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Satadru Pramanik, Sujata Chaudhuri
Azo dyes containing effluents from different industries pose threats to the environment. Though there are physico-chemical methods to treat such effluents, bioremediation is considered to be the best eco-compatible technique. In this communication, we discuss the decolorization potentiality of five azo dyes by Podoscypha elegans (G. Mey.) Pat., a macro-fungus, found growing on the leaf-litter layer of Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, India. The fungus exhibited high laccase and very low manganese peroxidase activities under different culture conditions...
2018: Mycobiology
Fang-Jie Yao, Li-Xin Lu, Peng Wang, Ming Fang, You-Min Zhang, Ying Chen, Wei-Tong Zhang, Xiang-Hui Kong, Jia Lu, Yoichi Honda
The fruiting body pattern is an important agronomic trait of the edible fungus Auricularia auricula-judae , and an important breeding target. There are two types of fruiting body pattern: the cluster type and the chrysanthemum type. We identified the fruiting body pattern of 26 test strains, and then constructed two different near-isogenic pools. Then, we developed sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) molecular markers associated with the fruiting body pattern based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers...
2018: Mycobiology
Qiang Li, Yu Fu, Qun Sun, Pierre Sourzat, Mei Yang, Chengyi Liu, Hao Tan, Lei Ye, Jie Zou, Chenguang Wu, Bo Zhang, Xiaolin Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of distribution of mating type ( MAT ) genes of Tuber indicum in ectomycorhizosphere soils from natural T. indicum -producing areas and cultivated truffle orchards and ascocarp samples from different regions. Quantitative real-time PCR and multiplex PCR were used to weight the copy numbers of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 in natural truffle soils and cultivated orchard soils. The effect of limestone on the pattern of truffle MAT genes and the correlation between soil properties and the proportion of MAT genes were also assessed...
2018: Mycobiology
Mohamed Mannaa, Ki Deok Kim
In our previous studies, Bacillus megaterium KU143 , Microbacterium testaceum KU313, and Pseudomonas protegens AS15 have been shown to be antagonistic to Aspergillus flavus in stored rice grains. In this study, the biocontrol activities of these strains were evaluated against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus fumigatus , Penicillium fellutanum , and Penicillium islandicum , which are predominant in stored rice grains. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the bacterial strains were evaluated against the fungi on media and rice grains, respectively...
2018: Mycobiology
Paola Ruiz-Romero, Benjamín Valdez-Salas, Daniel González-Mendoza, Vianey Mendez-Trujillo
In the present study, the characterization and properties of silver nanoparticles from Yucca shilerifera leaf extract (AgNPs) were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peaked at 460 nm, which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The experimental results showed silver nanoparticles had Z -average diameter of 729 nm with lower stability (195.1 mV). Additionally, our dates revealed that AgNPs showed broad spectrum antagonism ( p  ≤ ...
2018: Mycobiology
Pei-Hua Chen, Rou-Yun Chen, Jui-Yu Chou
Gray mold ( Botrytis cinerea ) is one of the most common diseases of strawberries ( Fragaria  ×  ananassa Duchesne) worldwide. Although many chemical fungicides are used for controlling the growth of B. cinerea , the risk of the fungus developing chemical resistance together with consumer demand for reducing the use of chemical fungicides have necessitated an alternative method to control this pathogen. Various naturally occurring microbes aggressively attack plant pathogens and benefit plants by suppressing diseases; these microbes are referred to as biocontrol agents...
2018: Mycobiology
Zhiqiang Jin, Yunling Li, Jiahong Ren, Nan Qin
Improper disposal of herb residues in China has caused severe problems to the surrounding environment and human safety. Three herb residues, i.e., compound Kushen injection residues (CKI) and part one and part two of Qizhitongluo Capsule residues (QC1 and QC2, respectively), were used for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus . The effect of the supplementation of corncobs (CC) with different herb residues on yield, nutritional composition, and antioxidant activity of P. ostreatus was investigated. Compared to the control, the higher mycelial growth rate was observed on substrates CC +30% CKI and CC +30% QC1, while the higher yield was obtained from substrates CC +30% QC2 and CC +30% CKI...
