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Hanyu Zhu, Xueyan Sun, Dongmei Liu, Liesheng Zheng, Liguo Chen, Aimin Ma
An improved method for extracting high quality and quantity RNA from a jelly mushroom and a dimorphic fungus- Tremella fuciformis which is especially rich in polysaccharides, is described. RNA was extracted from T. fuciformis mycelium M1332 and its parental monokaryotic yeast-like cells Y13 and Y32. The A260/280 and A260/230 ratios were both approximately 2, and the RNA integrity number was larger than 8.9. The yields of RNA were between 108 and 213 µg/g fresh wt. Downstream molecular applications including reverse transcriptional PCR and quantitative real-time PCR were also performed...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Jin-Hee Kim, Dong-Yeo Kim, Hyeok Park, Ahn-Heum Eom
We characterized two endophyte fungi from the leaves of Astragalus membranaceus in Korea. The isolated strains were identified on the basis of the morphological characters and sequences analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit regions of the rDNA and β-tubulin gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Diaporthe oncostoma and Diaporthe infecunda in Korea, and we have provided descriptions and figures.
December 2017: Mycobiology
Minchul Kim, Hyekyung Lee, Sun-Young Hwang, Inhyung Lee, Won Hee Jung
A yeast-like organism was isolated from a urine sample of a 6-year-old neutered male miniature poodle dog with urinary tract infection, diabetes ketoacidosis, and acute pancreatitis. We identified the yeast-like organism to be Candida glabrata and found that this fungus was highly resistant to azole antifungal drugs. To understand the mechanism of azole resistance in this isolate, the sequences and expression levels of the genes involved in drug resistance were analyzed. The results of our analysis showed that increased drug efflux, mediated by overexpression of ATP transporter genes CDR1 and PDH1 , is the main cause of azole resistance of the C...
December 2017: Mycobiology
May Moe Oo, Sang-Keun Oh
In 2016, grape fruits showing ripe rot symptom were found in fields of Korea. The fungus was isolated and identified as Colletotrichum viniferum based on morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. viniferum causing grape ripe rot disease of grape fruits in Korea.
December 2017: Mycobiology
Mona H Soliman, Riad S R El-Mohamedy
Foliar sprays of three plant resistance inducers, including chitosan (CH), potassium sorbate (PS) (C6 H7 kO2 ), and potassium bicarbonates (PB) (KHCO3 ), were used for resistance inducing against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC (powdery mildew) infecting okra plants. Experiments under green house and field conditions showed that, the powdery mildew disease severity was significantly reduced with all tested treatments of CH, PS, and PB in comparison with untreated control. CH at 0.5% and 0.75% (w/v) plus PS at 1.0% and 2...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Nikita Mehta, Ferry Hagen, Sadaf Aamir, Sanjay K Singh, Abhishek Baghela
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an economically important fungal pathogen causing substantial yield losses indifferent host plants. To understand the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of this fungus, we have developed a novel, high-resolution multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) method. Bioinformatic analysis of C. gloeosporioides unannotated genome sequence yielded eight potential microsatellite loci, of which five, CG1 (GT)n , CG2 (GT1)n , CG3 (TC)n , CG4 (CT)n , and CG5 (CT1)n were selected for further study based on their universal amplification potential, reproducibility, and repeat number polymorphism...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Mian Wang, Mingna Chen, Zhen Yang, Na Chen, Xiaoyuan Chi, Lijuan Pan, Tong Wang, Shanlin Yu, Xingqi Guo
Peanut yield and quality are seriously affected by pod rot pathogens worldwide, especially in China in recent years. The goals of this study are to analyze the structure of fungal communities of peanut pod rot in soil in three peanut cultivars and the correlation of pod rot with environmental variables using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 46,723 internal transcribed spacer high-quality sequences were obtained and grouped into 1,706 operational taxonomic units at the 97% similarity cut-off level. The coverage, rank abundance, and the Chao 1 and Shannon diversity indices of the operational taxonomic units were analyzed...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Ali Abdelmoteleb, Rosalba Troncoso-Rojas, Tania Gonzalez-Soto, Daniel González-Mendoza
