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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223193/spinosad-induces-autophagy-of-spodoptera-frugiperda-sf9-cells-and-the-activation-of-ampk-mtor-signaling-pathway
#1
Mingjun Yang, Youwu Hao, Jufang Gao, Yang Zhang, Wenping Xu, Liming Tao
Spinosad, a high-selectivity neural toxin, has been widely used in agricultural production. However, the mode of action of spinosad on insect non-neural cells is not yet clear and hence requires further investigation. Therefore, to reveal the cytotoxic mechanisms of spinosad, we investigated whether and how it can induce autophagic cell death. After treating Sf9 cells with spinosad, the resulting autophagosome was observed by transmission electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining. Interestingly, spinosad induced the accumulation of Beclin-1, degradation of p62, and intensification of LC3-B formation and translocation and thus autophagy, whereas, 3-MA treatment reverted the phenotype...
February 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219785/transcriptional-alterations-induced-by-binary-mixtures-of-ethinylestradiol-and-norgestrel-during-the-early-development-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Yan-Qiu Liang, Guo-Yong Huang, Jian-Liang Zhao, Wen-Jun Shi, Li-Xin Hu, Fei Tian, Shuang-Shuang Liu, Yu-Xia Jiang, Guang-Guo Ying
Synthetic estrogens and progestins are commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. After use, they reach aquatic environments via discharge of wastewaters from human and animals, thus posing potential risks to organisms. So far, very little is known about their combined effects in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of binary mixtures of ethinylestradiol (EE2) and norgestrel (NGT) on embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) by measuring transcriptional alterations. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to EE2 and NGT alone or in combination at concentrations between 36 and 5513 ng L(-1) for 96 h post fertilization (hpf)...
February 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216010/uptake-of-benzo-a-pyrene-but-not-of-phenanthrene-is-inhibited-by-fatty-acids-in-intestinal-brush-border-membrane-vesicles-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#3
Stefan de Gelder, Liselot van Och, Jan Zethof, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
Partial replacement of fish ingredients with vegetable ingredients has elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic salmon reared on these feeds. PAH uptake in the intestinal tract is postulated to occur in association with lipid absorption and could well be affected by fatty acid composition. We therefore investigated the effects of a fish oil and vegetable oil fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and oleic acid (18:1n-9) respectively, on the uptake of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE) across the intestinal brush border membrane in the salmonid species rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
February 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216009/upregulating-nrf2-dependent-antioxidant-defenses-in-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-investigating-the-nrf2-keap1-pathway-in-bivalves
#4
Naissa Maria Danielli, Rafael Trevisan, Danielle Ferraz Mello, Kelvis Fischer, Vanessa Schadeck Deconto, Daiane da Silva Acosta, Adalto Bianchini, Afonso C D Bainy, Alcir Luiz Dafre
Analysis of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas annotated genome revealed genes with conserved sequences belonging to typical cap 'n' collar Nrf2 domain, a major player in antioxidant protection, and domains belonging to Nrf2 cytoplasmic repressor (Keap1), but little is known about Nrf2/Keap1 induction in bivalves. C. gigas were exposed to waterborne 10 and 30μM curcumin, a known inducer of the mammalian Nrf2. Curcumin disappeared from the seawater after 10h, and accumulated in the gills (10h) and digestive gland (10-96h)...
February 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188895/the-effects-of-neonicotinoid-exposure-on-embryonic-development-and-organ-mass-in-northern-bobwhite-quail-colinus-virginianus
#5
Amanda Gobeli, Dane Crossley, Jeff Johnson, Kelly Reyna
Since their emergence in the early 1990s, neonicotinoid use has increased exponentially to make them the world's most prevalent insecticides. Although there has been considerable research concerning the lethality of neonicotinoids, their sub-lethal and developmental effects are still being explored, especially with regard to non-mammalian species. The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the morphological and physiological development of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus)...
February 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188896/alteration-of-neurotransmission-and-skeletogenesis-in-sea-urchin-arbacia-lixula-embryos-exposed-to-copper-oxide-nanoparticles
#6
Tiziana Cappello, Valeria Vitale, Sabrina Oliva, Valentina Villari, Angela Mauceri, Salvatore Fasulo, Maria Maisano
The extensive use of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in many applications has raised concerns over their toxicity on environment and human health. Herein, the embryotoxicity of CuO NPs was assessed in the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula, an intertidal species commonly present in the Mediterranean. Fertilized eggs were exposed to 0.7, 10 and 20ppb of CuO NPs, until pluteus stage. Interferences with the normal neurotransmission pathways were observed in sea urchin embryos. In detail, evidence of cholinergic and serotoninergic systems affection was revealed by dose-dependent decreased levels of choline and N-acetyl serotonin, respectively, measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, applied for the first time to our knowledge on sea urchin embryos...
