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Ji-Su Kim, Young-Sang Kwon, Dong-Won Bae, Youn-Sig Kwak, Yong-Bum Kwack
Coprinopsis cinerea was employed to investigate the fungal response to gravity. Mycelium growth revealed a consistent growth pattern, irrespective of the direction of gravity (i.e., horizontal vs. perpendicular). However, the fruiting body grew in the direction opposite to that of gravity once the primordia had formed. For the proteomic analysis, only curved-stem samples were used. Fifty-one proteins were identified and classified into 13 groups according to function. The major functional groups were hydrolases and transferases (16%), signal transduction (15%), oxidoreductases and isomerases (11%), carbohydrate metabolism (9%), and transport (5%)...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Jong-Hwan Shin, Teng Fu, Kyeong Hun Park, Kyoung Su Kim
Ginseng root rot caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans is the most destructive disease of ginseng. Six different fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, benomyl, prochloraz, mancozeb, azoxystrobin, and iprodione) were selected to evaluate the inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of C. destructans isolates. Benomyl and prochloraz were found to be the most effective fungicides in inhibiting mycelial growth of all tested isolates, showing 64.7% to 100% inhibition at a concentration of 10 µg/mL, whereas thiophanate-methyl was the least effective fungicide, showing less than 50% inhibition even at a higher concentration of 100 µg/mL...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Mohamed Mannaa, Ji Yeon Oh, Ki Deok Kim
In our previous study, three bacterial strains, Bacillus megaterium KU143, Microbacterium testaceum KU313, and Pseudomonas protegens AS15, were selected as effective biocontrol agents against Aspergillus flavus on stored rice grains. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of the volatiles produced by the strains on A. flavus growth and aflatoxin production on stored rice grains. The three strains significantly reduced mycelial growth of A. flavus in dual-culture assays compared with the negative control strain, Sphingomonas aquatilis KU408, and an untreated control...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Minkyeong Kim, Chorong Ahn, Changmu Kim
The genus Hypomyces contains fungi that grow on mushrooms, including agarics, boletes, and Aphyllophorales. While 53 Hypomyces species have been reported worldwide, only one was in Korea. In this study, two new Korean species were identified as H. luteovirens and H. tubariicola based on morphology and internal transcribed spacer sequencing.
September 2017: Mycobiology
Dong-Jun Kim, Hwi-Geon Yun, In-Hui Kim, Won-Seok Gwak, Soo-Dong Woo
Nosema ceranae is an obligate intracellular fungal parasite that causes mortality in honey bees and enhances the susceptibility of honey bees to other pathogens. Efficient purification of Nosema spores from the midgut of infected honey bees is very important because Nosema is non-culturable and only seasonably available. To achieve a higher yield of spores from honey bees, in this study, we considered that the initial release of spores from the midgut tissues was the most critical step. The use of 2 mm beads along with enzymatic treatment with collagenase and trypsin enhanced the homogenization of tissues and the yield of released spores by approximately 2...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Sang-Min Han, Jong-Soo Lee
This study was done to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from wild yeast as well as investigate its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Among ten GABA-producing yeast strains, Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1 produced high GABA concentration of 134.4 µg/mL and 179.2 µg/mL, respectively. P. silvicola UL6-1 showed a maximum GABA yield of 136.5 µg/mL and 200.8 µg/mL from S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 when they were cultured for 30 hr at 30℃ in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium. The cell-free extract from P...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Hwi-Geon Yun, Dong-Jun Kim, Won-Seok Gwak, Tae-Young Shin, Soo-Dong Woo
The green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), a plant pest, and gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, affect vegetables and fruit crops all over the world. To control this aphid and mold, farmers typically rely on the use of chemical insecticides or fungicides. However, intensive use of these chemicals over many years has led to the development of resistance. To overcome this problem, there is a need to develop alternative control methods to suppress populations of this plant pest and pathogen. Recently, potential roles have been demonstrated for entomopathogenic fungi in endophytism, phytopathogen antagonism, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere colonization...
