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Current Genomics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204084/improving-salt-tolerance-of-chickpea-using-modern-genomics-tools-and-molecular-breeding
#1
REVIEW
Mayank Kaashyap, Rebecca Ford, Abhishek Bohra, Aniket Kuvalekar, Nitin Mantri
Introduction: The high protein value, essential minerals, dietary fibre and notable ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen make chickpea a highly remunerative crop, particularly in low-input food production systems. Of the variety of constraints challenging chickpea productivity worldwide, salinity remains of prime concern owing to the intrinsic sensitivity of the crop. In view of the projected expansion of chickpea into arable and salt-stressed land by 2050, increasing attention is being placed on improving the salt tolerance of this crop...
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204083/salinity-tolerance-mechanism-of-osmotin-and-osmotin-like-proteins-a-promising-candidate-for-enhancing-plant-salt-tolerance
#2
REVIEW
Qun Wan, Shao Hongbo, Xu Zhaolong, Liu Jia, Zhang Dayong, Huang Yihong
Introduction: Salt stress is one of the most important abiotic stress factors which severely affect agricultural production. Osmotins and OLPs (osmotin like proteins) are kinds of proteins which were produced during plant adapting to the environmental stress. Objective: These proteins were closely related to osmotic regulation and resistance stress. They are widely distributed in plants. Their expression for these genes was induced by salt stress, which played important roles in plants responding to salt stress...
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204082/looking-at-halophytic-adaptation-to-high-salinity-through-genomics-landscape
#3
REVIEW
G C Nikalje, T D Nikam, P Suprasanna
Soil salinity is an important stress factor that limits plant growth and productivity. For a given plant species, it is critical to sense and respond to salt stimuli followed by activation of multitude of mechanisms for plants to survive. Halophytes, the wonders of saline soils, have demonstrated ability to withstand and reproduce in at least 200 mM NaCl concentration, which makes them an ideal system to study mechanism of salt adaptation for imparting salt tolerance in glycophytes. Halophytes and salt sensitive glycophytes adapt different defense strategies towards salinity stress...
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204081/recent-advances-in-substrate-identification-of-protein-kinases-in-plants-and-their-role-in-stress-management
#4
REVIEW
Saroj K Jha, Shikha Malik, Manisha Sharma, Amita Pandey, Girdhar K Pandey
Protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation is a well-known regulatory mechanism in biological systems and has become one of the significant means of protein function regulation, modulating most of the biological processes. Protein kinases play vital role in numerous cellular processes. Kinases transduce external signal into responses such as growth, immunity and stress tolerance through phosphorylation of their target proteins. In order to understand these cellular processes at the molecular level, one needs to be aware of the different substrates targeted by protein kinases...
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204080/genomics-of-metal-stress-mediated-signalling-and-plant-adaptive-responses-in-reference-to-phytohormones
#5
REVIEW
Anurakti Shukla, Sudhakar Srivastava, Penna Suprasanna
Introduction: As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants often have to face a number of life threatening abiotic and biotic stresses. Plants counteract the stresses through morphological and physiological adaptations, which are imparted through flexible and well-coordinated network of signalling and effector molecules, where phytohormones play important role. Hormone synthesis, signal transduction, perception and cross-talks create a complex network. Omics approaches, which include transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have opened new paths to understand such complex networks...
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204079/an-overview-of-signaling-regulons-during-cold-stress-tolerance-in-plants
#6
REVIEW
Amit Pareek, Ashima Khurana, Arun K Sharma, Rahul Kumar
Plants, being sessile organisms, constantly withstand environmental fluctuations, including low-temperature, also referred as cold stress. Whereas cold poses serious challenges at both physiological and developmental levels to plants growing in tropical or sub-tropical regions, plants from temperate climatic regions can withstand chilling or freezing temperatures. Several cold inducible genes have already been isolated and used in transgenic approach to generate cold tolerant plants. The conventional breeding methods and marker assisted selection have helped in developing plant with improved cold tolerance, however, the development of freezing tolerant plants through cold acclimation remains an unaccomplished task...
