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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

Julieta S De Anna, Leonardo R Leggieri, Luis Arias Darraz, Juan G Cárcamo, Andrés Venturino, Carlos M Luquet
Fish can be simultaneously or sequentially exposed to various kinds of pollutants, resulting in combined effects. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1A (CYP1A) expression, which catalyzes the conversion of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) into its most active derivative, CPF-oxon. CPF-oxon inhibits CYP1A and other enzymes, including carboxylesterases (CEs) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). We studied the effects of an in vivo exposure to crude oil water accommodated fraction (WAF) followed by an ex vivo exposure of liver tissue to CPF on the expression of Cyp1a, AhR and ARNT mRNA, CYP1A protein and on the activity of biomarker enzymes in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
July 14, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Michael Nelson, Trevon Adams, Christiana Ojo, Margaret A Carroll, Edward J Catapane
Manganese is a neurotoxin causing manganism, a Parkinson-like clinical disorder. Manganese has been shown to interfere with dopaminergic neurotransmission, but the neurotoxic mechanism involved is not fully resolved. In the bivalve mollusc Crassostrea virginica also known as the eastern oyster, beating rates of lateral cilia of the gill are controlled by dopaminergic-serotonergic innervation originating from their cerebral and visceral ganglia. Terminal release of dopamine activates D2-like receptors on these gill cells inhibiting adenylyl cyclase and slowing cilia beating rates...
July 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Carina de Souza Anselmo, Vinicius Figueiredo Sardela, Valeria Pereira de Sousa, Henrique Marcelo Gualberto Pereira
Zebrafish has become a popular model organism in several lines of biological research sharing physiological, morphological and histological similarities with mammals. In fact, many human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have direct orthologs in zebrafish, suggesting that zebrafish xenobiotic metabolic profiles may be similar to those in mammals. The focus of the review is to analyse the studies that have evaluated the metabolite production in zebrafish over the years, either of the drugs themselves or xenobiotics in general (environmental pollutants, natural products, etc...
June 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Yuhang Hong, Xiaozhen Yang, Yi Huang, Guangwen Yan, Yongxu Cheng
The oxidative stress and genotoxic effect of deltamethrin on the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis were assessed using several commonly used biomarkers in this study. The results showed that the 48 h and 96 h LC50 values of deltamethrin to E. sinensis were 2.319 and 1.164 μg/L, respectively, and the safe concentration was 0.293 μg/L. According to these results, deltamethrin was applied at concentrations of 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 and 1/1 96 h LC50 for 8 d in an exposure experiment. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased remarkably at 1 d, but decreased at 4 d in concentration group of 1/4, 1/2 and 1/1 LC50, whereas catalase (CAT) activity decreased during the exposure...
June 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Débora Andrade-Silva, Solange M T Serrano, Stephen Hyslop
In this work, we examined the proteolytic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) activities of venom from the opisthoglyphous colubrid Pseudoboa neuwiedii. Proteolytic activity (3 and 10 μg of venom) was comparable to that of Bothrops neuwiedii venom but less than Bothrops atrox. This activity was inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline but only slightly affected (≤30% inhibition) by PMSF and AEBSF, indicating it was mediated by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The pH and temperature optima for proteolytic activity were 8...
June 29, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ravindran Keppanan, Sivaramakrishnan Sivaperumal, Mubasher Hussain, Chandra Kanta Dash, Bamisope Steve Bamisile, Muhammad Qasim, Liande Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Montserrat Solé, Georgina Rivera-Ingraham, Rosa Freitas
Bivalves are worldwide sentinels of anthropogenic pollution. The inclusion of biomarker responses in chemical monitoring is a recommended practise that has to overcome some difficulties. One of them is the time frame between sample collection and sample processing in order to ensure the preservation of enzymatic activities. In the present study, three bivalve species of commercial interest (mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, razor shell, Solen marginatus, and cockle, Cerastoderma edule) were processed within <2 h after being retrieved from their natural habitat, and 24 h after being transported in air under cold conditions (6-8 °C) to laboratory facilities...
