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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

Juan Guillermo Cárcamo, Marcelo N Aguilar, Constanza F Carreño, Tamara Vera, Luis Arias-Darraz, Jaime E Figueroa, Alex P Romero, Marco Alvarez, Alejandro J Yañez
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Andrew Holowiecki, Britton O'Shields, Matthew J Jenny
Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) degrades heme into biliverdin, which is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVRa or BVRb) in a manner analogous to the classic anti-oxidant glutathione-recycling pathway. To gain a better understanding of the potential antioxidant roles the BVR enzymes may play during development, the spatiotemporal expression and transcriptional regulation of zebrafish hmox1a, bvra and bvrb were characterized under basal conditions and in response to pro-oxidant exposure. All three genes displayed spatiotemporal expression patterns consistent with classic hematopoietic progenitors during development...
October 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Aaron P Roberts, Matthew M Alloy, James T Oris
Solar radiation is a vital component of ecosystem function. However, sunlight can also interact with certain xenobiotic compounds in a phenomenon known as photo-induced, photo-enhanced, photo-activated, or photo-toxicity. This phenomenon broadly refers to an interaction between a chemical and sunlight resulting in increased toxicity. Because most aquatic ecosystems receive some amount of sunlight, co-exposure to xenobiotic chemicals and solar radiation is likely to occur in the environment, and photo-induced toxicity may be an important factor impacting aquatic ecosystems...
October 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Cody S Shirriff, John J Heikkila
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can result in the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded protein in the ER lumen, which can trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR) resulting in the activation of various genes including immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP; also known as glucose-regulated protein 78 or HSPA5). BiP, an ER heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family member, binds to unfolded protein, inhibits their aggregation and re-folds them in an ATP-dependent manner. While cadmium, an environmental contaminant, was shown to induce the accumulation of HSP70 in vertebrate cells, less information is available regarding the effect of this metal on BiP accumulation or function...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Vagne Melo Oliveira, Caio Rodrigo Dias Assis, Helane Maria Silva Costa, Raquel Pereira Freitas Silva, Juliana Ferreira Santos, Luiz Bezerra Carvalho, Ranilson Souza Bezerra
Aluminium is a major pollutant due to its constant disposal in aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities. The physiological effects of this metal in fish are still scarce in the literature. This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of aluminium sulfate on the activity of enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscle cholinesterases (AChE-like and BChE-like activities), pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase. Fish were in vivo exposed during 14days when the following experimental groups were assayed: control group (CG), exposure to Al2(SO4)3 at 1μg·mL(-1) (G1) and 3μg·mL(-1) (G3) (concentrations compatible with the use of aluminium sulfate as coagulant in water treatment)...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Martina Rudgalvyte, Juhani Peltonen, Merja Lakso, Garry Wong
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental pollutant that occurs in the food chain, at occupational sites, and via medical procedures. Exposure in humans and animal models results in renal, neuro, and reproductive toxicities. In this study, we demonstrate that chronic exposure to MeHg (10μM) causes epigenetic landscape modifications of histone H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) marks in Caenorhabditis elegans using chromatin immuno-precipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). The modifications correspond to the locations of 1467 genes with enhanced and 508 genes with reduced signals...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Fernanda Hernandes Figueira, Lais Mattos de Aguiar, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa
The herbicide atrazine has been used worldwide with subsequent residual contamination of water and food, which may cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Animal exposure to this herbicide may affect development, reproduction and energy metabolism. Here, the effects of atrazine regarding survival and redox metabolism were assessed in the fruit fly D. melanogaster exposed during embryonic and larval development. The embryos (newly fertilized eggs) were exposed to different atrazine concentrations (10μM and 100μM) in the diet until the adult fly emerged...
