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Fish Physiology and Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909949/organ-specific-effects-of-low-dose-zinc-pre-exposure-on-high-dose-zinc-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-large-yellow-croaker-pseudosciaena-crocea
#1
Jia-Lang Zheng, Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Bin Shen, Chang-Wen Wu
The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of low-dose zinc (Zn) pre-exposure on survival rate, new Zn accumulation, and mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver and spleen of large yellow croaker exposed to high-dose Zn. To the end, fish were pre-exposed to 0 and 2 mg L(-1) Zn for 48 h and post-exposed to 0 and 12 mg L(-1) Zn for 48 h. Twelve milligrams Zn per liter exposure alone reduced survival rate, but the effect did not appear in the 2 mg L(-1) Zn pre-exposure groups. Two milligrams per liter Zn pre-exposure also ameliorated 12 mg Zn L(-1) induced new Zn accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and mitochondrial swelling in the liver...
December 1, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889848/changes-of-ammonia-urea-contents-and-transaminase-activity-in-the-body-during-aerial-exposure-and-ammonia-loading-in-chinese-loach-paramisgurnus-dabryanus
#2
Yun-Long Zhang, Hai-Long Zhang, Ling-Yu Wang, Bei-Yi Gu, Qi-Xue Fan
The Paramisgurnus dabryanus was exposed to 30 mmol L(-1) NH4Cl solution and air to assessing the change of body ammonia and urea contents and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). After 48 h of ammonia exposure, ammonia concentration in the plasma, brain, liver and muscle were 3.3-fold, 5.6-fold, 3.5-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively, those of the control values. Plasma, brain, liver and muscle ammonia concentrations increased to 2.2-fold, 3.3-fold, 2.5-fold and 2...
November 26, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882445/enhanced-dietary-formulation-to-mitigate-winter-thermal-stress-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-a-2d-dige-plasma-proteome-study
#3
Denise Schrama, Nadège Richard, Tomé S Silva, Filipe A Figueiredo, Luís E C Conceição, Richard Burchmore, David Eckersall, Pedro M L Rodrigues
Low water temperatures during winter are common in farming of gilthead sea bream in the Mediterranean. This causes metabolic disorders that in extreme cases can lead to a syndrome called "winter disease." An improved immunostimulatory nutritional status might mitigate the effects of this thermal metabolic stress. A trial was set up to assess the effects of two different diets on gilthead sea bream physiology and nutritional state through plasma proteome and metabolites. Four groups of 25 adult gilthead sea bream were reared during winter months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL) or with a diet called "winter feed" (WF)...
November 24, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864748/irs1-and-irs2-molecular-characterization-tissue-expression-and-transcriptional-regulation-by-insulin-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco
#4
Mei-Qin Zhuo, Ya-Xiong Pan, Kun Wu, Yi-Huan Xu, Li-Han Zhang, Zhi Luo
The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, in particular, IRS1 and IRS2, are the key downstream players of insulin signaling pathway and the regulation of lipid metabolism. In the present study, two genes of IRS (IRS1 and IRS2) were isolated and characterized from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Their molecular characterizations, tissue expressions, and transcriptional levels by insulin both in vivo and in vitro were determined. The validated complementary DNAs encoding for IRS1 and IRS2 were 3693 and 3177 bp in length, encoding proteins of 1230 and 1058 amino acid residues, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858215/effects-of-amino-acid-supplementations-on-metabolic-and-physiological-parameters-in-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua-under-stress
#5
Marcelino Herrera, María Antonia Herves, Inmaculada Giráldez, Kristin Skar, Hanne Mogren, Atle Mortensen, Velmurugu Puvanendran
The effects of tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) diet supplementation on the stress and metabolism of the Atlantic cod have been studied. Fish were fed diet supplemented with Trp or Phe or control diet for 1 week. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were subjected to air exposure or heat shock. Following samples of blood, liver and muscle were taken from the fish and were analyzed for stress and metabolic indicators. After an air exposure, plasma cortisol levels in fish fed with Trp and Phe diets were lower compared to the fish fed the control diet...
November 17, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848040/modifications-in-the-proteome-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-embryo-and-fry-as-an-effect-of-triploidy-induction
#6
Samad Bahrami Babaheydari, Saeed Keyvanshokooh, Salar Dorafshan, Seyed Ali Johari
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry, and database searching were used to analyze the effects of triploidization heat shock treatment on protein expression in rainbow trout eyed embryo and fry. After fertilization, the eggs were incubated at 10 °C for 10 min. Half of the eggs were then subjected to heat shock for 10 min submerged in a 28 °C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder was incubated normally and used as diploid controls...
