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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

Kazuhiko Mochida, Katsutoshi Ito, Mana Ito, Takeshi Hano, Nobuyuki Ohkubo
We investigated toxic effects of the antifouling biocide polycarbamate (PC) on marine fish by conducting acute, early-life stage toxicity (ELS), and embryo toxicity tests. Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) 96-h LC50 values for hatched larvae (body weight about 2.0 mg) and juveniles (660 ± 36 mg) were about 12 and 630 μg/L, respectively. The ELS test using mummichog embryos yielded a lowest-observed-effect concentration of 3.9 μg/L and a no-observed-effect concentration of 2.1 μg/L with growth as the most sensitive endpoint...
September 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Natália Oliveira de Farias, Rhaul Oliveira, Diego Sousa-Moura, Reginaldo Carlyle Silva de Oliveira, Maria Augusta Carvalho Rodrigues, Thayres Sousa Andrade, Inês Domingues, Níchollas Serafim Camargo, Luís Alexandre Muehlmann, Cesar Koppe Grisolia
Fluoxetine (FLX) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant widely used in clinics and very often found in environmental samples of urban aquatic ecosystems in concentrations ranging from ng/L to μg/L. Fish populations might be especially susceptible to FLX due to the presence of conserved cellular receptors of serotonin. Neurotoxic effects on fish biota of polluted water bodies may be expected, but there are no sufficient studies in the current literature to elucidate this hypothesis...
September 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Pengzhi Qi, Shitai Ren, Zurong Tang, Baoying Guo, Hu Xia
Estrogen could lead to abnormal modulation or disruption of physical development, reproduction and sexual behavior in aquatic wildlife, especially in fish. Information on the toxicity of estrogens to native species in that can be used in site-specific risk assessments is scarce. In the present study, one zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) homologue termed CaZP3 was firstly identified from topmouth culter Culter alburnus, following its structural characteristics, tissue distribution and transcriptional modulation to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) exposure were investigated...
September 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Huan Xu, Xiaolei Wang, Wei Wang
Environmental exposure to arsenic is known to induce immunotoxicity. Macrophages are the professional phagocytes that are important in the immune system. In this study, we utilized the macrophages derived from the THP-1 human monocyte cell line as the experimental model to study the functional suppression induced by arsenite (As+3 ), one of the most prevalent forms of inorganic arsenic, at environmentally-relevant concentrations. Apoptosis was observed in the THP-1 derived macrophages treated with 500 nM As+3 for 18 h...
September 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Aksorn Saengtienchai, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Minami Kawata, Yusuke Kawai, Kazuki Takeda, Takamitsu Kondo, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
There have been many reports regarding toxic chemicals in birds. Chemicals are mainly metabolized in the liver through phase I oxidation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and phase II conjugation by conjugated enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), sulfotransferase (SULT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), etc. Xenobiotic metabolism differs among bird species, but little detailed information is available. In the present study, the four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), pyrene, was used as a model xenobiotic to clarify the characteristics of xenobiotic metabolism in birds compared with laboratory animals by in vivo and in vitro studies...
August 31, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Patrick N Fitzsimmons, Alex D Hoffman, Kellie A Fay, John W Nichols
Biotransformation may substantially impact the toxicity and accumulation of xenobiotic chemicals in fish. However, this activity can vary substantially within and among species. In this study, liver S9 fractions from rainbow trout (4-400 g) were used to evaluate relationships between fish body mass and the activities of phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. An analysis of log-transformed data, expressed per gram of liver (g liver-1 ), showed that total cytochrome P450 (CYP) concentration, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity exhibited small but significant inverse relationships with fish body weight...
