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Tree Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199714/dynamics-of-stem-water-uptake-among-isohydric-and-anisohydric-species-experiencing-a-severe-drought
#1
Koong Yi, Danilo Dragoni, Richard P Phillips, D Tyler Roman, Kimberly A Novick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131994/ectopic-accumulation-of-linalool-confers-resistance-to-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-in-transgenic-sweet-orange-plants
#2
Takehiko Shimada, Tomoko Endo, Ana Rodríguez, Hiroshi Fujii, Shingo Goto, Takakazu Matsuura, Yuko Hojo, Yoko Ikeda, Izumi C Mori, Takashi Fujikawa, Leandro Peña, Mitsuo Omura
In order to clarify whether high linalool content in citrus leaves alone induces strong field resistance to citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), and to assess whether this trait can be transferred to a citrus type highly sensitive to the bacterium, transgenic 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) plants over-expressing a linalool synthase gene (CuSTS3-1) were generated. Transgenic lines (LIL) with the highest linalool content showed strong resistance to citrus canker when spray inoculated with the bacterium...
January 27, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100712/salt-management-strategy-defines-the-stem-and-leaf-hydraulic-characteristics-of-six-mangrove-tree-species
#3
Guo-Feng Jiang, Uromi Manage Goodale, Yan-Yan Liu, Guang-You Hao, Kun-Fang Cao
Mangroves in hypersaline coastal habitats are under constant high xylem tension and face great risk of hydraulic dysfunction. To investigate the relationships between functional traits and salt management, we measured 20 hydraulic and photosynthetic traits in four salt-adapted (SA) and two non-SA (NSA) mangrove tree species in south China. The SA species included two salt secretors (SSs), Avicennia marina (Forsskål) Vierhapper and Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco and two salt excluders (SEs), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L...
January 18, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100711/effects-of-structural-complexity-on-within-canopy-light-environments-and-leaf-traits-in-a-northern-mixed-deciduous-forest
#4
Alexander T Fotis, Peter S Curtis
Canopy structure influences forest productivity through its effects on the distribution of radiation and the light-induced changes in leaf physiological traits. Due to the difficulty of accessing and measuring forest canopies, few field-based studies have quantitatively linked these divergent scales of canopy functioning. The objective of our study was to investigate how canopy structure affects light profiles within a forest canopy and whether leaves of mature trees adjust morphologically and biochemically to the light environments characteristic of canopies with different structural complexity...
January 18, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100710/tree-diversity-affects-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-and-other-leaf-traits-of-tree-species-in-a-boreal-forest
#5
Martina Pollastrini, Ana Garcia Nogales, Raquel Benavides, Damien Bonal, Leena Finer, Mariangela Fotelli, Arthur Gessler, Charlotte Grossiord, Kalliopi Radoglou, Reto J Strasser, Filippo Bussotti
An assemblage of tree species with different crown properties creates heterogeneous environments at the canopy level. Changes of functional leaf traits are expected, especially those related to light interception and photosynthesis. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) properties in dark-adapted leaves, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen content (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) were measured on Picea abies (L.) H.Karst., Pinus sylvestris L. and Betula pendula Roth. in monospecific and mixed boreal forests in Europe, in order to test whether they were affected by stand species richness and composition...
