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Tree Physiology

Chunying Yin, Sari Palmroth, Xueyong Pang, Bo Tang, Qing Liu, Ram Oren
A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) addition (0, 20, 40 g N m-2 year-1, N0, N20, N40, respectively) on the growth, and biomass accumulation and allocation of coniferous and deciduous (Picea asperata Mast. and Betula albosinensis Burk.) seedlings under a range of soil moisture limitation (40%, 50%, 60%, 80% and 100% of field capacity, FC). At 100% FC, growth of shade-tolerant P. asperata increased with N supply, while that of shade-intolerant B. albosinensis reached a maximum at N20, declining somewhat thereafter...
May 16, 2018: Tree Physiology
Tommy Chan, Frank Berninger, Pasi Kolari, Eero Nikinmaa, Teemu Hölttä
Current methods to study relations between stem respiration and stem growth have been hampered by problems in quantifying stem growth from dendrometer measurements, particularly on a daily time scale. This is mainly due to the water-related influences within these measurements that mask growth. A previously published model was used to remove water-related influences from measured radial stem variations to reveal a daily radial growth signal (ΔˆGm). We analysed the intra- and inter-annual relations between ΔˆGm and estimated growth respiration rates (Rg) on a daily scale for 5 years...
May 16, 2018: Tree Physiology
Jian-Guo Huang, Xiali Guo, Sergio Rossi, Lihong Zhai, Biyun Yu, Shaokang Zhang, Mingfang Zhang
China's subtropical forests play a vital role in sequestering global carbon; therefore, it is critical to conduct a precise investigation of intra-annual wood formation in these ecosystems to clarify the mechanisms behind this. Two field experiments were established in Chinese subtropical forests to monitor weekly the intra-annual xylem formation of Pinus massoniana Lamb. from January to December 2015, using the recently developed micro-sampling approach. The effects of climate on wood formation were also assessed using linear or mixed models...
May 11, 2018: Tree Physiology
Ximeng Li, Chris J Blackman, Paul D Rymer, Desi Quintans, Remko A Duursma, Brendan Choat, Belinda E Medlyn, David T Tissue
Manipulative experiments have suggested that embolism-induced hydraulic impairment underpins widespread tree mortality during extreme drought, yet in situ evidence is rare. One month after drought-induced leaf and branch dieback was observed in field populations of Eucalyptus piperita Sm. in the Blue Mountains (Australia), we measured the level of native stem embolism and characterized the extent of leaf death in co-occurring dieback and healthy (non-dieback) trees. We found that canopy dieback-affected trees showed significantly higher levels of native embolism (26%) in tertiary order branchlets than healthy trees (11%)...
May 11, 2018: Tree Physiology
Michael J Aspinwall, Chris J Blackman, Víctor Resco de Dios, Florian A Busch, Paul D Rymer, Michael E Loik, John E Drake, Sebastian Pfautsch, Renee A Smith, Mark G Tjoelker, David T Tissue
Intraspecific variation in biomass production responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) could influence tree species' ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying genotypic variation in responsiveness to eCO2 remain poorly understood. In this study, we grew 17 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. subsp. camaldulensis genotypes (representing provenances from four different climates) under ambient atmospheric CO2 and eCO2. We tested whether genotype leaf-scale photosynthetic and whole-tree carbon (C) allocation responses to eCO2 were predictive of genotype biomass production responses to eCO2...
May 8, 2018: Tree Physiology
Christoforos Pappas, Ashley M Matheny, Jennifer L Baltzer, Alan G Barr, T Andrew Black, Gil Bohrer, Matteo Detto, Jason Maillet, Alexandre Roy, Oliver Sonnentag, Jilmarie Stephens
Water stress has been identified as a key mechanism of the contemporary increase in tree mortality rates in northwestern North America. However, a detailed analysis of boreal tree hydrodynamics and their interspecific differences is still lacking. Here we examine the hydraulic behaviour of co-occurring larch (Larix laricina) and black spruce (Picea mariana), two characteristic boreal tree species, near the southern limit of the boreal ecozone in central Canada. Sap flux density (Js), concurrently recorded stem radius fluctuations and meteorological conditions are used to quantify tree hydraulic functioning and to scrutinize tree water-use strategies...
