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Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

I M Pujante, F J Moyano, J A Martos-Sitcha, J M Mancera, G Martínez-Rodríguez
The effects of different environmental salinities (0, 12, 40, and 55 ppt) on pepsinogen 2 (pga2), trypsinogen 2 (try2), chymotrypsinogen (ctr), and pancreatic alpha-amylase (amy2a) gene expression, and on the total activities of their corresponding enzymes, were assessed in Chelon labrosus juveniles, after their corresponding full-complementary DNA sequences were cloned. Furthermore, the quantitative effect of different salinities on the hydrolysis of feed protein by fish digestive enzymes was evaluated using an in vitro system...
November 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Shi-Mei Lin, Fa-Jian Li, Bundit Yuangsoi, Sompong Doolgindachbaporn
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipids (PLs) on growth, lipid metabolism, and antioxidative status of hybrid snakehead (Channa argus × Channa maculata). Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets with graded levels of PLs (8.5, 19.3, 30.7, 41.5, and 50.8 g kg(-1)) were fed to triplicate groups of juveniles (initial body weight 12.6 ± 0.23 g) for 8 weeks. Results showed that dietary PL supplementation significantly improved growth of juveniles. The final body weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) significantly increased with dietary PLs increasing from 8...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Hongli Huang, Yu Zhang, Mingyue Cao, Liangyi Xue, Weiliang Shen
To investigate the effects of fasting on lipid metabolism in spotted seabass muscle and liver tissues, we analyzed mRNA levels and enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and the relationship among fat content, mRNA level, and enzyme activity during fasting of 35 days. The results showed that expressions of all the three genes were ubiquitous. During the fasting experiment, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and fat content of muscle and liver tissues significantly decreased before 5 days of fasting (P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Xin Zhang, Yundi Gao, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Yuanbing Wu, Jin Hao, Shuyao Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered in 1995, with various biological functions, has received much attention recently due to its role in the regulation of appetite in mammals. However, the function of CART on the appetite control in fish species is still not very clear. In this study, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt) cart gene was cloned for the first time, and the cart mRNA levels in 11 feeding-related tissues was investigated. The Siberian sturgeon cart gene sequence was 1459 base pairs (bp), including a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 39 bp, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 52 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp encoding 115 amino acids...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
I Ben Ammar, S Milla, H Missaoui, Y Ledoré, F Teletchea, P Fontaine
For most temperate and arctic fish species, photoperiod is the key abiotic factor determining the onset of the reproductive cycle, and, for many species, constant long photoperiod seems to have an inhibitory effect. Yet, there is no knowledge about the effect of photoperiod on the onset of the reproductive cycle in northern pike males. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential inhibitory effect of constant long photoperiod on pike males. Batches of fish were reared in triplicate under natural simulated photoperiod (NSP) or constant long photoperiod (CP; 16L:8D) from 14 October 2013 to 14 March 2014...
November 4, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
J R Khan, C C Lazado, C Methling, P V Skov
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (~ 180 g, 16 °C and < 5 kg m(-3)) that were feed deprived and kept in total darkness showed a significant increase in critical swimming speed (U crit) between 1 and 12 days of deprivation (from 3.35 to 4.46 body length (BL) s(-1)) with no increase in maximum metabolic rate (MMR). They also showed a significant decrease in the estimated metabolic rate at 0 BL s(-1) over 12 days which leads to a higher factorial aerobic metabolic scope at day 12 (9.38) compared to day 1 (6...
November 3, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Thomas Milinkovitch, Christel Lefrançois, Marie Durollet, Hélène Thomas-Guyon
In ectotherms, temperature modulates oxidative stress, a key driver of aging. However, the effects of temperature on oxidative stress have not been investigated at several life stages of an ectotherm. In order to improve understanding of aging processes, we conducted a cross-sectional study in short-lived ectotherm vertebrates, the killifish Nothobranchius furzeri. Malondialdehyde contents were assessed at three stages of life, in the liver and muscles of fish acclimatized to optimal or sub-optimal temperatures during all their life cycle...
