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Tree Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338989/a-simple-stable-carbon-isotope-method-for-investigating-changes-in-the-use-of-recent-versus-old-carbon-in-oak
#1
Danny McCarroll, Matthew Whitney, Giles H F Young, Neil J Loader, Mary H Gagen
Stable carbon isotope ratios from early-wood (EW) and late-wood (LW) are used to test competing models of carbon storage and allocation, providing a cost-effective alternative to measuring and dating non-structural carbohydrates in mature temperate broad-leaf forest trees growing under natural conditions. Annual samples of EW and LW from seven mature oaks (Quercus robur L.) from Scotland, covering AD 1924-2012, were pooled, treated to isolate alpha-cellulose and pyrolysed to measure the carbon isotope ratios...
March 18, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338978/isotope-signals-and-anatomical-features-in-tree-rings-suggest-a-role-for-hydraulic-strategies-in-diffuse-drought-induced-die-back-of-pinus-nigra
#2
Laura Petrucco, Andrea Nardini, Georg von Arx, Matthias Saurer, Paolo Cherubini
The 2003 and 2012 summer seasons were among the warmest and driest of the last 200 years over southeastern Europe, and in particular in the Karst region (northeastern Italy). Starting from winter-spring 2013, several black pines (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold) suffered crown die-back. Declining trees occurred nearby individuals with no signs of die-back, raising hypotheses about the occurrence of individual-specific hydraulic strategies underlying different responses to extreme drought. We investigated possible processes driving black pine decline by dendrochronological and wood anatomical measurements, coupled with analysis of tree-ring carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic composition in healthy trees (H) and trees suffering die-back (D)...
March 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338975/drought-and-reproductive-effort-interact-to-control-growth-of-a-temperate-broadleaved-tree-species-fagus-sylvatica
#3
Andrew J Hacket-Pain, Jonathan G A Lageard, Peter A Thomas
Interannual variation in radial growth is influenced by a range of physiological processes, including variation in annual reproductive effort, although the importance of reproductive allocation has rarely been quantified. In this study, we use long stand-level records of annual seed production, radial growth (tree ring width) and meteorological conditions to analyse the relative importance of summer drought and reproductive effort in controlling the growth of Fagus sylvatica L., a typical masting species. We show that both summer drought and reproductive effort (masting) influenced growth...
March 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338964/relationship-between-fine-root-exudation-and-respiration-of-two-quercus-species-in-a-japanese-temperate-forest
#4
Lijuan Sun, Mioko Ataka, Yuji Kominami, Kenichi Yoshimura
Plants allocate a considerable amount of carbon (C) to fine roots as respiration and exudation. Fine-root exudation could stimulate microbial activity, which further contributes to soil heterotrophic respiration. Although both root respiration and exudation are important components of belowground C cycling, how they relate to each other is less well known. In this study, we aimed to explore this relationship on mature trees growing in the field. The measurements were performed on two canopy species, Quercus serrata Thunb...
March 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338963/where-and-when-does-stem-cellulose-%C3%AE-18o-reflect-a-leaf-water-enrichment-signal
#5
Steven L Voelker, Frederick C Meinzer, Danielle Way
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338895/photosynthesis-nutrient-accumulation-and-growth-of-two-betula-species-exposed-to-waterlogging-in-late-dormancy-and-in-the-early-growing-season
#6
Ai-Fang Wang, Marja Roitto, Tarja Lehto, Sirkka Sutinen, Jaakko Heinonen, Gang Zhang, Tapani Repo, Ram Oren
Increased risk of soil waterlogging in winter and spring at northern latitudes will potentially affect forest production in the future. We studied gas exchange, chlorophyll content index, chlorophyll fluorescence, nutrient concentration and biomass accumulation in 1-year-old silver (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings. We hypothesized that B. pubescens has different physiological mechanisms that make it tolerate waterlogging better than B. pendula. The treatments were: (i) no waterlogging throughout the experiment; (ii) 4-week waterlogging during dormancy (dormancy waterlogging 'DW'); (iii) 4-week waterlogging during the early growing season (growth waterlogging 'GW'); and (iv) 4-week DW followed by 4-week GW during the early growing season ('DWGW')...
