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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088650/assessing-the-identity-and-expression-level-of-the-cytochrome-p450-20a1-cyp20a1-gene-in-the-bpa-bde-47-and-waf-exposed-copepods-tigriopus-japonicus-and-paracyclopina-nana
#1
Jeonghoon Han, Duck-Hyun Kim, Jung Soo Seo, Il-Chan Kim, David R Nelson, Jayesh Puthumana, Jae-Seong Lee
CYP20A1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, identified as an orphan P450 without any assigned biological function; hence, its continued status as an "orphan" gene. In order to address this shortcoming in our understanding of this superfamily, we sought to characterize the CYP20A1 gene in the copepods Tigriopus japonicus (Tj-CYP20A1) and Paracyclopina nana (Pn-CYP20A1) at their mRNA transcriptional level. We assessed the response of this gene's expression in various developmental stages and in response to treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil...
January 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017784/ecophysiological-perspectives-on-engineered-nanomaterial-toxicity-in-fish-and-crustaceans
#2
Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Tyson James MacCormack
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incorporated into numerous industrial, clinical, food, and consumer products and a significant body of evidence is now available on their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Environmental ENM concentrations are difficult to quantify, but production and release estimates suggest wastewater treatment plant effluent levels ranging from 10(-4) to >10(1)μgL(-1) for the most common formulations by production volume. Bioavailability and ENM toxicity are heavily influenced by water quality parameters and the physicochemical properties and resulting colloidal behaviour of the particular ENM formulation...
December 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979696/acute-exposure-to-the-penconazole-containing-fungicide-topas-partially-augments-antioxidant-potential-in-goldfish-tissues
#3
Viktor V Husak, Nadia M Mosiichuk, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
Penconazole is a systemic fungicide commonly used in agriculture as the commercial preparation Topas. Although triazole fungicides are widely found in the aquatic environment, little is known about their acute toxicity on fish. In this study we assessed the effects of short-term exposure to Topas on some parameters of homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the levels of markers of oxidative stress and parameters of the antioxidant defense system of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Gills appeared to be the main target organ of Topas toxicity, showing the greatest number of parameters affected...
December 12, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965169/investigating-appearance-and-regulation-of-the-mxr-phenotype-in-early-embryo-stages-of-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#4
Silvia Franzellitti, Teresa Striano, Francesco Pretolani, Elena Fabbri
Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux transporters constitute a broad-spectrum physiological defense system allowing marine bivalves to cope with environmental challenges. There is, however, scarce information on the type and role that different MXR transporters may have in embryos, which represent the most sensitive stages of bivalves to environmental stress. In this study regulation of MXR-related transporters was investigated in early developmental stages of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)...
December 10, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939724/wafs-lead-molting-retardation-of-naupliar-stages-with-down-regulated-expression-profiles-of-chitin-metabolic-pathway-and-related-genes-in-the-copepod-tigriopus-japonicus
#5
Dae-Sik Hwang, Min-Chul Lee, Do-Hyun Kyung, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Il-Chan Kim, Jayesh Puthumana, Jae-Seong Lee
Oil pollution is considered being disastrous to marine organisms and ecosystems. As molting is critical in the developmental process of arthropods in general and copepods, in particular, the impact will be adverse if the target of spilled oil is on molting. Thus, we investigated the harmful effects of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil with an emphasis on inhibition of chitin metabolic pathways related genes and developmental retardation in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Also, we analysed the ontology and domain of chitin metabolic pathway genes and mRNA expression patterns of developmental stage-specific genes...
December 6, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847309/an-optimized-method-to-assess-ototoxic-effects-in-the-lateral-line-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#6
Daniel Stengel, Florian Zindler, Thomas Braunbeck
In order to clarify the suitability of the lateral line of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model for the screening of ototoxic (neurotoxic) effects, existing neuromast assays were adapted, improved and validated with a series of chemicals known or unknown for their ototoxic potential (caffeine copper sulfate, dichlorvos, 2.4-dinitrotoluene, neomycin, 4-nonylphenol, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid). Present methods were improved by (1) the introduction of a 4-step scoring system, (2) the selection of neuromasts from both the anterior and posterior lateral line systems, (3) a combined DASPEI/DAPI staining applied after both a continuous and pulse exposure scenario, and (4) an additional screening for nuclear fragmentation...
