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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890717/ecdysone-receptor-ecr-and-ultraspiracle-usp-genes-from-the-cyclopoid-copepod-paracyclopina-nana-identification-and-expression-in-response-to-water-accommodated-fractions-wafs
#1
Jayesh Puthumana, Min-Chul Lee, Jeonghoon Han, Hui-Su Kim, Dae-Sik Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
Ecdysteroid hormones are pivotal in the development, growth, and molting of arthropods, and the hormone pathway is triggered by binding ecdysteroid to a heterodimer of the two nuclear receptors; ecdysone receptors (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). We have characterized EcR and USP genes, and their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and studied mRNA transcription levels in post-embryonic stages and in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. The open reading frames (ORF) of EcR and USP were 1470 and 1287bp that encoded 490 and 429 amino acids with molecular weight of 121...
November 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890716/a-field-study-of-hemolymph-yolk-protein-levels-in-a-bivalve-unio-tumidus-and-future-considerations-for-bivalve-yolk-protein-as-endocrine-biomarker
#2
Jane E Morthorst
Induction of yolk protein in male fish is a recognized biomarker for estrogenic exposure because the estrogen-dependent induction mechanism is well investigated and there is a clear difference in yolk protein levels of unexposed males and females. Attempts have been made to use induction of bivalve yolk protein as biomarker for estrogenic exposure. However, several biomarker validation criteria have not yet been investigated e.g. an in-depth understanding of the induction mechanism and background variability is needed and reliable detection assays are yet to be developed...
November 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890715/effects-of-atrazine-on-ovarian-growth-in-the-estuarine-crab-neohelice-granulata
#3
G R Silveyra, I S Canosa, E M Rodríguez, D A Medesani
Atrazine, a herbicide that is intensively used in Argentina, was assayed to evaluate the alteration of reproduction in a wild species of crustaceans. Adult females of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata were exposed to formulated atrazine during the 3-month pre-reproductive period. Three atrazine concentrations (0.03, 0.3 and 3mg/L) were assayed, together with a water dilution control. At the end of the exposure period, several variables concerning the energetic status of animals were measured, such as weight gain, glycemia, and energy reserves in both muscle and hepatopancreas...
November 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847309/an-optimized-method-to-assess-ototoxic-effects-in-the-lateral-line-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#4
Daniel Stengel, Florian Zindler, Thomas Braunbeck
In order to clarify the suitability of the lateral line of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model for the screening of ototoxic (neurotoxic) effects, existing neuromast assays were adapted, improved and validated with a series of chemicals known or unknown for their ototoxic potential (caffeine copper sulfate, dichlorvos, 2.4-dinitrotoluene, neomycin, 4-nonylphenol, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid). Present methods were improved by (1) the introduction of a 4-step scoring system, (2) the selection of neuromasts from both the anterior and posterior lateral line systems, (3) a combined DASPEI/DAPI staining applied after both a continuous and pulse exposure scenario, and (4) an additional screening for nuclear fragmentation...
November 12, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816652/biochemical-alterations-in-native-and-exotic-oyster-species-in-brazil-in-response-to-increasing-temperature
#5
Anthony Moreira, Etelvina Figueira, Iracy L Pecora, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
The increase of temperature in marine coastal ecosystems due to atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions is becoming an increasing threat for biodiversity worldwide, and may affect organisms' biochemical performance, often resulting in biogeographical shifts of species distribution. At the same time, the introduction of non-native species into aquatic systems also threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Oysters are among the most valuable socio economic group of bivalve species in global fishery landings, and also provide numerous ecosystem services...
November 3, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815048/electrophysiological-activity-of-a-neurotoxic-fraction-from-the-venom-of-box-jellyfish-carybdea-marsupialis
#6
Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Rogelio O Arellano, Edith Garay, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Judith Sánchez-Rodríguez
Carybdea marsupialis is a widely distributed box jellyfish found in the Mediterranean and in the tropical waters of the Caribbean Sea. Its venom is a complex mixture of biologically active compounds that are used to catch prey. In order to evaluate the activity of the neurotoxins in the venom, bioassays were carried out using the marine crab Ocypode quadrata. The proteins with neurotoxic effect were partially purified using low-pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Gel filtration (Sephadex G-50M) was used as the first step and the active fraction in crabs was passed through a QAE Sephadex A-25 column...
November 1, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777085/suitability-of-cholinesterase-of-polychaete-diopatra-neapolitana-as-biomarker-of-exposure-to-pesticides-in-vitro-characterization
#7
Elvira Mennillo, Valentina Casu, Federica Tardelli, Lucia De Marchi, Rosa Freitas, Carlo Pretti
Cholinesterases of Diopatra neapolitana were characterized for their activity in whole body and different body segments (apical, intermediate, posterior), substrate affinity (acetyl-, butyryl-, propionylthiocholine), kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and in vitro response to model inhibitors (eserine hemisulfate, isoOMPA, BW284C51) and carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb and carbaryl). Results showed that the rate of hydrolysis for acetyl- and propionylthiocholine was higher in the posterior segment than the apical/intermediate segments and whole body...