January 18, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062728/characterization-of-six-pht1-members-in-lycium-barbarum-and-their-response-to-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-and-water-stress
#6
Wentao Hu, Haoqiang Zhang, Xiangyu Zhang, Hui Chen, Ming Tang
Phosphorus (P) is vitally important for most plant processes. However, the P available to plants is present in the soil in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi), and is often present in only limited amounts. Water stress further reduces Pi availability. Previous studies have highlighted the important roles of members of the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 1 (PHT1) family and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations for Pi acquisition by plants growing in various environments. In order to understand the Pi uptake of Lycium barbarum L, a drought-tolerant ligneous species belonging to the Solanaceae family, we cloned and characterized six L...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062727/dynamics-of-stem-water-uptake-among-isohydric-and-anisohydric-species-experiencing-a-severe-drought
#7
Koong Yi, Danilo Dragoni, Richard P Phillips, D Tyler Roman, Kimberly A Novick
Predicting the impact of drought on forest ecosystem processes requires an understanding of trees' species-specific responses to drought, especially in the Eastern USA, where species composition is highly dynamic due to historical changes in land use and fire regime. Here, we adapted a framework that classifies trees' water-use strategy along the spectrum of isohydric to anisohydric behavior to determine the responses of three canopy-dominant species to drought. We used a collection of leaf-level gas exchange, tree-level sap flux and stand-level eddy covariance data collected in south-central Indiana from 2011 to 2013, which included an unusually severe drought in the summer of 2012...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062726/seasonal-variability-in-physiological-and-anatomical-traits-contributes-to-invasion-success-of-prosopis-juliflora-in-tropical-dry-forest
#8
Marciel T Oliveira, Gustavo M Souza, Silvia Pereira, Deborah A S Oliveira, Karla V Figueiredo-Lima, Emília Arruda, Mauro G Santos
We investigated whether there were consistent differences in the physiological and anatomical traits and phenotypic variability of an invasive (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.) and native species (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan) in response to seasonality in a tropical dry forest. The water potential, organic solutes, gas exchange, enzymes of the antioxidant system, products of oxidative stress and anatomical parameters were evaluated in both species in response to seasonality. An analysis of physiological responses indicated that the invasive P...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062725/capacitive-water-release-and-internal-leaf-water-relocation-delay-drought-induced-cavitation-in-african-maesopsis-eminii
#9
Jackie Epila, Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Lidewei L Vergeynst, Wouter H Maes, Hans Beeckman, Kathy Steppe
The impact of drought on the hydraulic functioning of important African tree species, like Maesopsis eminii Engl., is poorly understood. To map the hydraulic response to drought-induced cavitation, sole reliance on the water potential at which 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (ψ50) occurs might be limiting and at times misleading as the value alone does not give a comprehensive overview of strategies evoked by M. eminii to cope with drought. This article therefore uses a methodological framework to study the different aspects of drought-induced cavitation and water relations in M...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008084/temperature-dependence-of-needle-and-shoot-elongation-before-bud-break-in-scots-pine
#10
Pauliina Schiestl-Aalto, Annikki Mäkelä
Knowledge about the early part of needle growth is deficient compared with what is known about shoot growth. It is however important to understand growth of different organs to be able to estimate the changes in whole tree growth in a changing environment. The onset of growth in spring has been observed to occur over some certain threshold value of momentary temperature or temperature accumulation. We measured the length growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and shoots from March until bud break over 3 years...
December 21, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008083/infidelity-in-the-outback-climate-signal-recorded-in-%C3%AE-18o-of-leaf-but-not-branch-cellulose-of-eucalypts-across-an-australian-aridity-gradient
#11
Alexander W Cheesman, Lucas A Cernusak
The isotopic composition of leaf water in terrestrial plants is highly dependent upon a plant's environment. This isotopic signature can become integrated into organic molecules, allowing the isotopic composition of biomarkers such as cellulose to be used as sensitive paleo and climatic proxies. However, the mechanisms by which cellulose isotopic composition reflect environmental conditions are complex, and may vary between leaf and woody tissues. To date few empirical tests have been made on the relative roles of leaf-water enrichment and source water on the isotopic composition of leaf and wood cellulose within the same plant...
December 21, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008082/whole-transcriptome-response-to-water-stress-in-a-california-endemic-oak-quercus-lobata
#12
Paul F Gugger, Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez, Jessica W Wright, Victoria L Sork
Reduced water availability during drought can create major stress for many plant species. Within a species, populations with a history of seasonal drought may have evolved the ability to tolerate drought more than those in areas of high precipitation and low seasonality. In this study, we assessed response to water stress in a California oak species, Quercus lobata Née, by measuring changes in gene expression profiles before and after a simulated drought stress treatment through water deprivation of seedlings in a greenhouse setting...
December 21, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008081/thermotolerance-and-heat-stress-responses-of-douglas-fir-and-ponderosa-pine-seedling-populations-from-contrasting-climates
#13
Danielle E Marias, Frederick C Meinzer, David R Woodruff, Katherine A McCulloh
Temperature and the frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century. Germinant seedlings are expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat stress because they are in the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs in open habitats. We quantified leaf thermotolerance and whole-plant physiological responses to heat stress in first-year germinant seedlings in two populations each of Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson (PIPO) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb...
December 21, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998974/xylem-diameter-changes-during-osmotic-stress-desiccation-and-freezing-in-pinus-sylvestris-and-populus-tremula
#14
Anna Lintunen, Lauri Lindfors, Eero Nikinmaa, Teemu Hölttä
Trees experience low apoplastic water potential frequently in most environments. Low apoplastic water potential increases the risk of embolism formation in xylem conduits and creates dehydration stress for the living cells. We studied the magnitude and rate of xylem diameter change in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential and the role of living parenchyma cells in it to better understand xylem diameter changes in different environmental conditions. We compared responses of control and heat-injured xylem of Pinus sylvestris (L...