November 2, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Jun Jiang, Shangxiao Xu, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Weidan Jiang, Pei Wu, Yan Wang, Ye Zhao, Xiaoqiu Zhou
The yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco with initial average weight 16.6 ± 0.17 g were fed three extruded diets for 56 days. Fish meal (FM) diet was formulated as the normal control with 380 g FM and 200 g soybean meal (SBM) kg(-1) diet. The SBM diet was prepared with 220 g FM and 360 g SBM kg(-1) diet without Lys or Met supplementation. The SBM supplement (SBMS) diet was similar to SBM diet and supplemented with Lys and Met to ensure their levels similar to FM diet. The results showed fish fed SBM diet had lower percent weight gain and specific growth rate than the other two groups (P < 0...
November 2, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
S Torrecillas, M B Betancor, M J Caballero, F Rivero, L Robaina, M Izquierdo, D Montero
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (from 1 to 6% of total fatty acids) on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles' growth performance, tissue fatty acid profile, liver morphology as well as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis and lipid transport. A diet with total fish oil (FO) replacement and defatted fish meal (FM) containing a 0.1-g ARA g(-1) diet was added to the experimental design as a negative control diet...
November 2, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Tianqing Huang, Huizhi Sun, Yanna Wang, Gefeng Xu, Xingran Wang, Ying Han
Autophagy is a cellular process which occurs in eukaryotic cells. To study the mechanism regulating polyploid fish growth and development is of significance in genetic, because of its growth advantages and economic values. This study focused on triploid female rainbow trout (RBT) which discusses the effects of autophagy on gonadal development of polyploid fish. Autophagy-related genes of RBT lc3b, atg12, atg4b, gabarap1, and bcl2 were cloned, and autophagy gene expressions in gonads were analyzed at different developmental period...
October 30, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiaoming Yu, Lei Chen, Wenda Cui, Binbin Xing, Xin Zhuang, Guosheng Zhang
The critical swimming speed (U crit, cm s(-1)) of juvenile tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes was determined under different temperatures (15, 21, 25 and 30 °C), salinities (5, 10, 20, 32 and 40), body lengths (3.32, 4.08, 5.06 and 5.74 cm) and starvation days (1, 3, 6 and 9 days). Acute temperature change, body length and starvation significantly influenced the U crit of tiger puffers, whereas acute salinity change had no significant effect. The U crit increased as the temperature increased from 15 to 30 °C...
October 29, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Ana C Matias, Laura Ribeiro, Ravi L Araujo, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira
This study aimed to evaluate to what extent diel water temperature oscillations over a short period of time (41 h) affected haematologic and plasmatic parameters of gilthead sea bream. Sea bream juveniles (160 fish; 177.2 ± 20.9 g) were divided in two homogenous groups, experimental and control. The experimental group was exposed to water at 22.3 ± 0.6 °C between 5 a.m. and 5 p.m. and to colder water from 5 p.m. to 5 a.m. (temperature variation of 8.6 ± 0.3 °C) during 41h period, whereas for the control group, water temperature was maintained constant (22...
October 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Raul Cortés, Mariana Teles, Miguel Oliveira, Camino Fierro-Castro, Lluis Tort, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
Physiological mechanisms driving stress response in vertebrates are evolutionarily conserved. These mechanisms involve the activation of both the hypothalamic-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes. In fish, the reduction of food intake levels is a common feature of the behavioral response to stress but the central mechanisms coordinating the energetic response are not well understood yet. In this work, we explore the effects of acute stress on key central systems regulating food intake in fish as well as on total body cortisol and glucose levels...
October 25, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto, Débora Martins Pereira, Jessica Cristina Souza Silva, Laís Cássia Araújo de Oliveira, Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki Inoue, Moisés Hamoy, Vanessa Jóia de Mello, Marcelo Ferreira Torres, Luis André Luz Barbas
Clove oil is used as an anaesthetic for many species of fish worldwide; however, relatively few studies have assessed its effectiveness on Amazon fish species and no compelling evidence has ever been reported on the relaxant properties of this oil for skeletal muscle of fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the latencies to deep anaesthesia and recovery, along with the myorelaxant effect of clove oil on three Amazon fish species: cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi, banded cichlid, Heros severus and angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, submitted to short-term anaesthetic baths...
