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Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911485/effects-of-the-presence-of-grazing-experienced-heifers-on-the-development-of-foraging-behavior-at-the-feeding-station-scale-for-first-grazing-season-calves
#1
Yuko Shingu, Koichiro Ueda, Shingo Tada, Tomohiro Mitani, Seiji Kondo
In this study, effects of grazing-experienced heifer presence on foraging behavior development at the feeding station (FS) scale for first-grazing season calves were determined. A group of four calves grazing alone (C), and another comprising four calves (Wc) and three grazing-experienced heifers (Wh), were alternately stocked every day for 2 h on the same pasture for 26 days. The foraging time budget for Wc was significantly longer than that for C (P < 0.05) on day 7, and was similar to that for Wh on all days...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911483/effects-of-dietary-heme-iron-and-exercise-training-on-abdominal-fat-accumulation-and-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#2
Masanori Katsumura, Shoko Takagi, Hana Oya, Shohei Tamura, Takaoki Saneyasu, Kazuhisa Honda, Hiroshi Kamisoyama
Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911482/meat-quality-and-intramuscular-fatty-acid-composition-of-catria-horse
#3
Maria Federica Trombetta, Francesco Nocelli, Marina Pasquini
In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36...
December 2, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892648/milking-performance-evaluation-and-factors-affecting-milking-claw-vacuum-levels-with-flow-simulator
#4
Masafumi Enokidani, Kazuhiro Kawai, Yasunori Shinozuka, Aiko Watanabe
Milking performance of milking machines that matches the production capability of dairy cows is important in reducing the risk of mastitis, particularly in high-producing cows. This study used a simulated milking device to examine the milking performance of the milking system of 73 dairy farms and to analyze the factors affecting claw vacuum. Mean claw vacuum and range of fluctuation of claw vacuum (claw vacuum range) were measured at three different flow rates: 5.7, 7.6 and 8.7 kg/min. At the highest flow rate, only 16 farms (21...
November 28, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891709/effect-of-dietary-kapok-oil-supplementation-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-meat-quality-and-sensory-traits-of-pork-in-finishing-pigs
#5
Keisuke Maeda, Kimiko Kohira, Hiroki Kubota, Kousuke Yamanaka, Kaoru Saito, Masakazu Irie
Kapok seed and oil from the tropical zone are widely used as pig feed to harden porcine fat in Japan. This study evaluated the effect of dietary kapok oil supplementation on pork quality and sensory traits. Five Duroc pigs each were assigned to an experimental group supplemented with kapok oil and a control group. Dietary kapok oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance and intramuscular fat content in the Longissimus dorsi muscle (LM). Supplemental kapok oil increased saturated fatty acid contents in subcutaneous and intramuscular fat and decreased monounsaturated fatty acid levels (P < 0...
November 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891699/effects-of-oils-on-feed-mildew-and-quality
#6
Jie Liu, Ming Qi, Yakuan Huang, Jiao Guo, Jiacai Zhang, Chong Li, Niya Zhang, Lvhui Sun, Desheng Qi
This study was performed to determine the effects of oils on feed mildew and feed quality. Under different moisture content conditions (10%, 13% and 16%), the basal feeds were supplemented with 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% soybean oil. In addition, at different moisture content levels (10%, 13% and 16%), the basal feed was supplemented with 12% of various types of oil (soybean, peanut, corn and fish). Subsequently, a mixed mold spore suspension was added. The feed samples were incubated at 28°C, and the total mold, water activity (Aw), moisture, acid value, crude protein (CP), crude lipid (CL), crude ash (CA) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) levels were determined at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days...
November 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882695/effects-of-polyethylene-glycol-and-a-synthetic-ice-blocker-during-vitrification-of-immature-porcine-oocytes-on-survival-and-subsequent-embryo-development
#7
Elisa Caroline da Silva Santos, Tamas Somfai, Ruth Appeltant, Thanh Quang Dang-Nguyen, Junko Noguchi, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Kazuhiro Kikuchi
We evaluated the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Supercool X-1000 (SC) as supplements during the vitrification of immature cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a solution based on 17.5% ethylene glycol + 17.5% propylene glycol. After warming, the oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization and embryo culture. In Experiment 1, equilibration and vitrification solutions were supplemented with or without 2% (w/v) PEG (PEG+ and PEG-, respectively). The survival rate, cleavage and blastocyst development were similar between PEG+ and PEG- groups; however, all values were lower than those in the non-vitrified control...