August 31, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser, Benjamin Harper, Codie Picariello, Aaron Albritton-Ford
The euryhaline killifishes, Fundulus heteroclitus and Kryptolebias marmoratus inhabit estuaries that rapidly change salinity. Although cadmium (Cd) toxicity has been well characterized in fish inhabiting freshwaters, fewer studies have examined the toxic effects of Cd in estuarine and saltwater environments. Additionally, current environmental regulations do not account for organism physiology in different salinity waters even though metal sensitivity is likely to change in these environments. In this study, we investigated effects of changing salinity on acute Cd toxicity to larval (7-9 d old) F...
August 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Yucheng He, Xiaoqiao Zhou, Xiaowen Li, Xiue Jin, Xiliang Wang, Xiaoping Pan, Dingren Bi
The objective of this study was to provide evidence of the validity of utilizing pigs as a model to study the regulation of human CYP3A4, with special emphasis on drug-drug interactions. We determined the mRNA expression and distribution of CYP3A and metabolic nuclear receptors in different tissues isolated from landrace pigs. Our results showed that CYP3A and metabolic nuclear receptor mRNAs were most highly expressed in liver tissues. The expression of the metabolic nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) had a significant correlation with expression of CYP3A29, an analog of human CYP3A4...
August 25, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jian Li, Xiaojun Xie
We investigated the standard metabolic rate and liver mitochondria metabolism of the southern catfish when exposed to waterborne cadmium. Juvenile southern catfish were exposed to waterborne cadmium concentrations (0, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 μg/L, respectively) for 8 weeks, and the final body mass, the standard metabolic rate, the state III respiration rate, the activity of cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) of liver mitochondria, and the hepatosomatic index (HSI) were determined. The results showed that the 62...
August 24, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
María Florencia Kronberg, Araceli Clavijo, Aldana Moya, Ariana Rossen, Daniel Calvo, Eduardo Pagano, Eliana Munarriz
Glyphosate-based formulation is used as non-selective and post-emergent herbicides in urban and rural activities. In view of its recurring applications in agricultural producing countries, the increase of glyphosate concentration in the environment stresses the need to test the adverse effects on non-target organisms and assess the risk of its use. This paper analyzes the toxicological and oxidative stress and modulatory effects of a glyphosate commercial formulation (glyphosate F) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
August 22, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Congqi Li, Muzi Zhang, Ming Li, Qian Zhang, Yunxia Qian, Rixin Wang
Triplicate groups of juvenile yellow catfish (1.98 ± 0.01 g) were fed diets supplemented with 0% and 1% alanyl-glutamine dipeptide (AGD) for 56 days under three ammonia concentrations (0.01, 5.70 and 11.40 mg L-1 total ammonia nitrogen). The results showed that ammonia poisoning could induce growth (weight gain and specific growth rate) and survival reduction, live ammonia and serum malondialdehyde accumulation, and subsequently lead to blood deterioration (serum total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase reduced), oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities declined), and induce down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX and GRX) genes transcription...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Su-Mei Wu, Chong-Kai Su, Li-Hsin Shu
The present study is to investigate the reason why the ceratohyal cartilage (CH) angle of zebrafish larvae were larger compared to the control group after their female parents were treated with cadmium (F-Cd). However, the CH angle was smaller compared to the control group when embryos were directly exposed to Cd2+ for 72 h (D-Cd). Results showed that calcium contents of larvae were lower than the control, but the transporter isoforms trpv4 and trpv6 mRNA expressions were significantly increased upon D-Cd treatment...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Sonja Bissegger, Marco A Pineda Castro, Viviane Yargeau, Valerie S Langlois
Phthalates are used worldwide in the manufacturing of plastics, added to cosmetic products, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and paints; and are widely detected in soil, surface water, and organism tissues. Phthalate esters have been previously shown to interfere with the endocrine system in vertebrates. However, few studies have investigated the effects of phthalates on testosterone-converting enzymes that affect hormone levels and reproduction. In the present study, we exposed the Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) to 0...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Melissa M Miranda-Cruz, Jennifer J Poom-Llamas, José A Godoy-Lugo, Rudy M Ortiz, Silvia Gómez-Jiménez, Jesús A Rosas-Rodríguez, Edgar F Morán-Palacio, José G Soñanez-Organis