September 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Adelita D Mendoza, Teresa K Woodruff, Sarah M Wignall, Thomas V O'Halloran
Zinc is an essential metal that serves as a cofactor in a variety of cellular processes, including meiotic maturation. Cellular control of zinc uptake, availability and efflux is closely linked to meiotic progression in rodent and primate reproduction where large fluctuations in zinc levels are critical at several steps in the oocyte-to-embryo transition. Despite these well-documented roles of zinc fluxes during meiosis, only a few of the genes encoding key zinc receptors, membrane-spanning transporters, and downstream signaling pathway factors have been identified to date...
September 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
James Hester, Wendy Hanna-Rose, Francisco Diaz
Zinc is necessary for successful gametogenesis in mammals; however the role of zinc in the gonad function of non-mammalian species has not been investigated. The genetic tractability, short generation time, and hermaphroditic reproduction of the nematode C. elegans offer distinct advantages for the study of impaired gametogenesis as a result of zinc deficiency. However the phenotypic reproductive effects arising from zinc restriction have not been established in this model. We therefore examined the effect of zinc deficiency on C...
September 20, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
G S Dolci, H Z Rosa, R C S Barcelos, L T Vey, A Santos, P DallaVechia, C Bizzi, M A Cunha, B Baldisserotto, M E Burger
This study investigated if hypoxia acclimation modifies the hematological and oxidative profiles in tissues of Mn-exposed silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), and if such modifications persist upon subsequent reoxygenation. Silver catfish acclimated to hypoxia (~3mgL(-1)) for 10days and subsequently exposed to Mn (~8.1mgL(-1)) for additional 10days exhibited lower Mn accumulation in plasma, liver and kidney, even after reoxygenation, as compared to normoxia-acclimated fish. Hypoxia acclimation increased per se red blood cells count and hematocrit, suggesting adaptations under hypoxia, while the reoxygenation process was also related to increased hematocrit and hemoglobin per se...
September 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ruiming Guo, Luqing Pan, Pengfei Lin, Lei Zheng
This study aimed to investigate the detoxification responses, damage effects and biotransformation in scallop Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.1, 1μg/L), chrysene (CHR) (0.1, 1μg/L) and BaP+CHR (0.1+0.1, 1+1μg/L) for 15days. Results demonstrated that BaP and CHR concentration (BaP<CHR) in tissues increased rapidly in a time and dose effect. The mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were induced especially in the mixtures of BaP and CHR...
September 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Teresa Balbi, Caterina Ciacci, Elena Grasselli, Arianna Smerilli, Adriana Voci, Laura Canesi
In vertebrate systems, many endocrine disruptors (EDs) can also interfere with energy and lipid metabolism, thus acting as metabolic disruptors. At the cellular level, these effects are mainly mediated by interactions with nuclear receptors/transcription factors, leading to the modulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis, as well as by rapid, receptor-independent pathways. Several potential metabolic disruptors are found in aquatic environments. In fish, different EDs have been shown to affect hepatic lipid homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro...
September 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Yanning Zhang, Lan Zhang, Lei Feng, Liangang Mao, Hongyun Jiang
Imidaclothiz, a kind of neonicotinoid insecticides, is developed as a commercial pesticide in China and used for the control of sucking and biting insects, including aphids, whiteflies, beetles and some Lepidoptera species as well. In recent years, more and more attention has been focused on the adverse effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on non-target organisms. In this study, inhibition effects of imidaclothiz and recovery capacity of molecular biomarkers (GST, CE, CAT, SOD and POD activity, and DNA damage) in earthworms were detected for the first time...
September 7, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Allison Kupsco, Daniel Schlenk
Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) play a key role in xenobiotic metabolism, are regulated by environmental conditions, and are differentially regulated during mammalian development. Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) are a common model organism for toxicological studies. The goal of the current research was to characterize developmental expression and regulation of FMOs in Japanese medaka embryos to better understand the role of FMOs in this model species. Five putative medaka fmos were characterized from the medaka genome through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database by protein motifs and alignments, then identified as fmo4, fmo5A, fmo5B, fmo5C and fmo5D for the current study...