December 19, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986954/aspen-phenylpropanoid-genes-expression-levels-correlate-with-genets-tannin-richness-and-vary-both-in-responses-to-soil-nitrogen-and-associations-with-phenolic-profiles
#15
Vicki H G Decker, Franziska Bandau, Michael J Gundale, Christopher T Cole, Benedicte R Albrectsen
Condensed tannin (CT) contents of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) vary among genotypes, and increases in nitrogen (N) availability generally reduce plants' tannin production in favor of growth, through poorly understood mechanisms. We hypothesized that intrinsic tannin production rates may co-vary with gene expression responses to soil N and resource allocation within the phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP). Thus, we examined correlations between soil N levels and both expression patterns of eight PPP genes (measured by quantitative-reverse transcription PCR) and foliar phenolic compounds (measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) in young aspen genets with intrinsically extreme CT levels...
December 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974654/water-relations-in-tree-physiology-where-to-from-here
#16
REVIEW
Joe Landsberg, Richard Waring
We look back over 50 years of research into the water relations of trees, with the objective of assessing the maturity of the topic in terms of the idea of a paradigm, put forward by Kuhn in 1962. Our brief review indicates that the physical processes underlying the calculation of transpiration are well understood and accepted, and knowledge of those processes can be applied if information about the leaf area of trees, and stomatal conductance, is available. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors governing stomatal responses to environment, with insights into how the hydraulic conducting system of trees determines the maximum aperture of stomata...
December 14, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974653/effects-of-prolonged-drought-stress-on-scots-pine-seedling-carbon-allocation
#17
Heidi Aaltonen, Aki Lindén, Jussi Heinonsalo, Christina Biasi, Jukka Pumpanen
As the number of drought occurrences has been predicted to increase with increasing temperatures, it is believed that boreal forests will become particularly vulnerable to decreased growth and increased tree mortality caused by the hydraulic failure, carbon starvation and vulnerability to pests following these. Although drought-affected trees are known to have stunted growth, as well as increased allocation of carbon to roots, still not enough is known about the ways in which trees can acclimate to drought...
December 14, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974652/nighttime-stomatal-conductance-differs-with-nutrient-availability-in-two-temperate-floodplain-tree-species
#18
Franziska Eller, Kai Jensen, Christoph Reisdorff
Nighttime water flow varies between plant species and is a phenomenon for which the magnitude, purpose and consequences are widely discussed. A potential benefit of nighttime stomata opening may be increased nutrient availability during the night since transpiration affects the mass flow of soil water towards plant roots. We investigated how nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization, and short-term drought affected stomatal conductance of Fraxinus excelsior L. and Ulmus laevis Pallas during the day (gs) and night (gn), and how these factors affected growth for a period of 18 weeks...
December 14, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974651/consistent-leaf-respiratory-response-to-experimental-warming-of-three-north-american-deciduous-trees-a-comparison-across-seasons-years-habitats-and-sites
#19
Xiaorong Wei, Kerrie M Sendall, Artur Stefanski, Changming Zhao, Jihua Hou, Roy L Rich, Rebecca A Montgomery, Peter B Reich
Most vascular plants acclimate respiration to changes in ambient temperature, but explicit tests of these responses in field settings are rare, and how acclimation responses vary in space and time is relatively unstudied, hindering our ability to predict respiratory release of carbon under future climatic conditions. We measured temperature response curves of leaf respiration for three deciduous tree species from 2009 to 2012 in a field warming experiment (+3.4 °C above ambient) in both open and understory conditions at two sites in the southern boreal forest in Minnesota, USA...
December 14, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974650/short-term-dynamics-of-evaporative-enrichment-of-xylem-water-in-woody-stems-implications-for-ecohydrology
#20
Paula Martín-Gómez, Luis Serrano, Juan Pedro Ferrio
In ecohydrology, it is generally assumed that xylem water reflects the water source used by plants. Several studies have reported isotopic enrichment within woody tissues, particularly during dormancy periods or after long periods of inactivity. However, little is known about the short-term dynamics of this process. Here we assessed the magnitude and dynamics of xylem isotopic enrichment in suberized twigs of pines and oaks. We performed a series of laboratory experiments, in which we monitored hourly changes in water content and isotopic composition under two contrasting scenarios of sap flow restriction...
December 14, 2016: Tree Physiology
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