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Tree Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549182/single-provenance-mature-conifers-show-higher-non-structural-carbohydrate-storage-and-reduced-growth-in-a-drier-location
#1
Frida I Piper, Alex Fajardo, Günter Hoch
Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C...
May 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549168/assessing-the-thermal-dissipation-sap-flux-density-method-for-monitoring-cold-season-water-transport-in-seasonally-snow-covered-forests
#2
Allison M Chan, David R Bowling
Productivity of conifers in seasonally snow-covered forests is high before and during snowmelt when environmental conditions are optimal for photosynthesis. Climate change is altering the timing of spring in many locations, and changes in the date of transition from winter dormancy can have large impacts on annual productivity. Sap flow methods provide a promising approach to monitor tree activity during the cold season and the winter-spring and fall-winter transitions. Although sap flow techniques have been widely used, cold season results are generally not reported...
May 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541584/fine-roots-when-anisotropy-matters
#3
Daniel Epron, Akira Osawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541580/genes-and-gene-clusters-related-to-genotype-and-drought-induced-variation-in-saccharification-potential-lignin-content-and-wood-anatomical-traits-in-populus-nigra%C3%A2
#4
Henning Wildhagen, Shanty Paul, Mike Allwright, Hazel K Smith, Marta Malinowska, Sabine K Schnabel, M João Paulo, Federica Cattonaro, Vera Vendramin, Simone Scalabrin, Dennis Janz, Cyril Douthe, Oliver Brendel, Cyril Buré, David Cohen, Irène Hummel, Didier Le Thiec, Fred van Eeuwijk, Joost J B Keurentjes, Jaume Flexas, Michele Morgante, Paul Robson, Marie-Béatrice Bogeat-Triboulot, Gail Taylor, Andrea Polle
Wood is a renewable resource that can be employed for the production of second generation biofuels by enzymatic saccharification and subsequent fermentation. Knowledge on how the saccharification potential is affected by genotype-related variation of wood traits and drought is scarce. Here, we used three Populus nigra L. genotypes from habitats differing in water availability to (i) investigate the relationships between wood anatomy, lignin content and saccharification and (ii) identify genes and co-expressed gene clusters related to genotype and drought-induced variation in wood traits and saccharification potential...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541570/evolutionary-trade-offs-between-drought-resistance-mechanisms-across-a-precipitation-gradient-in-a-seasonally-dry-tropical-oak-quercus-oleoides
#5
Jose A Ramírez-Valiente, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541567/dna-methylation-and-small-interference-rnas-participate-in-the-regulation-of-mads-box-genes-involved-in-dormancy-in-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-l
#6
Karin Rothkegel, Evelyn Sánchez, Christian Montes, Macarena Greve, Sebastián Tapia, Soraya Bravo, Humberto Prieto, Andréa Miyasaka Almeida
Epigenetic modifications can yield information about connections between genotype, phenotype variation and environmental conditions. Bud dormancy release in temperate perennial fruit trees depends on internal and environmental signals such as cold accumulation and photoperiod. Previous investigations have noted the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the control of this physiological process. We examined whether epigenetic modifications were modulated in MADS-box genes, potential candidates for the regulation of bud dormancy and flowering in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541561/effects-of-rainfall-exclusion-on-leaf-gas-exchange-traits-and-osmotic-adjustment-in-mature-canopy-trees-of-dryobalanops-aromatica-dipterocarpaceae-in-a-malaysian-tropical-rain-forest
#7
Yuta Inoue, Tomoaki Ichie, Tanaka Kenzo, Aogu Yoneyama, Tomo'omi Kumagai, Tohru Nakashizuka
Climate change exposes vegetation to unusual levels of drought, risking a decline in productivity and an increase in mortality. It still remains unclear how trees and forests respond to such unusual drought, particularly Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. To understand leaf ecophysiological responses of tropical rain forest trees to soil drying, a rainfall exclusion experiment was conducted on mature canopy trees of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f. (Dipterocarpaceae) for 4 months in an aseasonal tropical rain forest in Sarawak, Malaysia...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541559/hydraulic-redistribution-under-moderate-drought-among-english-oak-european-beech-and-norway-spruce-determined-by-deuterium-isotope-labeling-in-a-split-root-experiment
#8
Benjamin D Hafner, Martina Tomasella, Karl-Heinz Häberle, Marc Goebel, Rainer Matyssek, Thorsten E E Grams
Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is a crucial phenomenon improving the water balance of plants and ecosystems. It is mostly described under severe drought, and not yet studied under moderate drought. We tested the potential of HR under moderate drought, hypothesizing that (H1) tree species redistribute soil water in their roots even under moderate drought and that (H2) neighboring plants are supported with water provided by redistributing plants. Trees were planted in split-root systems with one individual (i...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541538/coordinated-modifications-in-mesophyll-conductance-photosynthetic-potentials-and-leaf-nitrogen-contribute-to-explain-the-large-variation-in-foliage-net-assimilation-rates-across-quercus-ilex-provenances
#9
José Javier Peguero-Pina, Sergio Sisó, Jaume Flexas, Jeroni Galmés, Ülo Niinemets, Domingo Sancho-Knapik, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín
Leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA) has been suggested to negatively affect the mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm), the most limiting factor for photosynthesis per unit leaf area (AN) in many evergreens. Several anatomical traits (i.e., greater leaf thickness and thicker cell walls) constraining gm could explain the negative scaling of gm and AN with LMA across species. However, the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex L. shows a major within-species variation in functional traits (greater LMA associated with higher nitrogen content and AN) that might contrast the worldwide trends...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541536/acclimation-of-light-and-dark-respiration-to-experimental-and-seasonal-warming-are-mediated-by-changes-in-leaf-nitrogen-in-eucalyptus-globulus
#10
K Y Crous, G Wallin, O K Atkin, J Uddling, A Af Ekenstam
Quantifying the adjustments of leaf respiration in response to seasonal temperature variation and climate warming is crucial because carbon loss from vegetation is a large but uncertain part of the global carbon cycle. We grew fast-growing Eucalyptus globulus Labill. trees exposed to +3 °C warming and elevated CO2 in 10-m tall whole-tree chambers and measured the temperature responses of leaf mitochondrial respiration, both in light (RLight) and in darkness (RDark), over a 20-40 °C temperature range and during two different seasons...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486656/canopy-gradients-in-leaf-functional-traits-for-species-that-differ-in-growth-strategies-and-shade-tolerance
#11
Adam P Coble, Marilyn L Fogel, Geoffrey G Parker
In temperate deciduous forests, vertical gradients in leaf mass per area (LMA) and area-based leaf nitrogen (Narea) are strongly controlled by gradients in light availability. While there is evidence that hydrostatic constraints on leaf development may diminish LMA and Narea responses to light, inherent differences among tree species may also influence leaf developmental and morphological response to light. We investigated vertical gradients in LMA, Narea and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ13C) for three temperate deciduous species (Carpinus caroliniana Walter, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh...
May 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482109/organic-and-inorganic-nitrogen-uptake-by-21-dominant-tree-species-in-temperate-and-tropical-forests
#12
Min Liu, Changcheng Li, Xingliang Xu, Wolfgang Wanek, Ning Jiang, Huimin Wang, Xiaodong Yang
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest...
May 8, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482043/calculation-procedures-to-estimate-fine-root-production-rates-in-forests-using-two-dimensional-fine-root-data-obtained-by-the-net-sheet-method
#13
Kyotaro Noguchi, Toko Tanikawa, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Shigehiro Ishizuka
Several recent studies have used the net sheet method to estimate fine root production rates in forest ecosystems, wherein net sheets are inserted into the soil and fine roots growing through them are observed. Although this method has advantages in terms of its easy handling and low cost, there are uncertainties in the estimates per unit soil volume or unit stand area, because the net sheet is a two-dimensional material. Therefore, this study aimed to establish calculation procedures for estimating fine root production rates from two-dimensional fine root data on net sheets...
May 8, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460131/adaptation-and-acclimation-both-influence-photosynthetic-and-respiratory-temperature-responses-in-corymbia-calophylla
#14
Michael J Aspinwall, Angelica Vårhammar, Chris J Blackman, Mark G Tjoelker, Collin Ahrens, Margaret Byrne, David T Tissue, Paul D Rymer
Short-term acclimation and long-term adaptation represent two ways in which forest trees can respond to changes in temperature. Yet, the relative contribution of thermal acclimation and adaptation to tree physiological responses to temperature remains poorly understood. Here, we grew two cool-origin and two warm-origin populations of a widespread broad-leaved evergreen tree species (Corymbia calophylla (Lindl.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson) from a Mediterranean climate in southwestern Australia under two growth temperatures representative of the cool- and warm-edge of the species distribution...