The ability of Bacillus subtilis , strain ALICA to produce three mycolytic enzymes (chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease), was carried out by the chemical standard methods. Bacillus subtilis ALICA was screened based on their antifungal activity in dual plate assay and cell-free culture filtrate (25%) against five different phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata , Macrophomina sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Botrytis cinerea , and Sclerotium rolfesii . The B. subtilis ALICA detected positive for chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease enzymes...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Byeongsuk Ha, Sieun Lee, Sinil Kim, Minseek Kim, Yoon Jung Moon, Yelin Song, Hyeon-Su Ro
In mating of Lentinula edodes , dikaryotic strains generated from certain monokaryotic strains such as the B2 used in this study tend to show better quality of fruiting bodies regardless of the mated monokaryotic strains. Unlike B2, dikaryotic strains generated from B16 generally show low yields, with deformed or underdeveloped fruiting bodies. This indicates that the two nuclei in the cytoplasm do not contribute equally to the physiology of dikaryotic L. edodes , suggesting an expression bias in the allelic genes of the two nuclei...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Joon-Hee Han, Gi-Chang Park, Kyoung Su Kim
Cylindrocarpon destructans is an ascomycete soil-borne pathogen that causes ginseng root rot. To identify effective biocontrol agents, we isolated several bacteria from ginseng cultivation soil and evaluated their antifungal activity. Among the isolated bacteria, one isolate (named JH7) was selected for its high antibiotic activity and was further examined for antagonism against fungal pathogens. Strain JH7 was identified as a Chromobacterium sp. using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Kum-Kang So, Dae-Hyuk Kim
We assessed the regulation of cryparin, a class II hydrophobin, using three representative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in Cryphonectria parasitica . Mutation of the CpSlt2 gene, an ortholog of yeast SLT2 in the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, resulted in a dramatic decrease in cryparin production. Similarly, a mutant of the CpBck1 gene, a MAP kinase kinase kinase gene in the CWI pathway, showed decreased cryparin production. Additionally, mutation of the cpmk 1 gene, an ortholog of yeast HOG1 , showed decreased cryparin production...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Se Won Park, Thuong T T Nguyen, Hyang Burm Lee
During a survey of fungal diversity of the order Hypocreales in Korea, two Acremonium isolates, CNUFC-1YSRS2-4 and CNUFC-GSNPF3-1, were isolated from soils collected on a bank of the Yeongsan River, Naju, and in a forest on the Mt. Daegak located on Sinsi Island, Gunsan, South Korea, respectively. Based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 domains of 28S ribosomal DNA, the isolates CNUFC-1YSRS2-4 and CNUFC-GSNPF3-1 were identified as A. variecolor and A...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Thuong T T Nguyen, Hee-Young Jung, Youn Su Lee, Kerstin Voigt, Hyang Burm Lee
During a survey of fungal diversity of the order Mucorales, three zygomycete isolates, CNUFC-YR113-1, CNUFC-KNU16-7, and CNUFC-BS1-1 were isolated from freshwater and soil samples in Korea. The strains were analyzed both morphologically and phylogenetically based on internal transcribed spacer and 28S rDNA gene sequences. Based on their morphology and phylogeny, the CNUFC-YR113-1 and CNUFC-KNU16-7 isolates were identified as Actinomucor elegans , and CNUFC-BS1-1 was identified as Mucor minutus . To the best of our knowledge, the species A...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Jung-Jae Woo, László Lőkös, Edit Farkas, Chan-Ho Park, Jae-Seoun Hur
Cryptothecia austrocoreana is a new lichen species from South Korea. The species is characterized by the presence of a heteromerous thallus and faveolate ascigerous area (ascomata) immersed in a slightly raised thallus. The species has muriform ascospores, (4)6-8-spored 8-11 × 3-4 septate, (34)36-48(51) × (17)19-23(25) μm. Atranorin, chloroatranorin, and barbatic acid are present. In the phylogenetic tree, C. austrocoreana belongs to the arthonioid clade in Arthoniaceae.
