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Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594772/trace-analysis-of-surfactants-in-corexit-oil-dispersant-formulations-and-seawater
#1
Benjamin J Place, Matt J Perkins, Ewan Sinclair, Adam L Barsamian, Paul R Blakemore, Jennifer A Field
After the April 2010 explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, and subsequent release of millions of barrels of oil, two Corexit oil dispersant formulations were used in unprecedented quantities both on the surface and sub-surface of the Gulf of Mexico. Although the dispersant formulations contain four classes of surfactants, current studies to date focus on the anionic surfactant, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Factors affecting the integrity of environmental and laboratory samples for Corexit analysis have not been systematically investigated...
July 2016: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236112/psp-toxin-levels-and-plankton-community-composition-and-abundance-in-size-fractionated-vertical-profiles-during-spring-summer-blooms-of-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-fundyense-in-the-gulf-of-maine-and-on-georges-bank-2007-2008-and-2010-2-plankton-community
#2
Christian M Petitpas, Jefferson T Turner, Jonathan R Deeds, Bruce A Keafer, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Peter J Milligan, Vangie Shue, Kevin D White, Donald M Anderson
As part of the Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin levels in various plankton size fractions, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in plankton size fractions during blooms of this toxic dinoflagellate in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in spring and summer of 2007, 2008, and 2010. PSP toxins and A. fundyense cells were found throughout the sampled water column (down to 50 m) in the 20-64 μm size fractions...
May 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26045636/seasonal-and-interannual-variability-in-gulf-of-maine-hydrodynamics-2002-2011
#3
Yizhen Li, Ruoying He, Dennis J McGillicuddy
In situ observations including long-term moored meteorological and oceanographic measurements and multi-year gulf-wide ship survey data are used to quantify interannual variability of surface wind, river runoff, and hydrographic conditions in the Gulf of Maine during summers 2002-2011. The cumulative upwelling index shows that upwelling (downwelling)-favorable wind conditions were most persistent in 2010 (2005) over the 10-year study period. River discharge was highest in 2005; peak runoff occurred in early April in 2010 as opposed to late April to middle May in other years...
May 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26045635/near-bottom-circulation-and-dispersion-of-sediment-containing-alexandrium-fundyense-cysts-in-the-gulf-of-maine-during-2010-2011
#4
Alfredo L Aretxabaleta, Bradford Butman, Richard P Signell, P Soupy Dalyander, Christopher R Sherwood, Vitalii A Sheremet, Dennis J McGillicuddy
The life cycle of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine includes a dormant cyst stage that spends the winter predominantly in the bottom sediment. Wave-current bottom stress caused by storms and tides induces resuspension of cyst-containing sediment during winter and spring. Resuspended sediment could be transported by water flow to different locations in the Gulf and the redistribution of sediment containing A. fundyense cysts could alter the spatial and temporal manifestation of its spring bloom. The present study evaluates model near-bottom flow during storms, when sediment resuspension and redistribution are most likely to occur, between October and May when A...
May 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26028824/nutrients-and-water-masses-in-the-gulf-of-maine-georges-bank-region-variability-and-importance-to-blooms-of-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-fundyense
#5
D W Townsend, D J McGillicuddy, M A Thomas, N R Rebuck
We report here the results of ten oceanographic survey cruises carried out in the Gulf of Maine - Georges Bank region of the Northwest Atlantic during the late spring to summer period in 2007, 2008 and 2010, for which we examine and characterize relationships among dissolved inorganic nutrient fields, water mass dynamics and cell densities of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. Nutrients are supplied to continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Maine - Georges Bank region by inflows of deep offshore water masses; once in the Gulf they are transported with the residual circulation and mix with surface waters, both in the Gulf and on the Bank...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25431527/spatial-and-temporal-variability-of-alexandrium-cyst-fluxes-in-the-gulf-of-maine-relationship-to-seasonal-particle-export-and-resuspension
#6
C H Pilskaln, D M Anderson, D J McGillicuddy, B A Keafer, K Hayashi, K Norton
Quantification of Alexandrium cyst fluxes through the Gulf of Maine water column is central to understanding the linkage between the source and fate of annual Alexandrium blooms in the offshore waters. These blooms often lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and extensive closures of shellfish beds. We report here on time-series sediment trap deployments completed at four offshore locations in the gulf between 2005 and 2010 as components of two ECOHAB-GOM field programs. Data presented documents the substantial spatial and temporal fluctuations in Alexandrium fundyense cyst fluxes in the gulf...
