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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697978/functional-characterization-of-bdb1-a-well-conserved-carboxylesterase-among-tephritid-fruit-flies-associated-with-malathion-resistance-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#1
Luo-Luo Wang, Xue-Ping Lu, Guy Smagghe, Li-Wei Meng, Jin-Jun Wang
There are many evidences that insect carboxylesterase possess important physiological roles in xenobiotic metabolism and are implicated in the detoxification of organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Despite the ongoing resistance development in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), the molecular basis of carboxylesterase and its ability to confer OP resistance remain largely obscure. This study was initiated to provide a better understanding of carboxylesterase-mediated resistance mechanism in a tephritid pest fly...
July 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647296/multiple-stressors-including-contaminant-exposure-and-parasite-infection-predict-spleen-mass-and-energy-expenditure-in-breeding-ring-billed-gulls
#2
Sarah C Marteinson, David J Marcogliese, Jonathan Verreault
Daily energy expenditure (DEE) in animals is influenced by many factors although the impact of stressors remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how multiple physiological stressors (parasite infection and contaminant exposure) and natural challenges (energy-demanding activities and weather conditions) may affect DEE in nesting ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) exposed to high concentrations of persistent organic contaminants (POPs). Physical activity, temperature, gastrointestinal parasitic worm abundance, relative spleen mass, plasma thyroid hormone levels and liver concentrations of POPs were determined; field metabolic rate (FMR) was used as a measure of DEE...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634053/using-short-term-bioassays-to-evaluate-the-endocrine-disrupting-capacity-of-the-pesticides-linuron-and-fenoxycarb
#3
Petra Spirhanzlova, Bert De Groef, Freda E Nicholson, Sylvia V H Grommen, Giulia Marras, Anthony Sébillot, Barbara A Demeneix, Sophie Pallud-Mothré, Gregory F Lemkine, Andrew J Tindall, David Du Pasquier
Several short-term whole-organism bioassays based on transgenic aquatic models are now under validation by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to become standardized test guidelines for the evaluation of the endocrine activity of substances. Evaluation of the endocrine disrupting capacity of pesticides will be a domain of applicability of these future reference tests. The herbicide linuron and the insecticide fenoxycarb are two chemicals commonly used in agricultural practices...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624525/regulation-of-hepatic-abcb4-and-cyp3a65-gene-expression-and-multidrug-multixenobiotic-resistance-mdr-mxr-functional-activity-in-the-model-teleost-danio-rerio-zebrafish
#4
Jeremy S Jackson, Christopher J Kennedy
Multidrug/multixenobiotic resistance (MDR/MXR) confers resistance to a diverse range of potentially toxic pharmaceuticals and environmental contaminants through a cellular response that involves the coordinated induction and activity of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the Phase I metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In mammals, ligand-mediated pregnane X receptor (PXR) transcriptional activity regulates the induction of P-gp and CYP3A; however, this mechanism has not been well-characterized in fish...
June 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602911/jaburetox-induced-toxic-effects-on-the-hemocytes-of-rhodnius-prolixus-hemiptera-reduviidae
#5
Natalia R Moyetta, Valquiria Broll, Ana Paula A Perin, Augusto F Uberti, Matheus V Coste Grahl, Fernanda Staniscuaski, Celia R Carlini, Leonardo L Fruttero
Jaburetox is a recombinant peptide derived from a Canavalia ensiformis urease that presents toxic effects upon several species of insects, phytopathogenic fungi and yeasts of medical importance. So far, no toxicity of Jaburetox to mammals has been shown. Previous reports have identified biochemical targets of this toxic peptide in insect models, although its mechanism of action is not completely understood. In this work, we aimed to characterize the effects of Jaburetox in hemolymphatic insect cells. For this purpose, the model insect and Chagas' disease vector Rhodnius prolixus was used...
