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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277452/a-three-year-study-of-metal-levels-in-skin-biopsies-of-whales-in-the-gulf-of-mexico-after-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-crisis
#1
John Pierce Wise, James T F Wise, Catherine F Wise, Sandra S Wise, Christy Gianios, Hong Xie, Ron Walter, Mikki Boswell, Cairong Zhu, Tongzhang Zheng, Christopher Perkins, John Pierce Wise
In response to the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon and the massive release of oil that followed, we conducted three annual research voyages to investigate how the oil spill would impact the marine offshore environment. Most investigations into the ecological and toxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil crisis have mainly focused on the fate of the oil and dispersants, but few have considered the release of metals into the environment. From studies of previous oil spills, other marine oil industries, and analyses of oil compositions, it is evident that metals are frequently encountered...
December 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258877/different-response-of-acetylcholinesterases-in-salt-and-detergent-soluble-fractions-of-honeybee-haemolymph-head-and-thorax-after-exposure-to-diazinon
#2
Gordana Glavan, Monika Kos, Janko Božič, Damjana Drobne, Jerica Sabotič, Anita Jemec Kokalj
Organophosphate pesticide diazinon is a specific inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is a common neurotoxicity biomarker in environmental studies. In honeybees, AChE exists in two forms having different physiological roles, one existing as a soluble form and the other as membrane-bound. In most studies AChE activity has been analysed without paying considerable attention to different forms of AChE. In this study, we exposed honeybees Apis mellifera carnica for 10days to diazinon via oral exposure and analysed the total AChE activities in salt soluble (SS) and detergent soluble (DS) fractions...
December 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253620/molecular-characterization-and-metal-induced-gene-expression-of-the-novel-glutathione-peroxidase-7-from-the-chordate-invertebrate-ciona-robusta
#3
D Ferro, N Franchi, R Bakiu, L Ballarin, G Santovito
In the present study, we describe the identified and characterized the gene and the transcript of a novel glutathione peroxidase-7 (GPx7) from the solitary ascidian Ciona robusta, an invertebrate chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared with those of GPx7 from other metazoans and, phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of a high evolutionary pressure in the contest of neutral evolution. The mRNA of CrGPx7 is located in hemocytes and ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization...
December 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229524/toxic-responses-of-sox2-gene-in-the-regeneration-of-the-earthworm-eisenia-foetida-exposed-to-retnoic-acid
#4
Jing Tao, Wei Rong, Xiaoping Diao, Hailong Zhou
Exogenous retinoic acid delays and disturbs the regeneration of Eisenia foetida. The stem cell pluripotency factor, Sox2, can play a crucial role in cell reprogramming and dedifferentiation. In this study, we compared the regeneration of Eisenia foetida in different segments after amputation and the effects of retinoic acid on the regeneration of different segments. The results showed that the regeneration speed of the head and tail was slightly faster than the middle part, and retinoic acid disrupted and delayed the regeneration of the earthworm...
December 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223736/transepithelial-transfer-of-phenanthrene-but-not-of-benzo-a-pyrene-is-inhibited-by-fatty-acids-in-the-proximal-intestine-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#5
Stefan de Gelder, Henrik Sundh, Thamar N M Pelgrim, Josef D Rasinger, Lotte van Daal, Gert Flik, Marc H G Berntssen, Peter H M Klaren
The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208543/in-vivo-toxic-effects-of-4-methoxy-5-hydroxy-canthin-6-one-in-zebrafish-embryos-via-copper-dyshomeostasis-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Guiyi Gong, Lingling Jiang, Qinghua Lin, Wenyuan Liu, Ming-Fang He, Jie Zhang, Feng Feng, Wei Qu, Ning Xie
Dysfunction of copper homeostasis can lead to a host of disorders, which might be toxic sometimes. 4-Methoxy-5-hydroxy-canthin-6-one (CAN) is one of the major constituents from Picrasma quassioides and responsible for its therapeutic effects. In this work, we evaluated the toxic effect of CAN (7.5μM) on zebrafish embryos. CAN treatment decreased survival, delayed hatching time and induced malformations (loss of pigmentation, pericardial edema, as well as hematologic and neurologic abnormalities). Besides, exogenous copper supplementation rescued the pigmentation and cardiovascular defects in CAN-treated embryos...