December 2017: Mycobiology
Mahesh Adhikari, Sun Kumar Gurung, Hyun Seung Kim, Setu Bazie, Hyun Gu Lee, Hyang Burm Lee, Youn Su Lee
Three new records of Ascomycota species ( Chaetomium acropullum , Phialemonium globosum , Phialemonium atrogriseum ) from field soils in Korea are presented in this study. These newly discovered fungal isolates were isolated from field soils from various places across Gyeongnam, Korea in 2016. All the isolates were identified and described based on morphological characteristics, and rDNA internal transcribed spacer and β-tubulin gene sequence data. Morphological features of these fungal species were studied on different agar media: potato dextrose agar, oatmeal agar, malt extract agar, Czapek yeast extract agar, and yeast extract sucrose agar...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Thuong T T Nguyen, Young-Joon Choi, Hyang Burm Lee
In a survey of undiscovered taxa in Korea, three zygomycete fungal strains-EML-W31, EML-HGD1-1, and EML-RUS1-1-were isolated from freshwater, grasshopper fecal, and soil samples in Korea. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer and 28S rDNA, the isolates of EML-W31, EML-HGD1-1, and EML-RUS1-1 were confirmed to be Cunninghamella bertholletiae , Cunninghamella echinulata , and Cunninghamella elegans , respectively. These species have not been previously described in Korea...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Bong-Hyung Lee, Woo-Jin Kwon, Jin-Young Kim, Jin-Seo Park, Ahn-Heum Eom
Orchidaceous plants have symbiotic relationships with endophytic fungi, including mycorrhizal fungi, which play important roles in the seed germination and growth of the host plants. In this study, endophytic fungal communities isolated from the roots of Cephalanthera longibracteata collected from three different sites in Korea were analyzed, and it was determined whether fungal communities were preferentially correlated with the sites. The fungal isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Sangyeop Shin, D C M Kulatunga, S H S Dananjaya, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jehee Lee, Mahanama De Zoysa
Saprolegniasis is one of the most devastating oomycete diseases in freshwater fish which is caused by species in the genus Saprolegnia including Saprolegnia parasitica . In this study, we isolated the strain of S. parasitica from diseased rainbow trout in Korea. Morphological and molecular based identification confirmed that isolated oomycete belongs to the member of S. parasitica , supported by its typical features including cotton-like mycelium, zoospores and phylogenetic analysis with internal transcribed spacer region...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Myung Soo Park, Hae Jin Cho, Nam Kyu Kim, Jae Young Park, Hyun Lee, Ki Hyeong Park, Min-Ji Kim, Jae-Jin Kim, Changmu Kim, Young Woon Lim
Ulleung Island is a biodiversity hotspot in South Korea. During a survey of indigenous fungal species from Ulleung Island conducted from 2015 to 2016, we discovered 10 unrecorded macrofungi in Korea. These macrofungi were identified to the species level using morphological features and phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region: Deconica phyllogena , Mycena zephirus , Phaeomarasmius proximans , Phlebia radiata , Pluteus semibulbosus , Postia alni , Resinicium pinicola , Scytinostroma portentosum , Tricholomopsis flammula , and Tyromyces kmetii ...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Jung Shin Park, Sook-Young Park, Chan-Ho Park, Sergii Y Kondratyuk, Soon-Ok Oh, Jae-Seoun Hur
The crustose lichen genus Pertusaria comprises over ca. 800 species worldwide. In total, 20 Pertusaria species were localized to the Mt. Sorak and Jeju-do in Korea. To date, information regarding the distribution of Pertusaria species in the South Korean peninsula is scarce. In this study, we collected Pertusaria species across South Korea and identified them based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. Of the 387 samples collected, we identified 24 taxa and 1 variety, of which 17 were previously recorded, and 6 taxa were newly found in South Korea ( P...
December 2017: Mycobiology
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