October 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765649/consecutive-emamectin-benzoate-and-deltamethrin-treatments-affect-the-expressions-and-activities-of-detoxification-enzymes-in-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#8
Juan Guillermo Cárcamo, Marcelo N Aguilar, Constanza F Carreño, Tamara Vera, Luis Arias-Darraz, Jaime E Figueroa, Alex P Romero, Marco Alvarez, Alejandro J Yañez
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760386/spatiotemporal-expression-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-heme-oxygenase-and-biliverdin-reductase-genes-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-suggest-novel-roles-during-early-developmental-periods-of-heightened-oxidative-stress
#9
Andrew Holowiecki, Britton O'Shields, Matthew J Jenny
Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) degrades heme into biliverdin, which is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVRa or BVRb) in a manner analogous to the classic anti-oxidant glutathione-recycling pathway. To gain a better understanding of the potential antioxidant roles the BVR enzymes may play during development, the spatiotemporal expression and transcriptional regulation of zebrafish hmox1a, bvra and bvrb were characterized under basal conditions and in response to pro-oxidant exposure. All three genes displayed spatiotemporal expression patterns consistent with classic hematopoietic progenitors during development...
October 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756692/review-of-the-photo-induced-toxicity-of-environmental-contaminants
#10
REVIEW
Aaron P Roberts, Matthew M Alloy, James T Oris
Solar radiation is a vital component of ecosystem function. However, sunlight can also interact with certain xenobiotic compounds in a phenomenon known as photo-induced, photo-enhanced, photo-activated, or photo-toxicity. This phenomenon broadly refers to an interaction between a chemical and sunlight resulting in increased toxicity. Because most aquatic ecosystems receive some amount of sunlight, co-exposure to xenobiotic chemicals and solar radiation is likely to occur in the environment, and photo-induced toxicity may be an important factor impacting aquatic ecosystems...
October 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746171/characterization-of-cadmium-chloride-induced-bip-accumulation-in-xenopus-laevis-a6-kidney-epithelial-cells
#11
Cody S Shirriff, John J Heikkila
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can result in the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded protein in the ER lumen, which can trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR) resulting in the activation of various genes including immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP; also known as glucose-regulated protein 78 or HSPA5). BiP, an ER heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family member, binds to unfolded protein, inhibits their aggregation and re-folds them in an ATP-dependent manner. While cadmium, an environmental contaminant, was shown to induce the accumulation of HSP70 in vertebrate cells, less information is available regarding the effect of this metal on BiP accumulation or function...
October 13, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717764/aluminium-sulfate-exposure-a-set-of-effects-on-hydrolases-from-brain-muscle-and-digestive-tract-of-juvenile-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#12
Vagne Melo Oliveira, Caio Rodrigo Dias Assis, Helane Maria Silva Costa, Raquel Pereira Freitas Silva, Juliana Ferreira Santos, Luiz Bezerra Carvalho, Ranilson Souza Bezerra
Aluminium is a major pollutant due to its constant disposal in aquatic environments through anthropogenic activities. The physiological effects of this metal in fish are still scarce in the literature. This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of aluminium sulfate on the activity of enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscle cholinesterases (AChE-like and BChE-like activities), pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase. Fish were in vivo exposed during 14days when the following experimental groups were assayed: control group (CG), exposure to Al2(SO4)3 at 1μg·mL(-1) (G1) and 3μg·mL(-1) (G3) (concentrations compatible with the use of aluminium sulfate as coagulant in water treatment)...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717699/chronic-mehg-exposure-modifies-the-histone-h3k4me3-epigenetic-landscape-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Martina Rudgalvyte, Juhani Peltonen, Merja Lakso, Garry Wong
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental pollutant that occurs in the food chain, at occupational sites, and via medical procedures. Exposure in humans and animal models results in renal, neuro, and reproductive toxicities. In this study, we demonstrate that chronic exposure to MeHg (10μM) causes epigenetic landscape modifications of histone H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) marks in Caenorhabditis elegans using chromatin immuno-precipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). The modifications correspond to the locations of 1467 genes with enhanced and 508 genes with reduced signals...
October 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687474/embryo-larval-exposure-to-atrazine-reduces-viability-and-alters-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Fernanda Hernandes Figueira, Lais Mattos de Aguiar, Carlos Eduardo da Rosa
The herbicide atrazine has been used worldwide with subsequent residual contamination of water and food, which may cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Animal exposure to this herbicide may affect development, reproduction and energy metabolism. Here, the effects of atrazine regarding survival and redox metabolism were assessed in the fruit fly D. melanogaster exposed during embryonic and larval development. The embryos (newly fertilized eggs) were exposed to different atrazine concentrations (10μM and 100μM) in the diet until the adult fly emerged...