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204078/transcription-factors-and-their-roles-in-signal-transduction-in-plants-under-abiotic-stresses
#7
REVIEW
Xuan Lan Thi Hoang, Du Ngoc Hai Nhi, Nguyen Binh Anh Thu, Nguyen Phuong Thao, Lam-Son Phan Tran
In agricultural production, abiotic stresses are known as the main disturbance leading to negative impacts on crop performance. Research on elucidating plant defense mechanisms against the stresses at molecular level has been addressed for years in order to identify the major contributors in boosting the plant tolerance ability. From literature, numerous genes from different species, and from both functional and regulatory gene categories, have been suggested to be on the list of potential candidates for genetic engineering...
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204077/a-functional-genomic-perspective-on-drought-signalling-and-its-crosstalk-with-phytohormone-mediated-signalling-pathways-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Shalini Tiwari, Charu Lata, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Vivek Prasad, Manoj Prasad
Introduction: Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that negatively influence crop performance and productivity. Plants acclimatize to drought stress conditions through altered molecular, biochemical and physiological responses. Gene and/or protein expression and regulation are thought to be modulated upon stress perception and signal transduction for providing requisite endurance to plants.Plant growth regulators or phytohormones are important molecules required for various biological processes in plants and are also central to stress signalling pathways...
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204076/editorial-genomics-and-functional-genomics-of-stress-mediated-signaling-in-plants-volume-i
#9
EDITORIAL
Manisha Sharma, Girdhar K Pandey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081700/a-systematic-in-silico-analysis-of-helicobacter-pylori-pathogenic-islands-for-identification-of-novel-drug-target-candidates
#10
Deepthi Nammi, Nagendra S Yarla, Vladimir N Chubarev, Vadim V Tarasov, George E Barreto, Amita Martin Corolina Pasupulati, Gjumrakch Aliev, Nageswara Rao Reddy Neelapu
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is associated with inflammation of different areas, such as the duodenum and stomach, causing gastritis and gastric ulcers leading to lymphoma and cancer. Pathogenic islands are a type of clustered mobile elements ranging from 10-200 Kb contributing to the virulence of the respective pathogen coding for one or more virulence factors. Virulence factors are molecules expressed and secreted by pathogen and are responsible for causing disease in the host. Bacterial genes/virulence factors of the pathogenic islands represent a promising source for identifying novel drug targets...
October 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081699/optimization-of-antidepressant-use-with-pharmacogenetic-strategies
#11
Clara Torrellas, Juan Carlos Carril, Ramón Cacabelos
BACKGROUND: The response rate in the pharmacological treatment of depression has been estimated to be around 50%, achieving a remission in symptomatology in only one third of the patients. Suboptimal prescription of antidepressants has been proposed as a significant explanatory factor for this therapeutic inefficacy. The use of pharmacogenetic testing might favor the optimization of pharmacotherapy in emotional disorders. However, its implementation in the clinical routine requires studies which prove its efficacy...
October 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081698/population-based-study-of-risk-polymorphisms-associated-with-vascular-disorders-and-dementia
#12
Óscar Teijido, Juan Carlos Carril, Ramón Cacabelos
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders are among the major causes of mortality in the developed countries. Population studies evaluate the genetic risk, i.e. the probability of an individual carrying a specific disease-associated polymorphism. Identification of risk polymorphisms is essential for an accurate diagnosis or prognosis of a number of pathologies. AIMS: The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of risk polymorphisms associated with lipid metabolism, hypertension, thrombosis, and dementia, in a large population of Spanish individuals affected by a variety of brain and vascular disorders as well as metabolic syndrome...
October 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081697/genetic-risk-factors-in-cerebrovascular-disorders-and-cognitive-deterioration
#13
Juan C Carril, Ramón Cacabelos
INTRODUCTION: The study of variations in genes involved in the different events that trigger the atherogenic process, such as lipid metabolism (modification of LDL-cholesterol), endothelial function and hypertension, immune response (recruitment of macrophages and foam cell formation) and stability of atherosclerotic plaques (thrombosis), established the risk for suffering a vascular disorder. A total of 2455 cases over 50 years of age were genotyped for a panel of 19 SNPs in 15 genes encoding for proteins involved in the atherogenic process...
