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Nguyen Duc Huy, Nguyen Thi Thanh Tien, Le Thi Huyen, Hoang Tan Quang, Truong Quy Tung, Nguyen Ngoc Luong, Seung-Moon Park
In this study, we report the manganese peroxidase production ability from a Fusarium sp. strain using an inexpensive medium of agriculture residues of either rice straw or wood chips as carbon source. The highest manganese peroxidase activity on rice straw medium and on wood chips was 1.76 U/mL by day 9 and 1.91 U/mL by day 12, respectively.
March 2017: Mycobiology
Hanbyul Lee, Young Min Lee, Young Mok Heo, Joo-Hyun Hong, Seokyoon Jang, Byoung Jun Ahn, Sung-Suk Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
The morphological optimization of Trichoderma harzianum was carried out using several surfactants to achieve increased cellulase production. Addition of the surfactants to the culture medium successfully modified the fungal morphology from an aggregated form to a dispersed form. Optimization of the fungal morphology increased cellulase activity up to 177%. The morphologically optimized conditions enhanced the accessibility of the fungus to substrates and thus promoted cellulase production.
March 2017: Mycobiology
Nguyen Van Minh, E-Eum Woo, Gang-Seon Lee, Dae-Won Ki, In-Kyoung Lee, Sang-Yeob Lee, Kyeonghun Park, Jaekyeong Song, Jae Eul Choi, Bong-Sik Yun
Ginseng damping-off, caused by the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp., is a critical disease in ginseng seedling. In a continuing effort to find microorganisms with the potential of acting as a biocontrol agent against Rhizoctonia damping-off, we found that a Streptomyces sp. A501 showed significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In field experiment to test the efficacy of Streptomyces sp. A501 in controlling ginseng damping-off, the incidence of damping-off disease was meaningfully reduced when ginseng seeds were soaked in the culture broth of Streptomyces sp...
March 2017: Mycobiology
Sung-Hee Park, In-Young Choi, Kyoung-Won Seo, Jin-Ho Kim, Victor Galea, Hyeon-Dong Shin
Leaf spot disease on black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) was observed at several locations in Korea during 2014-2015. Leaf spots were distinct, scattered over the leaf surface and along the leaf border, subcircular to irregular and brown surrounded by a distinct dark color, and were expanded and coalesced into irregularly shaped lesions. Severely infected leaves became dry and fell off eventually. The causative agent was identified as Pseudocercospora pyricola. Morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, including internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, actin, and the large subunit ribosomal DNA were conducted...
March 2017: Mycobiology
Naru Kang, Hyun-Hee Lee, Inmyoung Park, Young-Su Seo
Cordyceps militaris, known as Dong-Chong-Xia-Cao, produces the most cordycepin among Cordyceps species and can be cultured artificially. For these reasons, C. militaris is widely used as herb or functional food in the East Asia. In this study, we developed a new strain of C. militaris that produces higher cordycepin content than parent strains through mating-based sexual reproduction. Twenty parent strains were collected and identified as C. militaris based on internal trasncrived spacer and rDNA sequences...
March 2017: Mycobiology
Setiawati Setiawati, Titik Nuryastuti, Ngatidjan Ngatidjan, Mustofa Mustofa, Jumina Jumina, Dhina Fitriastuti
Metal-based drugs, such as 1,10-phenanthroline, have demonstrated anticancer, antifungal and antiplasmodium activities. One of the 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives compounds (1)-N-2-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide (FEN), which has been demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the growth of Candida spp. This study aimed to explore the in vitro antifungal activity of FEN and its effect on the membrane integrity of Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of FEN against planktonic C...
March 2017: Mycobiology
Sang Joon Kim, Ju-Kyeong Eo, Eun-Hwa Lee, Hyeok Park, Ahn-Heum Eom
We investigated the effects on various crops of inoculation with species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soils from different sources and selected AMF species suitable for domestic environment-friendly farming. Effects on plants varied with the AMF species used. In carrot, Scutellospora heterogama, Acaulospora longula, and Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on growth of the host, whereas AMF had only weak effects on the growth of red pepper and leek. AMF inoculation had positive effects on the growth of carrot and sorghum...
March 2017: Mycobiology
Seitaro Deguchi, Yosuke Matsuda, Chisato Takenaka, Yuki Sugiura, Hajime Ozawa, Yoshimune Ogata
This study proposed a rapid method to quantify the colonization rate of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant roots. The method involved the use of an image analysis software (WinRHIZO Pro). The colonization rate is defined as the ratio of the fungal body to the plant root area in a micrograph. Three seedlings of Chengiopanax sciadophylloides, a woody species that accumulates radiocesium, were collected from a secondary forest in the Yamakiya district of Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture during May-September 2014...
March 2017: Mycobiology
Ki Hyeong Park, Changmu Kim, Minkyeong Kim, Nam Kyu Kim, Jae Young Park, John A Eimes, Hae Jin Cho, Sang-Kuk Han, Young Woon Lim
Most known species in the Physalacriaceae are saprotrophs that grow on decaying leaves and wood, and approximately 21 genera in the Physalacriaceae have been reported worldwide. During an ongoing survey of indigenous fungi in Korea, four specimens belonging to the Physalacriaceae were collected on Ulleung Island. These specimens were identified as three species based on morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequences. Three species in three genera were shown to be new records in Korea: Hymenopellis orientalis, Paraxerula hongoi, and Ponticulomyces orientalis...