September 2017: Mycobiology
May Moe Oo, GiTaek Lim, Hyun A Jang, Sang-Keun Oh
The anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species is well-known as a major plant pathogen that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper and reduces its marketability. Thirty-five isolates representing species of Colletotrichum were obtained from chili fruits showing anthracnose disease symptoms in Chungcheongnam-do and Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea. These 35 isolates were characterized according to morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence data of internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, and β-tubulin...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Nur Amiera Syuhada Binti Rozman, Nurhanis Syafiqah Binti Mohd Nor Hamin, Leong Chean Ring, Tan Wen Nee, Mahfuzah Binti Mustapha, Tong Woei Yenn
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder which affects millions of population worldwide. Global estimates published in 2010 reported the world diabetic prevalence as 6.4%, affecting 285 million adults. Foot ulceration and wound infection are major forms of disabilities arising from diabetic diseases. This study was aimed to develop a natural antimicrobial finishing on medical grade textile that meets American Association of Textiles Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) standard. The textile samples were finished with the ethanolic extract of Penicillium amestolkiae elv609, an endophytic fungus isolated from Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (common name: cat's whiskers)...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Elena Fernández-Miranda Cagigal, Abelardo Casares Sánchez
The genus Paxillus is characterized by the difficulty of species identification, which results in reproducibility problems, as well as the need for large quantities of fungal inoculum. In particular, studies of Paxillus ammoniavirescens have reported divergent results in the in vitro growth while little is known of its capacity to degrade organic matter. For all the above, and assuming that this variability could be due to an inappropriate culture media, the aim of this study was to analyse growth in different culture media (MMN, MS, and 1/2 MS) and in the case of MMN in presence/absence of two types of organic matter (fresh litter and senescence litter) to probe the saprophytic ability of P...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Jong Myong Park, Young-Hyun You, Jong-Han Park, Hyeong-Hwan Kim, Sa-Youl Ghim, Chang-Gi Back
Larvae of Bradysia agrestis, an insect vector that transports plant pathogens, were sampled from geographically isolated regions in Korea to identify their cutaneous fungal and bacterial flora. Sampled areas were chosen within the distribution range of B. agrestis; each site was more than 91 km apart to ensure geographical segregation. We isolated 76 microbial (fungi and bacteria) strains (site 1, 29; site 2, 29; site 3, 18 strains) that were identified on the basis of morphological differences. Species identification was molecularly confirmed by determination of universal fungal internal transcribed spacer and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in comparison to sequences in the EzTaxon database and the NCBI GenBank database, and their phylogenetic relationships were determined...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Young-Hyun You, Jong Myong Park, Yeong Gyo Seo, Woong Lee, Myung-Suk Kang, Jong-Guk Kim
This study analyzed the distribution of endophytic fungi in 3 coastal environments with different climatic, geographical, and geological characteristics: the volcanic islands of Dokdo, the East Sea, and the West Sea of Korea. The isolated fungal endophytes were characterized and analyzed with respect to the characteristics of their host environments. For this purpose, we selected common native coastal halophyte communities from three regions. Molecular identification of the fungal endophytes showed clear differences among the sampling sites and halophyte host species...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Jae Sung Lee, Hyang Burm Lee, Hyeon-Dong Shin, Young-Joon Choi
The genus Hyaloperonospora (Peronosporaceae; Oomycota) is an obligate biotrophic group that causes downy mildew disease on the Brassicaceae and allied families of Brassicales, including many economically relevant crops, such as broccoli, cabbage, radish, rape, and wasabi. To investigate the diversity of Hyaloperonospora species in northeast Asia, we performed a morphological analysis for the dried herbarium specimens collected in Korea, along with molecular phylogenetic inferences based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA and cox2 mtDNA sequences...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Narayan Chandra Paul, Eom-Ji Hwang, Sang-Sik Nam, Hyeong-Un Lee, Joon-Seol Lee, Gyeong-Dan Yu, Yong-Gu Kang, Kyeong-Bo Lee, San Go, Jung-Wook Yang
In this study, we aimed to characterize fungal samples from necrotic lesions on collar regions observed in different sweetpotato growing regions during 2015 and 2016 in Korea. Sclerotia appeared on the root zone soil surface, and white dense mycelia were observed. At the later stages of infection, mother roots quickly rotted, and large areas of the plants were destroyed. The disease occurrence was monitored at 45 and 84 farms, and 11.8% and 6.8% of the land areas were found to be infected in 2015 and 2016, respectively...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Carla Cristina Gomes Lourenço, Janaina Lana Alves, Eduardo Guatimosim, Adans Colman, Robert Weingart Barreto
A severe leaf spot, turning to foliage blight, was observed on leaves of Maranta leuconeura growing in a garden in Brazil (state of Rio de Janeiro) in 2015. A dematiaceous hyphomycete bearing a morphology typical of a helminthosporoid fungi was regularly found in association with diseased tissues. The fungus was isolated and pathogenicity was demonstrated through the completion of Koch's postulates. A morphology and molecular analysis led to the conclusion that the fungus belonged to the genus Bipolaris, which is characterized by having fusiform conidia, externally thickened and truncate hila and a bipolar pattern of germination...
