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Mycobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790070/first-report-of-leaf-spot-caused-by-alternaria-tenuissima-on-black-chokeberry-aronia-melanocarpa-in-korea
#1
Jung-In Wee, Jong-Han Park, Chang-Gi Back, Young-Hyun You, Taehyun Chang
In July 2015, diseased leaves of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) were observed in Danyang and Gochang, Korea. The symptoms appeared as circular or irregular brown leaf spots, from which Alternaria tenuissima was isolated. The isolates were cultured on potato dextrose agar, and their morphological characteristics were observed under a light microscope. The colonies were whitish to ash colored. The pathogenicity test on healthy black chokeberry leaves produced circular brown spots, in line with the original symptoms...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790069/endophytic-association-of-trichoderma-asperellum-within-theobroma-cacao-suppresses-vascular-streak-dieback-incidence-and-promotes-side-graft-growth
#2
Ade Rosmana, Nasaruddin Nasaruddin, Hendarto Hendarto, Andi Akbar Hakkar, Nursalim Agriansyah
Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790068/genome-shuffling-of-mangrove-endophytic-aspergillus-luchuensis-merv10-for-improving-the-cholesterol-lowering-agent-lovastatin-under-solid-state-fermentation
#3
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Hind A A Al-Zahrani, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly
In the screening of marine mangrove derived fungi for lovastatin productivity, endophytic Aspergillus luchuensis MERV10 exhibited the highest lovastatin productivity (9.5 mg/gds) in solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice bran. Aspergillus luchuensis MERV10 was used as the parental strain in which to induce genetic variabilities after application of different mixtures as well as doses of mutagens followed by three successive rounds of genome shuffling. Four potent mutants, UN6, UN28, NE11, and NE23, with lovastatin productivity equal to 2...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790067/arabidopsis-thaliana-as-bioindicator-of-fungal-vocs-in-indoor-air
#4
Samantha Lee, Richard Hung, Guohua Yin, Maren A Klich, Casey Grimm, Joan W Bennett
In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to detect different mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the common indoor fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, and demonstrate the potential usage of the plant as a bioindicator to monitor fungal VOCs in indoor air. We evaluated the volatile production of Aspergillus versicolor strains SRRC 108 (NRRL 3449) and SRRC 2559 (ATCC 32662) grown on nutrient rich fungal medium, and grown under conditions to mimic the substrate encountered in the built environment where fungi would typically grow indoors (moist wallboard and ceiling tiles)...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790066/taxonomic-characterization-evaluation-of-toxigenicity-and-saccharification-capability-of-aspergillus-section-flavi-isolates-from-korean-traditional-wheat-based-fermentation-starter-nuruk
#5
Jyotiranjan Bal, Suk-Hyun Yun, Jeesun Chun, Beom-Tae Kim, Dae-Hyuk Kim
The most economically important species used in a wide range of fermentation industries throughout Asia belong to Aspergillus section Flavi, which are morphologically and phylogenetically indistinguishable, with a few being toxigenic and therefore a major concern. They are frequently isolated from Korean fermentation starters, such as nuruk and meju. The growing popularity of traditional Korean alcoholic beverages has led to a demand for their quality enhancement, therefore requiring selection of efficient non-toxigenic strains to assist effective fermentation...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790065/five-new-wood-decay-fungi-polyporales-and-hymenochaetales-in-korea
#6
Nam Kyu Kim, Jae Young Park, Myung Soo Park, Hyun Lee, Hae Jin Cho, John A Eimes, Changmu Kim, Young Woon Lim
The wood decay fungi are a diverse taxonomic group that plays a pivotal role in forest carbon cycling. Wood decay fungi use various enzymatic pathways to digest dead or living wood in order to obtain carbon and other nutrients and these enzymatic systems have been exploited for both industrial and medical applications. Over 600 wood decay fungi species have been described in Korea; however, the recent application of molecular markers has dramatically altered the taxonomy of many of these wood decay fungi at both the genus and species levels...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790064/seven-new-recorded-species-in-five-genera-of-the-strophariaceae-in-korea
#7
Hae Jin Cho, Hyun Lee, Jae Young Park, Myung Soo Park, Nam Kyu Kim, John A Eimes, Changmu Kim, Sang-Kuk Han, Young Woon Lim
Most known species in the Strophariaceae are decomposers and grow on various kind of organic matter. Approximately 18 genera and 1,316 species in the Strophariaceae have been reported worldwide. Through an ongoing survey of indigenous fungi in Korea, 29 specimens belonging to the Strophariaceae were collected from 2012 to 2016. These specimens were identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer sequences. Fifteen taxa were confirmed, with eight species matching those previously recorded...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790063/phylogenetic-identification-of-korean-gymnopus-spp-and-the-first-report-of-3-species-g-iocephalus-g-polygrammus-and-g-subnudus