March 15, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#7
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338952/physiological-and-morphological-responses-to-permanent-and-intermittent-waterlogging-in-seedlings-of-four-evergreen-trees-of-temperate-swamp-forests
#8
Alejandra Zúñiga-Feest, Angela Bustos-Salazar, Fernanda Alves, Vanessa Martinez, Cecilia Smith-Ramírez, Joào Pereira
Waterlogging decreases a plant's metabolism, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A); however, some evergreen species show acclimation to waterlogging. By studying both the physiological and morphological responses to waterlogging, the objective of this study was to assess the acclimation capacity of four swamp forest species that reside in different microhabitats. We proposed that species (Luma apiculata [D.C.] Burret. and Drimys winteri J.R. et G. Forster.) abundant in seasonally and intermittently waterlogged areas (SIWA) would have a higher acclimation capacity than species abundant in the inner swamp (Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii [H et A...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338992/identification-of-the-eucalyptus-grandis-chitinase-gene-family-and-expression-characterization-under-different-biotic-stress-challenges
#9
Peri A Tobias, Nanette Christie, Sanushka Naidoo, David I Guest, Carsten Külheim
Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) is an Australian Myrtaceae tree grown for timber in many parts of the world and for which the annotated genome sequence is available. Known to be susceptible to a number of pests and diseases, E. grandis is a useful study organism for investigating defense responses in woody plants. Chitinases are widespread in plants and cleave glycosidic bonds of chitin, the major structural component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons. They are encoded by an important class of genes known to be up-regulated in plants in response to pathogens...
March 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338976/synchronisms-between-bud-and-cambium-phenology-in-black-spruce-early-flushing-provenances-exhibit-early-xylem-formation
#10
Magali Perrin, Sergio Rossi, Nathalie Isabel
Bud and cambial phenology represent the adaptation of species to the local environment that allows the growing season to be maximized while minimizing the risk of frost for the developing tissues. The temporal relationship between the apical and radial meristems can help in the understanding of tree growth as a whole process. The aim of this study was to compare cambial phenology in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) provenances classified as early and late bud flushing. The different phases of cambial phenology were assessed on wood microcores sampled weekly from April to October in 2014 and 2015 from 61 trees growing in a provenance trial in Quebec, Canada...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338947/microenvironment-in-the-canopy-rivals-the-host-tree-water-status-in-controlling-sap-flow-of-a-mistletoe-species
#11
Da Yang, Guillermo Goldstein, Miao Wang, Wei-Wei Zhang, Ai-Ying Wang, Yan-Yan Liu, Guang-You Hao
Mistletoes absorb water from the vascular system of their hosts and thus the water use of mistletoes can be influenced by the water status of their hosts besides abiotic environmental conditions; however, there is a lack of studies on the dynamics of mistletoe water utilization in relation to both types of controlling factors. By building a canopy platform at 20 m above the ground, we monitored the dynamic changes of sap flow of Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai (Loranthaceae) in combination with continuous measurements of microclimatic variables and volumetric water content (VWC) of its host tree branch xylem...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338926/nitrogen-controlled-intra-and-interspecific-competition-between-populus-purdomii-and-salix-rehderiana-drive-primary-succession-in-the-gongga-mountain-glacier-retreat-area
#12
Mengya Song, Lei Yu, Yonglei Jiang, Yanbao Lei, Helena Korpelainen, Ülo Niinemets, Chunyang Li
In this study, intra- and interspecific competition were investigated in early successional Salix rehderiana Schneider and later-appearing Populus purdomii Rehder under non-fertilized (control) and nitrogen (N)-fertilized conditions in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area. Our aim was to discover whether N is a key factor in plant-plant competition and whether N drives the primary succession process in a glacier retreat area. We analyzed differences in responses to intra- and interspecific competition and N fertilization between P...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338915/ungulate-herbivory-alters-leaf-functional-traits-and-recruitment-of-regenerating-aspen
#13
Aaron C Rhodes, Val Anderson, Samuel B St Clair
Herbivory by ungulates can affect forest regeneration success, but its long-term impacts on tree function and recruitment are less studied. We evaluated strategies of resistance, tolerance and vertical escape against ungulate herbivory by evaluating leaf traits (photosynthesis, morphology and chemistry) and growth rates of aspen in the presence and absence of ungulate herbivores 1, 2, 3 and 26 years after fires initiated aspen suckering. Over the initial 3-year period, ~60% of aspen stems in unfenced plots showed evidence of being browsed by ungulates...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338906/vertical-leaf-mass-per-area-gradient-of-mature-sugar-maple-reflects-both-height-driven-increases-in-vascular-tissue-and-light-driven-increases-in-palisade-layer-thickness
#14
Adam P Coble, Molly A Cavaleri
A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338840/differences-in-functional-and-xylem-anatomical-features-allow-cistus-species-to-co-occur-and-cope-differently-with-drought-in-the-mediterranean-region
#15
José M Torres-Ruiz, Hervé Cochard, Elsa Fonseca, Eric Badel, Luiz Gazarini, Margarida Vaz
A significant increase in drought events frequency is predicted for the next decades induced by climate change, potentially affecting plant species mortality rates and distributions worldwide. The main trigger of plant mortality is xylem hydraulic failure due to embolism and induced by the low pressures at which water is transported through xylem. As the Mediterranean basin will be severely affected by climate change, the aim of this study was to provide novel information about drought resistance and tolerance of one of its most widely distributed and common genera as a case study: the genus Cistus...
