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Mycorrhiza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424944/indirect-interactions-between-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-spodoptera-exigua-alter-photosynthesis-and-plant-endogenous-hormones
#1
Lei He, Changyou Li, Runjin Liu
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Linn. cv: Luhua 11) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv: Zhongshu 4) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae BEG167 (Fm), Rhizophagus intraradices BEG141 (Ri), and Glomus versiforme Berch (Gv), and/or Spodoptera exigua (S. exigua) under greenhouse conditions. Results indicated that feeding by S. exigua had little influence on colonization of peanut plants by AMF, but improved colonization of tomato by Fm and Gv. Feeding by S. exigua had little influence on leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of nonmycorrhizal peanut plants but significantly improved net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of mycorrhizal plants of both hosts...
April 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421312/an-annotated-translation-of-no%C3%A3-l-bernard-s-1899-article-on-the-germination-of-neottia-nidus-avis
#2
Marc-André Selosse, Julita Minasiewicz, Bernard Boullard
We translate Noël Bernard's discovery of orchid symbiotic germination discovered on Neottia nidus-avis, as published in the May 1899 issue of the Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. In his note, Bernard (1874-1911) establishes the need for a fungus, which is also forming mycorrhizae in adults, for seeds germination. We provide illustrations reproduced from his later works, and summaries of the French text he cited. In our annotations, we show how early this discovery was done in Bernard's career, and insist on the scientific framework at the end of the nineteenth century, where orchid germination was mysterious and the need for vicinity of parents was not fully understood...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421311/long-term-soil-alteration-in-historical-charcoal-hearths-affects-tuber-melanosporum-mycorrhizal-development-and-environmental-conditions-for-fruiting
#3
Sergi Garcia-Barreda, Sara Molina-Grau, Ricardo Forcadell, Sergio Sánchez, Santiago Reyna
Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401349/erratum-to-occurrence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-saline-soils-of-the-tabriz-plain-of-iran-in-relation-to-some-physical-and-chemical-properties-of-soil
#4
N Aliasgharzad, N Saleh Rastin, H Towfighi, A Alizadeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361204/genetic-stability-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-is-not-affected-by-cryopreservation-at-130%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-or-cold-storage-with-repeated-sub-cultivations-over-a-period-of-2%C3%A2-years
#5
Charlotte Crahay, Françoise Munaut, Jan V Colpaert, Stéphanie Huret, Stéphane Declerck
Cryopreservation is considered the most reliable method for storage of filamentous fungi including ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. A number of studies, however, have reported genetic changes in fungus cultures following cryopreservation. In the present study, the genetic stability of six ECM fungus isolates was analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The isolates were preserved for 2 years either by cryopreservation (at -130 °C) or by storage at 4 °C with regular sub-cultivation. A third preservation treatment consisting of isolates maintained on Petri dishes at 22-23 °C for 2 years (i...
March 30, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349216/does-warming-by-open-top-chambers-induce-change-in-the-root-associated-fungal-community-of-the-arctic-dwarf-shrub-cassiope-tetragona-ericaceae
#6
Kelsey Erin Lorberau, Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Sunil Mundra, Anders Bjørnsgaard Aas, Jelte Rozema, Pernille Bronken Eidesen, Håvard Kauserud
Climate change may alter mycorrhizal communities, which impact ecosystem characteristics such as carbon sequestration processes. These impacts occur at a greater magnitude in Arctic ecosystems, where the climate is warming faster than in lower latitudes. Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don is an Arctic plant species in the Ericaceae family with a circumpolar range. C. tetragona has been reported to form ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) as well as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses. In this study, the fungal taxa present within roots of C...
March 27, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317065/interactions-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-and-endophytic-fungi-improve-seedling-survival-and-growth-in-post-mining-waste
#7
Katarzyna Wężowicz, Piotr Rozpądek, Katarzyna Turnau
The impact of fungal endophytes and the modulating role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the vitality of Verbascum lychnitis, grown in the laboratory in a substratum from a post-mining waste dump was investigated. We report that inoculation with a single endophyte negatively affected the survival rate and biomass production of most of the plant-endophyte consortia examined. The introduction of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi into this setup (dual inoculation) had a beneficial effect on both biomass yield and survivability...