May 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25419055/benthic-nepheloid-layers-in-the-gulf-of-maine-and-alexandrium-cyst-inventories
#7
C H Pilskaln, K Hayashi, B A Keafer, D M Anderson, D J McGillicuddy
Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50-60 m observed...
May 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25288829/investigating-the-importance-of-sediment-resuspension-in-alexandrium-fundyense-cyst-population-dynamics-in-the-gulf-of-maine
#8
Bradford Butman, Alfredo L Aretxabaleta, Patrick J Dickhudt, P Soupy Dalyander, Christopher R Sherwood, Donald M Anderson, Bruce A Keafer, Richard P Signell
Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25170191/a-red-tide-of-alexandrium-fundyense-in-the-gulf-of-maine
#9
D J McGillicuddy, M L Brosnahan, D A Couture, R He, B A Keafer, J P Manning, J L Martin, C H Pilskaln, D W Townsend, D M Anderson
In early July 2009, an unusually high concentration of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense occurred in the western Gulf of Maine, causing surface waters to appear reddish brown to the human eye. The discolored water appeared to be the southern terminus of a large-scale event that caused shellfish toxicity along the entire coast of Maine to the Canadian border. Rapid-response shipboard sampling efforts together with satellite data suggest the water discoloration in the western Gulf of Maine was a highly ephemeral feature of less than two weeks in duration...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25143669/diversity-and-toxicity-of-the-diatom-pseudo-nitzschia-peragallo-in-the-gulf-of-maine-northwestern-atlantic-ocean
#10
Luciano F Fernandes, Katherine A Hubbard, Mindy L Richlen, Juliette Smith, Stephen S Bates, James Ehrman, Claude Léger, Luiz L Mafra, David Kulis, Michael Quilliam, Katie Libera, Linda McCauley, Donald M Anderson
Multiple species in the toxic marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia have been identified in the Northwestern Atlantic region encompassing the Gulf of Maine (GOM), including the Bay of Fundy (BOF). To gain further knowledge of the taxonomic composition and toxicity of species in this region, Pseudo-nitzschia isolates (n=146) were isolated from samples collected during research cruises that provided broad spatial coverage across the GOM and the southern New England shelf, herein referred to as the GOM region, during 2007-2008...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25076816/psp-toxin-levels-and-plankton-community-composition-and-abundance-in-size-fractionated-vertical-profiles-during-spring-summer-blooms-of-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-fundyense-in-the-gulf-of-maine-and-on-georges-bank-2007-2008-and-2010-1-toxin-levels
#11
Jonathan R Deeds, Christian M Petitpas, Vangie Shue, Kevin D White, Bruce A Keafer, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Peter J Milligan, Donald M Anderson, Jefferson T Turner
As part of the NOAA ECOHAB funded Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin composition, and concentration in quantitatively-sampled size-fractionated (20-64, 64-100, 100-200, 200-500, and > 500 μm) particulate water samples, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in these size fractions, at multiple depths (typically 1, 10, 20 m, and near-bottom) during 10 large-scale sampling cruises during the A...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25076815/categorizing-the-severity-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-outbreaks-in-the-gulf-of-maine-for-forecasting-and-management
#12
Judith L Kleindinst, Donald M Anderson, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Richard P Stumpf, Kathleen M Fisher, Darcie A Couture, J Michael Hickey, Christopher Nash
Development of forecasting systems for harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been a long-standing research and management goal. Significant progress has been made in the Gulf of Maine, where seasonal bloom forecasts are now being issued annually using Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance maps and a population dynamics model developed for that organism. Thus far, these forecasts have used terms such as "significant", "moderately large" or "moderate" to convey the extent of forecasted paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) outbreaks...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25076814/alexandrium-fundyense-cyst-viability-and-germling-survival-in-light-vs-dark-at-a-constant-low-temperature
#13
Emil Vahtera, Bibiana G Crespo, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Kalle Olli, Donald M Anderson
