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Neurological Sciences

Elia Zanin, Marco Riva, Valentina Bambini, Stefano F Cappa, Lorenzo Magrassi, Andrea Moro
A wide range of studies on language assessment during awake brain surgery is nowadays available. Yet, a consensus on a standardized protocol for intraoperative language mapping is still lacking. More specifically, very limited information is offered about intraoperative assessment of a crucial component of language such as syntax. This review aims at critically analyzing the intraoperative studies investigating the cerebral basis of syntactic processing. A comprehensive query was performed on the literature, returning a total of 18 studies...
June 17, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Marinella Coco
It is known that lactate accumulates in the skeletal muscle during intense anaerobic exercise but is rapidly cleared from the muscles when they resume aerobic metabolism; however, at least some lactate reaches the blood stream. It has been observed that during maximal exercise, blood lactate increases with transport of the blood to the brain. This could be interpreted as a mechanism to protect against possible "central fatigue" in times of maximal activity during the course of which the lactate would preserve the functionality of the primary cortical motor and sensory areas, even at the expense of the efficiency of the other structures...
June 16, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Meichan Zhu, Heng Li, Bibek Gyanwali, Guangyao He, Chenglin Qi, Xuemin Yang, Zhenhua Li, Zhenxing Yao, Zhi Wang, Anzhou Tang
This study aimed to establish a tree shrew model of bilateral electrolytic lesions in the medial geniculate body (MGB) to determine the advantages of using a tree shrew model and to assess the pattern of sound processing in tree shrews after bilateral electrolytic damage in different parts of the MGB. The auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) of a normal control group (n = 30) and an electrical damage group (n = 30) were tested at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days after surgery. (1) The bilateral ablations group exhibited a significant increase in the ABR threshold of the electrolytic damage group between pre- and post-operation...
June 14, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Alessandro Introna, Luigi Chiumarulo, Marco Petruzzellis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Giovanni Forte, Beatrice Bocca, Riccardo Oggiano, Simonetta Clemente, Yolande Asara, Maria Alessandra Sotgiu, Cristiano Farace, Andrea Montella, Alessandro Giuseppe Fois, Michele Malaguarnera, Pietro Pirina, Roberto Madeddu
Sardinian (Italy) island population has a uniquely high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Essential trace element levels in blood, hair, and urine of ALS Sardinian patients were investigated in search of valid biomarkers to recognize and predict ALS. Six elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, and Zn) were measured in 34 patients compared to 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by a validated method. Levels of Ca and Cu in blood and of Se and Zn in hair were significantly higher in ALS than in controls, while urinary excretion of Mg and Se was significantly decreased...
June 10, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Halil Onder, Ibrahim Akkurt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Aysegül Nese Citak Kurt, Alperen Aydın, Hatice Demir, Özcan Erel
Headache is one of the most common causes of presentation to the physician in children. We aimed to evaluate the dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis with a new method in children with headache and also to investigate the relationship between the headache type, pain severity and duration in our study. We included 40 patients diagnosed with migraine, 40 patients diagnosed with tension-type headache (TTH) and 40 healthy children in the study. No significant difference was found between the total thiol, native thiol, and disulfide levels of the patient and control groups...
June 8, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Alessandra Ferrari, Paolo Renzetti, Carlo Serrati, Roberto Fancellu
Super refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a life-threatening condition in which seizures do not respond to third-line anticonvulsant drug therapy. SRSE is associated with high mortality. How often SRSE occurs, what are the risk factors leading to this condition, and what is the effect on clinical outcome of failure to control seizures are poorly defined. Several studies have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in status epilepticus (SE), confirming that SE may directly cause selective neuronal necrosis due to excitotoxic mechanisms, as described in clinical case reports and experimental models...
June 8, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Davide Schiffer, Marta Mellai, Enrica Bovio, Laura Annovazzi
The paper wants to be a tracking shot of the main recent acquisitions on the function and significance of microglia/macrophages in gliomas. The observations have been principally carried out on in vitro cultures and on tumor transplants in animals. Contrary to what is deduced from microglia in non-neoplastic pathologic conditions of central nervous system (CNS), most conclusions indicate that microglia acts favoring tumor proliferation through an immunosuppression induced by glioma cells. By immunohistochemistry, different microglia phenotypes are recognized in gliomas, from ramified microglia to frank macrophagic aspect...