November 24, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880986/nutrients-amino-acid-fatty-acid-and-non-starch-polysaccharide-profile-and-in-vitro-digestibility-of-macadamia-nut-cake-in-swine
#8
Utsav P Tiwari, Rajesh Jha
The highly variable cost and limited availability of conventional feedstuffs make it imperative to explore alternative feedstuffs to be used in swine. Macadamia nut cake (MNC), a coproduct of the macadamia nut oil industry, has not been well studied. MNC was analyzed for its nutrient profile, gross energy (GE), fibers, amino acids and fatty acids content. Dry matter (DM) and GE digestibility of MNC in swine was determined using an in vitro model. On a DM basis, ash, crude protein, ether extract, NDF, ADF, lignin and GE were found to be 3...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878924/differences-in-rumen-fermentation-characteristics-between-low-yield-and-high-yield-dairy-cows-in-early-lactation
#9
Ahmad Sofyan, Makoto Mitsumori, Hideyuki Ohmori, Yutaka Uyeno, Toshiya Hasunuma, Kiyoshi Akiyama, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Yokokawa, Tsuneko Yamaguchi, Takumi Shinkai, Makoto Hirako, Shiro Kushibiki
Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P < 0...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878919/effect-of-health-status-on-fattening-performance-in-young-crossbred-polish-holstein-friesian-%C3%A3-limousin-bulls-and-steers
#10
Zofia Wielgosz-Groth, Monika Sobczuk-Szul, Zenon Nogalski, Paulina Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Cezary Purwin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of disease incidence on selected parameters of cattle fattening performance and carcass quality, and the fatty acid profile of beef. The experimental materials comprised 16 bulls and 16 steers, Polish Holstein-Friesian × Limousin crossbreeds (including 10 healthy and six treated animals of each category). At 5 weeks of age, bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. The calves were fed milk replacer provided in automatic feeding stations...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878911/effect-of-increased-feeding-of-dietary-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-by-grazing-on-formation-of-the-cis9-trans11-18-2-isoform-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-in-bovine-milk
#11
Mio Yamaguchi, Taki Naito, Yoshikazu Nagao, Yukihito Kabuyama, Kei Hashimoto, Norihiro Azuma, Isamu Maeda
Feeding systems such as grazing affect the fatty acid profile of bovine milk fat. In addition, milk fat is formed as the product of fatty acid metabolism in cow bodies before being secreted into milk. However, how grazing influences milk fatty acid profile through the metabolism has not been completely characterized. When fatty acid concentrations in Holstein milk were compared between grazing and non-grazing periods, α-linolenic acid was significantly higher in the grazing period than in the non-grazing period...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878901/radioactive-cesium-and-potassium-in-cattle-living-in-the-zone-in-preparation-for-the-lifting-of-the-evacuation-order-of-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#12
Itaru Sato, Jun Sasaki, Hiroshi Satoh, Takahisa Murata, Kumiko Otani, Keiji Okada
To contribute to the reconstruction of livestock industry in Fukushima, radioactive cesium ((134) Cs, (137) Cs) and potassium ((4) °K) were measured in various tissues of beef cattle living in an area where the evacuation order will be lifted in the near future. Radioactive cesium concentration was less than 100 Bq/kg in most of the samples. Skeletal muscles and kidney had the highest concentrations of radioactive cesium, whereas the liver was lowest among samples, excepting blood. Radioactive cesium concentration in the sirloin, tenderloin and top round was significantly higher than that in the neck muscle...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878895/polymorphisms-of-rdh16-and-vegfr1-influence-m-trapezius-steatosis-in-japanese-black-carcass
#13
Takafumi Ishida, Kosuke Noda, Fortune Ntengwa Jomane, Tadaaki Tokunaga
The exact cause of steatosis, one of defects in Japanese beef carcasses, has not been elucidated to date, because it is very difficult to diagnose cyclopedically with certain reproducibility due to the bias in the outbreak. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the influence of polymorphisms in retinol dehydrogenase 16 (RDH16), myoferlin (MYOF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2) on carcass-graded Musculus trapezius steatosis. For logistic regression analysis, 646 carcasses shipped from 29 farms in Miyazaki, Japan, were used...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878891/cloning-and-characterization-of-the-glutamate-dehydrogenase-gene-in-streptococcus-bovis
#14
Tasuke Ando, Yoko Sugawara, Ryohei Nishio, Miho Murakami, Emiko Isogai, Hiroshi Yoneyama
Streptococcus bovis, an etiologic agent of rumen acidosis in cattle, is a rumen bacterium that can grow in a chemically defined medium containing ammonia as a sole source of nitrogen. To understand its ability to assimilate inorganic ammonia, we focused on the function of glutamate dehydrogenase. In order to identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we first amplified an internal region of the gene by using degenerate primers corresponding to hexameric family I and NAD(P)(+) binding motifs. Subsequently, inverse PCR was used to identify the whole gene, comprising an open reading frame of 1350 bp that encodes 449 amino acid residues that appear to have the substrate binding site of glutamate dehydrogenase observed in other organisms...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868316/effect-of-organic-and-inorganic-selenium-supplementation-on-semen-quality-and-blood-enzymes-in-buffalo-bulls
#15
Mohamed El-Sharawy, Entsar Eid, Samy Darwish, Ibrahim Abdel-Razek, Md Rashedul Islam, Kaiyu Kubota, Nobuhiko Yamauchi, Ibrahim El-Shamaa
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic selenium (Se) supplementation on semen quality and blood serum profiles of buffalo bulls. Nine mature buffalo bulls were divided into three groups: control (non-supplemented); organic Se (10 mg Sel-Plex®/head twice weekly) and inorganic Se (10 mg sodium selenite/head twice weekly). Semen was collected twice a week for 3 months during Se supplementation. Semen properties were evaluated from fresh ejaculate. Moreover, fructose concentration, aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST and ALT) activities, total protein and total cholesterol were assayed in seminal plasma...