December 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203322/effects-of-in-ovo-exposure-to-benzo-k-fluoranthene-bkf-on-cyp1a-expression-and-promoter-methylation-in-developing-chicken-embryos
#7
Jonas Brandenburg, Jessica A Head
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are potent teratogens. Recent research suggests that early life exposure to PAHs can affect health outcomes later in life. Some of these latent responses may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. The role of DNA methylation in regulating responses to PAHs in birds is currently unknown. Here, we assess the effect of in ovo exposure to the model PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediated cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) gene expression and promoter methylation in chicken embryos...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203321/lipopolysaccharide-impairs-mucin-secretion-and-stimulated-mucosal-immune-stress-response-in-respiratory-tract-of-neonatal-chicks
#8
Xiaoxiao Fan, Hongchao Jiao, Jingpeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Wang, Hai Lin
The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LPS on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, we selected 7days old AA broilers of similar weigh randomly; LPS atomized at 1mg/kg body weigh dose in the confined space of 1 cubic meter. The chickens exposed for 2h. Then collect samples after 4h and 8h respectively. Compared to control, LPS inhibited mucus production in BALF, caused a rising trend of the concentration of IgA in serum and BALF, and increased the protein expression of IgA in lung tissue...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203320/characterization-of-basal-gene-expression-trends-over-a-diurnal-cycle-in-xiphophorus-maculatus-skin-brain-and-liver
#9
Yuan Lu, Jose Reyes, Sean Walter, Trevor Gonzalez, Geraldo Medrano, Mikki Boswell, William Boswell, Markita Savage, Ronald Walter
Evolutionarily conserved diurnal circadian mechanisms maintain oscillating patterns of gene expression based on the day-night cycle. Xiphophorus fish have been used to evaluate transcriptional responses after exposure to various light sources and it was determined that each source incites distinct genetic responses in skin tissue. However, basal expression levels of genes that show oscillating expression patterns in day-night cycle, may affect the outcomes of such experiments, since basal gene expression levels at each point in the circadian path may influence the profile of identified light responsive genes...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199130/the-neurodevelopmental-toxicity-of-heavy-metals-a-fish-perspective
#10
Adrian J Green, Antonio Planchart
The causes of neurodegenerative diseases are complex with likely contributions from genetic susceptibility, and environmental exposures over an organism's lifetime. In this review, we examine the role that aquatic models, especially zebrafish, have played in the elucidation of mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity and nervous system function over the last half-decade. Focus is applied to cadmium, lead and mercury as significant contributors to central nervous system morbidity, and to the application of numerous transgenic zebrafish expressing fluorescent reporters within specific neuronal populations or brain regions enabling high-resolution neurodevelopmental and neurotoxicology research...
November 30, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191712/biochemical-and-physiological-effects-of-nickel-in-the-euryhaline-crab-neohelice-granulata-dana-1851-acclimated-to-different-salinities
#11
Michele da Silva Aires, Christianne Lorea Paganini, Adalto Bianchini
The estuarine crab Neohelice granulata was maintained under control condition or exposed to sublethal concentrations of dissolved Ni (measured: 128 and 1010μg/L) for 96h at different salinities (2 and 30ppt). After metal exposure, whole-body oxygen consumption was measured and tissue (hemolymph, gills, hepatopancreas and muscle) samples were collected. Control crabs acclimated to 2ppt salinity showed lower hemolymph concentrations of Na+ (33%), Mg2+ (19%) and K+ (30%), as well as increased LPO levels in anterior gills (379%), posterior gills (457%) and hepatopancreas (35%) with respect to those acclimated to 30ppt salinity...
November 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180113/two-common-mild-analgesics-have-no-effect-on-general-endocrine-mediated-endpoints-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#12
Jane E Morthorst, Birgit F Lund, Henrik Holbech, Poul Bjerregaard
Mild analgesics such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and acetaminophen (APAP) exert their pain-relieving effect in humans by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Prostaglandins play key roles in developmental and reproductive processes in vertebrates, and in recent years, it has been suggested that weak analgesics might also act as endocrine disrupters. In a set of experiments we investigated if ASA and APAP affect well-established endocrine endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio), which is a commonly used model organism in the investigation of endocrine disrupting chemicals...
November 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162498/the-validation-of-a-sensitive-non-toxic-in-vivo-metabolic-assay-applicable-across-zebrafish-life-stages
#13
Ross M Reid, Andrea L D'Aquila, Peggy R Biga
Energy expenditure and metabolism, is a well-studied field as it is linked to many diseases as dysregulation of metabolism is associated with cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging. Classical methods of studying metabolism in vivo are well established, but most are tedious and expensive, thus, finding methods of accurately measuring metabolism in living organisms that is quick and non-invasive is of strong interest. In this work, we validate the use of resazurin; a compound that is conformationally changed into fluorescent resorufin upon metabolic reduction by NADH2, as a metabolic assay for adult zebrafish...
