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Tree Physiology

Tomoki Tanaka, Chiharu Kurokawa, Shimpei Oikawa
It has long been hypothesized that timing of leaf shedding is critical for plant fitness but there is little experimental evidence to support the hypothesis. According to an optimality theory, shedding of old leaves increases canopy photosynthesis despite some nitrogen (N) being lost as litterfall, when the ratio of daily photosynthesis to leaf N (N-use efficiency, ε) in old leaves, expressed as a fraction of ε in new leaves, becomes lower than the fraction of leaf N that is resorbed before shedding (RN)...
September 14, 2018: Tree Physiology
Merryn G Smith, Stefan K Arndt, Rebecca E Miller, Sabine Kasel, Lauren T Bennett
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are crucial to support tree resprouting after disturbances that damage the crown or stem. Epicormic resprouting (from stem) could demand more from NSC reserves than basal resprouting (following top-kill), since epicormically resprouting trees need to maintain a greater living biomass. Yet, little is known about NSC use during epicormic resprouting, particularly the relative importance of stem and below-ground NSC reserves. We compared the distribution and magnitude of NSC decreases during epicormic and basal resprouting by experimentally removing crowns or stems of 14-year-old Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér...
September 14, 2018: Tree Physiology
Charlotte Grossiord, Sanna Sevanto, Damien Bonal, Isaac Borrego, Todd E Dawson, Max Ryan, Wenzhi Wang, Nate G McDowell
Understanding how climate alters plant-soil water dynamics, and its impact on physiological functions, is critical to improved predictions of vegetation responses to climate change. Here we analyzed how belowground interactions for water shift under warming and drought, and associated impacts on plant functions. In a semi-arid woodland, adult trees (piñon and juniper) and perennial grasses (blue grama) were exposed to warming and precipitation reduction. After 6 years of continuous treatment exposure, soil and plant water isotopic composition was measured to assess plant water uptake depths and community-level water source partitioning...
September 12, 2018: Tree Physiology
Natasa Kiorapostolou, Giai Petit
The plant carbon balance depends on the coordination between photosynthesis and the long-distance transport of water and sugars. How plants modify the allocation to the different structures affecting this coordination under different environmental conditions has been poorly investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil water availability on the allocation to leaf, xylem and phloem structures in Fraxinus ornus L. We selected small individuals of F. ornus (height ~2 m) from sites contrasting in soil water availability (wet vs dry)...
September 5, 2018: Tree Physiology
Andrea Bueno, Lucy Greenfield, Karin Pritsch, Susanne Schmidt, Judy Simon
Competitive interactions between native tree seedlings and exotic grasses frequently hinder forest restoration. We investigated the consequences of competition with exotic grasses on the growth and net nitrogen (N) uptake capacity of native rainforest seedlings used for reforestation depending on soil N availability and N source. Tree seedlings and grasses were grown in the greenhouse in different competition regimes (one tree species vs one grass species) and controls (grass monocultures or single tree seedlings) at low and high soil N...
September 1, 2018: Tree Physiology
Yusheng Zheng, Chongjian Chen, Yuanxue Liang, Ruhao Sun, Lingchao Gao, Tao Liu, Dongdong Li
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is the highest oil-yielding crop in the plant kingdom and accumulates 90% of palm oil in the mesocarp. However, the regulatory mechanisms of lipid and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in oil palm are just beginning to be understood, and more studies are needed, especially in the understanding of small noncoding RNA (ncRNA) and mRNA. Based on the deep sequencing of small noncoding RNAs and the degradome in five developmental mesocarp stages, 452 microRNAs (miRNAs), including 170 conserved known-miRNAs (kn-miRNAs) and 282 novel-miRNA (nov-miRNAs), were identified...
August 22, 2018: Tree Physiology
Brendan Choat, Markus Nolf, Rosana Lopez, Jennifer M R Peters, Madeline R Carins-Murphy, Danielle Creek, Timothy J Brodribb
Drought stress can result in significant impairment of the plant hydraulic system via blockage of xylem conduits by gas emboli. Recovery after drought stress is an essential component of plant survival but is still a poorly understood process. In this study, we examined the capacity of woody species from two genera (Eucalyptus and Quercus) to refill embolized xylem vessels during a cycle of drought and recovery. Observations were made on intact plants of Eucalyptus calmudulensis, E. grandis, E. saligna and Quercus palustris using X-ray microtomography...