November 21, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868312/effect-of-chicken-leptin-recptor-short-hairpin-rna-on-expression-of-jak2-stat3-socs3-and-cpt1-genes-in-chicken-preadipocytes
#16
Qian Ban, Wenqiao Hui, Fei Cheng, Dahai Liu, Xiaojun Liu
In this study, we detect depressive effect on leptin receptor (LEPR) by LEPR-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids in chicken preadipocytes, and effect on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of genes related to signal transduction, including JAK2, STAT3, SOCS3 as well as CPT1, which is associated with fatty acid metabolism. shRNA expression vectors targeting LEPR were constructed and transfected into chicken preadipocytes. The transfection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy...
November 21, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862686/effect-of-castration-at-10-months-of-age-on-growth-physiology-and-behavior-of-male-feral-beef-cattle
#17
Javier Álvarez-Rodríguez, Pere Albertí, Guillermo Ripoll, Isabel Blasco, Albina Sanz
This study compared the growth performance, plasma testosterone and cortisol levels around castration at 10 months of age, and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentration and flight speed, in intact bulls and steers from 10 to 21 months of age in a feral Spanish breed. Fourteen bulls (366.5 ± 48.5 kg live weight) were assigned at random to one of two treatments: surgically castrated (steers) or intact (bulls), and submitted to an identical fattening period. Steers reared until heavy live weights (21 months of age) grew slowly and had lower plasma IGF-I concentrations than intact bulls...
November 11, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862709/selection-for-high-and-low-oxygen-consumption-induced-differences-in-maintenance-energy-requirements-of-mice
#18
Hongyu Darhan, Motoi Kikusato, Masaaki Toyomizu, Sang-Gun Roh, Kazuo Katoh, Masahiro Sato, Keiichi Suzuki
Maintenance energy requirements (MER) of mice selected for high (H) or low (L) oxygen consumption (OC) were compared. Forty-four mice from H and L OC lines were weaned at 3 weeks and divided into four experimental groups: group A were sacrificed at 4 weeks; group B were fed ad libitum, and groups C and D were fed 2.8 and 2.4 g/day, respectively, from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Groups B-D were sacrificed at 8 weeks. Chemical components were estimated for all groups. MER was estimated using a model that partitioned metabolizable energy intake into that used for maintenance, and protein and fat deposition...
November 8, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859974/in-vitro-ruminal-fermentation-and-in-situ-ruminal-degradation-of-tamarind-kernel-powder-extract-residue-in-wethers
#19
Lin Wang, Kazato Oishi, Yoshiaki Sato, Takashi Nakanishi, Hiroyuki Hirooka, Kei Takahashi, Hajime KumagaI
We examined the in vitro fermentation characteristics and in situ dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability of tamarind kernel powder extract residue (TKPER), a by-product of polysaccharides thickener processing. Two types of TKPER (I and II), of which the CP and neutral detergent fiber organic matter basis contents (%) were 41.4 and 42.0 and 1.4 and 0.5, respectively, were compared with dry heat soybean (SB), soybean meal (SBM) and dry soybean curd residue (SBCR). The TKPERs had significantly lower in vitro gas production compared to the other products at each observation time (P < 0...
November 8, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758021/effect-of-ginseng-polysaccharides-on-the-immunity-and-growth-of-piglets-by-dietary-supplementation-during-late-pregnancy-and-lactating-sows
#20
Qian-Yun Xi, Yong Jiang, Shuai Zhao, Bin Zeng, Fei Wang, Li-Na Wang, Qing-Yan Jiang, Yong-Liang Zhang
There are many reports that dietary supplementation with plant polysaccharides in pigs might promote their growth, but little is known about the maternal effect of ginseng polysaccharides (GPS) on piglets' growth by dietary supplementation to pregnant and lactating sows. In the current study, the effects of dietary supplementation with GPS on the immunity of sows and growth of their piglets were investigated. Results showed no significant difference among the four groups in the total number of piglets, live piglets, weak piglets and birth weight of piglets, indicating the GPS-treatment has no adverse effect on reproduction...
October 18, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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