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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

Xiaoyu Wang, Manlu Shen, Jiajie Zhou, Yuanxiang Jin
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is widely used in agriculture and is considered one of the most toxic pesticides to fish. In this study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to CPF at concentrations of 30, 100 and 300 μg/L for 21 days. It was observed that CPF not only induced oxidative stress but also caused gut microbiota dysbiosis in the gut. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased, and the glutathione (GSH) contents decreased in the gut of the CPF-treated group. For the gut microbiota, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria showed a significant change after CPF exposure...
November 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jenny S Paul, Brian C Small
Cadmium is a persistent contaminant of surface waters. The effects of cadmium on early life stages of fish are not well understood, although they are often disproportionately affected by contaminants. The objectives of this study were to examine effects of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations on growth, development, cellular stress, and glucose metabolism of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Eggs were wet-fertilized in treatment water at concentrations of 0.4 (control), 2.2 (low), or 8...
November 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Gonca Alak, Veysel Parlak, Aslı Çilingir Yeltekin, Arzu Ucar, Selim Çomaklı, Ahmet Topal, Muhammed Atamanalp, Mustafa Özkaraca, Hasan Türkez
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of borax against heavy metal exposure on the transcriptional and biochemical reaction in vivo and alleviates effect on different tissues (gill and liver) in a rainbow trout. According to this purpose, fish were fed with different level of borax (BX) and/or copper (Cu) (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of BX; 500 and 1000 mg/kg of Cu) for 21·days in pre- and co-treatment options. The transcriptional parameters [(heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70), and cytochromes P450 (cyp1a), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT))], antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (biochemical and immunohistochemical) and caspase-3 levels in different tissues samples of treated and control fish were investigated...
November 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Manoharan Saravanan, Sang-Eun Nam, Hye-Jin Eom, Do-Hee Lee, Jae-Sung Rhee
Low concentrations of nonylphenol (NP) in aquatic environment can induce drastic effects on the endocrine system in animals. In this study, we examined the modulatory effects of NP on reproductive and physiological parameters in juveniles of the red seabream and black rockfish following waterborne NP exposure (0, 1, 10, and 50 μg L-1 ) for 60 days. In red seabream exposed to 50 μg L-1 NP, plasma levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were significantly lower at 30 and 60 days, while E2 levels were slightly higher in 10 μg L-1 -exposed individuals at day 30...
November 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jelena Nesovic-Ostojic, Sanjin Kovacevic, Svetolik Spasic, Srdjan Lopicic, Jasna Todorovic, Marko Dincic, Marija Stanojevic, Marina Savin, Aleksandar Milovanovic, Dusan Cemerikic
The kidneys are recognized as a major target of cadmium-induced toxicity. However, all mechanisms that are involved in the early stages of cadmium nephrotoxicity, particularly considering low micromolar concentrations of cadmium ions (Cd2+ ) are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of peritubular acute exposure to micromolar Cd2+ concentration (2.3 μmol/L) on the rapid depolarization and the rate of slow repolarization of peritubular membrane potential difference (PD), induced by luminal application of L-alanine in proximal tubular cells of frog kidney...
November 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Zhenhua Ma, Md Mahbubul Hassan, Laetitia Allais, Tao He, Sophie Leterme, Amanda Ellis, Barry McGraw, Jian G Qin
This study explored the impact of fishmeal replacement by commercial soybean meal (SM) and EnzoMeal (EZM) on Asian seabass Lates calcarifer growth performance using six diets. The six diets comprised two sources of plant proteins with three levels each, including 300 g kg-1 soybean meal (SM30), 300 g kg-1 EnzoMeal (EZM30), 400 g kg-1 soybean meal (SM40), 400 g kg-1 EnzoMeal (EZM40), 500 g kg-1 soybean meal (SM50), and 500 g kg-1 EnzoMeal (EZM50). The soybean level was shown to significantly affect the final fish weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), survival, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC)...
