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Tree Physiology

Yi Zhang, Julie Leclercq, Pascal Montoro
Environmental stress can lead to oxidative stress resulting from an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and involves redox adjustments. Natural rubber is synthesized in laticifers, which is a non-photosynthetic tissue particularly prone to oxidative stress. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the ROS production and ROS-scavenging systems in laticifers. These regulations have been the subject of intense research into a physiological syndrome, called Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD), affecting latex production in Hevea brasiliensis In order to prevent TPD occurrence, monitoring thiol content appeared to be a crucial factor of latex diagnosis...
November 29, 2016: Tree Physiology
Steven A Kannenberg, Richard P Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Tree Physiology
J Julio Camarero, Marco Carrer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Tree Physiology
N Garcia-Forner, C Biel, R Savé, J Martínez-Vilalta
Isohydry (i.e., strong regulation of leaf water potential, Ψl) is commonly associated with strict stomatal regulation of transpiration under drought, which in turn is believed to minimize hydraulic risk at the expense of reduced carbon assimilation. Hence, the iso/anisohydric classification has been widely used to assess drought resistance and mortality mechanisms across species, with isohydric species being hypothetically more prone to carbon starvation and anisohydric species more vulnerable to hydraulic failure...
November 23, 2016: Tree Physiology
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Maurizio Mencuccini, Kathy Steppe, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world...
November 23, 2016: Tree Physiology
Leandro F de Oliveira, Paula Elbl, Bruno V Navarro, Amanda F Macedo, André L W Dos Santos, Eny I S Floh
Polyamines (PAs), such as spermidine and spermine, as well as amino acids that are substrates for their biosynthesis, are known to be essential for plant development. However, little is known about the gene expression and metabolic switches associated with the ornithine/arginine and PA biosynthetic pathway during seed development in conifers. To understand these metabolic switches, the enzyme activity of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase, as well as the contents of PAs and amino acids were evaluated in three Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol...
November 23, 2016: Tree Physiology
Christina L Borzak, Brad M Potts, Karen M Barry, Elizabeth A Pinkard, Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
Defoliation may initiate physiological recovery and chemical defence mechanisms that allow a plant to improve fitness after damage. Such responses may result in changes in plant resource allocation that influence growth and foliar chemistry. In this study, we investigated the nature and stability of the defoliation response of juvenile plants from three divergent populations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. A partial defoliation treatment that removed all upper crown leaves and the apical buds was applied to plants sourced from eight families from each of three populations representing contrasting chemical resistance to mammalian herbivory...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
Nadir Erbilgin, Jonathan A Cale, Inka Lusebrink, Ahmed Najar, Jennifer G Klutsch, Patrick Sherwood, Pierluigi Enrico Bonello, Maya L Evenden
Bark beetles are important agents of tree mortality in conifer forests and their interaction with trees is influenced by host defense chemicals, such as monoterpenes and phenolics. Since mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has expanded its host range from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. (var. latifolia Engelm.))-dominated forests to the novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forests in western Canada, studies investigating the jack pine suitability as a host for this beetle have exclusively focused on monoterpenes, and whether phenolics affect jack pine suitability to mountain pine beetle and its symbiotic fungus Grosmannia clavigera is unknown...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
Torben Lübbe, Bernhard Schuldt, Christoph Leuschner
Adjustment in leaf water status parameters and modification in xylem structure and functioning can be important elements of a tree's response to continued water limitation. In a growth trial with saplings of five co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) conducted in moist or dry soil, we compared the drought acclimation in several leaf water status and stem hydraulic parameters. Considering the extremes in the species responses, Fraxinus excelsior L...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
Lucia Guidi, Damiano Remorini, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Tommaso Giordani, Giacomo Lorenzini, Rossano Massai, Cristina Nali, Lucia Natali, Elisa Pellegrini, Alice Trivellini, Alberto Vangelisti, Paolo Vernieri, Marco Landi
Ozone (O3) and salinity are usually tested as combined factors on plant performance. However, the response to a single episode of O3 in plants already stressed by an excess of NaCl as occurs in the natural environment has never been investigated, but is important given that it is commonly experienced in Mediterranean areas. Three-year-old Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) saplings were exposed to salinity (150 mM NaCl, 15 days), and the effect on photosynthesis, hydric relations and ion partitioning was evaluated (Experiment I)...