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional factor that induces genes involved in glucose metabolism. HIF-1 is formed by a regulatory α-subunit (HIF-1α) and a constitutive β-subunit (HIF-1β). The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) induces a shift in glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. HIF-1α is associated with the induction of metabolic changes in tissues of WSSV-infected shrimp. However, the contributions of HIF-1 to viral load and antioxidant responses in WSSV-infected shrimp have been not examined...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Aina O Adeogun, Oju R Ibor, Maurice E Imiuwa, Emmanuel D Omogbemi, Azubuike V Chukwuka, Roseline A Omiwole, Augustine Arukwe
In the present study, we have investigated the endocrine disruptive effects of waterborne di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP: 0 (control), 10, 100, 200 and 400 μg/L) on juvenile Clarias gariepinus by analyzing transcript patterns for hepatic vitellogenin (vtg), estrogen receptor-α (er-α), aromatase (cyp19a1b) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (ppar-α) using quantitative real-time PCR after 3, 7 and 14 days exposure period. In addition, we analyzed CYP19 and PPAR protein levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while cellular testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were measured using enzyme immune assay (EIA)...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Michael Nelson, Trevon Adams, Christiana Ojo, Margaret A Carroll, Edward J Catapane
Manganese is a neurotoxin causing manganism, a Parkinson-like clinical disorder. Manganese has been shown to interfere with dopaminergic neurotransmission, but the neurotoxic mechanism involved is not fully resolved. In the bivalve mollusc Crassostrea virginica also known as the eastern oyster, beating rates of lateral cilia of the gill are controlled by dopaminergic-serotonergic innervation originating from their cerebral and visceral ganglia. Terminal release of dopamine activates D2-like receptors on these gill cells inhibiting adenylyl cyclase and slowing cilia beating rates...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Débora Andrade-Silva, Solange M T Serrano, Stephen Hyslop
In this work, we examined the proteolytic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) activities of venom from the opisthoglyphous colubrid Pseudoboa neuwiedii. Proteolytic activity (3 and 10 μg of venom) was comparable to that of Bothrops neuwiedii venom but less than Bothrops atrox. This activity was inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline but only slightly affected (≤30% inhibition) by PMSF and AEBSF, indicating it was mediated by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The pH and temperature optima for proteolytic activity were 8...
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ravindran Keppanan, Sivaramakrishnan Sivaperumal, Mubasher Hussain, Chandra Kanta Dash, Bamisope Steve Bamisile, Muhammad Qasim, Liande Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Julieta S De Anna, Leonardo R Leggieri, Luis Arias Darraz, Juan G Cárcamo, Andrés Venturino, Carlos M Luquet
Fish can be simultaneously or sequentially exposed to various kinds of pollutants, resulting in combined effects. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1A (CYP1A) expression, which catalyzes the conversion of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) into its most active derivative, CPF-oxon. CPF-oxon inhibits CYP1A and other enzymes, including carboxylesterases (CEs) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). We studied the effects of an in vivo exposure to crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) followed by an ex vivo exposure of liver tissue to CPF on the expression of Cyp1a, AhR and ARNT mRNA, CYP1A protein and on the activity of biomarker enzymes in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
October 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Carina de Souza Anselmo, Vinicius Figueiredo Sardela, Valeria Pereira de Sousa, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira
Zebrafish has become a popular model organism in several lines of biological research sharing physiological, morphological and histological similarities with mammals. In fact, many human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have direct orthologs in zebrafish, suggesting that zebrafish xenobiotic metabolic profiles may be similar to those in mammals. The focus of the review is to analyse the studies that have evaluated the metabolite production in zebrafish over the years, either of the drugs themselves or xenobiotics in general (environmental pollutants, natural products, etc...
October 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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