November 12, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989783/the-binding-effectiveness-of-anti-rdisintegrin-polyclonal-antibodies-against-disintegrins-and-pii-and-piii-metalloproteases-an-immunological-survey-of-type-a-b-and-a-b-venoms-from-mohave-rattlesnakes
#7
Esteban Cantú, Sahiti Mallela, Matthew Nyguen, Raúl Báez, Victoria Parra, Rachel Johnson, Kyle Wilson, Montamas Suntravat, Sara Lucena, Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta, Elda E Sánchez
Snake venoms are known to have different venom compositions and toxicity, but differences can also be found within populations of the same species contributing to the complexity of treatment of envenomated victims. One of the first well-documented intraspecies venom variations comes from the Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Initially, three types of venoms were described; type A venom is the most toxic as a result of ~45% Mojave toxin in the venom composition, type B lacks the Mojave toxin but contains over 50% of snake venom metalloproteases (SVMP)...
October 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939725/response-of-oxidative-stress-transcripts-in-the-brain-of-wild-yellow-perch-perca-flavescens-exposed-to-an-environmental-gradient-of-methylmercury
#8
Stephanie D Graves, Karen A Kidd, Katharina L Batchelar, Andrew M Cowie, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Christopher J Martyniuk
Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and adverse health effects in fishes have been documented, but the molecular mechanisms involved in toxicity have not been fully characterized. The objectives of the current study were to (1) determine whether total Hg (THg) in the muscle was predictive of MeHg concentrations in the brain of wild female yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from four lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, a known biological mercury (Hg) hotspot in Nova Scotia, Canada and (2) to determine whether transcripts involved in the oxidative stress response were altered in abundance in fish collected across five lakes representing a MeHg gradient...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939723/transcriptomic-characterization-of-zebrafish-larvae-in-response-to-mercury-exposure
#9
Xing Lu, Ying Xiang, Guohua Yang, Lang Zhang, Hui Wang, Shan Zhong
Mercury is a widespread toxicant in aquatic environment that can cause deleterious effects on fish. Although a number of mercury-regulated genes have been investigated in adult fish, the transcriptional responses of fish larvae to acute mercury exposure are not well understood. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to examine the transcriptional changes in developing zebrafish larvae under a low concentration of mercuric chloride exposure from 24 to 120hpf. Our initial results showed that a total of 142.59 million raw reads were obtained from sequencing libraries and about 86% of the processed reads were mapped to the reference genome of zebrafish...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939722/the-effects-of-linalool-on-the-excitability-of-central-neurons-of-snail-caucasotachea-atrolabiata
#10
Jafar Vatanparast, Sara Bazleh, Mahyar Janahmadi
Linalool is a major constituent of the essential oil of several plant species and possesses several biological activities. In this work, we studied the effects of linalool on excitability of central neurons of land snail Caucasotachea atrolabiata and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The lower concentration of linalool (0.1mM) showed suppressive action on spontaneous activity and pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptiform activity. These effects were associated with elevation of the action potential threshold and reduction of action potential rising phase, supporting the inhibitory action of linalool on Na(+) channels...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939721/a-bioenergetics-assay-for-studying-the-effects-of-environmental-stressors-on-mitochondrial-function-in-vivo-in-zebrafish-larvae
#11
Tara D Raftery, Nishad Jayasundara, Richard T Di Giulio
Mitochondria, an integral component of cellular energy metabolism and other key functions, are extremely vulnerable to damage by environmental stressors. Although methods to measure mitochondrial function in vitro exist, sensitive, medium- to high-throughput assays that assess respiration within physiologically-relevant whole organisms are needed to identify drugs and/or chemicals that disrupt mitochondrial function, particularly at sensitive early developmental stages. Consequently, we have developed and optimized an assay to measure mitochondrial bioenergetics in zebrafish larvae using the XF(e)24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890717/ecdysone-receptor-ecr-and-ultraspiracle-usp-genes-from-the-cyclopoid-copepod-paracyclopina-nana-identification-and-expression-in-response-to-water-accommodated-fractions-wafs
#12
Jayesh Puthumana, Min-Chul Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Hui-Su Kim, Dae-Sik Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
Ecdysteroid hormones are pivotal in the development, growth, and molting of arthropods, and the hormone pathway is triggered by binding ecdysteroid to a heterodimer of the two nuclear receptors; ecdysone receptors (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). We have characterized EcR and USP genes, and their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and studied mRNA transcription levels in post-embryonic stages and in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. The open reading frames (ORF) of EcR and USP were 1470 and 1287bp that encoded 490 and 429 amino acids with molecular weight of 121...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890716/a-field-study-of-hemolymph-yolk-protein-levels-in-a-bivalve-unio-tumidus-and-future-considerations-for-bivalve-yolk-protein-as-endocrine-biomarker
#13
Jane E Morthorst