February 27, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338803/vertical-and-seasonal-variations-in-temperature-responses-of-leaf-respiration-in-a-chamaecyparis-obtusa-canopy
#16
Masatake G Araki, Koichiro Gyokusen, Takuya Kajimoto
Leaf respiration (R) is a major component of carbon balance in forest ecosystems. Clarifying the variability of leaf R within a canopy is essential for predicting the impact of global warming on forest productivity and the potential future function of the forest ecosystem as a carbon sink. We examined vertical and seasonal variations in short-term temperature responses of leaf R as well as environmental factors (light and mean air temperature) and physiological factors [leaf nitrogen (N), leaf mass per area (LMA), and shoot growth] in the canopy of a 10-year-old stand of hinoki cypress [Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb...
February 23, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338800/a-steady-state-stomatal-model-of-balanced-leaf-gas-exchange-hydraulics-and-maximal-source-sink-flux
#17
Teemu Hölttä, Anna Lintunen, Tommy Chan, Annikki Mäkelä, Eero Nikinmaa
Trees must simultaneously balance their CO2 uptake rate via stomata, photosynthesis, the transport rate of sugars and rate of sugar utilization in sinks while maintaining a favourable water and carbon balance. We demonstrate using a numerical model that it is possible to understand stomatal functioning from the viewpoint of maximizing the simultaneous photosynthetic production, phloem transport and sink sugar utilization rate under the limitation that the transpiration-driven hydrostatic pressure gradient sets for those processes...
February 23, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338715/salt-acclimation-process-a-comparison-between-a-sensitive-and-a-tolerant-olea-europaea-cultivar
#18
Camilla Pandolfi, Nadia Bazihizina, Cristiana Giordano, Stefano Mancuso, Elisa Azzarello
Saline soils are highly heterogeneous in time and space, and this is a critical factor influencing plant physiology and productivity. Temporal changes in soil salinity can alter plant responses to salinity, and pre-treating plants with low NaCl concentrations has been found to substantially increase salt tolerance in different species in a process called acclimation. However, it still remains unclear whether this process is common to all plants or is only expressed in certain genotypes. We addressed this question by assessing the physiological changes to 100 mM NaCl in two contrasting olive cultivars (the salt-sensitive Leccino and the salt-tolerant Frantoio), following a 1-month acclimation period with 5 or 25 mM NaCl...
February 15, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338713/where-does-the-carbon-go-thermal-acclimation-of-respiration-and-increased-photosynthesis-in-trees-at-the-temperate-boreal-ecotone
#19
Kevin L Griffin, Case M Prager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338710/the-wrky-transcription-factors-ptrwrky18-and-ptrwrky35-promote-melampsora-resistance-in-populus
#20
Yuanzhong Jiang, Li Guo, Xiaodong Ma, Xin Zhao, Bo Jiao, Chaofeng Li, Keming Luo
WRKY transcription factors play important roles in response to diverse environmental stresses, but exact functions of these proteins in poplar defense are still largely unknown. In a previous study, we have shown that poplar WRKY89 is induced by salicylic acid (SA) treatment and plays an important role in resistance against fungi in transgenic poplars. Here, we determined an increase in transcript levels of Group IIa WRKY members in transgenic poplars overexpressing WRKY89 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis...
February 15, 2017: Tree Physiology
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