September 2017: Mycobiology
Hye Ryun Kim, Ae Ran Lee, Jae-Ho Kim
Herein, nuruks derived from non-glutinous and glutinous rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae N159-1 (having high alpha-amylase and beta-glucosidase activities) were used to produce Korean alcoholic beverages. The resultant beverages had enhanced fruity (ethyl caproate and isoamyl alcohol) and rose (2-phenethyl acetate and phenethyl alcohol) flavors and high taste scores.
June 2017: Mycobiology
Sung-Hee Park, In-Young Choi, Wang-Hyu Lee, Kui-Jae Lee, Victor Galea, Hyeon-Dong Shin
In September 2013 and 2014, a significant number of kenaf plants showing symptoms of leaf spots with approximately 50% incidence were found in experimental plots in Iksan and Namwon, Korea. Leaf spots were circular to irregular, more or less vein-limited, reaching to 10 mm in diameter. The spots were initially uniformly brown to reddish brown, turning pale brown with a purplish margin and showing grayish patches on the lesion due to heavy fructification. The causative agent of the leaf spot disease was identified as Cercospora malayensis...
June 2017: Mycobiology
Pan-Liang Li, A-Li Chai, Yan-Xia Shi, Xue-Wen Xie, Bao-Ju Li
Severe root rot was observed in fields of cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) in 2015 in China. Cardinal symptoms of this disease included root rot and wilting leaves. A fungus was isolated from diseased tissues consistently. Based on the morphological features and molecular analysis of the ITS-5.8S rDNA and D1/D2 domain of the 28S rRNA gene, it was identified as Plectosphaerella cucumerina. This is the first report of P. cucumerina causing cabbage root rot in China and the world.
June 2017: Mycobiology
Suyun Moon, Hwa-Yong Lee, Donghwan Shim, Myungkil Kim, Kang-Hyeon Ka, Rhim Ryoo, Han-Gyu Ko, Chang-Duck Koo, Jong-Wook Chung, Hojin Ryu
Sixteen genomic DNA simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of Lentinula edodes were developed from 205 SSR motifs present in 46.1-Mb long L. edodes genome sequences. The number of alleles ranged from 3-14 and the major allele frequency was distributed from 0.17-0.96. The values of observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00-0.76 and 0.07-0.90, respectively. The polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.07-0.89. A dendrogram, based on 16 SSR markers clustered by the paired hierarchical clustering' method, showed that 33 shiitake cultivars could be divided into three major groups and successfully identified...
June 2017: Mycobiology
Younghae Choi, Boknam Jung, Taiying Li, Jungkwan Lee
We identified two genes related to fungicide resistance in Fusarium fujikuroi through random mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletions showed that survival factor 1 deletion resulted in higher sensitivity to fungicides, while deletion of the gene encoding F-box/WD-repeat protein increased resistance, suggesting that the genes affect fungicide resistance in different ways.
June 2017: Mycobiology
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