November 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162497/expression-signatures-of-early-stage-and-advanced-medaka-melanomas
#14
Barbara Klotz, Susanne Kneitz, Martina Regensburger, Lena Hahn, Michael Dannemann, Janet Kelso, Birgit Nickel, Yuan Lu, William Boswell, John Postlethwait, Wesley Warren, Manfred Kunz, Ronald B Walter, Manfred Schartl
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive tumors with a very low survival rate once metastasized. The incidence of newly detected cases increases every year suggesting the necessity of development and application of innovative treatment strategies. Human melanoma develops from melanocytes localized in the epidermis of the skin to malignant tumors because of deregulated effectors influencing several molecular pathways. Despite many advances in describing the molecular changes accompanying melanoma formation, many critical and clinically relevant molecular features of the transformed pigment cells and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown...
November 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157956/comparative-analysis-of-fixation-and-embedding-techniques-for-optimized-histological-preparation-of-zebrafish
#15
Jean E Copper, Lynn R Budgeon, Christina A Foutz, Damian B van Rossum, Daniel J Vanselow, Margaret J Hubley, Darin P Clark, David T Mandrell, Keith C Cheng
In recognition of the importance of zebrafish as a model organism for studying human disease, we have created a web-based reference atlas of zebrafish microanatomy for comparing histology and histopathology between model systems and with humans (http://bio-atlas.psu.edu). Fixation, decalcification, embedding, and sectioning were optimized to maximize section quality. A comparison of protocols involving six fixatives showed that 10% Neutral Buffered Formalin at 21°C for 24h yielded excellent results. Sectioning of juveniles and adults requires bone decalcification; EDTA at 0...
November 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129589/behavior-of-detoxifying-enzymes-of-aedes-aegypti-exposed-to-girgensohnine-alkaloid-analog-and-cymbopogon-flexuosus-essential-oil
#16
Aurora L Carreño Otero, Angela Maria Palacio-Cortés, Mario Antonio Navarro-Silva, Vladimir V Kouznetsov, Jonny E Duque L
Because mosquito control depend on the use of commercial insecticides and resistance has been described in some of them, there is a need to explore new molecules no resistant. In vivo effects of girgensohnine analog 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(piperidin-1-yl)acetonitrile DPPA and Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil CFEO, on the detoxifying enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), nonspecific esterases (α- and β-), mixed function oxidases (MFO) and p-NPA esterases were evaluated on a Rockefeller (Rock) and wild Aedes aegypti population from Santander, Colombia (WSant)...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128602/developmental-effects-of-the-protein-kinase-inhibitor-kenpaullone-on-the-sea-urchin-embryo
#17
Letizia Anello, Vincenzo Cavalieri, Maria Di Bernardo
The selection and validation of bioactive compounds require multiple approaches, including in-depth analyses of their biological activity in a whole-animal context. We exploited the sea urchin embryo in a rapid, medium-scale range screening to test the effects of the small synthetic kinase inhibitor kenpaullone. We show that sea urchin embryos specifically respond to this molecule depending on both dose and timing of administration. Phenotypic effects of kenpaullone are not immediately visible, since this molecule affects neither the fertilization nor the spatial arrangement of blastomeres at early developmental stages...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104176/chemically-dispersed-oil-is-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-to-sperm-whale-skin-cells
#18
Catherine F Wise, James T F Wise, Sandra S Wise, John Pierce Wise
Two major oil crises in United States history, the 1989 Exxon-Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, drew attention to the need for toxicological experiments on oil and chemically dispersed oil. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. However, little data is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study is to determine the toxicity of Alaskan oil, as well as chemically dispersed oil...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122702/estrogenic-effects-following-larval-exposure-to-the-putative-anti-estrogen-fulvestrant-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#19
Jonathan M Ali, Michael T Palandri, Alex T Kallenbach, Edwin Chavez, Jonathan Ramirez, Sathaporn Onanong, Daniel D Snow, Alan S Kolok
The objective of the present study was to investigate the consequences of early-life exposure to fulvestrant on estrogenic gene expression in fathead minnow larvae. To address this objective, fathead minnow larvae were exposed to fulvestrant (ICI 182,780) during the window of sexual differentiation between 0 to 30 days post-hatch (dph). The four treatment groups in this study included: filtered water controls (never exposed), solvent controls (ethanol 0.01%), and nominally low (0.10μg/L) and high (10.0μg/L) doses of fulvestrant...
November 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100953/dietary-methionine-restriction-effects-on-glucose-tolerance-lipid-content-and-micro-rna-composition-in-the-muscle-of-rainbow-trout
#20
M N Latimer, B M Cleveland, P R Biga
Lean muscle mass plays an important role in overall health, as altered skeletal muscle metabolism can impact both the incidence and prevention of conditions related to metabolic health. Intriguingly, dietary methionine restriction (MR) has been shown to ameliorate this phenotype over time potentially through mechanisms related to changes in myogenic precursor cell (MPC) differentiation status. Recently the role of micro-RNAs (miRs) in regulating the expression of muscle specific transcription factors myoD and myogenin as well as signaling molecules involved in skeletal muscle differentiation has been reported in vitro...
October 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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