November 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Huaqun Ye, Chaoxia Ye, Minglei Xu, Qingying Liu, Zhenzhu Sun, Cunyun Zou, Leling Chen, Ningning Su
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, feed utilization and physiological status of obscure puffer, Takifugu obscurus (13.03 ± 0.14 g) fed diets in which fish meal (FM) was replaced with various levels of dehulled and defatted soybean meal (SBM): 0% (SBM0), 15% (SBM15), 30% (SBM30), 45% (SBM45), 60% (SBM60) and 75% (SBM75). No significant differences were observed in weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish when FM replacement level was lower than 30%, and the broken-line model of SGR showed the maximum replacement level was 40%...
November 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
H Hanana, C Kleinert, C André, F Gagné
Biological organisms evolved to take advantage of recurring external environmental factors which enabled them to assimilate and process metabolic energy for survival. Mitochondria display non-linear oscillations in NADH levels (i.e. wave behavior) that result from the delicate balance between NADH production (aerobic glycolysis) and oxidation for ATP synthesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cadmium (Cd) on mitochondrial NADH oscillations in quagga mussels Dreissena bugensis by exposing the mussels to Cd concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/L for 7 days at 15 °C...
November 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Xiaoshuang Ren, Lan Zhang, Yanning Zhang, Liangang Mao, Hongyun Jiang
Camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives show potential insecticidal activities against various insect species due to target at DNA-Topoisomerase I complex and induce apoptosis death of insect cells. Oxidative stress resulted from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been proved to be an important component of the mechanism of pesticide toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CPTs promote the increasing of intracellular oxidative stress by enhancing accumulation of intracellular ROS in IOZCAS-Spex-II cells derived from Spodoptera exigua Hübner...
November 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Solmaz Ghojavand, Fatemeh Bagheri, Hamzeh Mesrian Tanha
The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) treatment. We used a meta-analysis approach to integrate four publicly available microarray datasets, containing control and epithelium samples treated by either AgNPs- or Ag ions. The Fisher's method combined p-values of studies. Post hoc analyses including protein-protein interaction (PPI) and over-representation were conducted. Analytical results identified 1652 DEGs associated with AgNPs exposure...
November 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Aileen Maldonado, Jessica Nowicki, Morgan S Pratchett, Daniel Schlenk
Many reef fishes are capable of feeding on chemically-defended benthic prey, such as soft (alcyonarian) corals; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underpin allelochemical biotransformation and detoxification. Butterflyfishes (Chaetodon: Chaetdontidae) are a useful group for comparatively exploring links between biotransformation enzymes and diet, because they commonly feed on chemically defended prey. Moreover, diets of some species vary among geographic locations. This study compares gene expression, protein and enzymatic activity of key detoxification enzymes (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2, 3, epoxide hydrolase, glutathione transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) in livers of four coral-feeding butterflyfish species between Australia and Hawaii, where these fishes differ in diet composition...
October 24, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
D A Monteiro, A L Kalinin, H S Selistre-de-Araújo, L A N Nogueira, M E Beletti, M N Fernandes, F T Rantin
Alternagin-C (ALT-C) is a disintegrin-like peptide purified from Rhinocerophis alternatus snake venom with the property of inducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and angiogenesis. Therefore, this protein could be interesting as a new approach for ischemic heart diseases, an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand, leading to cardiac dysfunction. We investigated the effects of a single dose of alternagin-C (0.5 mg kg-1 , via intra-arterial), after 7 days, on hypoxia/reoxygenation challenge in isolated ventricle strips and on morphological changes and density of blood vessels of the heart, using fish as an alternative experimental model...
October 20, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Rui Jia, Yao Li, Liping Cao, Jinliang Du, Tao Zheng, Hao Qian, Zhengyan Gu, Galina Jeney, Pao Xu, Guojun Yin
Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol, has been shown to exert antioxidation, hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation and immunostimulation. However, the effects and underlying mechanism of resveratrol on liver injury in fish are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effects and mechanism of resveratrol on oxidative stress-induced liver damage in tilapia. Fish were fed diet containing four doses of resveratrol (0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 g/kg diet) for 60 days, and then given an intraperitoneal injection of H2 O2 or saline...