September 6, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jeremy A Leonard, W Gregory Cope, Edward J Hammer, M Christopher Barnhart, Robert B Bringolf
Surface water concentrations of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) as low as 1ng/L can cause adverse reproductive effects in fish under acute and chronic exposure conditions, whereas higher concentrations (> 5ng/L) in acute studies are necessary to elicit adverse effects in freshwater mussels. Prolonged chronic exposures of freshwater mussels to EE2 remain un-evaluated. An extended duration testing paradigm was used to examine reproductive and biochemical (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) effects of EE2 on the unionid mussel, Elliptio complanata, throughout its reproductive cycle...
September 6, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Rita de Cássia O Collaço, Priscila Randazzo-Moura, Mariana L Tamascia, Igor Rapp F da Silva, Thalita Rocha, José C Cogo, Stephen Hyslop, Charles G Sanny, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni
In this work, we examined some biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops fonsecai venom, a pitviper endemic to southeastern Brazil, and assessed their neutralization by commercial bothropic antivenom (CAv). Cross-reactivity of venom with CAv was also assessed by immunoblotting and size-exclusion high performance chromatography (SE-HPLC). Bothrops fonsecai venom had PLA2, proteolytic and esterase activities that were neutralized to varying extents by venom:antivenom ratios of 5:1 and 5:2 (PLA2 and esterase activities) or not significantly by either venom:antivenom ratio (proteolytic activity)...
August 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Yohan D Louis, Ranjeet Bhagooli, Carly D Kenkel, Andrew C Baker, Sabrina D Dyall
Gene expression biomarkers (GEBs) are emerging as powerful diagnostic tools for identifying and characterizing coral stress. Their capacity to detect sublethal stress prior to the onset of signs at the organismal level that might already indicate significant damage makes them more precise and proactive compared to traditional monitoring techniques. A high number of candidate GEBs, including certain heat shock protein genes, metabolic genes, oxidative stress genes, immune response genes, ion transport genes, and structural genes have been investigated, and some genes, including hsp16, Cacna1, MnSOD, SLC26, and Nf-kB, are already showing excellent potential as reliable indicators of thermal stress in corals...
August 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Gayane Kirakosyan, Maryam Mohamadvarzi, Lusine Ghulikyan, Naira Zaqaryan, Arsen Kishmiryan, Naira Ayvazyan
Snake bites are an endemic public health problem in Iran, both in rural and urban area. Viper venom as a hemolytic biochemical "cocktail" of toxins, primarily cause to the systemic alteration of blood cells. In the sixties and seventies, human erythrocytes were extensively studied, but the mechanical and chemical stresses commonly exerted on red blood cells continue to attract interest of scientists for the study of membrane structure and function. Here, we monitor the effect of Vipera latifi venom on human erythrocytes ghost membranes using phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy and changes in ATPase activity under snake venom influence in vitro...
August 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
A Bermejo-Nogales, M Fernández, M L Fernández-Cruz, J M Navas
Among the nanomaterials currently in commercial products, those based on silver are the most used, and so there is a high probability that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will be released into aquatic environments where they could adversely affect aquatic organisms, including fish. Taking this into account, the aim of the present work was to characterize in depth the mechanisms underlying the toxic action of AgNPs using fish cell lines, determining specifically the contribution of alterations in cellular structures and oxidative stress time course to the cytotoxicity of AgNPs...
August 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Aksorn Saengtienchai, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Usuma Jermnark, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yusuke K Kawai, Shouta M M Nakayama, Mayumi Ishizuka
The African hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris, is a spiny mammal that has become popular as an exotic pet in many countries. To elucidate the ability of hedgehogs to metabolize xenobiotics, the animals were exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyrene. The in vivo exposure study indicated that pyrene was biotransformed to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, such as pyrene-1-glucuronide, pyrene-1-sulfate, and pyrenediol-sulfate, and excreted in the urine. Pyrene-1-glucuronide was the main metabolite, and limited sulfate conjugate excretion was observed...
August 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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