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Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

G Albendín, J M Arellano, M P Mánuel-Vez, C Sarasquete, M I Arufe
The characterization of cholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of gilthead seabream was carried out using four specific substrates and three selective inhibitors. In addition, K m and V max were calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation for ASCh and BSCh substrates. Finally, the in vitro sensitivity of brain and muscle cholinesterases to three organophosphates (OPs) was also investigated by estimating inhibition kinetics. The results indicate that AChE is the enzyme present in the brain, whereas in muscle, a typical AChE form is present along with an atypical form of BChE...
October 6, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Wei Zhang, Yuezhong Liu, Haiyang Yu, Xinxin Du, Quanqi Zhang, Xubo Wang, Yan He
Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important cultured marine fish in China, Korea, and Japan. Controlling and managing the breeding of olive flounder in captivity is an imperative step toward obtaining a sustainable supply of this fish in aquaculture production systems. Therefore, investigation on the molecular regulatory mechanism of gonadal development and gametogenesis in this species is of great significance in aquaculture. Furthermore, identification of the expression profile of numerous sex-related genes is the first step to primarily understand such molecular regulatory mechanism...
October 4, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
V V Kuz'mina, G V Zolotareva, V A Sheptitskiy
Proteolytic activity in some freshwater animals (crustacean plankton, sandhopper Amphipoda sp., larvae of chironomids Chironomus sp., oligochaetes Oligohaeta sp., dreissena Dreissena polymorpha, roach Rutilus rutilus heckelii, rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus, ruff Acerina cernua, and monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis) prevailing within the food of fishes of various ecological groups as well as in their associated microflora in a wide pH range was investigated. It has been shown that the optimum pH of proteases in the animals' whole organism varies: 6...
September 28, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
David Huyben, Aleksandar Vidakovic, Andreas Nyman, Markus Langeland, Torbjörn Lundh, Anders Kiessling
Yeast is a potential alternative to fish meal in diets for farmed fish, yet replacing more than 50 % of fish meal results in reduced fish growth. In a 4-week experiment, 15 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were cannulated and fed three diets each week: 30 % fish meal as a control (FM); 60 % replacement of fish meal protein, on a digestible basis, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC); and 60 % replacement with Wickerhamomyces anomalus and S. cerevisiae mix (WA). Blood was collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after feeding...
September 27, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Shuang Jiao, Zhihao Wu, Xungang Tan, Yulei Sui, Lijuan Wang, Feng You
Although chromosome set manipulation techniques including polyploidy induction and gynogentic induction in flatfish are becoming increasingly mature, there exists a poor understanding of their effects on embryonic development. PAX3 plays crucial roles during embryonic myogenesis and neurogenesis. In olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), there are two duplicated pax3 genes (pax3a, pax3b), and both of them are expressed in the brain and muscle regions with some subtle regional differences. We utilized pax3a and pax3b as indicators to preliminarily investigate whether chromosome set manipulation affects embryonic neurogenesis and myogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization...
September 27, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Huan-Zhi Xu, Li-Qin Liu, Jia-Lang Zheng
The present study assessed the effects of a white fluorescent bulb (the control) and two different light-emitting diodes (blue LEDs, LDB; red, LDR) on growth, morphology, and oxidative stress in the liver and ovary of zebrafish for 5 weeks. Growth maintained relatively constant under LDB condition, but was reduced under LDR condition. In the liver, hepatosomatic index (HSI) and protein carbonylation (PC) increased under LDR condition, whereas lipid peroxidation (LPO) declined and HSI remained unchanged under LDB condition...
September 23, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Qingmei Zheng, Chunyan Han, Yanmei Zhong, Rushu Wen, Ming Zhong
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with green tea waste (GTW) on growth, digestive enzyme and lipid metabolism of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus. The fish (initial mean body weight, 12.63 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets that included 0 (control), 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 or 6.4 % of GTW in triplicate aquaria, twice daily. Growth performance, plasma metabolites content and liver and intestine digestive enzyme activities were determined...
September 16, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Natalia Niedźwiecka, Jadwiga Gronczewska, Edward F Skorkowski
Herring spermatozoa exhibit a high activity of NAD-preferring malic enzyme (NAD-ME). This enzyme is involved in the generation of NADH or NADPH in the decarboxylation of malate to form pyruvate and requires some divalent cations to express its activity. In order to confirm that NAD-ME isolated from herring sperm cells is localized in mitochondria, we performed immunofluorescent analysis and assayed spectrophotometrically the malic enzyme reaction. Production of polyclonal rabbit antibodies against NAD-ME from herring spermatozoa enabled identification of mitochondrial localization of this enzyme inside herring spermatozoa...
September 14, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Jiao Li, Liwei Liu, Xu-Fang Liang, Xiaochen Yuan, Jie Li, Bin Li, Qingchao Wang, Jinguang Fang, Min Xue, Jia Wang
This study was undertaken to explore the systemic metabolic strategies of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to maintain growth when fed with different dietary protein levels. The optimal growth group and two growing discomfort groups were selected through the basic data, to explain the growth difference from appetite regulation and lipid and glucose metabolism perspective. Three experimental diets were formulated with three dietary protein levels at 200.3, 296.1 and 442.9 g kg(-1), named P1, P2 and P3, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Andrew C Preston, John F Taylor, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Tom Hansen, Hervé Migaud
The physiological effect of temperature on feed intake and haematological parameters after exhaustive swimming in diploid and triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) was investigated. Trout were exposed to an incremental temperature challenge (2 °C/day) from ambient (6 °C) to either 10 or 19 °C. Feed intake profiles did not differ between ploidy at 10 °C; however, triploids had a significantly higher total feed intake at 19 °C. After 24 days, each temperature-ploidy group was exposed to exhaustive swimming for 10 min...