#8
Seokyoon Jang, Yeongseon Jang, Young Woon Lim, Changmu Kim, Byoung Jun Ahn, Sung-Suk Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
Gymnopus is a cosmopolitan genus of agaric fungi and consists of ~300 species. In Korea, Gymnopus represents common saprobic mushrooms, and 12 species have been reported in Korea. Several Gymnopus specimens were collected in Korea between 2008 and 2015. To identify them exactly, phylogenetic analysis was performed by means of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal-DNA sequences from the collected Gymnopus specimens. Among them, G. iocephalus, G. polygrammus, and G. subnudus have not been reported in Korea...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790062/unique-phylogenetic-lineage-found-in-the-fusarium-like-clade-after-re-examining-bccm-ihem-fungal-culture-collection-material
#9
David Triest, Koen De Cremer, Denis Piérard, Marijke Hendrickx
Recently, the Fusarium genus has been narrowed based upon phylogenetic analyses and a Fusarium-like clade was adopted. The few species of the Fusarium-like clade were moved to new, re-installed or existing genera or provisionally retained as "Fusarium." Only a limited number of reference strains and DNA marker sequences are available for this clade and not much is known about its actual species diversity. Here, we report six strains, preserved by the Belgian fungal culture collection BCCM/IHEM as a Fusarium species, that belong to the Fusarium-like clade...
September 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433123/neuraminidase-inhibitors-from-the-fruiting-body-of-phellinus-igniarius
#10
Ji-Yul Kim, Dae-Won Kim, Byung Soon Hwang, E-Eum Woo, Yoon-Ju Lee, Kyeong-Woon Jeong, In-Kyoung Lee, Bong-Sik Yun
During our ongoing investigation of neuraminidase inhibitors from medicinal fungi, we found that the fruiting bodies of Phellinus igniarius exhibited significant inhibitory activity against neuraminidase from recombinant H3N2 influenza viruses. Two active compounds were isolated from the methanolic extract of P. igniarius through solvent partitioning and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The active compounds were identified as phelligridins E and G on proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and electrospray ionization mass measurements...
June 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433122/kretzschmaria-quercicola-sp-nov-an-undescribed-fungus-from-living-oak-in-mt-daeryong-korea
#11
Ji Ho Yun, Jong Won Jo, Jin Heung Lee, Sang Kuk Han, Dae Ho Kim, Jong Kyu Lee
We encountered an unfamiliar ascomycete fruiting body, fitting characteristics of the genus Kretzschmaria, which features in a stipitate ascigerous stroma with carbonaceous interior and disintegrating perithecia. In this study, we report and characterize a new species of the decaying fungus. Compared to other species, one of the notable features of this specimen (TPML150908-046) is its stromatal size (up to 15 cm). Although TPML150908-046 is morphologically similar to K. milleri and K. sandvicensis, it differs sharply from both species in apical ring size (TPML150908-046, 6...
June 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433121/systematic-analysis-of-the-anticancer-agent-taxol-producing-capacity-in-colletotrichum-species-and-use-of-the-species-for-taxol-production
#12
Jinhee Choi, Jae Gyu Park, Md Sarafat Ali, Seong-Jin Choi, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Paclitaxel (taxol) has long been used as a potent anticancer agent for the treatment of many cancers. Ever since the fungal species Taxomyces andreanae was first shown to produce taxol in 1993, many endophytic fungal species have been recognized as taxol accumulators. In this study, we analyzed the taxol-producing capacity of different Colletotrichum spp. to determine the distribution of a taxol biosynthetic gene within this genus. Distribution of the taxadiene synthase (TS) gene, which cyclizes geranylgeranyl diphosphate to produce taxadiene, was analyzed in 12 Colletotrichum spp...
June 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433120/isolation-frequency-characteristics-of-candida-species-from-clinical-specimens
#13
Ga-Yeon Kim, Jae-Sik Jeon, Jae Kyung Kim
Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48...
June 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433119/phylogenetic-and-morphological-identification-of-the-novel-pathogen-of-rheum-palmatum-leaf-spot-in-gansu-china
#14
Yan Wang, Amy O Charkowski, Cuiyun Zeng, Tiantian Zhu, Huizhen Wang, Honggang Chen
A new leaf spot disease was observed on leaves of Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) in Northwest China (Gansu Province) starting in 2005. A Septoria-like fungus was isolated and completion of Koch's postulates confirmed that the fungus was the casual agent of the leaf spot disease. Morphology and molecular methods were combined to identify the pathogen. The fungus produced conidiomata pycnidia and the conidia were 2~5 septate, 61.2~134.1 µm in length and 3.53~5.3 µm in width, which is much larger than the known Spetoria species that infects Polygonaceae species...
