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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

Soo Ji Woo, Na Young Kim, Shin Hu Kim, Sang Jung Ahn, Jung Soo Seo, Sung Hee Jung, Joon Ki Chung
Trichlorfon is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of trichlorfon on hematological parameters, biochemical factors, and stress reaction in Cyprinus carpio L. The fish were exposed to acute concentrations of trichlorfon (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg L-1 ) at 25 °C and 15 °C for 1 and 2 weeks, after which several parameters were evaluated to assess the effects of the pesticide. Significant decreases were observed in red blood cell (RBC) Count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Ht), and plasma protein levels after each exposure period...
March 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Yusuf Saibu, Ankur Jamwal, Renfei Feng, Derek Peak, Som Niyogi
We utilized micro X-ray fluorescence imaging (μ-XFI) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES), which are both synchrotron-based techniques to investigate Zn distribution profile, its co-localization patterns with Ca, S, and Fe and speciation in the gills of rainbow trout (RBT). Fish (~100 g) were exposed to acutely toxic levels of waterborne Zn alone and in combination with waterborne Cd or Cu for 24 h (each at 1 × 96 h LC50 ). Gill sections were prepared and analyzed at the VESPERS beamline of the Canadian Light Source...
March 1, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Allisson Jhonatan Gomes Castro, Ivana Eunice Baptista, Kieiv Resende Sousa de Moura, Fernanda Padilha, Juliana Tonietto, Ariane Zamoner Pacheco de Souza, Carlos Henrique Lemos Soares, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva, Glen Van Der Kraak
While many studies have shown that pulp mill effluents can affect ovarian physiology in fish, far fewer studies have considered the effects in males. We conducted a lab study to examine the effects of effluent from a Brazilian pulp and paper mill on hepatic and testicular morphology and various aspects of testicular physiology in the zebrafish Danio rerio. Males were exposed to lab water (control) or 4% effluent for 14 days. Effluent exposure did not affect testis size as measured by the gonadosomatic index, but contributed to morphological changes in the seminiferous tubules...
February 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Marco E Franco, Grace E Sutherland, Ramon Lavado
The use of fish cell cultures has proven to be an effective tool in the study of environmental and aquatic toxicology. Valuable information can be obtained from comparisons between cell lines from different species and organs. In the present study, specific chemicals were used and biomarkers (e.g. 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) were measured to assess the metabolic capabilities and cytotoxicity of the fish hepatic cell lines Hepa-E1 and RTH-149, and the fish gill cell lines RTgill-W1 and G1B...
February 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Felix Esteban Airahuacho Bautista, Antonio Sergio Varela Junior, Carine Dahl Corcini, Izani Bonel Acosta, Sergiane Souza Caldas, Ednei Gilberto Primel, Juliano Zanette
The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is used worldwide in the control of annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds. The present study evaluated sperm quality parameters in zebrafish Danio rerio after 11-day exposure to nominal ATZ concentrations of 2, 10, and 100 μg L-1 . All ATZ concentrations caused a decrease in motility, mitochondrial functionality, and membrane integrity, as measured using conventional microscopy or fluorescence microscopy with specific probes. The DNA integrity of sperm was not affected. The levels of expression of genes related to spermatogenesis, antioxidant defenses, and DNA repair were also investigated using RT-qPCR...
February 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Alysha D Cypher, Bryce Fetterman, Brian Bagatto
How fish respond to hypoxia, a common stressor, can be altered by simultaneous exposure to pollutants like bisphenol A (BPA), a plasticizer. BPA is cardiotoxic and interferes with the hypoxia inducible factor pathway (HIF-1α), therefore disrupting the hypoxic response. Co-exposure to hypoxia and BPA also causes severe bradycardia and reduced cardiac output in zebrafish larvae. The purpose of this work was to determine how the cardiovascular effects of co-exposure vary with BPA concentration and persist beyond exposure...