June 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602910/in-vitro-screening-for-estrogenic-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-using-mozambique-tilapia-and-sea-bass-scales
#6
Patrícia I S Pinto, M Dulce Estêvão, Soraia Santos, André Andrade, Deborah M Power
A wide range of estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are accumulating in the environment and may disrupt the physiology of aquatic organisms. The effects of EDCs on fish have mainly been assessed using reproductive endpoints and in vivo animal experiments. We used a simple non-invasive assay to evaluate the impact of estrogens and EDCs on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales. These were exposed to estradiol (E2), two phytoestrogens and six anthropogenic estrogenic/anti-estrogenic EDCs and activities of enzymes related to mineralized tissue turnover (TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and ALP, alkaline phosphatase) were measured...
June 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602909/influence-of-dietary-cadmium-exposure-on-fitness-traits-and-its-accumulation-with-an-overview-on-trace-elements-in-lymantria-dispar-larvae
#7
Milena Vlahović, Dragana Matić, Jelena Mutić, Jelena Trifković, Slađana Đurđić, Vesna Perić Mataruga
Bioaccumulation and excretion of heavy metals in insects is only partially clarified. We have investigated cadmium accumulation in the feces, head and integument of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantiidae) larvae exposed to chronic dietary intake of cadmium. The aim of the experiment was to establish modalities of metal accumulation, primarily cadmium, as well as changes in fitness traits in two insect populations receiving 50 or 100μg Cd/g dry food. The egg-masses originated from two localities: a protected nature reserve (unpolluted population) and an area near a busy highway (polluted population) in Serbia...
June 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587838/effects-of-water-ph-on-the-uptake-and-elimination-of-the-piscicide-3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol-tfm-by-larval-sea-lamprey
#8
Benjamin L Hlina, Laura R Tessier, Michael P Wilkie
Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes are controlled by applying the piscicide, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), to infested streams with larval sea lamprey (ammocoetes). While treatment mortality is >90%, surviving lamprey, called residuals, can undermine control efforts. A key determinant of TFM effectiveness is water pH, which can fluctuate daily and seasonally in surface waters. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the influence of pH on the uptake, elimination, and accumulation of TFM by larval sea lamprey using radio-labeled TFM ((14)C-TFM), when exposed to a nominal concentration of 4...
June 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529177/senecio-brasiliensis-impairs-eclosion-rate-and-induces-apoptotic-cell-death-in-larvae-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Giulianna Echeverria Macedo, Karen Kich Gomes, Nathane Rosa Rodrigues, Illana Kemmerich Martins, Gabriel da Luz Wallau, Nélson Rodrigues de Carvalho, Litiele Cezar da Cruz, Dennis Guilherme da Costa Silva, Aline Augusti Boligon, Jeferson Luis Franco, Thaís Posser
Senecio brasilienis (Spreng) Less., is a species native from Brazil, popularly known as "Maria mole", and known to induce hepatotoxicity due to its high content of Pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Despite its toxicity, this plant is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine. Considering the antagonizing effects described for S. brasiliensis, we describe here molecular markers involved in the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of S. brasiliensis (HESB) in Drosophila melanogaster. Phytochemical analysis of HESB revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529176/impairment-of-antioxidant-mechanisms-in-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes-by-acute-exposure-to-aluminum
#10
Wilson F Ramírez-Duarte, Tomofumi Kurobe, Swee J Teh
Increasing aluminum (Al) concentrations in aquatic habitats as a result of anthropogenic acidification and industrialization is a global issue. Moreover, in extensive areas of the humid tropics and subtropics, high Al concentrations in freshwater are observed because of both naturally low pH and high Al concentrations in soil. Al increases production of reactive oxygen species and enhances oxidative damage in mammals. However, no studies have examined the effect of environmentally relevant concentrations of Al at low pH on oxidative stress in fish...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502899/the-expression-of-p450-genes-mediating-fenpropathrin-resistance-is-regulated-by-cncc-and-maf-in-tetranychus-cinnabarinus-boisduval
#11
Li Shi, Mengyao Wang, Yichao Zhang, Guangmao Shen, Haishan Di, Yue Wang, Lin He
Although overexpression of genes encoding detoxification enzymes is a well-known mechanism of pesticide resistance of mites, the regulators involved in this process are still illiterate. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that the overexpression of six P450 genes contributes to fenpropathrin resistance in T. cinnabarinus. In this study, six transcription factor genes that likely regulate the expression of P450 genes were identified and characterized. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that three transcription factor genes were highly expressed in a fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain of T...