April 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460081/low-vapor-pressure-deficit-reduces-glandular-trichome-density-and-modifies-the-chemical-composition-of-cuticular-waxes-in-silver-birch-leaves
#15
Jenna Lihavainen, Viivi Ahonen, Sarita Keski-Saari, Anu Sõber, Elina Oksanen, Markku Keinänen
Cuticular wax layer is the first barrier against the outside environment and the first defense encountered by herbivores and pathogens. The effects of environmental factors on cuticular chemistry, and on the formation of glandular trichomes that account for the storage and secretion of lipophilic compounds to the leaf surface are poorly understood. Low vapor pressure deficit (VPD) has shown to reduce the nitrogen (N) status of plants. Thus, we studied the effects of elevated air humidity, indicated as VPD, and the effect of N fertilization on cuticular waxes and glandular trichome density in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth)...
April 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444382/xylem-traits-leaf-longevity-and-growth-phenology-predict-growth-and-mortality-response-to-defoliation-in-northern-temperate-forests
#16
Jane R Foster
Defoliation outbreaks are biological disturbances that alter tree growth and mortality in temperate forests. Trees respond to defoliation in many ways; some recover rapidly, while others decline gradually or die. Functional traits such as xylem anatomy, growth phenology or non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) storage could explain these responses, but idiosyncratic measures used by defoliation studies have frustrated efforts to generalize among species. Here, I test for functional differences with published growth and mortality data from 37 studies, including 24 tree species and 11 defoliators from North America and Eurasia...
April 21, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444356/long-term-effects-of-drought-on-tree-ring-growth-and-carbon-isotope-variability-in-scots-pine-in-a-dry-environment
#17
Galina Timofeeva, Kerstin Treydte, Harald Bugmann, Andreas Rigling, Marcus Schaub, Rolf Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer
Drought frequency is increasing in many parts of the world and may enhance tree decline and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms are poorly understood, however, particularly regarding chronic effects of long-term drought and the response to increasing temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). We combined analyses of radial growth and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in tree rings in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over the 20th century to elucidate causes of tree mortality in one of the driest parts of the European Alps (Pfynwald, Switzerland)...
April 21, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431185/the-effect-of-interspecific-variation-in-photosynthetic-plasticity-on-4-year-growth-rate-and-8-year-survival-of-understorey-tree-seedlings-in-response-to-gap-formations-in-a-cool-temperate-deciduous-forest
#18
Riichi Oguchi, Tsutom Hiura, Kouki Hikosaka
Gap formation increases the light intensity in the forest understorey. The growth responses of seedlings to the increase in light availability show interspecific variation, which is considered to promote biodiversity in forests. At the leaf level, some species increase their photosynthetic capacity in response to gap formation, whereas others do not. Here we address the question of whether the interspecific difference in the photosynthetic response results in the interspecific variation in the growth response...
April 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419347/evolutionary-trade-offs-between-drought-resistance-mechanisms-across-a-precipitation-gradient-in-a-seasonally-dry-tropical-oak-quercus-oleoides
#19
Jose A Ramírez-Valiente, Jeannine Cavender-Bares
In seasonally dry tropical forest regions, drought avoidance during the dry season coupled with high assimilation rates in the wet season is hypothesized to be an advantageous strategy for forest trees in regions with severe and long dry seasons. In contrast, where dry seasons are milder, drought tolerance coupled with a conservative resource-use strategy is expected to maximize carbon assimilation throughout the year. Tests of this hypothesis, particularly at the intraspecific level, have been seldom conducted...
April 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402468/xylem-adjustment-of-sessile-oak-at-its-southern-distribution-limits
#20
Elisabet Martínez-Sancho, Isabel Dorado-Liñán, Ingo Heinrich, Gerhard Helle, Annette Menzel
Drought is a key limiting factor for tree growth in the Mediterranean Basin. However, the variability in acclimation via xylem traits is largely unknown. We studied tree growth and vessel features of Quercus petraea (Matt.) Lieb. in five marginal stands across southern Europe. Tree-ring width (TRW), mean earlywood vessel area (MVA) and number of earlywood vessels (NV) as well as theoretical hydraulic conductivity (Kh) chronologies were developed for the period 1963-2012. Summer drought signals were consistent among TRW chronologies; however, climatic responses of vessel features differed considerably among sites...
April 10, 2017: Tree Physiology
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