October 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081696/implication-of-gastric-cancer-molecular-genetic-markers-in-surgical-practice
#14
REVIEW
Marina V Nemtsova, Vladimir V Strelnikov, Alexander S Tanas, Igor I Bykov, Dmitry V Zaletaev, Viktoria V Rudenko, Alexander I Glukhov, Tatiana V Kchorobrich, Yi Li, Vadim V Tarasov, George E Barreto, Gjumrakch Aliev
INTRODUCTION: We have investigated aberrant methylation of genes CDH1, RASSF1A, MLH1, N33, DAPK, expression of genes hTERT, MMP7, MMP9, BIRC5 (survivin), PTGS2, and activity of telomerase of 106 gastric tumor samples obtained intra-operatively and 53 gastric tumor samples from the same group of patients obtained endoscopically before surgery. Biopsy specimens obtained from 50 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis were used as a control group. Together with tissue samples obtained from different sites remote to tumors, a total of 727 samples have been studied...
October 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081695/aging-as-an-epigenetic-phenomenon
#15
REVIEW
Vasily V Ashapkin, Lyudmila I Kutueva, Boris F Vanyushin
INTRODUCTION: Hypermethylation of genes associated with promoter CpG islands, and hypomethylation of CpG poor genes, repeat sequences, transposable elements and intergenic genome sections occur during aging in mammals. Methylation levels of certain CpG sites display strict correlation to age and could be used as "epigenetic clock" to predict biological age. Multi-substrate deacetylases SIRT1 and SIRT6 affect aging via locus-specific modulations of chromatin structure and activity of multiple regulatory proteins involved in aging...
October 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081694/recurrent-fusion-genes-in-leukemia-an-attractive-target-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Yuhui Wang, Nan Wu, Duo Liu, Yan Jin
INTRODUCTION: Since the first fusion gene was discovered decades ago, a considerable number of fusion genes have been detected in leukemia. The majority of them are generated through chromosomal rearrangement or abnormal transcription. With the development of techniques, high-throughput sequencing method makes it possible to detect fusion genes systematically in multiple human cancers. Owing to their biological significance and tumor-specific expression, some of the fusion genes are attractive diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets...
October 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081693/editorial-genomics-and-epigenomics-of-tumor-and-aging-cells
#17
EDITORIAL
Gjumrakch Aliev, George E Barreto, Ramón Cacabelos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081692/complete-genome-of-achalarus-lyciades-the-first-representative-of-the-eudaminae-subfamily-of-skippers
#18
Jinhui Shen, Qian Cong, Dominika Borek, Zbyszek Otwinowski, Nick V Grishin
BACKGROUND: The Hoary Edge Skipper (Achalarus lyciades) is an eastern North America endemic butterfly from the Eudaminae subfamily of skippers named for an underside whitish patch near the hindwing edge. Its caterpillars feed on legumes, in contrast to Grass skippers (subfamily Hesperiinae) which feed exclusively on monocots. RESULTS: To better understand the evolution and phenotypic diversification of Skippers (family Hesperiidae), we sequenced, assembled and annotated a complete genome draft and transcriptome of a wild-caught specimen of A...
August 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081691/genome-wide-discovery-of-circular-rnas-in-the-leaf-and-seedling-tissues-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
REVIEW
Yongchao Dou, Shengjun Li, Weilong Yang, Kan Liu, Qian Du, Guodong Ren, Bin Yu, Chi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Recently, identification and functional studies of circular RNAs, a type of non-coding RNAs arising from a ligation of 3' and 5' ends of a linear RNA molecule, were conducted in mammalian cells with the development of RNA-seq technology. METHOD: Since compared with animals, studies on circular RNAs in plants are less thorough, a genome-wide identification of circular RNA candidates in Arabidopsis was conducted with our own developed bioinformatics tool to several existing RNA-seq datasets specifically for non-coding RNAs...
August 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081690/familial-colorectal-cancer-type-x
#20
REVIEW
Diana Bregner Zetner, Marie Luise Bisgaard
The genetic background is unknown for the 50-60% of the HNPCC families, who fulfill the Amsterdam criteria, but do not have a mutation in an MMR gene, and is referred to as FCCTX. This study reviews the clinical, morphological and molecular characteristics of FCCTX, and discusses the molecular genetic methods used to localize new FCCTX genes, along with an overview of the genes and chromosomal areas that possibly relate to FCCTX. FCCTX is a heterogeneous group, mainly comprising cases caused by single high-penetrance genes, or by multiple low-penetrance genes acting together, and sporadic CRC cases...
August 2017: Current Genomics
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