May 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501544/the-dna-methylation-status-alteration-of-two-steroidogenic-genes-in-gonads-of-rare-minnow-after-bisphenol-a-exposure
#12
Ting Zhang, Yan Liu, Hong Chen, Jiancao Gao, Yingying Zhang, Cong Yuan, Zaizhao Wang
Both cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1) and P-450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1) play important roles in steroid biosynthesis. According to our previous studies, bisphenol A (BPA) could regulate the mRNA expression of cyp17a1 and cyp11a1 in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. However, the potential mechanism of the regulation is barely understood. In the present study, aiming to explore how BPA affects the mRNA expression of cyp17a1 and cyp11a1 in testes and ovaries of G. rarus, we firstly cloned 340-bp fragment of 5' flanking region of cyp11a1 and then detected the methylation level of CpG loci involved in 5' flanking of cyp11a1 and cyp17a1 and their mRNA expression levels...
May 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476648/the-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-benzo-a-pyrene-and-phenanthrene-inhibit-intestinal-lipase-activity-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Stefan de Gelder, Øystein Sæle, Bas T H de Veen, Joëlle Vos, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are detected in aquafeeds where fish oils are (partially) replaced by vegetable oils. The highly lipophilic PAHs solubilize readily in oil droplets and micelles in the intestinal lumen that can affect enzymatic lipid digestion by altering lipase activity. We therefore investigated the effect of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), on bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) activity in desalted luminal extracts of the proximal intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the triacylglycerides rapeseed oil and fish oil as substrates...
May 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476649/cuins2-zns-qd-exposure-induces-developmental-toxicity-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus-embryos-and-larvae
#14
Li Liu, Yuan-Yuan Xiao, Yan-Hong Ji, Ming-Zhi Liu, Yao Chen, Yu-Lian Zeng, Yao-Guang Zhang, Li Jin
Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos were used as an experimental model to investigate the effects of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) on the early life stages of G. rarus. Normal developmental parameters (survival rate, body length and average heart rate), biomarker genes [stress response (Hsp70), detoxification (Cyp1a), organizer function and axis formation (Wnt8α), and muscle (Mstn)], enzymatic activity and DNA damage were recorded as endpoints in the developing embryos/larvae after exposure until 96h post-fertilization (hpf)...
May 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457947/influence-of-temperature-on-the-antioxidant-responses-and-lipid-peroxidation-of-two-species-of-tadpoles-rhinella-schneideri-and-physalaemus-nattereri-exposed-to-the-herbicide-sulfentrazone-boral-500sc%C3%A2
#15
Juliane Silberschmidt Freitas, Fabrício Barreto Teresa, Eduardo Alves de Almeida
Amphibians can experience large temperature fluctuations in their habitats, especially during the larval stage, when tadpoles are restricted to small and ephemeral ponds. Changes in water temperature can alter development, metabolism and behaviour of cold-blooded animals but also the toxicokinetics of chemicals in the environment. In Brazil, pesticides application is intensified during the rainy season, which is the period of reproduction for many amphibian species. We evaluated here the influence of temperature (28, 32, and 36°C) on the toxicity of the herbicide sulfentrazone (Boral®SC) in tadpoles of Physalaemus nattereri and Rhinella schneideri, by analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers...