March 2017: Mycobiology
Seokyoon Jang, Yeongseon Jang, Chul-Whan Kim, Hanbyul Lee, Joo-Hyun Hong, Young Mok Heo, Young Min Lee, Dong Wan Lee, Hyang Burm Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
Despite the huge worldwide diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Ascomycota), only about 22 species have been reported in Korea. Thus, between 2013 and 2015, soil-derived Trichoderma spp. were isolated to reveal the diversity of Korean Trichoderma. Phylogenetic analysis of translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene was used for identification. Among the soil-derived Trichoderma, Trichoderma albolutescens, T. asperelloides, T. orientale, T. spirale, and T. tomentosum have not been previously reported in Korea...
March 2017: Mycobiology
A-Min Kwak, In-Kyoung Lee, Sang-Yeop Lee, Bong-Sik Yun, Hee-Wan Kang
The culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes shows potent antimicrobial activity against the plant pathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum. Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted using Diaion HP-20 column chromatography, and the insoluble active compound was not adsorbed on the resin. Further fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggested that the active compounds were organic acids. Nine organic acids were detected in the culture filtrate of L. edodes; oxalic acid was the major component and exhibited antibacterial activity against nine different phytopathogenic bacteria...
December 2016: Mycobiology
Yeo Hong Yun, Geum Ran Ahn, Seong Kwon Yoon, Hoo Hyun Kim, Seung Yeol Son, Seong Hwan Kim
During the growing season of 2015, leaf specimens with yellow rust spots were collected from Salix koreensis Andersson, known as Korean willow, in riverine areas in Cheonan, Korea. The fungus on S. koreensis was identified as the rust species, Melampsora yezoensis, based on the morphology of urediniospores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the molecular properties of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the urediniospores are the causal agent of the rust symptoms on the leaves and young stems of S...
December 2016: Mycobiology
Taehyun Chang, Yong Se Lee
In 2010, disease symptoms, including necrotic lesions on stems and leaves with circular yellow-brown or irregular brown color patches, were observed on cool-season turfgrass at golf courses (OHCC) and the Daegu University research farm in Gyeongbuk, Korea. We isolated the causal agent and identified it as Waitea circinata var. zeae by morphological characterization and molecular analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brown patch caused by W. circinata var. zeae on cool-season turfgrass in Korea...
December 2016: Mycobiology
May Moe Oo, Solomon Tweneboah, Sang-Keun Oh
A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea.
December 2016: Mycobiology
Myeong Hyeon Nam, Myung Soo Park, Hyun Sook Kim, Tae Il Kim, Eun Mo Lee, Jong Dae Park, Hong Gi Kim
Dieback in strawberry (Seolhyang cultivar) was first observed during the nursery season (June to September) in the Nonsan area of Korea in the years 2012 and 2013. Initial disease symptoms included dieback on runners, as well as black rot on roots, followed by wilting and eventually blackened, necrotic discoloration in the crowns of daughter plants. A fungus isolated from the diseased roots, runners, and crowns is close to Lasiodiplodia theobromae based on morphological characteristics. Analysis of a combined dataset assembled from sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes grouped nine fungal isolates with the type strain of L...
December 2016: Mycobiology
Hyuk Woo Kwon, Min Ah Choi, Dae Wook Kim, Youn-Lee Oh, Min Woo Hyun, Won-Sik Kong, Seong Hwan Kim
Breeding the button mushroom requires genetic information about its strains. This study was undertaken to genetically characterize four domestically bred button mushroom strains (Saea, Saejung, Saedo, Saeyeon cultivars) and to assess the possibility of using the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region of rDNA as a genetically variable region in the genetic characterization. For the experiment, 34 strains of Agaricus bisporus, two strains of A. bitorquis, and one strain of A. silvaticus, from 17 countries were used...
December 2016: Mycobiology
Thi Thuong Thuong Nguyen, Tham Thi Duong, Hyang Burm Lee
While surveying the diversity of fungi of the order Mucorales, two isolates, EML-PUKI12-1 and EML-PUKI06-1, were obtained from the gut of soldier fly larvae inhabiting the bulrush at a pond located in the Chonnam National University Arboretum, Gwangju, Korea. The isolates were confirmed as Mucor irregularis and Mucor fragilis species, respectively, based on the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacer region. Such mucoralean species belonging to undiscovered taxa has not previously been described in Korea...
December 2016: Mycobiology
Bulgasem Y Bulgasem, Mohd Nizam Lani, Zaiton Hassan, Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff, Sumaya G Fnaish
The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence...
December 2016: Mycobiology
Trung Kien Nguyen, Kyung Hoan Im, Jaehyuk Choi, Pyung Gyun Shin, Tae Soo Lee
Culinary mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius has been popular in Asian countries. In this study, the anti-oxidant, cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities of methanol extract (ME) of fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius were evaluted. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazy free radical scavenging activity of ME at 2.0 mg/mL was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, the standard reference. The ME exhibited significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. ME showed slightly lower but moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase than galantamine, a standard AChE inhibitor...
December 2016: Mycobiology
Ha-Yeon Song, Hyo-Jin Choi, Hansaem Jeong, Dahye Choi, Dae-Hyuk Kim, Jung-Mi Kim
A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus was detected in malformed fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus strain ASI2792, one of bottle cultivated commercial strains of the edible oyster mushroom. The partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of the P. ostreatus ASI2792 mycovirus (PoV-ASI2792) was cloned, and a cDNA sequences alignment revealed that the sequence was identical to the RdRp gene of a known PoSV found in the P. ostreatus strain. To investigate the symptoms of PoV-ASI2792 infection by comparing the isogenic virus-free P...
December 2016: Mycobiology
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