February 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Eirini Sidiropoulou, Konstantinos Feidantsis, Stavros Kalogiannis, George P Gallios, Georgia Kastrinaki, Eleni Papaioannou, Miroslava Václavíková, Martha Kaloyianni
The use of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) is spreading rapidly across technology and medicine fields, posing concerns about their consequence on ecosystems and human health. The present study aims to assess the biological responses triggered by iron oxide NPs (IONPs) and iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite (IONPZ) in relation to oxidative stress on the land snail Helix aspersa in order to investigate its use as a biomarker for terrestrial environments. Morphology and structure of both NPs were characterized...
February 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
Anuran toxins released from the skin glands are involved in defence against predators and microorganisms. Secretion from parotoid macroglands of bufonid toads is a rich source of bioactive compounds with the cytotoxic, cardiotoxic and hemolytic activity. Bufadienolides are considered the most toxic components of the toad poison, whereas the protein properties are largely unknown. In the present work, we analysed the cardio-, myo-, and neurotropic activity of extract and the selected proteins from Bufo bufo parotoids in in vitro physiological bioassays carried out on two standard model organisms: beetles and frogs...
January 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Amélie Châtel, Clémence Lièvre, Andrew Barrick, Mélanie Bruneau, Catherine Mouneyrac
The extensive development of nanotechnologies will inevitably lead to the release of nanomaterials (NMs) in the environment. As the aquatic environments represent the ultimate sink for various contaminants, it is highly probable that they also constitute a reservoir for NMs and hence aquatic animals represent potential targets. In a regulatory perspective, it is necessary to develop tools to rapidly screen the impact of NMs on model organisms, given that the number of NMs on the market will be increasing. In this context High Throughput Screening approaches represent relevant tools for the investigation of NM-mediated toxicity...
January 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
John A Frew, Jacob T Brown, Patrick N Fitzsimmons, Alex D Hoffman, Martin Sadilek, Christian E Grue, John W Nichols
Studies were conducted to determine the distribution and elimination of imidacloprid (IMI) in rainbow trout. Animals were injected with a low (47.6 μg/kg), medium (117.5 μg/kg) or high (232.7 μg/kg) dose directly into the bloodstream and allowed to depurate. The fish were then sampled to characterize the loss of IMI from plasma and its appearance in expired water (all dose groups) and urine (medium dose only). In vitro biotransformation of IMI was evaluated using trout liver S9 fractions. Mean total clearance (CLT) values determined by non-compartmental analysis of plasma time-course data were 21...
January 25, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jonathan Goldenberg, Vittoria Cipriani, Timothy N W Jackson, Kevin Arbuckle, Jordan Debono, Daniel Dashevsky, Nadya Panagides, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Ivan Koludarov, Bin Li, Renan Castro Santana, Amanda Nouwens, Alun Jones, Chris Hay, Nathan Dunstan, Luke Allen, Brian Bush, John J Miles, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Pseudechis (black snakes) is an Australasian elapid snake genus that inhabits much of mainland Australia, with two representatives confined to Papua New Guinea. The present study is the first to analyse the venom of all 9 described Pseudechis species (plus one undescribed species) to investigate the evolution of venom composition and functional activity. Proteomic results demonstrated that the typical Pseudechis venom profile is dominated by phospholipase A2 toxins. Strong cytotoxicity was the dominant function for most species...
January 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
John Pierce Wise, James T F Wise, Catherine F Wise, Sandra S Wise, Christy Gianios, Hong Xie, Ron Walter, Mikki Boswell, Cairong Zhu, Tongzhang Zheng, Christopher Perkins, John Pierce Wise
In response to the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon and the massive release of oil that followed, we conducted three annual research voyages to investigate how the oil spill would impact the marine offshore environment. Most investigations into the ecological and toxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil crisis have mainly focused on the fate of the oil and dispersants, but few have considered the release of metals into the environment. From studies of previous oil spills, other marine oil industries, and analyses of oil compositions, it is evident that metals are frequently encountered...
