-oligosaccharides by transgalactosylation reactions. Due to their thermostability, β-galactosidases from thermophilic microorganisms are very interesting for industrial processes, as high temperatures can increase the initial productivity of the enzyme, provide higher solubility of substrates, and prevent microbial contamination...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Mohamed A Eldeeb, Mohamed A Ragheb
The majority of tRNA studies has focused on tRNA molecules as pivotal player in the fundamental process of protein synthesis. Mounting studies have unveiled further functions for tRNA beyond protein synthesis, including non-ribosomal amino acid transfer, and regulation of targeted proteolysis. Post-translational N-terminal arginylation of protein fragments, a non-ribosomal amino acid transfer, is one of the crucial ways by which tRNA participates in various protein degradation trajectories and influences global cellular functions...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Arkadiusz Urbanski, Grzegorz Rosinski
Despite much research on the insect immune system, hormonal regulation of its activity is not well-understood. Previous research on insect neuroendocrinology suggests that neuropeptides may play an important role in the regulation of the insect immune system. Especially recent studies dealing for example with adipokinetic hormones, bursicon or insulin-like peptides provided deeper insights on this issue showing that neuropeptides can modulate various aspects of insect immune responses, both at the molecular and cellular level...
August 8, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Evandro Fei Fang, Lynn Froetscher, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Tzi Bun Ng
Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a common vegetable in Asia and it is distinctive for its bitter taste. As an ingredient in folk medicine, research from different laboratories in recent years supports its potential medicinal applications with anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV activities in both in vitro and animal studies. In this short review, we summarize herein the recent progress in the antitumor aspect of bitter melon with a focus on the underlying molecular mechanisms. Further mechanistic studies as well as clinical trials are necessary to further verify its medicinal applications...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Chen Ling, Yuanhui Zhang, Jun Li, Wenli Chen, Changquan Ling
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced in China for thousands of years. As a complementary and alternative treatment, herbal medicines that are frequently used in the TCM are the most accepted in the Western world. However, animal materials, which are equally important in the TCM practice, are not well-known in other countries. On the other hand, the Chinese doctors had documented the toxic profiles of hundreds of animals and plants thousand years ago. Furthermore, they saw the potential benefits of these materials and used their toxic properties to treat a wide variety of diseases, such as heavy pain and cancer...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Liang Zhang, Tzi Bun Ng, Jenny Ka Wing Lam, Shi Wei Wang, Lixing Lao, Kalin Yanbo Zhang, Stephen Cho Wing Sze
We discuss the diverse biological activities, therapeutic potential, and clinical applications of peptides and proteins isolated from various yams species including Dioscorea opposita Thunb (Chinese yam), D alata, D japonica (Japanese yam), D pseudojaponica, D batatas (Korea yam), and D cayenensis. Yam peptides and proteins have many pharmacological activities including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, estrogen-stimulating, osteogenic, angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibiting, carbonic anhydrase and trypsin inhibiting, chitinase, anti-insect, anti-dust mite, lectin, and anti-proliferative activities...
June 21, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Rong Zhou, Zhaokun Liu, Yeni N Zhang, Tzi Bun Ng, Fang Liu
For centuries, mushrooms have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicine in Asia. Apart from polysaccharides and some small-molecule components, such as flavones, ployphenols and terpenes, mushrooms produce a large number of pharmaceutically active proteins, which have become popular sources of natural antitumor, antimicrobial, immunoenhancing agents. These bioactive proteins include lectins, laccases, ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs), nucleases, and fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs). The review is to summarize the characters of structure and bioactivities involved in antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and immunoenhancing activities of proteins from edible mushrooms, to better understand their mechanisms, and to direct research...
June 12, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Tzi Bun Ng, Hexiang Wang, Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Jack Ho Wong, Charlene Cheuk Wing Ng, Xiuyun Ye, Jie Yang, Fang Liu, Chen Ling, Ki Chan, Xiujuan Ye, Wai Yee Chan
A variety of fungi, plants, and their different tissues are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve health, and some of them are recommended for dietary therapy. Many of these plants and fungi contain antifungal proteins and peptides which suppress spore germination and hyphal growth in phytopathogenic fungi. The aim of this article is to review antifungal proteins produced by medicinal plants and fungi used in Chinese medicine which also possess anticancer and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enzyme inhibitory activities...
June 12, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Yinglu Feng, Zifei Yin, Daniel Zhang, Arun Srivastava, Chen Ling
The success of gene and cell therapy in clinic during the past two decades as well as our expanding ability to manipulate these biomaterials are leading to new therapeutic options for a wide range of inherited and acquired diseases. Combining conventional therapies with this emerging field is a promising strategy to treat those previously-thought untreatable diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has evolved for thousands of years in China and still plays an important role in human health. As part of the active ingredients of TCM, proteins and peptides have attracted long-term enthusiasm of researchers...
June 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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