October 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Mahsa Mohammadi-Zadeh Khoshroo, Mehdi Shamsaie Mehrjan, Farzaneh Samiee, Mehdi Soltani, Seyed Pezhman Hosseini Shekarabi
Increasing of anthropogenic electromagnetic fields in aquatic environments has been recently become the core of attention. In this study, the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz) on immune status and metabolic markers of common carp fingerling was assessed. The fish were exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields at four intensities of 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mT only once for 2 h; then, they were reared for 60 days. Results showed that the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were increased with an increase in the electromagnetic field intensity on 15 and 60 days post exposure...
October 11, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Chengcheng Feng, Shihong Xu, Yifan Liu, Yanfeng Wang, Wenqi Wang, Jingkun Yang, Chunyan Zhao, Qinghua Liu, Jun Li
In teleost, sex steroid hormones are critical for reproduction. Progestin is known to promote spermiation. To further understand the functions of progestin via its receptors during the annual reproductive cycle in male turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), we observed testicular development, quantified several sex steroid hormones, detected the expression of progestin receptors, and measured various sperm parameters. Results showed that the turbot testicular structure was of the lobular type. During breeding season, a number of spermatocytes (stage III) developed into spermatids (stage IV), then differentiated into sperm during spermiogenesis (stage V), and finally regressed to spermatocytes (stage VI)...
October 6, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
A Castillo, A Alvarez, G Cuzon, J Suárez, G Gaxiola
Epinephelus morio is a large carnivorous species of the Caribbean Sea under reproduction in captivity and nutritional physiology. A diet with raw cornstarch (RCS) was compared to a basal diet without starch (basal) to measure plasma glucose, liver glycogen, and intermediary metabolism. Glucose level did not change (p > 0.05) whereas liver glycogen was significantly higher in fish fed the RCS diet (137.2 ± 14.5 mg g(-1)) than in fish fed the basal diet (87.4 ± 14.5 mg g(-1)). Oral glucose administration (170 mg glucose per 100 g body weight) yielded a slight change; two peaks of plasma glucose were recorded with basal (5...
October 3, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Ahmet R Oğuz
Lake Van is one of the largest alkaline lakes worldwide and Lake Van Fish (Alburnus tarichi Güldenstädt, 1814) is the only vertebrate species inhabiting it. Lake Van Fish is an anadromous species that migrates to the streams (salinity 0.02%, pH 8.42) flowing into Lake Van (salinity 0.22%, pH 9.8) during the spawning period (April-July). Following spawning, fish return to Lake Van while larvae remain in fresh water. This study examined the development of osmoregulatory organs and the distribution of ionocytes in Lake Van Fish larvae adapting to the highly alkaline water characterizing the lake...
September 27, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Carine de Freitas Souza, Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera, Adriane Erbice Bianchini, Elisia Gomes da Silva, Rosa Helena Veraz Mourão, Lenise Vargas Flores da Silva, Denise Schmidt, Berta Maria Heinzmann, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The viability using Lippia alba essential oil as an anesthetic for fish was studied, particularly with respect to physiological effects during recovery. Anesthesia of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) using 100 and 300 μL L(-1) of two different chemotypes of L. alba essential oil (citral EO-C and linalool EO-L) prevented the increase of plasma cortisol levels caused by handling, but did not avoid alterations in energetic metabolism. Silver catfish did not have increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species in the kidney and liver during recovery after anesthesia with either EO, avoiding lipid damage...
September 26, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Chang-Hong Cheng, Zhi-Xun Guo, Chao-Xia Ye, An-Li Wang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of astaxanthin on growth performance, biochemical parameters, ROS production, and immune-related gene expressions of the pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) under high temperature stress. The experimental basal diets supplemented with astaxanthin at the rates of 0 (control), 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 mg kg(-1) were fed to fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that the fish fed diet with 80, 160, and 320 mg kg(-1) astaxanthin significantly improved weight gain and specific growth rate...
September 21, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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