December 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jing Tao, Wei Rong, Xiaoping Diao, Hailong Zhou
Exogenous retinoic acid delays and disturbs the regeneration of Eisenia foetida. The stem cell pluripotency factor, Sox2, can play a crucial role in cell reprogramming and dedifferentiation. In this study, we compared the regeneration of Eisenia foetida in different segments after amputation and the effects of retinoic acid on the regeneration of different segments. The results showed that the regeneration speed of the head and tail was slightly faster than the middle part, and retinoic acid disrupted and delayed the regeneration of the earthworm...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Stefan de Gelder, Henrik Sundh, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Lotte van Daal, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Guiyi Gong, Lingling Jiang, Qinghua Lin, Wenyuan Liu, Ming-Fang He, Jie Zhang, Feng Feng, Wei Qu, Ning Xie
Dysfunction of copper homeostasis can lead to a host of disorders, which might be toxic sometimes. 4-Methoxy-5-hydroxy-canthin-6-one (CAN) is one of the major constituents from Picrasma quassioides and responsible for its therapeutic effects. In this work, we evaluated the toxic effect of CAN (7.5μM) on zebrafish embryos. CAN treatment decreased survival, delayed hatching time and induced malformations (loss of pigmentation, pericardial edema, as well as hematologic and neurologic abnormalities). Besides, exogenous copper supplementation rescued the pigmentation and cardiovascular defects in CAN-treated embryos...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jonas Brandenburg, Jessica A Head
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are potent teratogens. Recent research suggests that early life exposure to PAHs can affect health outcomes later in life. Some of these latent responses may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. The role of DNA methylation in regulating responses to PAHs in birds is currently unknown. Here, we assess the effect of in ovo exposure to the model PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediated cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) gene expression and promoter methylation in chicken embryos...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Xiaoxiao Fan, Hongchao Jiao, Jingpeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Wang, Hai Lin
The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LPS on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, we selected 7days old AA broilers of similar weigh randomly; LPS atomized at 1mg/kg body weigh dose in the confined space of 1 cubic meter. The chickens exposed for 2h. Then collect samples after 4h and 8h respectively. Compared to control, LPS inhibited mucus production in BALF, caused a rising trend of the concentration of IgA in serum and BALF, and increased the protein expression of IgA in lung tissue...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Minjie Chen, Jie Zhang, Shaochen Pang, Chang Wang, Ling Wang, Yonghua Sun, Maoyong Song, Yong Liang
By measuring the vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) expression through quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization, we used the zebrafish embryo as an in vivo model to access the estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects of several endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as natural estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), synthetic hormones including diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-octyl phenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), tamoxifen (TMX) and 3-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC). According to our data, the estrogenic effect of the tested chemicals was ranked as: DES>E2 >E3 >OP>BPA, which is consistent with various in vivo and in vitro models...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Michele da Silva Aires, Christianne Lorea Paganini, Adalto Bianchini
The estuarine crab Neohelice granulata was maintained under control condition or exposed to sublethal concentrations of dissolved Ni (measured: 128 and 1010μg/L) for 96h at different salinities (2 and 30ppt). After metal exposure, whole-body oxygen consumption was measured and tissue (hemolymph, gills, hepatopancreas and muscle) samples were collected. Control crabs acclimated to 2ppt salinity showed lower hemolymph concentrations of Na+ (33%), Mg2+ (19%) and K+ (30%), as well as increased LPO levels in anterior gills (379%), posterior gills (457%) and hepatopancreas (35%) with respect to those acclimated to 30ppt salinity...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Jane E Morthorst, Birgit F Lund, Henrik Holbech, Poul Bjerregaard
Mild analgesics such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and acetaminophen (APAP) exert their pain-relieving effect in humans by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Prostaglandins play key roles in developmental and reproductive processes in vertebrates, and in recent years, it has been suggested that weak analgesics might also act as endocrine disrupters. In a set of experiments we investigated if ASA and APAP affect well-established endocrine endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio), which is a commonly used model organism in the investigation of endocrine disrupting chemicals...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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