August 22, 2018: Tree Physiology
Alessia Lucia Pepori, Marco Michelozzi, Alberto Santini, Gabriele Cencetti, Pierluigi Bonello, Paolo Gonthier, Federico Sebastiani, Nicola Luchi
Heterobasidion irregulare is a causal agent of root and butt-rot disease in conifers, and is native to North America. In 1944 it was introduced in central Italy in a Pinus pinea stand, where it shares the same niche with the native species Heterobasidion annosum. The introduction of a non-native pathogen may have significant negative effects on a naïve host tree and the ecosystem in which it resides, requiring a better understanding of the system. We compared the spatio-temporal phenotypic, transcriptional and metabolic host responses to inoculation with the two Heterobasidion species in a large experiment with P...
August 21, 2018: Tree Physiology
Cecilia Brunetti, Francesco Loreto, Francesco Ferrini, Antonella Gori, Lucia Guidi, Damiano Remorini, Mauro Centritto, Alessio Fini, Massimiliano Tattini
Over the past decades, introduction of many fast-growing hygrophilic, and economically valuable plants into xeric environments has occurred. However, production and even survival of these species may be threatened by harsh climatic conditions unless an effective physiological and metabolic plasticity is available. Moringa oleifera Lam., a multipurpose tree originating from humid sub-tropical regions of India, is widely cultivated in many arid countries because of its multiple uses. We tested whether M. oleifera can adjust primary and secondary metabolism to efficiently cope with increasing water stress...
August 18, 2018: Tree Physiology
M Khairil, David F R P Burslem
Aluminium (Al) accumulation is a common trait expressed in at least 60 plant families and particularly prevalent in tropical woody plants. However, the functional significance and genetic or physiological controls on Al accumulation are currently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that differential expression of Al accumulation among wild populations of the Al-accumulating tropical shrub Melastoma malabathricum L. is associated with habitat-related variation in total and exchangeable soil Al concentrations. Mature leaves and seeds were sampled from 20 populations of M...
August 18, 2018: Tree Physiology
Jennifer G Klutsch, Nadir Erbilgin
Trees utilize a combination of chemical and anatomical defenses against a myriad of attacking organisms. However, persistent pathogen infection that alters resource acquisition may impact growth and defense relationships, which could have consequences for tree resistance. We characterized systemic chemical and anatomical changes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in response to infection by the parasitic plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) and identified how the growth-defense relationship is altered due to infection severity...
August 18, 2018: Tree Physiology
José-Alberto Ramírez-Valiente, Ismael Aranda, David Sanchéz-Gómez, Jesús Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Fernando Valladares, T Matthew Robson
In Mediterranean-type ecosystems, drought is considered the main ecological filter for seedling establishment. The evergreen oaks Quercus ilex L. and Quercus suber L. are two of the most abundant tree species in the Mediterranean Basin. Despite their shared evergreen leaf habit and ability to resist low soil water potentials, traditionally it has been suggested that Q. ilex is better suited to resist dry conditions than Q. suber. In this study, we examined how seedlings of Q. ilex and Q. suber grown in sandy soils responded to different levels of water availability using natural dry conditions and supplemental watering...
August 7, 2018: Tree Physiology
Chunxia Zhang, Sen Meng, Mingjun Li, Zhong Zhao
Understanding the regulation of plant responses to drought and low nitrogen (N) stresses is necessary to improve N use in water-limited lands, maintaining the sustainable and healthy development of ecosystems. In the present study, we investigated morphological, physiological and transcriptome changes in Populus simonii Carr. root responding to long-term drought and low N stresses. Both stresses resulted in lower net photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll content and total dry weight. Transcriptome analysis of fine roots identified 4642 genes that were differentially expressed in response to drought and/or low N stresses...