June 7, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Sheng-Yu Zhang, Qiang Hu, Tao Tang, Chao Liu, Cheng-Chong Li, Xiao-Guang Yang, Yin-Yin Zang, Wei-Xiong Cai
The study aimed to investigate the correlations of CACNA1C genetic polymorphisms and protein expression with the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in a Chinese population. This research included 139 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (case group) and 141 healthy volunteers (control group). Case and control samples were genotyped using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Haplotypes of rs10848683, rs2238032, and rs2299661 were analyzed using the Shesis software. A mouse model of schizophrenia was established and assigned to test and blank groups...
June 7, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Eleonora Catricalà, Elena Gobbi, Petronilla Battista, Antonio Miozzo, Cristina Polito, Veronica Boschi, Valentina Esposito, Sofia Cuoco, Paolo Barone, Sandro Sorbi, Stefano F Cappa, Peter Garrard
Language assessment has a critical role in the clinical diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular, in the case of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA). The current diagnostic criteria (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011) identify three main variants on the basis of clinical features and patterns of brain atrophy. Widely accepted tools to diagnose, clinically classify, and follow up the heterogeneous language profiles of PPA are still lacking. In this study, we develop a screening battery, composed of nine tests (picture naming, word and sentence comprehension, word and sentence repetition, reading, semantic association, writing and picture description), following the recommendations of current diagnostic guidelines and taking into account recent research on the topic...
June 4, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Yongxiang Yang, Min Zhang, Yuqin Ye, Shan Ma, Lingling Fan, Zhuyi Li
Recent studies show that the frequencies of circulating follicullar helper T (cTfh) cells are significantly higher in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients compared with healthy controls (HC). And, they are positively correlated with levels of serum anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AchR Ab). It is unclear whether cTfh cell subset frequencies are altered and what role they play in MG patients. In order to clarify this, we examined the frequencies of cTfh cell counterparts, their subsets, and circulating plasmablasts in MG patients by flow cytometry...
June 3, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Zhiyuan Yu, Jun Zheng, Lu Ma, Rui Guo, Mou Li, Xiaoze Wang, Sen Lin, Hao Li, Chao You
In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), hematoma expansion (HE) is associated with poor outcome. Spot sign and black hole sign are neuroimaging predictors for HE. This study was aimed to compare the predictive value of two signs for HE. Within 6 h after onset of sICH, patients were screened for the computed tomography angiography spot sign and the non-contrast computed tomography black hole sign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of two signs for HE prediction were calculated...
June 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
A R Giovagnoli, V Manfredi, A Parente, L Schifano, S Oliveri, G Avanzini
This controlled randomized single-blind study evaluated the effects of cognitive training (CT), compared to active music therapy (AMT) and neuroeducation (NE), on initiative in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Secondarily, we explored the effects of CT on episodic memory, mood, and social relationships. Thirty-nine AD patients were randomly assigned to CT, AMT, or NE. Each treatment lasted 3 months. Before, at the end, and 3 months after treatment, neuropsychological tests and self-rated scales assessed initiative, episodic memory, depression, anxiety, and social relationships...
June 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Filippelli Enrica, Valentino Paola, Annesi Grazia, Rita Nisticò, Aldo Quattrone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Nicolas Nicastro, Valentina Garibotto, Pierre R Burkhard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Hyun Jae Kim, Jung Han Yoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Frederico Carvalho de Medeiros, Danielle Christine Ribeiro Viana, Mateus Nader Cunha, Cíntia Carvalho Hatasa, Raquel Vassão Araújo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Angela Federico, Michela Trentin, Giampietro Zanette, Daniela Mapelli, Alessandro Picelli, Nicola Smania, Michele Tinazzi, Stefano Tamburin
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and should be recognized early because it represents a predictor of PD-related dementia and worse disease course. Diagnostic criteria for PD-related MCI (PD-MCI) have recently been defined by a Movement Disorders Society (MDS) task force. The present study explored which neuropsychological tests perform best for a level II (i.e., comprehensive neuropsychological assessment) diagnosis of PD-MCI according to the MDS task force criteria in Italian-speaking PD patients...
May 26, 2017: Neurological Sciences
Liana Africa, Maria Margollicci, Simona Salvatore, Bita Shalbafan, Luana Peruzzi, Mansoureh Togha, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Antonio Federico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Neurological Sciences
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