June 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433118/mycoherbicidal-potential-of-phaeoacremonium-italicum-a-new-pathogen-of-eichhornia-crassipes-infesting-harike-wetland-india
#15
Birinderjit Singh, Sanjai Saxena, Vineet Meshram, Maneek Kumar
Mycoherbicides are exclusive biotechnology products which offer a non-chemical solution to control noxious weeds on the land as well as aquatic in systems, viz a viz saving environment from hazardous impact of synthetic chemicals. The present paper highlights the mycobiota associated with Eichhornia crassipes infesting Harike wetland area of Punjab and evaluation of their pathogenic potential for futuristic application as a mycoherbicide. Of the 20 isolates tested by leaf detached assay and whole plant bioassays, only one isolate (#8 BJSSL) caused 100% damage to E...
June 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433117/morphology-and-phylogeny-of-neoscytalidium-orchidacearum-sp-nov-botryosphaeriaceae
#16
Shi-Ke Huang, Narumon Tangthirasunun, Alan J L Phillips, Dong-Qin Dai, Dhanushka N Wanasinghe, Ting-Chi Wen, Ali H Bahkali, Kevin D Hyde, Ji-Chuan Kang
A coelomycete with characters resembling the asexual morphs in the family Botryosphaeriaceae was isolated from a fallen leaf of an orchid collected in Thailand. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses placed the strain in Neoscytalidium. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoscytalidium species were inferred by analyzing internal transcribed spacers and large subunit of rRNA sequence data and indicate that our strain is a new species, which is introduced and illustrated herein as Neoscytalidium orchidacearum sp...
June 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433116/microbe-mediated-control-of-mycotoxigenic-grain-fungi-in-stored-rice-with-focus-on-aflatoxin-biodegradation-and-biosynthesis-inhibition
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed Mannaa, Ki Deok Kim
Rice contaminated with fungal species during storage is not only of poor quality and low economic value, but may also have harmful effects on human and animal health. The predominant fungal species isolated from rice grains during storage belong to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Some of these fungal species produce mycotoxins; they are responsible for adverse health effects in humans and animals, particularly Aspergillus flavus, which produces the extremely carcinogenic aflatoxins. Not surprisingly, there have been numerous attempts to devise safety procedure for the control of such harmful fungi and production of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins...
June 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103857/chlamydospore-induction-from-conidia-of-cylindrocarpon-destructans-isolated-from-ginseng-in-korea
#18
Yunhee Kang, Mi Ran Kim, Ki Hong Kim, Jungkwan Lee, Seung-Ho Lee
Cylindrocarpon destructans causes root rot disease in ginseng and can survive for a long time, producing chlamydospores. We optimized conditions to induce chlamydospore production from the conidia of C. destructans, isolated from Korean ginseng. This will provide the basis for testing the efficacy of control agents targeting these chlamydospores.
March 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103856/characterization-of-a-septobasidium-sp-associated-with-felt-disease-of-schisandra-chinensis
#19
In-Young Choi, Wang-Hyu Lee, Jong-Jin Lee, Mi-Jeong Park, Jeong-Ae Ko, Jeong-Ran Choi, Hyeon-Dong Shin
Extensive disease surveys performed during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in Schisandra chinensis orchards resulted in the finding of a Septobasidium sp. associated with felt disease. The fungus was characterized to be symbiotic with a scale insect (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the Septobasidium isolates were investigated. The isolates were morphologically and phylogenetically close to S. bogoriense. We tentatively describe this isolate as a Septobasidium sp., mainly because of the limited amount of information available on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of Septobasidium spp...
March 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103855/an-antioxidant-davallialactone-from-phellinus-baumii-enhances-sperm-penetration-on-in-vitro-fertilization-of-pigs
#20
Young-Joo Yi, In-Kyoung Lee, Sang-Myeong Lee, Bong-Sik Yun
Davallialactone (DAVA) is a hispidin analogue derived from the medicinal fungus Phellinus baumii. We examined the effect of DAVA on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of pigs. Boar spermatozoa were incubated in fertilization medium with varying concentrations of DAVA, then sperm motility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were evaluated. Higher sperm motility was found following the addition of 0.5 or 1 µM DAVA after incubation than addition of other concentrations or controls. ROS level decreased significantly with the addition of DAVA...
March 2016: Mycobiology
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