August 7, 2018: Tree Physiology
Rosana López, Markus Nolf, Remko A Duursma, Eric Badel, Richard J Flavel, Hervé Cochard, Brendan Choat
Centrifuge-based techniques to assess xylem vulnerability to embolism are increasingly being used, although we are yet to reach a consensus on the nature and extent of artefactual embolism observed in some angiosperm species. In particular, there is disagreement over whether these artefacts influence both the spin (Cavitron) and static versions of the centrifuge technique equally. We tested two methods for inducing embolism: bench dehydration and centrifugation. We used three methods to measure the resulting loss of conductivity: gravimetric flow measured in bench-dehydrated and centrifuged samples (static centrifuge), in situ flow measured under tension during spinning in the centrifuge (Cavitron) and direct imaging using X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) observations in stems of two species of Hakea that differ in vessel length...
August 1, 2018: Tree Physiology
Hajime Tomimatsu, Tsuyoshi Sakata, Hiroshi Fukayama, Yanhong Tang
Long-term high CO2 exposure accelerates photosynthetic induction response due to rapid light increase. However, it is unclear whether the acceleration is caused by acclimation of photosynthetic components (long-term CO2 effect) and/or by the sufficient substrate under high CO2 at the measurement (short-term CO2 effect). Populus koreana × trichocarpa cv. Peace has wide-open stomata almost not responding to changes of photon flux density. Using this species, we examined the long- and short-term CO2 effects on photosynthetic induction by focusing on biochemical components...
July 25, 2018: Tree Physiology
Fermín Gortari, Juan José Guiamet, Silvia Cora Cortizo, Corina Graciano
Rust is one of the most important biotic stress factors that affect poplars. The aims of this work were: (i) to analyze the changes in growth and nitrogen (N) accumulation in Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall plants infected with rust (Melampsora medusae Thümen.) and to determine how internal N stores are affected by the disease, in plants growing under two N availabilities in the soil; and (ii) to evaluate the impact of rust in the early sprout in the following growing season and the cumulative effect of the disease after repeated infections...
July 25, 2018: Tree Physiology
Jason Q D Goodger, Samiddhi L Senaratne, Dean Nicolle, Ian E Woodrow
Trees and shrubs from the genus Eucalyptus are characterized by the presence of numerous foliar oil glands that generally house mono- and sesquiterpenes. In some species, glands are also known to house substantial quantities of unrelated secondary metabolites such as volatile, aromatic β-triketones. It is not known if these compounds are co-housed with terpenes or if they are produced in distinct, metabolically specialized glands. We showed that Eucalyptus brevistylis-a species with appreciable foliar quantities of both β-triketones and terpenes-contains two visually distinct gland types in leaves, one that is translucent and the other golden-brown...
July 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
Longxin Wang, Qingzhang Du, Jianbo Xie, Daling Zhou, Beibei Chen, Haijiao Yang, Deqiang Zhang
Transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in regulating the production of the components required for photosynthesis; elucidating the mechanisms by which underlying genetic variation in TFs affects complex photosynthesis-related traits may improve our understanding of photosynthesis and identify ways to improve photosynthetic efficiency. Promoter analysis of 96 nuclear-encoded Populus tomentosa Carr. genes within this pathway revealed 47 motifs responsive to light, stress, hormones and organ-specific regulation, as well as 86 TFs that might bind these motifs...
July 19, 2018: Tree Physiology
Martin Felhofer, Batirtze Prats-Mateu, Peter Bock, Notburga Gierlinger
The transition from the living water-transporting sapwood to heartwood involves in many tree species impregnation with extractives. These differ in amount and composition, and enhance resistance against bacteria, insects or fungi. To understand the synthesis, transport and impregnation processes new insights into the biochemical processes are needed by in-situ methods. Here we show the extractive distribution in pine (Pinus sylvestris) microsections with a high lateral resolution sampled in a non-destructive manner using Confocal Raman Microscopy...
July 10, 2018: Tree Physiology
Débora di Francescantonio, Mariana Villagra, Guillermo Goldstein, Paula I Campanello
Tree physiological processes are affected not only by environmental conditions, but also by phenological leaf stages. During foliar expansion, rapid changes occur, such as the activation of metabolic processes that encompass a hydraulic link between xylem and phloem pathways at a whole-tree level. Daily and seasonal changes in stem diameter may reveal different temporal dynamics of water use and recharge in tree reservoirs. Foliar phenological patterns were studied in relation to stem dimensional changes in 10 canopy tree species with different phenological patterns (three deciduous, three brevideciduous and four evergreen species)...
July 9, 2018: Tree Physiology
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