February 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163252/the-legacy-pesticide-dieldrin-acts-as-a-teratogen-and-alters-the-expression-of-dopamine-transporter-and-dopamine-receptor-2a-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#7
Kathleena I Sarty, Andrew Cowie, Christopher J Martyniuk
Dieldrin (DLD) is a lipophilic pesticide that shows environmental persistence. The objectives were to determine the effects of DLD on GABAergic and dopaminergic systems in developing zebrafish. Both chorionated and dechorionated embryos (~24h post-hatch) were exposed to a single concentration of DLD (0.347-3470μM) for 48h. Following exposure, a subset of larvae was placed into clean water for 6days (i.e. depuration phase). Chorionated embryos showed <15% mortality while dechorionated embryos showed higher mortality (>30%), suggesting that the chorion protected the embryos...
February 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163251/overexpression-of-carboxylesterase-contributes-to-the-attenuation-of-cyanotoxin-microcystin-lr-toxicity
#8
Shota Takumi, Tai Shimono, Satoshi Ikema, Yuki Hotta, Petros K Chigwechokha, Kazuhiro Shiozaki, Yasumasa Sugiyama, Mitsuru Hashimoto, Tatsuhiko Furukawa, Masaharu Komatsu
Microcystin-LR is a hepatotoxin produced by several cyanobacteria. Its toxicity is mainly due to a inhibition of protein phosphatase, PP1 and PP2A. Previously, we used a cell line stably expressing uptake transporter for microcystin-LR, OATP1B3 (HEK293-OATP1B3 cells). In this study, to determine whether overexpression of carboxylesterase (CES), which degrades ester-group and amide-group, attenuates the cytotoxicity of microcystin-LR, we generated the HEK293-OATP1B3/CES2 double-transfected cells. HEK293-OATP1B3/CES2 cells showed high hydrolysis activity of p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA), which is an authentic substrate for esterase...
February 3, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163255/effects-of-caffeine-on-behavioral-and-inflammatory-changes-elicited-by-copper-in-zebrafish-larvae-role-of-adenosine-receptors
#9
Fernanda Fernandes Cruz, Carlos Eduardo Leite, Luiza Wilges Kist, Giovanna Medeiros de Oliveira, Maurício Reis Bogo, Carla Denise Bonan, Maria Martha Campos, Fernanda Bueno Morrone
This study investigated the effects of caffeine in the behavioral and inflammatory alterations caused by copper in zebrafish larvae, attempting to correlate these changes with the modulation of adenosine receptors. To perform a survival curve, 7dpf larvae were exposed to 10μM CuSO4, combined to different concentrations of caffeine (100μM, 500μM and 1mM) for up to 24h. The treatment with copper showed lower survival rates only when combined with 500μM and 1mM of caffeine. We selected 4 and 24h as treatment time-points...
February 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163254/multiple-resistance-to-pirimiphos-methyl-and-bifenthrin-in-tribolium-castaneum-involves-the-activity-of-lipases-esterases-and-laccase2
#10
Alison Henrique Ferreira Julio, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis Gigliolli, Kátia Aparecida Kern Cardoso, Sandro Daniel Drosdoski, Rodrigo Amaral Kulza, Flávio Augusto Vicente Seixas, Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza, Ana Silvia Lapenta
Several recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms that confer insecticide resistance on insect pests. However, little is known about multiple resistance in red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) at molecular level. The multiple resistance is characterized as resistance to different classes of insecticides that have different target sites, and is mediated by several enzymatic systems. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in multiple resistance of T. castaneum to bifenthrin (pyrethroid [Pyr]) and pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate [Org])...
February 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163253/apoptotic-death-in-erythrocytes-of-lamprey-lampetra-fluviatilis-induced-by-ionomycin-and-tert-butyl-hydroperoxide
#11
Natalia I Agalakova, Tatiana I Ivanova, Gennadii P Gusev, Anna V Nazarenkova, Dina A Sufiyeva
The work examined the effects of Ca(2+) overload and oxidative damage on erythrocytes of river lamprey Lampetra fluvialtilis. The cells were incubated for 3h with 0.1-5μM Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin in combination with 2.5mM Ca(2+) and 10-100μM pro-oxidant agent tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP). The sensitivity of lamprey RBCs to studied compounds was evaluated by the kinetics of their death. Both toxicants induced dose- and time dependent phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (annexin V-FITC labeling) and loss of membrane integrity (propidium iodide uptake)...
February 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132877/short-term-effects-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-physiological-responses-in-stellate-sturgeon-acipenser-stellatus
#12
Bahram Falahatkar, Samaneh Poursaeid, Bahman Meknatkhah, Iraj Efatpanah
There is no evidence of the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) administration on stress response and related metabolites after a short-period in chondrostean. In this study, we examined whether E2 is capable of inducing the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis activity. To accomplish this, sexually immature Acipenser stellatus were injected intraperitoneally with saline or E2 (5mg/kg body mass) and sampled 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72h later. Plasma E2, cortisol, glucose, lactate, hematocrit (Hct), total protein (TP), cholesterol, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus concentrations were examined...
January 26, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111253/atrazine-exposure-elicits-copy-number-alterations-in-the-zebrafish-genome
#13
Sara E Wirbisky, Jennifer L Freeman
Atrazine is an agricultural herbicide used throughout the Midwestern United States that frequently contaminates potable water supplies resulting in human exposure. Using the zebrafish model system, an embryonic atrazine exposure was previously reported to decrease spawning rates with an increase in progesterone and ovarian follicular atresia in adult females. In addition, alterations in genes associated with distinct molecular pathways of the endocrine system were observed in brain and gonad tissue of the adult females and males...