November 15, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815797/lipid-metabolism-related-gene-expression-pattern-of-atlantic-bluefin-tuna-thunnus-thynnus-l-larvae-fed-on-live-prey
#7
Mónica B Betancor, Aurelio Ortega, Fernando de la Gándara, Douglas R Tocher, Gabriel Mourente
The present study is the first to evaluate lipid metabolism in first-feeding Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT; Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed different live prey including enriched rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Acartia sp. copepod nauplii from 2 days after hatch. Understanding the molecular basis of lipid metabolism and regulation in ABT will provide insights to optimize diet formulations for this high-value species new to aquaculture. To this end, we investigated the effect of dietary lipid on whole larvae lipid class and fatty acid compositions and the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in first feeding ABT larvae fed different live prey...
November 4, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807713/effects-of-soybean-meal-on-digestive-enzymes-activity-expression-of-inflammation-related-genes-and-chromatin-modifications-in-marine-fish-sparus-aurata-l-larvae
#8
Erick Perera, Manuel Yúfera
The effects of soybean meal (SBM) in early diet of Sparus aurata larvae at two developmental windows were assessed. Prolonged (beyond 14 days post-hatch, dph) feeding with SBM decreased the activity of pancreatic enzymes of larvae. In the absence of SBM these larvae later resumed enzyme activities, but exhibited a significant delay in development. Larvae response to SBM involved up-regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, coupled with a drop in putative intestinal enzymes...
November 2, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807712/the-role-of-extracellular-matrix-components-in-pin-bone-attachments-during-storage-a-comparison-between-farmed-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-and-cod-gadus-morhua-l
#9
Sissel B Rønning, Tone-Kari Østbye, Aleksei Krasnov, Tram T Vuong, Eva Veiseth-Kent, Svein O Kolset, Mona E Pedersen
Pin bones represent a major problem for processing and quality of fish products. Development of methods of removal requires better knowledge of the pin bones' attachment to the muscle and structures involved in the breakdown during loosening. In this study, pin bones from cod and salmon were dissected from fish fillets after slaughter or storage on ice for 5 days, and thereafter analysed with molecular methods, which revealed major differences between these species before and after storage. The connective tissue (CT) attaches the pin bone to the muscle in cod, while the pin bones in salmon are embedded in adipose tissue...
November 2, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807711/evidences-for-involvement-of-growth-hormone-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-in-ovarian-development-of-starry-flounder-platichthys-stellatus
#10
Yongjiang Xu, Bin Wang, Xuezhou Liu, Bao Shi, Kun Zang
Although gonadotrophins are major regulators of ovarian function in teleosts and other vertebrates, accumulating evidence indicates that the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis also plays an important role in fish reproduction. As a first step to understand the physiological role of the GH-IGF system in the ovarian development of starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), the expression profiles of GH and IGF messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and plasma GH, IGF-I, estradiol-17β (E2), and testosterone (T) levels during the ovarian development were investigated...
November 2, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807710/two-isoforms-of-hormone-sensitive-lipase-b-are-generated-by-alternative-exons-usage-and-transcriptional-regulation-by-insulin-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#11
Jian Sun, Zhou Yang, PeiZhen Xiao, Yong Liu, Hong Ji, ZhenYu Du, LiQiao Chen
The aim of this study was to investigate the gene structure of two hormone-sensitive lipase b (HSLb) isoforms and their transcriptional regulation by insulin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). HSL is an important lipolytic enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Two isoforms (HSLa and HSLb) have been cloned in fish, but information about their gene structure and function is very few. In this study, a novel grass carp HSLb isoform (HSLb2) were firstly isolated and characterized from grass carp, encoding peptides of 848 amino acid residues...
November 2, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714546/characterization-and-in-vitro-sensitivity-of-cholinesterases-of-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-to-organophosphate-pesticides
#12
G Albendín, J M Arellano, M P Mánuel-Vez, C Sarasquete, M I Arufe
The characterization of cholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of gilthead seabream was carried out using four specific substrates and three selective inhibitors. In addition, K m and V max were calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation for ASCh and BSCh substrates. Finally, the in vitro sensitivity of brain and muscle cholinesterases to three organophosphates (OPs) was also investigated by estimating inhibition kinetics. The results indicate that AChE is the enzyme present in the brain, whereas in muscle, a typical AChE form is present along with an atypical form of BChE...
October 6, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681591/proteolytic-activity-in-some-freshwater-animals-and-associated-microflora-in-a-wide-ph-range
#13
V V Kuz'mina, G V Zolotareva, V A Sheptitskiy
Proteolytic activity in some freshwater animals (crustacean plankton, sandhopper Amphipoda sp., larvae of chironomids Chironomus sp., oligochaetes Oligohaeta sp., dreissena Dreissena polymorpha, roach Rutilus rutilus heckelii, rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus, ruff Acerina cernua, and monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis) prevailing within the food of fishes of various ecological groups as well as in their associated microflora in a wide pH range was investigated. It has been shown that the optimum pH of proteases in the animals' whole organism varies: 6...