September 13, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Pei Chen, Yanqing Huang, Abdulkadir Bayir, Chunfang Wang
In this study, two isoforms slc34a2 genes (type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter), slc34a2a2 and slc34a2b, were cloned from intestine and kidney of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), with rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The structure differences and the regulation effects of dietary VD3 under low phosphorus were compared among three isoforms of slc34a2 in yellow catfish. The predicted Slc34a2a2 and Slc34a2b proteins match 65 % and 53.8 % sequence identity, with Slc34a2a1, respectively...
September 12, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Jie Yu, Yuanshuai Fu, Zhiyi Shi
In vertebrates, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) and deiodinases are essential for developmental events driven by the thyroid hormones (THs). However, the significance of deiodinases during the metamorphosis of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) remains unclear. Moreover, regulation and response of the TRs and deiodinases to THs in this fish are poorly understood. Therefore, we detected the expression patterns of THs, deiodinases, and TRs in drug-treated larvae and untreated larvae of P. olivaceus by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time PCR during P...
September 12, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Yuan Dong, Pengfei Cui, Zhijian Li, Shicui Zhang
Aging asymmetry is the observation that different tissues age in different ways and at different rates. This has not been assessed in a single organism using multiple biomarkers of aging. Here we clearly demonstrated that the levels of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation as well as CAT, SOD and GPX activities all showed a tissue-dependent change with advancing age; and DNA repair ability, as revealed by the expression of ercc1 and its protein levels, also exhibited a tissue-specific variation with age...
September 10, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Feng Lv, Chenwen Zhu, Xinghong Yan, Xin Wang, Dong Liu
Transgenesis is an important tool for exploring gene expression and function. The myocyte enhancer factor 2a (mef2a) gene encodes a member of the Mef2 protein family that is involved in vertebrate skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle development and differentiation during myogenesis. According to studies on human and animal models, mef2a is highly expressed in the heart and somites. To explore the potential of mef2a as a tool for selective labeling of muscle cells in living zebrafish embryos, we constructed a transgene mef2aa:EGFP to induce the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of mef2a promoter...
September 8, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Peizhen Xiao, Hong Ji, Yuantu Ye, Baotong Zhang, Yongsheng Chen, Jingjing Tian, Pin Liu, Liqiao Chen, Zhenyu Du
This study was carried out to evaluate whether silymarin supplementation influences growth, lipid metabolism, and health status in grass carp fed elevated dietary lipid levels. The juvenile fish (27.43 ± 0.17 g/tail) were fed six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets in a factorial design containing 0, 100, or 200 mg kg(-1) silymarin (SM0, SM100, SM200) associated with either 4 or 8 % lipid level (low lipid, LL, and high lipid, HL, respectively) for 82 days. The results showed that both dietary silymarin supplementation and high lipid level significantly enhanced growth performance (WG, SGR), protein efficiency ratio, and feed utilization...
September 8, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Lu Cai, David Johnson, Min Fang, Prashant Mandal, Zhiying Tu, Yingping Huang
The objective of this study is to provide information on changes in swimming capability and respiration of the sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus, Linnaeus 1758) caused by different levels of fasting. Before testing, the four groups of sturgeon (body length: 12.1-15.4 cm, body mass: 10.0-20.2 g) fasted for 6 h, 2 days, 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Swimming tests were then performed to measure critical swimming speed and oxygen consumption at 20 ± 0.5 °C. Results show: (1) Fasting times shorter than 2 days has little effect on swimming capability, but it decreases significantly when the fasting time is longer than a week...
September 8, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Chunyan Zhao, Shihong Xu, Yifan Liu, Yanfeng Wang, Qinghua Liu, Jun Li
As a flatfish, the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is one of the most important farmed fish species with great commercial value, which has a strong sexual dimorphism on growth rate and sexual maturity. In this study, using histology, the basic information on proliferation and migration of germ cells and early gonadal development during sex differentiation in turbot were described in detail. There were six to nine individual primordial germ cells (PGCs) with large nuclei until 15 days post-hatching (dph). The PGCs located under the mesonephric ducts undergo migration along the dorsal mesentery toward the region of the genital ridge from 0 to 15 dph...
September 8, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Ge Li, Hang Xie, Dingcong He, Yiping Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
A Mesa-Rodríguez, C M Hernández-Cruz, M B Betancor, H Fernández-Palacios, M S Izquierdo, J Roo
Skull, pectoral and pelvic fin bone structures in longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana were studied from 3.43 ± 0.15 to 16.20 ± 0.73 mm standard length (SL) specimens. The S. rivoliana skull started to mineralize with the appearance of the parasphenoid and maxillary by 3.43 ± 0.15 mm SL at the neurocranium and jaw regions, respectively. The first pectoral structure to mineralize was the cleithrum at 3.75 ± 0.14 mm SL shortly followed by the supracleithrum and posttemporal. The pelvic fin started by 6...
September 2, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Wattana Wattanakul, Uraiwan Wattanakul, Karun Thongprajukaew, Chutchawan Muenpo
The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg(-1) of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial...
September 2, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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