May 8, 2018: Tree Physiology
Chris J Blackman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2018: Tree Physiology
Peng Guo, Yi-Ping Qi, Yan-Tong Cai, Tao-Yu Yang, Lin-Tong Yang, Zeng-Rong Huang, Li-Song Chen
Citrus are mainly grown in low pH soils with high active aluminum (Al). 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and 'Shatian pummelo' (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) seedlings were fertilized for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing either 0 mM (control) or 1 mM (Al toxicity) AlCl3·6H2O. Aluminum induced decreases of biomass, leaf photosynthesis, relative water content and total soluble protein levels, and increases of methylglyoxal levels only occurred in C. grandis roots and leaves. Besides, the Al-induced decreases of pigments and alterations of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients and fluorescence parameters were greater in C...
April 27, 2018: Tree Physiology
Laura Fernández-de-Uña, Ismael Aranda, Sergio Rossi, Patrick Fonti, Isabel Cañellas, Guillermo Gea-Izquierdo
In Mediterranean mountains, Pinus sylvestris L. is expected to be displaced under a warming climate by more drought-tolerant species such as the sub-Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica Willd. Understanding how environmental factors drive tree physiology and phenology is, therefore, essential to assess the effect of changing climatic conditions on the performance of these species and, ultimately, their distribution. We compared the cambial and leaf phenology and leaf gas exchange of Q. pyrenaica and P. sylvestris at their altitudinal boundary in Central Spain and assessed the environmental variables involved...
April 27, 2018: Tree Physiology
Ernst van der Maaten, Jonas Pape, Marieke van der Maaten-Theunissen, Tobias Scharnweber, Marko Smiljanic, Roberto Cruz-García, Martin Wilmking
Dendrometers offer a useful tool for long-term, high-resolution monitoring of tree responses to environmental fluctuations and climate change. Here, we analyze a 4-year dendrometer dataset (2014-17) on European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), co-occuring in a mixed broadleaved forest in northeastern Germany. In our analyses, we focus both on seasonal growth dynamics as well as on the environmental forcing of daily stem-size variations...
April 27, 2018: Tree Physiology
Honglang Duan, Brian Chaszar, James D Lewis, Renee A Smith, Travis E Huxman, David T Tissue
Despite a wealth of eco-physiological assessments of plant response to extreme drought, few studies have addressed the interactive effects of global change factors on traits driving mortality. To understand the interaction between hydraulic and carbon metabolic traits influencing tree mortality, which may be independently influenced by atmospheric [CO2] and temperature, we grew Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn. ex Woolls from seed in a full-factorial [CO2] (280, 400 and 640 μmol mol-1, Cp, Ca and Ce, respectively) and temperature (ambient and ambient +4 °C, Ta and Te, respectively) experiment...
April 26, 2018: Tree Physiology
Daniele Castagneri, Giovanna Battipaglia, Georg von Arx, Arturo Pacheco, Marco Carrer
Understanding how climate affects xylem formation is critical for predicting the impact of future conditions on tree growth and functioning in the Mediterranean region, which is expected to face warmer and drier conditions. However, mechanisms of growth response to climate at different temporal scales are still largely unknown, being complicated by separation between spring and autumn xylogenesis (bimodal temporal pattern) in most species such as Mediterranean pines. We investigated wood anatomical characteristics and carbon stable isotope composition in Mediterranean Pinus pinea L...
April 24, 2018: Tree Physiology
Xinyuan Hao, Hu Tang, Bo Wang, Chuan Yue, Lu Wang, Jianming Zeng, Yajun Yang, Xinchao Wang
Green tea has attracted an increasing number of consumers worldwide due to its multiple health benefits. With the increase in global warming, more frequent cold spells in the spring often cause more serious damage to green tea production because of the young leaves used. We recorded the changes in climatic conditions during a typical cold spell and the damage symptoms caused by the cold spell in different tea cultivars and breeding lines. By simulating the low temperature of a cold spell under controlled conditions, comparative transcriptome and metabolic analyses were performed with sprouting shoots...