October 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Emmanuel Oluwasegun Adawaren, Lillian Mukandiwa, John Chipangura, Kerri Wolter, Vinny Naidoo
Asian Gyps vulture species are gradually recovering from the devastating effect of diclofenac being present in contaminated carcasses. This drug was responsible for the death of over 10 million vultures in India, Nepal and Pakistan. To prevent the extinction of vultures, meloxicam was introduced after the ban of veterinary diclofenac. Meloxicam's safety in vultures was attributed to its short elimination half-life in contrast with diclofenac. The reason for the rapid elimination of meloxicam is yet to be explained...
October 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Miia J Rainio, Aigi Margus, Philipp Lehmann, Marjo Helander, Leena Lindström
Glyphosate is the globally most used herbicide against a wide range of weeds. Glyphosate has been considered safe to animals as it mainly targets physiological pathways in plants. However, recent toxicological studies have revealed that glyphosate can cause various toxic effects also on animals. In this study, we investigated the direct toxic effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH, Roundup® Bio) on 1) survival and 2) oxidative status of a non-target herbivore by using Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), originating from Poland and USA, as model species...
October 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
R P Abdalla, B M S Kida, J P S Pinheiro, L F Oliveira, C B F Martinez, R G Moreira
Exposure to aluminum (Al) and aluminum + manganese (Mn) can trigger an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modify the activity of oxidative defense enzymes. This study investigated whether exposure to Al and Al + Mn at acid pH for 24 and 96 h causes oxidative stress evidenced by antioxidants and oxidative damage in the gills and liver of sexually mature Astyanax altiparanae males. The fish were subsequently immersed in metal-free water for 24 and 96 h to see whether they recovered from the effects of these metals...
October 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ronghui Zheng, Yusheng Zhang, Chao Fang, Mengyun Chen, Fukun Hong, Jun Bo
Nonylphenol (NP) and Cadmium (Cd) are two common contaminants that can be detected in aquatic environments. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of NP and Cd at environmentally relevant concentrations in aquatic organisms has not been thoroughly characterized to date. In the present study, the interactions between NP and Cd on male Sebastiscus marmoratus were studied. After 21 days of exposure, the brain aromatase activity was observed to be significantly induced by 100 ng/L NP and 40 μg/L Cd, whereas all of the concentrations of co-treatment resulted in an increase in brain aromatase activity...
October 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Peter van den Hurk, Harald M I Kerkkamp
While it has been known for a while that some snake species are extremely sensitive to acetaminophen, the underlying mechanism for this toxicity has not been reported. To investigate if essential detoxification enzymes are missing in snake species that are responsible for biotransformation of acetaminophen in other vertebrate species, livers were collected from a variety of snake species, together with samples from alligator, snapping turtle, cat, rat, and cattle. Subcellular fractions were analyzed for enzymatic activities of phenol-type sulfotransferase and UDP‑glucuronosyltransferase, total glutathione S‑transferase, and N‑acetyltransferase...
September 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jesmin Akter, Md Amzad Hossain, Kensaku Takara, Md Zahorul Islam, De-Xing Hou
There are >80 species of turmeric (Curcuma spp.) and some species have multiple varieties, for example, Curcuma longa (C. longa) has 70 varieties. They could be different in their chemical properties and biological activities. Therefore, we compared antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of different species and varieties of turmeric namely C. longa [variety: Ryudai gold (RD) and Okinawa ukon], C. xanthorrhiza, C. aromatica, C. amada, and C. zedoaria. The antioxidant activity was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power and 2-deoxyribose (2-DR) oxidation assay...
September 25, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Natália Oliveira de Farias, Rhaul Oliveira, Diego Sousa-Moura, Reginaldo Carlyle Silva de Oliveira, Maria Augusta Carvalho Rodrigues, Thayres Sousa Andrade, Inês Domingues, Níchollas Serafim Camargo, Luís Alexandre Muehlmann, Cesar Koppe Grisolia
Fluoxetine (FLX) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant widely used in clinics and very often found in environmental samples of urban aquatic ecosystems in concentrations ranging from ng/L to μg/L. Fish populations might be especially susceptible to FLX due to the presence of conserved cellular receptors of serotonin. Neurotoxic effects on fish biota of polluted water bodies may be expected, but there are no sufficient studies in the current literature to elucidate this hypothesis...
September 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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