Both observations and models suggest that large-scale coastal blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine are seeded by deep-bottom cyst accumulation zones ("seed beds") where cysts germinate from the sediment surface or the overlying near-bottom nepheloid layers at water depths exceeding 100 m. The germling cells and their vegetative progeny are assumed to be subject to mortality while in complete darkness, as they swim to illuminated surface waters. To test the validity of this assumption we conducted laboratory investigations of cyst viability and the survival of the germling cells and their vegetative progeny during prolonged exposure to darkness at a temperature of 6 °C, simulating the conditions in deep Gulf of Maine waters...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25018592/alexandrium-fundyense-cysts-in-the-gulf-of-maine-long-term-time-series-of-abundance-and-distribution-and-linkages-to-past-and-future-blooms
#14
Donald M Anderson, Bruce A Keafer, Judith L Kleindinst, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Jennifer L Martin, Kerry Norton, Cynthia H Pilskaln, Juliette L Smith, Christopher R Sherwood, Bradford Butman
Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24976691/georges-bank-a-leaky-incubator-of-alexandrium-fundyense-blooms
#15
D J McGillicuddy, D W Townsend, B A Keafer, M A Thomas, D M Anderson
A series of oceanographic surveys on Georges Bank document variability of populations of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense on time scales ranging from synoptic to seasonal to interannual. Blooms of A. fundyense on Georges Bank can reach concentrations on the order of 10(4) cells l(-1), and are generally bank-wide in extent. Georges Bank populations of A. fundyense appear to be quasi-independent of those in the adjacent coastal Gulf of Maine, insofar as they occupy a hydrographic niche that is colder and saltier than their coastal counterparts...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24948849/understanding-interannual-decadal-level-variability-in-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-toxicity-in-the-gulf-of-maine-the-hab-index
#16
Donald M Anderson, Darcie A Couture, Judith L Kleindinst, Bruce A Keafer, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Jennifer L Martin, Mindy L Richlen, J Michael Hickey, Andrew R Solow
A major goal in harmful algal bloom (HAB) research has been to identify mechanisms underlying interannual variability in bloom magnitude and impact. Here the focus is on variability in Alexandrium fundyense blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in Maine, USA, over 34 years (1978 - 2011). The Maine coastline was divided into two regions -eastern and western Maine, and within those two regions, three measures of PSP toxicity (the percent of stations showing detectable toxicity over the year, the cumulative amount of toxicity per station measured in all shellfish (mussel) samples during that year, and the duration of measurable toxicity) were examined for each year in the time series...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24891769/complexities-of-bloom-dynamics-in-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-fundyense-revealed-through-dna-measurements-by-imaging-flow-cytometry-coupled-with-species-specific-rrna-probes
#17
Michael L Brosnahan, Shahla Farzan, Bruce A Keafer, Heidi M Sosik, Robert J Olson, Donald M Anderson
Measurements of the DNA content of different protist populations can shed light on a variety of processes, including cell division, sex, prey ingestion, and parasite invasion. Here, we modified an Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB), a custom-built flow cytometer that records images of microplankton, to measure the DNA content of large dinoflagellates and other high-DNA content species. The IFCB was also configured to measure fluorescence from Cy3-labeled rRNA probes, aiding the identification of Alexandrium fundyense (syn...
May 1, 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24882951/outbreeding-lethality-between-toxic-group-i-and-nontoxic-group-iii-alexandrium-tamarense-spp-isolates-predominance-of-heterotypic-encystment-and-implications-for-mating-interactions-and-biogeography
#18
Michael L Brosnahan, David M Kulis, Andrew R Solow, Deana L Erdner, Linda Percy, Jane Lewis, Donald M Anderson
We report the zygotic encystment of geographically dispersed isolates in the dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense, in particular, successful mating of toxic Group I and nontoxic Group III isolates. However, hypnozygotes produced in Group I/III co-cultures complete no more than three divisions after germinating. Previous reports have suggested a mate recognition mechanism whereby hypnozygotes produced in co-cultures could arise from either homotypic (inbred) or heterotypic (outbred) gamete pairs...
February 2010: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
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