April 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457946/the-zebrafish-operculum-a-powerful-system-to-assess-osteogenic-bioactivities-of-molecules-with-pharmacological-and-toxicological-relevance
#16
Marco Tarasco, Vincent Laizé, João Cardeira, M Leonor Cancela, Paulo J Gavaia
Bone disorders affect millions of people worldwide and available therapeutics have a limited efficacy, often presenting undesirable side effects. As such, there is a need for novel molecules with bone anabolic properties. The aim of this work was to establish a rapid, reliable and reproducible method to screen for molecules with osteogenic activities, using the zebrafish operculum to assess bone formation. Exposure parameters were optimized through morphological analysis of the developing operculum of larvae exposed to calcitriol, a molecule with known pro-osteogenic properties...
April 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457945/correlation-between-ontogenetic-dietary-shifts-and-venom-variation-in-australian-brown-snakes-pseudonaja
#17
Vittoria Cipriani, Jordan Debono, Jonathan Goldenberg, Timothy N W Jackson, Kevin Arbuckle, James Dobson, Ivan Koludarov, Bin Li, Chris Hay, Nathan Dunstan, Luke Allen, Iwan Hendrikx, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Venom is a key evolutionary trait, as evidenced by its widespread convergent evolution across the animal kingdom. In an escalating prey-predator arms race, venoms evolve rapidly to guarantee predatory or defensive success. Variation in venom composition is ubiquitous among snakes. Here, we tested variation in venom activity on substrates relevant to blood coagulation among Pseudonaja (brown snake) species, Australian elapids responsible for the majority of medically important human envenomations in Australia...
April 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257924/assessment-of-immune-status-of-yellowfin-seabream-acanthopagrus-latus-during-short-term-exposure-to-phenanthrene
#18
Mehrnaz Shirmohammadi, Negin Salamat, Mohammad Taghi Ronagh, Abdolali Movahedinia, Gholamreza Hamidian
The aim of the present investigation was to assess the immune status in yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) exposed to different concentrations of phenanthrene (Phe) for 14days. In addition, the Phe accumulation in the fish muscle was measured during the experiment. Fish were injected with different concentrations (0, 2, 20 and 40mg/kg) of Phe and samples were taken from tissue and blood of fish 1, 4, 7 and 14days after injection. Exposure of fish to Phe caused a significant decrease in white blood cells, C3 and C4 levels, lysosomal membrane stability, lysozyme activity after 4days and antibacterial activity after 7days of the experiment...
May 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257922/effects-of-nicotine-on-zebrafish-a-comparative-response-between-a-newly-established-gill-cell-line-and-whole-gills
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
K S Nathiga Nambi, S Abdul Majeed, G Taju, Sridhar Sivasubbu, V Sarath Babu, A S Sahul Hameed
A novel cell line, Danio rerio gill (DrG), derived from the gill tissue of zebrafish, was established and characterized. The cells were able to grow at a wide range of temperatures from 25°C to 32°C in Leibovitz's L-15 medium. The DrG cell line consists of epithelial-like cells with a diameter of 18-22μm. The cell line was characterized by mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Acute toxicity tests were conducted on D. rerio by exposing them to nicotine for 96h under static conditions. In vitro cytotoxicity of nicotine was assessed in DrG cell line using multiple endpoints such as 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Neutral Red assay, Alamar Blue assay and Coomassie Blue protein assay...
May 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232230/analysis-of-the-acute-response-of-galleria-mellonella-larvae-to-potassium-nitrate
#20
Ronan Maguire, Martin Kunc, Pavel Hyrsl, Kevin Kavanagh
Potassium nitrate (E252) is widely used as a food preservative and has applications in the treatment of high blood pressure however high doses are carcinogenic. Larvae of Galleria mellonella were administered potassium nitrate to establish whether the acute effects in larvae correlated with those evident in mammals. Intra-haemocoel injection of potassium nitrate resulted in a significant increase in the density of circulating haemocytes and a small change in the relative proportions of haemocytes but haemocytes showed a reduced fungicidal ability...
May 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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