Induction of yolk protein in male fish is a recognized biomarker for estrogenic exposure because the estrogen-dependent induction mechanism is well investigated and there is a clear difference in yolk protein levels of unexposed males and females. Attempts have been made to use induction of bivalve yolk protein as biomarker for estrogenic exposure. However, several biomarker validation criteria have not yet been investigated e.g. an in-depth understanding of the induction mechanism and background variability is needed and reliable detection assays are yet to be developed...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890715/effects-of-atrazine-on-ovarian-growth-in-the-estuarine-crab-neohelice-granulata
#14
G R Silveyra, I S Canosa, E M Rodríguez, D A Medesani
Atrazine, a herbicide that is intensively used in Argentina, was assayed to evaluate the alteration of reproduction in a wild species of crustaceans. Adult females of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata were exposed to formulated atrazine during the 3-month pre-reproductive period. Three atrazine concentrations (0.03, 0.3 and 3mg/L) were assayed, together with a water dilution control. At the end of the exposure period, several variables concerning the energetic status of animals were measured, such as weight gain, glycemia, and energy reserves in both muscle and hepatopancreas...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816652/biochemical-alterations-in-native-and-exotic-oyster-species-in-brazil-in-response-to-increasing-temperature
#15
Anthony Moreira, Etelvina Figueira, Iracy L Pecora, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
The increase of temperature in marine coastal ecosystems due to atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions is becoming an increasing threat for biodiversity worldwide, and may affect organisms' biochemical performance, often resulting in biogeographical shifts of species distribution. At the same time, the introduction of non-native species into aquatic systems also threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Oysters are among the most valuable socio economic group of bivalve species in global fishery landings, and also provide numerous ecosystem services...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815048/electrophysiological-activity-of-a-neurotoxic-fraction-from-the-venom-of-box-jellyfish-carybdea-marsupialis
#16
Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Rogelio O Arellano, Edith Garay, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Judith Sánchez-Rodríguez
Carybdea marsupialis is a widely distributed box jellyfish found in the Mediterranean and in the tropical waters of the Caribbean Sea. Its venom is a complex mixture of biologically active compounds that are used to catch prey. In order to evaluate the activity of the neurotoxins in the venom, bioassays were carried out using the marine crab Ocypode quadrata. The proteins with neurotoxic effect were partially purified using low-pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Gel filtration (Sephadex G-50M) was used as the first step and the active fraction in crabs was passed through a QAE Sephadex A-25 column...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777085/suitability-of-cholinesterase-of-polychaete-diopatra-neapolitana-as-biomarker-of-exposure-to-pesticides-in-vitro-characterization
#17
Elvira Mennillo, Valentina Casu, Federica Tardelli, Lucia De Marchi, Rosa Freitas, Carlo Pretti
Cholinesterases of Diopatra neapolitana were characterized for their activity in whole body and different body segments (apical, intermediate, posterior), substrate affinity (acetyl-, butyryl-, propionylthiocholine), kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and in vitro response to model inhibitors (eserine hemisulfate, isoOMPA, BW284C51) and carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb and carbaryl). Results showed that the rate of hydrolysis for acetyl- and propionylthiocholine was higher in the posterior segment than the apical/intermediate segments and whole body...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765649/consecutive-emamectin-benzoate-and-deltamethrin-treatments-affect-the-expressions-and-activities-of-detoxification-enzymes-in-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#18
Juan Guillermo Cárcamo, Marcelo N Aguilar, Constanza F Carreño, Tamara Vera, Luis Arias-Darraz, Jaime E Figueroa, Alex P Romero, Marco Alvarez, Alejandro J Yañez
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760386/spatiotemporal-expression-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-heme-oxygenase-and-biliverdin-reductase-genes-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-suggest-novel-roles-during-early-developmental-periods-of-heightened-oxidative-stress
#19
Andrew Holowiecki, Britton O'Shields, Matthew J Jenny
Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) degrades heme into biliverdin, which is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVRa or BVRb) in a manner analogous to the classic anti-oxidant glutathione-recycling pathway. To gain a better understanding of the potential antioxidant roles the BVR enzymes may play during development, the spatiotemporal expression and transcriptional regulation of zebrafish hmox1a, bvra and bvrb were characterized under basal conditions and in response to pro-oxidant exposure. All three genes displayed spatiotemporal expression patterns consistent with classic hematopoietic progenitors during development...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756692/review-of-the-photo-induced-toxicity-of-environmental-contaminants
#20
REVIEW
Aaron P Roberts, Matthew M Alloy, James T Oris
Solar radiation is a vital component of ecosystem function. However, sunlight can also interact with certain xenobiotic compounds in a phenomenon known as photo-induced, photo-enhanced, photo-activated, or photo-toxicity. This phenomenon broadly refers to an interaction between a chemical and sunlight resulting in increased toxicity. Because most aquatic ecosystems receive some amount of sunlight, co-exposure to xenobiotic chemicals and solar radiation is likely to occur in the environment, and photo-induced toxicity may be an important factor impacting aquatic ecosystems...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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