April 23, 2018: Tree Physiology
Chandra Prasad Ghimire, L Adrian Bruijnzeel, Maciek W Lubczynski, Bob W Zwartendijk, Vincent Omondi Odongo, Maafaka Ravelona, H J Ilja van Meerveld
It has been suggested that vigorous secondary tropical forests can have very high transpiration rates, but sap flow and stomatal conductance dynamics of trees and shrubs in these forests are understudied. In an effort to address this knowledge gap, sap flow (thermal dissipation method, 12 trees) and stomatal conductance (porometry, six trees) were measured for young (5-7 years) Psiadia altissima (DC.) Drake trees, a widely occurring species dominating young regrowth following abandonment of swidden agriculture in upland eastern Madagascar...
April 21, 2018: Tree Physiology
Päivi Tiiva, Elina Häikiö, Anne Kasurinen
The changing climate will expose boreal forests to rising temperatures, increasing soil nitrogen (N) levels and an increasing risk of herbivory. The single and interaction effects of warming (+2 °C increase), moderate N addition (30 kg ha-1 year-1) and bark herbivory by large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) on growth and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were studied in growth chambers over 175 days. In addition, warming and N addition effects on shoot net photosynthesis (Pn) were measured...
April 10, 2018: Tree Physiology
Mark D Coleman, Doug P Aubrey
Forest productivity depends on resource acquisition by ephemeral roots and leaves. A combination of intrinsic and environmental factors influences ephemeral organs; however, difficulties in studying belowground organs impede mechanistic understanding of fine-root production and turnover. To quantify factors controlling fine-root dynamics, we grew a deciduous hardwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) and an evergreen conifer (Pinus taeda L.) with distinct soil moisture and nutrient availability treatments. We monitored fine-root dynamics with minirhizotrons for 6 years during early stand development and expressed results on a root length, biomass and mortality-risk basis...
April 5, 2018: Tree Physiology
Min Liu, Fanzhen Xu, Xingliang Xu, Wolfgang Wanek, Xiaodong Yang
Several studies have explored plant nutrient acquisition during ecosystem succession, but it remains unclear how age affects nitrogen (N) acquisition by the same tree species. Clarifying the age effect will be beneficial to fertilization management through improving N-use efficiency and reducing the risk of environmental pollution due to NO3- leaching. To clarify the effect of age on N uptake, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg.) plantations of five ages (7, 16, 24, 32 and 49 years) were selected in Xishuangbanna of southern China for brief 15N exposures of intact roots using field hydroponic experiments...
April 5, 2018: Tree Physiology
R Brandon Pratt, Anna L Jacobsen
In vivo imaging methods are useful for examination of plant vascular tissues, particularly in the identification of fluid vs gas-filled conduits; however, these methods may not allow for the simple identification of conductive conduits. Our aim in the present study was to develop a method that would allow for the in vivo identification of conductive conduits. Intact plants and segments of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and intact American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.) saplings were examined. We found that iohexol, a water soluble iodine-rich molecule, was a useful contrast agent...
April 5, 2018: Tree Physiology
Yoshiyuki Miyazawa, Sheng Du, Takeshi Taniguchi, Norikazu Yamanaka, Tomo'omi Kumagai
The mesic-origin plantation species Robinia pseudoacacia L. has been successfully grown in many arid land plantations around the world but often exhibits dieback and reduced growth due to drought. Therefore, to explore the behavior of this species under changing environmental conditions, we examined the relationship between ecophysiological traits, gas exchange and plant hydraulics over a 3-year period in trees that experienced reduced plant hydraulic conductance (Gp) in summer. We found that the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance (Gs) and minimum leaf water potential (Ψlmin) decreased in early summer in response to a decrease in Gp, and that Gp did not recover until the expansion of new leaves in spring...
March 28, 2018: Tree Physiology
Yun Shen, Yongli Li, Dan Xu, Chen Yang, Chaofeng Li, Keming Luo
Brassinosteroids (BRs) as steroid hormones play an important role in plant growth and development. However, little is known about how BRs affect secondary wall biosynthesis in woody plants. In this study, we cloned and characterized PtoDWF4, a homologus gene of Arabidopsis DWF4 encoding a cytochrome P450 protein, from Populus tomentosa. qRT-PCR analysis showed that PtoDWF4 was highly expressed in stems, especially in xylem. Overexpression of PtoDWF4 (PtoDWF4-OE) in poplar promoted growth rate and biomass yield, increased area and cell layers of xylem...
March 22, 2018: Tree Physiology
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