October 26, 2016: Tree Physiology
Jordi Fernàndez-Martínez, M Alba Fransi, Isabel Fleck
Climate change is producing modifications in the intensity and frequency of rainfall in some regions of the planet. According to predictions, annual rainfall distribution in Western Europe will result in an increase in episodes of drought, thereby negatively affecting nutrient availability. Since high mountain systems will be particularly vulnerable, the physiological and nutritional responses to changes in summer rainfall were monitored over the course of two consecutive summers on three species, which are representative of subalpine forests: birch (Betula pendula Roth...
October 26, 2016: Tree Physiology
Alexander W Cheesman, Lucas A Cernusak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Tree Physiology
Ayumi Shiraki, Wakana Azuma, Keiko Kuroda, H Roaki Ishii
Cupressoid (scale-like) leaves are morphologically and functionally intermediate between stems and leaves. While past studies on height acclimation of cupressoid leaves have focused on acclimation to the vertical light gradient, the relationship between morphology and hydraulic function remains unexplored. Here, we compared physiological and morphological characteristics between treetop and lower-crown leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. trees (~27 m tall) to investigate whether height-acclimation compensates for hydraulic constraints...
October 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
Justine Karst, Jacob Gaster, Erin Wiley, Simon M Landhäusser
How carbon (C) flows through plants into soils is poorly understood. Carbon exuded comes from a pool of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in roots. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients indicate that the more C in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by plants. Thus, stress type may influence exudation independent of NSC. We tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between NSC in fine roots and exudation of organic C in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx...
October 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
Christian Bianchi Strømme, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Jorunn Elisabeth Olsen, Line Nybakken
The effects of warming on autumnal growth cessation and bud formation in trees remain ambiguous due to contrasting observations between a range of studies under controlled conditions and field experiments. High night temperature has been reported to advance growth cessation and bud formation in several tree species grown under controlled conditions. On the other hand, some recent field experiments have shown that autumn warming delays bud formation, although the temperature parameters that could account for this effect have not been identified...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Juan Chen, Zhi-Jun Shen, Wei-Zhi Lu, Xiang Liu, Fei-Hua Wu, Gui-Feng Gao, Yi-Ling Liu, Chun-Sheng Wu, Chong-Ling Yan, Hang-Qing Fan, Yi-Hui Zhang, Hai-Lei Zheng
Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh is a widespread mangrove species along the southeast coasts of China. Recently, the outbreak of herbivorous insect, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, a leaf miner, have impacted on the growth of A. marina Little is reported about the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Here, we reported the responses of A. marina to leaf miner infection from the aspects of leaf structure, photosynthesis, and antioxidant system and miner responsive genes expression...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Dominik Florian Stangler, Andreas Hamann, Hans-Peter Kahle, Heinrich Spiecker
A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Olga M Grant, Conor O'Reilly
Future limited water availability may reduce the potential of tree improvement to increase timber yields. We investigated ecophysiological variation between full-sibling families of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) growing under contrasting water availability conditions: control (optimal) water availability and limited water availability. One-year-old seedlings of nine improved families plus an unimproved seed lot were grown in pots in a greenhouse and the two water availability treatments imposed via drip irrigation...
September 27, 2016: Tree Physiology
Sanna Sevanto, Chonggang Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Tree Physiology
Mark E De Guzman, Louis S Santiago, Stefan A Schnitzer, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino
In tropical forest canopies, it is critical for upper shoots to efficiently provide water to leaves for physiological function while safely preventing loss of hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation during periods of soil water deficit or high evaporative demand. We compared hydraulic physiology of upper canopy trees and lianas in a seasonally dry tropical forest to test whether trade-offs between safety and efficiency of water transport shape differences in hydraulic function between these two major tropical woody growth forms...
September 26, 2016: Tree Physiology
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