June 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Tânia Vieira Madureira, Fernanda Malhão, Tiago Simões, Ivone Pinheiro, Célia Lopes, José F Gonçalves, Ralph Urbatzka, L Filipe C Castro, Marco F L Lemos, Eduardo Rocha
Lipid metabolism involves complex pathways, which are regulated in a similar way across vertebrates. Hormonal and hypolipidemic deregulations cause lipid imbalance from fish to humans, but the underlying mechanisms are far from understood. This study explores the potential of using juvenile brown trout to evaluate the in vivo interferences caused by estrogenic (17α-ethinylestradiol - EE2), androgenic (testosterone - T), and hypolipidemic (clofibrate - CLF) compounds in lipidic and/or peroxisomal pathways. Studied endpoints were from blood/plasma biochemistry, plasma fatty acid profile, ultrastructure of hepatocytes and abundance of their peroxisomes to mRNA expression in the liver...
June 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Carmen Sarasquete, María Úbeda-Manzanaro, Juan B Ortiz-Delgado
Based on the assumed oestrogenic and apoptotic properties of soya isoflavones (genistein, daidzein), and following the current OECD test-guidelines and principle of 3Rs, we have studied the potential toxicity of phytochemicals on the zebrafish embryos test (ZFET). For this purpose, zebrafish embryos at 2-3 h post-fertilisation (hpf) were exposed to both soya isoflavones (from 1.25 mg/L to 20 mg/L) and assayed until 96 hpf. Lethal and sub-lethal endpoints (mortality, hatching rates and malformations) were estimated in the ZFET, which was expanded to potential gene expression markers, determining the lowest observed effect (and transcriptional) concentrations (LOEC, LOTEC), and the no-observable effect (and transcriptional) concentrations (NOEC, NOTEC)...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Yusuf Saibu, Saroj Kumar, Ankur Jamwal, Derek Peak, Som Niyogi
We employed Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy to examine, in situ, the effects of waterborne Cu, Cd and Zn, alone and in binary mixtures, during acute exposure on the integrity of major lipid and protein constituents of the gill of a model teleost species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Our findings demonstrated that acute exposure to metals, both individually and in binary mixture, resulted in the degradations of various components of proteins and lipids in the gill tissue. Generally, when comparing the effects of individual metals, Cu was found to induce the maximum adverse effects followed by Cd and Zn, respectively...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Xiaona Zhang, Wei Liu, Jun Wang, Hua Tian, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Cross-regulation occurs at many points between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes. Monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide could disrupt HPG and HPT axes, but its direct target within the endocrine system is still unclear. In the present study, hormone concentrations and transcriptional profiles of HPG and HPT genes were examined in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to 0, 4, 40, and 400 μg/L MCP for 2, 4, 8, and 12 d. In vivo data were analyzed by multiple linear regression and correlation analysis, quantitatively indicating that MCP-induced plasma 17β-estradiol (E2 ) levels were most associated with alteration of cyp19a transcription, which was also a potential point indirectly modulated by the MCP-altered thyroid hormones (THs) status; disturbance of THs pathways was most related with effect of MCP on regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary hormones involved in the thyroid system, and the increased E2 levels might enhance the impact of MCP on HPT axis by modulating hepatic deiodinase expression...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Sandra Isabel Moreno Abril, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Adalto Bianchini
In the present study, metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) accumulation and expression of genes involved in metal metabolism (metallothioneins, ATP7A and CTR1) were evaluated in gills and muscle of the fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii living in the João Dias creek, a site historically (~1870-1996) contaminated with a metal mixture associated with copper mining (Minas do Camaquã, southern Brazil). Fish were collected in a metal impacted site of the João Dias creek and kept in a cage at this site (PP fish) or translocated to a non-metal impacted reach of this creek (PC fish)...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Poul Bjerregaard, Karin Lund Kinnberg, Maria Pedersen Mose, Henrik Holbech
Nitrate has the potential to affect steroid production. Nitrate concentrations in streams in agricultural areas may exceed concentrations showing effects in laboratory studies. The effects of nitrate and/or nitrite on endocrine relevant endpoints were tested in zebrafish and brown trout. Zebrafish were exposed in two experiments to nitrate (8.8 to 89 mg NO3 - /L) and nitrite (3.6 to 19 mg NO2 - /L) during the period of sexual differentiation and sex ratios were determined. Vitellogenin concentrations were determined in the second experiment...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Kevin V Brix, Colin J Brauner, Dolph Schluter, Chris M Wood