2018: Mycobiology
Seung-Yoon Oh, Hae Jin Cho, John A Eimes, Sang-Kuk Han, Chang Sun Kim, Young Woon Lim
Depending on the mode of nutrition exploitation, major fungal guilds are distinguished as ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. It is generally known that diverse environmental factors influence fungal communities; however, it is unclear how fungal communities respond differently to environment factors depend on fungal guilds. In this study, we investigated basidiomycetes communities associated with Quercus mongolica using 454 pyrosequencing. We attempted to detect guild pattern (ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic fungal communities) by comparing the influence of geography and source (root and surrounding soil)...
2018: Mycobiology
Hyun Lee, Jae Young Park, Komsit Wisitrassameewong, Min Ji Kim, Myung Soo Park, Nam Kyu Kim, Jong Kyu Lee, Young Woon Lim
Lactarius and Lactifluus are milkcaps that are characterized by the secretion of latex. These two genera are part of a globally distributed cosmopolitan group of ectomycorrhizal fungi that is an important food resource in various ecosystems. Recently, the taxonomy of Lactarius and Lactifluus has been revised based on molecular phylogenetics. Despite the importance of these taxa, Korean species of both genera are poorly understood. In an effort to describe milkcap species that are indigenous to Korea, a long-term study has been initiated...
2018: Mycobiology
Jian Xin Deng, Mei Jia Li, Narayan Chandra Paul, May Moe Oo, Hyang Burm Lee, Sang-Keun Oh, Seung Hun Yu
A new species belonging to the genus Alternaria was isolated from the necrotic leaf spots of Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis in Yuseong district, Daejeon, Korea. It is an occasional isolate, not an etiological agent, which is morphologically similar to A. broccoli-italicae , but differs in conidial size and conidiophore shape. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequence datasets of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and plasma membrane ATPase genes showed that it is distantly related to A...
2018: Mycobiology
Huan Luo, Ya Qun Tao, Xiao Yan Fan, Sang Keun Oh, Hong Xue Lu, Jian Xin Deng
In 2016, a severe leaf spot disease was found on Iris ensata Thumb. in Nanjing, China. The symptom was elliptical, fusiform, or irregularly necrotic lesion surrounded by a yellow halo, from which a small-spored Alternaria species was isolated. The fungus was identified as Alternaria iridiaustralis based on morphological characteristics. The pathogenicity tests revealed that the fungus was the causal pathogen of the disease. Phylogenic analyses using sequences of ITS , gpd , endoPG, and RPB2 genes confirmed the morphological identification...
2018: Mycobiology
Kyung Hoan Im, Jaehyuk Choi, Seung-A Baek, Tae Soo Lee
This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo hypolipidemic effects of the medicinal mushroom Phellinus pini . The methanol extract (ME) of the fruiting body of Ph . pini was active against pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase with 99.14% and 67.23% inhibited activity at 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. It also inhibited 81.81% and 55.33% of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, respectively, at 2.0 mg/mL. Hyperlipidemia as induced by feeding rats with a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFC). HFC supplemented with a 5% fruiting body powder of Ph ...
2018: Mycobiology
Myung Soo Park, Byung-Ryun Kim, In-Hee Park, Soo-Sang Hahm
Bitter rot caused by the fungal genus Colletotrichum is a well-known, common disease of apple and causes significant yield loss. In 2013, six fungal strains were isolated from Fuji apple fruits exhibiting symptoms of bitter rot from Andong, Korea. These strains were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. siamense based on morphological characteristics and multilocus sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA, actin, calmodulin, chitin synthase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Pathogenicity tests confirmed the involvement of C...