January 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111252/physiological-and-biochemical-impacts-of-graphene-oxide-in-polychaetes-the-case-of-diopatra-neapolitana
#14
Lucia De Marchi, Victor Neto, Carlo Pretti, Etelvina Figueira, Luigi Brambilla, Maria Jesus Rodriguez-Douton, Francesco Rossella, Matteo Tommasini, Clascídia Furtado, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
Graphene oxide (GO) is an important carbon nanomaterial (NM) that has been used, but limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant and, in particular in invertebrate species. The polychaete Diopatra neapolitana has frequently been used to evaluate the effects of environmental disturbances in estuarine systems due to its ecological and socio-economic importance but to our knowledge no information is available on D. neapolitana physiological and biochemical alterations due to GO exposure...
January 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111251/a-colour-preference-technique-to-evaluate-acrylamide-induced-toxicity-in-zebrafish
#15
Laibing Jia, Rakesh Kotapati Raghupathy, Aishah Albalawi, Zhenkai Zhao, James Reilly, Qing Xiao, Xinhua Shu
The zebrafish has become a commonly used vertebrate model for toxicity assessment, of particular relevance to the study of toxic effects on the visual system because of the structural similarities shared by zebrafish and human retinae. In this article we present a colour preference-based technique that, by assessing the functionality of photoreceptors, can be used to evaluate the effects of toxicity on behaviour. A digital camera was used to record the locomotor behaviour of individual zebrafish swimming in a water tank consisting of two compartments separated by an opaque perforated wall through which the fish could pass...
January 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109972/biological-responses-to-phenylurea-herbicides-in-fish-and-amphibians-new-directions-for-characterizing-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#16
Vicki L Marlatt, Christopher J Martyniuk
Urea-based herbicides are applied in agriculture to control broadleaf and grassy weeds, acting to either inhibit photosynthesis at photosystem II (phenylureas) or to inhibit acetolactate synthase acetohydroxyacid synthase (sulfonylureas). While there are different chemical formulas for urea-based herbicides, the phenylureas are a widely used class in North America and have been detected in aquatic environments due to agricultural run-off. Here, we summarize the current state of the literature, synthesizing data on phenylureas and their biological effects in two non-target animals, fish and amphibians, with a primary focus on diuron and linuron...
January 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088650/assessing-the-identity-and-expression-level-of-the-cytochrome-p450-20a1-cyp20a1-gene-in-the-bpa-bde-47-and-waf-exposed-copepods-tigriopus-japonicus-and-paracyclopina-nana
#17
Jeonghoon Han, Duck-Hyun Kim, Jung Soo Seo, Il-Chan Kim, David R Nelson, Jayesh Puthumana, Jae-Seong Lee
CYP20A1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, identified as an orphan P450 without any assigned biological function; hence, its continued status as an "orphan" gene. In order to address this shortcoming in our understanding of this superfamily, we sought to characterize the CYP20A1 gene in the copepods Tigriopus japonicus (Tj-CYP20A1) and Paracyclopina nana (Pn-CYP20A1) at their mRNA transcriptional level. We assessed the response of this gene's expression in various developmental stages and in response to treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil...
January 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017784/ecophysiological-perspectives-on-engineered-nanomaterial-toxicity-in-fish-and-crustaceans
#18
Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Tyson James MacCormack
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incorporated into numerous industrial, clinical, food, and consumer products and a significant body of evidence is now available on their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Environmental ENM concentrations are difficult to quantify, but production and release estimates suggest wastewater treatment plant effluent levels ranging from 10(-4) to >10(1)μgL(-1) for the most common formulations by production volume. Bioavailability and ENM toxicity are heavily influenced by water quality parameters and the physicochemical properties and resulting colloidal behaviour of the particular ENM formulation...
December 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979696/acute-exposure-to-the-penconazole-containing-fungicide-topas-partially-augments-antioxidant-potential-in-goldfish-tissues
#19
Viktor V Husak, Nadia M Mosiichuk, Janet M Storey, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
Penconazole is a systemic fungicide commonly used in agriculture as the commercial preparation Topas. Although triazole fungicides are widely found in the aquatic environment, little is known about their acute toxicity on fish. In this study we assessed the effects of short-term exposure to Topas on some parameters of homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the levels of markers of oxidative stress and parameters of the antioxidant defense system of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Gills appeared to be the main target organ of Topas toxicity, showing the greatest number of parameters affected...
December 12, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965169/investigating-appearance-and-regulation-of-the-mxr-phenotype-in-early-embryo-stages-of-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#20
Silvia Franzellitti, Teresa Striano, Francesco Pretolani, Elena Fabbri
Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux transporters constitute a broad-spectrum physiological defense system allowing marine bivalves to cope with environmental challenges. There is, however, scarce information on the type and role that different MXR transporters may have in embryos, which represent the most sensitive stages of bivalves to environmental stress. In this study regulation of MXR-related transporters was investigated in early developmental stages of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)...
December 10, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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