September 28, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677483/effects-of-dietary-yeast-inclusion-and-acute-stress-on-post-prandial-whole-blood-profiles-of-dorsal-aorta-cannulated-rainbow-trout
#14
David Huyben, Aleksandar Vidakovic, Andreas Nyman, Markus Langeland, Torbjörn Lundh, Anders Kiessling
Yeast is a potential alternative to fish meal in diets for farmed fish, yet replacing more than 50 % of fish meal results in reduced fish growth. In a 4-week experiment, 15 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were cannulated and fed three diets each week: 30 % fish meal as a control (FM); 60 % replacement of fish meal protein, on a digestible basis, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC); and 60 % replacement with Wickerhamomyces anomalus and S. cerevisiae mix (WA). Blood was collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after feeding...
September 27, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677482/characterization-of-pax3a-and-pax3b-genes-in-artificially-induced-polyploid-and-gynogenetic-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-during-embryogenesis
#15
Shuang Jiao, Zhihao Wu, Xungang Tan, Yulei Sui, Lijuan Wang, Feng You
Although chromosome set manipulation techniques including polyploidy induction and gynogentic induction in flatfish are becoming increasingly mature, there exists a poor understanding of their effects on embryonic development. PAX3 plays crucial roles during embryonic myogenesis and neurogenesis. In olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), there are two duplicated pax3 genes (pax3a, pax3b), and both of them are expressed in the brain and muscle regions with some subtle regional differences. We utilized pax3a and pax3b as indicators to preliminarily investigate whether chromosome set manipulation affects embryonic neurogenesis and myogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization...
September 27, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664022/different-effects-of-blue-and-red-light-emitting-diodes-on-antioxidant-responses-in-the-liver-and-ovary-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#16
Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Huan-Zhi Xu, Li-Qin Liu, Jia-Lang Zheng
The present study assessed the effects of a white fluorescent bulb (the control) and two different light-emitting diodes (blue LEDs, LDB; red, LDR) on growth, morphology, and oxidative stress in the liver and ovary of zebrafish for 5 weeks. Growth maintained relatively constant under LDB condition, but was reduced under LDR condition. In the liver, hepatosomatic index (HSI) and protein carbonylation (PC) increased under LDR condition, whereas lipid peroxidation (LPO) declined and HSI remained unchanged under LDB condition...
September 23, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638477/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-green-tea-waste-on-growth-digestive-enzyme-and-lipid-metabolism-of-juvenile-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-o-aureus
#17
Qingmei Zheng, Chunyan Han, Yanmei Zhong, Rushu Wen, Ming Zhong
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with green tea waste (GTW) on growth, digestive enzyme and lipid metabolism of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus. The fish (initial mean body weight, 12.63 ± 0.75 g) were fed five experimental diets that included 0 (control), 0.8, 1.6, 3.2 or 6.4 % of GTW in triplicate aquaria, twice daily. Growth performance, plasma metabolites content and liver and intestine digestive enzyme activities were determined...
September 16, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630022/nad-preferring-malic-enzyme-localization-regulation-and-its-potential-role-in-herring-clupea-harengus-sperm-cells
#18
Natalia Niedźwiecka, Jadwiga Gronczewska, Edward F Skorkowski
Herring spermatozoa exhibit a high activity of NAD-preferring malic enzyme (NAD-ME). This enzyme is involved in the generation of NADH or NADPH in the decarboxylation of malate to form pyruvate and requires some divalent cations to express its activity. In order to confirm that NAD-ME isolated from herring sperm cells is localized in mitochondria, we performed immunofluorescent analysis and assayed spectrophotometrically the malic enzyme reaction. Production of polyclonal rabbit antibodies against NAD-ME from herring spermatozoa enabled identification of mitochondrial localization of this enzyme inside herring spermatozoa...
September 14, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630021/modulation-of-appetite-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-of-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-by-different-dietary-protein-levels
#19
Jiao Li, Liwei Liu, Xu-Fang Liang, Xiaochen Yuan, Jie Li, Bin Li, Qingchao Wang, Jinguang Fang, Min Xue, Jia Wang
This study was undertaken to explore the systemic metabolic strategies of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to maintain growth when fed with different dietary protein levels. The optimal growth group and two growing discomfort groups were selected through the basic data, to explain the growth difference from appetite regulation and lipid and glucose metabolism perspective. Three experimental diets were formulated with three dietary protein levels at 200.3, 296.1 and 442.9 g kg(-1), named P1, P2 and P3, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624891/effects-of-temperature-on-feed-intake-and-plasma-chemistry-after-exhaustive-exercise-in-triploid-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-l
#20
Andrew C Preston, John F Taylor, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Tom Hansen, Hervé Migaud
The physiological effect of temperature on feed intake and haematological parameters after exhaustive swimming in diploid and triploid brown trout (Salmo trutta) was investigated. Trout were exposed to an incremental temperature challenge (2 °C/day) from ambient (6 °C) to either 10 or 19 °C. Feed intake profiles did not differ between ploidy at 10 °C; however, triploids had a significantly higher total feed intake at 19 °C. After 24 days, each temperature-ploidy group was exposed to exhaustive swimming for 10 min...
September 13, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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