2018: Mycobiology
Sung-Je Yoo, Da Jeong Shin, Hang Yeon Won, Jaekyeong Song, Mee Kyung Sang
Certain beneficial microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere soil promote plant growth and induce resistance to a wide variety of plant pathogens. We obtained 49 fungal isolates from the rhizosphere soil of paprika plants, and selected 18 of these isolates that did not inhibit tomato seed germination for further investigation. Based on a seed germination assay, we selected four isolates for further plant tests. Treatment of seeds with isolate JF27 promoted plant growth in pot tests, and suppressed bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar (pv...
2018: Mycobiology
Su Jung Jung, Nam Kyu Kim, Dong-Hyeon Lee, Soon Il Hong, Jong Kyu Lee
Two-hundred and fifty-five strains of actinomycetes isolated from soil samples were screened for their antagonistic activities against four well-known wood decay fungi (WDF), including a brown rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum and three white rot fungi Donkioporia expansa , Trametes versicolor , and Schizophyllum commune . A dual culture assay using culture media supplemented with heated or unheated culture filtrates of selected bacterial strains was used for the detection of their antimicrobial activity against four WDF...
2018: Mycobiology
Rapeewan Sowanpreecha, Panan Rerngsamran
Black rot disease in orchids is caused by the water mold Phytophthora palmivora . To gain better biocontrol performance, several factors affecting growth and antifungal substance production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS1 were verified. These factors include type and pH of media, temperature, and time for antifungal production. The results showed that the best conditions for P. aeruginosa RS1 to produce the active compounds was cultivating the bacteria in Luria-Bertani medium at pH 7.0 for 21 h at 37 °C...
2018: Mycobiology
Gopal Selvakumar, Pyoung Ho Yi, Seong Eun Lee, Charlotte C Shagol, Seung Gab Han, Tongmin Sa, Bong Nam Chung
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are well-known for their ability to improve plant growth and help plants withstand abiotic stress conditions. Unlike other fungi and bacteria, AMF cannot be stored, as they are obligate biotrophs. Long-term preservation of AMF spores is challenging and may lead to the loss of viability and efficiency. This study aimed to understand the effect of prolonged subculture of AMF species on the growth and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) from red pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.)...
2018: Mycobiology
Ye-Eun Son, Won-Hee Jung, Sang-Hun Oh, Jin-Hwan Kwak, Maria E Cardenas, Hee-Soo Park
Mon1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor subunit that activates the Ypt7 Rab GTPase and is essential for vacuole trafficking and autophagy in eukaryotic organisms. Here, we identified and characterized the function of Mon1, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mon1, in a human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans . Mutation in mon1 resulted in hypersensitivity to thermal stress. The mon1 deletion mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to cell wall and endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the mon1 deletion mutant showed more resistance to the antifungal agent fluconazole...
2018: Mycobiology
Jung Shin Park, Chan-Ho Park, Sook-Young Park, Soon-Ok Oh, Udeni Jayalal, Jae-Seoun Hur
Lichen genus Stereocaulon (Schreb.) Hoffm is distributed throughout the world. Although 15 Stereocaulon species have been recorded in Korea, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary research has been conducted for nearly two decades. In this study, we collected 260 putative Stereocaulon spp. samples and identified the species based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. From the collected samples, 10 species of Stereocaulon were identified, nine of which had already been reported, although this was the first report for the tenth, S ...
2018: Mycobiology
Dionicio Fuentes-Aragón, Sandra Berenice Juárez-Vázquez, Mateo Vargas-Hernández, Hilda Victoria Silva-Rojas
The filamentous Ascomycota Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is a fungus that has been reported worldwide as a causal agent of anthracnose disease in avocado and other crops. In Mexico, this species affects fruits from an early stage of development in the orchard until the post-harvest stage. Although fungicides are continuously applied to control Colletotrichum species, pericarp cankers and soft rot mesocarp in fruits are still frequently observed. Considering the lack of a precise description of the causative agent, the aim of the current study was to determine the pathogens involved in this symptomatology...
2018: Mycobiology
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