Ionoregulation in the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus has been intensively studied over the last two decades using a variety of techniques. However, there has been limited use of pharmacological inhibitors to identify proteins involved in ion transport for this species. In this study, we used a range of pharmacological inhibitors (EIPA, DAPI, ethoxzolamide, bumetanide, bafilomycin, phenamil, hydrochlorothiazide) to investigate the proteins involved in Na+ transport in freshwater (1 mM Na+ ) acclimated F...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Chinnu Salim, Nidheesh Thadathil, M Muralidhara, P S Rajini
The higher susceptibility of high glucose fed C. elegans to Monocrotophos (MCP, an organophosphorus insecticide) - induced dopaminergic (DA) neuronal degeneration was recently demonstrated. Employing this acute exposure model, the impact of MCP on DA degeneration among worms of two age groups (8 and 13 d old) fed control (CO) and high glucose (GF) diet with specific focus on phenotypic alterations, oxidative impairments and associated molecular perturbations employing both wild (N2) and transgenic strains(BZ555 and NL5901) was investigated...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Francisco C P Coimbra, James Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Bianca Op den Brouw, Brett Hamilton, Jordan Debono, Paul Masci, Nathaniel Frank, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Night adders (Causus species within the Viperidae family) are amphibian specialists and a common source of snakebite in Africa. Some species are unique in that they have the longest venom glands of any viper, extending approximately 10% of the body length. Despite their potential medical importance and evolutionary novelty, their venom has received almost no research attention. In this study, venoms from a short-glanded species (C. lichtensteinii) and from a long-glanded species (C. rhombeatus) were compared using a series of proteomic and bioactivity testing techniques to investigate and compare the toxin composition and functioning of the venoms of these two species...
September 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Yan Qin Tan, Leo Clement Chiu-Leung, Shu-Mei Lin, Lai K Leung
The environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins are carcinogens and their adverse effects have been largely attributed to the activation of AhR. Hesperetin is a flavonone found abundantly in citrus fruits and has been shown to be a biologically active agent. In the present study, the effect of hesperetin on the nuclear translocation of AhR and the downstream gene expression was investigated in MCF-7 cells. Confocal microscopy indicated that 7, 12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) -induced nuclear translocation of AhR was deterred by hesperetin treatment...
August 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Qian Yang, Xianhai Yang, Jining Liu, Yingwen Chen, Shubao Shen
Bisphenol F (BPF) has become a predominant bisphenol contaminant in recent years. It has significant estrogenic properties in both in vivo and in vitro studies. We have previously studied the disrupting mechanisms of BPF on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of adult zebrafish. However, the effects of BPF exposure on development and sexual differentiation of zebrafish embryos/larvae remain unclear. To determine the effects of BPF on the critical stage of sex differentiation in zebrafish, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L BPF from fertilization to 60 days post-fertilization (dpf)...
August 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Byung Hwa Min, Bo-Mi Kim, Moonkoo Kim, Jung-Hoon Kang, Jee-Hyun Jung, Jae-Sung Rhee
Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), have been widely used to control marine fouling. Here, we show that organotin stimulation reduces the hormone levels in the plasma of two economically important aquaculture fish. Blood plasma samples were collected from juvenile red seabream and black rockfish exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of TBT and TPT for 14 days. The levels of two plasma biomarkers, namely the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG) and the sex steroid 17β-estradiol (E2), were measured to determine the endocrine disrupting potential of the organotin compounds...
August 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Zonghao Yue, Miao Yu, Xiaona Zhang, Jun Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Semicarbazide (SMC), a new marine pollutant, has anti-estrogenic effects on female Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). However, whether SMC also affects the reproductive endocrine system of male marine organisms is currently unclear. In this study, Japanese flounder embryos were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 μg/L SMC for 130 days. Plasma testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2 ) concentrations were significantly decreased in male flounders after SMC exposure. The expression of genes involved in T and E2 synthesis, including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450 11A1, 17α-hydroxylase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450 19A, was down-regulated in the gonads, which may explain the decrease in plasma sex hormones levels...
August 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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