September 27, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664515/zinc-availability-during-germline-development-impacts-embryo-viability-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Adelita D Mendoza, Teresa K Woodruff, Sarah M Wignall, Thomas V O'Halloran
Zinc is an essential metal that serves as a cofactor in a variety of cellular processes, including meiotic maturation. Cellular control of zinc uptake, availability and efflux is closely linked to meiotic progression in rodent and primate reproduction where large fluctuations in zinc levels are critical at several steps in the oocyte-to-embryo transition. Despite these well-documented roles of zinc fluxes during meiosis, only a few of the genes encoding key zinc receptors, membrane-spanning transporters, and downstream signaling pathway factors have been identified to date...
September 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663471/zinc-deficiency-reduces-fertility-in-c-elegans-hermaphrodites-and-disrupts-oogenesis-and-meiotic-progression
#16
James Hester, Wendy Hanna-Rose, Francisco Diaz
Zinc is necessary for successful gametogenesis in mammals; however the role of zinc in the gonad function of non-mammalian species has not been investigated. The genetic tractability, short generation time, and hermaphroditic reproduction of the nematode C. elegans offer distinct advantages for the study of impaired gametogenesis as a result of zinc deficiency. However the phenotypic reproductive effects arising from zinc restriction have not been established in this model. We therefore examined the effect of zinc deficiency on C...
September 20, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645230/hypoxia-acclimation-and-subsequent-reoxygenation-partially-prevent-mn-induced-damage-in-silver-catfish
#17
G S Dolci, H Z Rosa, R C S Barcelos, L T Vey, A Santos, P DallaVechia, C Bizzi, M A Cunha, B Baldisserotto, M E Burger
This study investigated if hypoxia acclimation modifies the hematological and oxidative profiles in tissues of Mn-exposed silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), and if such modifications persist upon subsequent reoxygenation. Silver catfish acclimated to hypoxia (~3mgL(-1)) for 10days and subsequently exposed to Mn (~8.1mgL(-1)) for additional 10days exhibited lower Mn accumulation in plasma, liver and kidney, even after reoxygenation, as compared to normoxia-acclimated fish. Hypoxia acclimation increased per se red blood cells count and hematocrit, suggesting adaptations under hypoxia, while the reoxygenation process was also related to increased hematocrit and hemoglobin per se...
September 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627846/the-detoxification-responses-damage-effects-and-bioaccumulation-in-the-scallop-chlamys-farreri-exposed-to-single-and-mixtures-of-benzo-a-pyrene-and-chrysene
#18
Ruiming Guo, Luqing Pan, Pengfei Lin, Lei Zheng
This study aimed to investigate the detoxification responses, damage effects and biotransformation in scallop Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.1, 1μg/L), chrysene (CHR) (0.1, 1μg/L) and BaP+CHR (0.1+0.1, 1+1μg/L) for 15days. Results demonstrated that BaP and CHR concentration (BaP<CHR) in tissues increased rapidly in a time and dose effect. The mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were induced especially in the mixtures of BaP and CHR...
September 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626137/utilization-of-mytilus-digestive-gland-cells-for-the-in-vitro-screening-of-potential-metabolic-disruptors-in-aquatic-invertebrates
#19
Teresa Balbi, Caterina Ciacci, Elena Grasselli, Arianna Smerilli, Adriana Voci, Laura Canesi
In vertebrate systems, many endocrine disruptors (EDs) can also interfere with energy and lipid metabolism, thus acting as metabolic disruptors. At the cellular level, these effects are mainly mediated by interactions with nuclear receptors/transcription factors, leading to the modulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis, as well as by rapid, receptor-independent pathways. Several potential metabolic disruptors are found in aquatic environments. In fish, different EDs have been shown to affect hepatic lipid homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro...
September 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475026/sodium-fluoride-induces-hypercalcemia-resulting-from-the-upregulation-of-both-osteoblastic-and-osteoclastic-activities-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#20
Masayuki Sato, Taizo Hanmoto, Koji Yachiguchi, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Takashi Kondo, Masato Endo, Yoichiro Kitani, Toshio Sekiguchi, Makoto Urata, Tran Ngoc Hai, Ajai K Srivastav, Hiroyuki Mishima, Atsuhiko Hattori, Nobuo Suzuki
The influence of sodium fluoride (NaF) on calcium metabolism was examined in goldfish (fresh water teleost). At 2days after administration of NaF (500ng/g body weight; 5μg/g body weight) (around 10(-5) to 10(-4)M in goldfish), we indicated that plasma calcium levels upregulated in both doses of NaF-treated goldfish. To examine the mechanism of hypercalcemia by NaF treatments, therefore, direct effects of NaF on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in goldfish were investigated by an original assay system using teleost scale which has osteoblasts, osteoclasts and bone matrix...
November 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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