March 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315064/first-evidence-of-pezoloma-ericae-in-australia-using-the-biomes-of-australia-soil-environments-base-to-explore-the-australian-phylogeography-of-known-ericoid-mycorrhizal-and-root-associated-fungi
#8
David J Midgley, Paul Greenfield, Andrew Bissett, Nai Tran-Dinh
The prominent ericoid mycorrhizal fungus, Pezoloma ericae, has not been found in Australia to date. In the present study, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data from the Biomes of Australia Soil Environments (BASE) was searched for evidence of P. ericae and other known ericoid mycorrhizal and root-associated taxa. ITS sequences with high identity to P. ericae, Meliniomyces bicolor, Meliniomyces variabilis, Cairneyella sp. 2, Cadophora finlandica and Woollsia mycorrhizal fungus VI were identified and their distribution in Australia visualised...
March 17, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280941/diversity-and-community-structure-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-associated-with-larix-chinensis-across-the-alpine-treeline-ecotone-of-taibai-mountain
#9
Qisheng Han, Jian Huang, Dongfeng Long, Xiaobing Wang, Jianjun Liu
Alpine treeline ecotones represent ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community, which has potential to stabilize alpine ecosystems. ECM communities associated with Larix chinensis were studied in four zones along a natural ecotone from a mixed forest stand over pure forest stands, the timberline, and eventually, the treeline (3050-3450 m) in Tabai Mountain, China. Sixty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of ECM fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer of ECM tips...
March 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210812/cost-efficient-production-of-in-vitro-rhizophagus-irregularis
#10
Pawel Rosikiewicz, Jérémy Bonvin, Ian R Sanders
One of the bottlenecks in mycorrhiza research is that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have to be cultivated with host plant roots. Some AMF species, such as Rhizophagus irregularis, can be grown in vitro on dual-compartment plates, where fungal material can be harvested from a fungus-only compartment. Plant roots often grow into this fungus compartment, and regular root trimming is required if the fungal material needs to be free of traces of plant material. Trimming also increases unwanted contamination by other microorganisms...
February 16, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197735/beneficial-contribution-of-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-rhizophagus-irregularis-in-the-protection-of-medicago-truncatula-roots-against-benzo-a-pyrene-toxicity
#11
Ingrid Lenoir, Joël Fontaine, Benoît Tisserant, Frédéric Laruelle, Anissa Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are able to improve plant establishment in polluted soils but little is known about the genes involved in the plant protection against pollutant toxicity by mycorrhization, in particular in the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The present work aims at studying in both symbiotic partners, Medicago truncatula and Rhizophagus irregularis: (i) expression of genes putatively involved in PAH tolerance (MtSOD, MtPOX, MtAPX, MtGST, MtTFIIS, and MtTdp1α), (ii) activities of antioxidant (SOD, POX) and detoxification (GST) enzymes, and (iii) H2O2 and the heavy PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) accumulation...
February 15, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185001/arbuscular-mycorrhizas-influence-lycium-barbarum-tolerance-of-water-stress-in-a-hot-environment
#12
Wentao Hu, Haoqiang Zhang, Hui Chen, Ming Tang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can assist their hosts to cope with water stress and other abiotic stresses in different ways. In order to test whether AM plants have a greater capacity than control plants to cope with water stress, we investigated the water status and photosynthetic capacity of Lycium barbarum colonized or not by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis under three water conditions during a hot summer. Sugar levels and transcriptional responses of both plant and AM fungus aquaporin genes in roots were analyzed...
February 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913893/scleroderma-areolatum-ectomycorrhiza-on-fagus-sylvatica-l
#13
Tanja Mrak, Katja Kühdorf, Tine Grebenc, Ines Štraus, Babette Münzenberger, Hojka Kraigher
Despite its broad host range and distribution and its potential applications in commercial plantation forests, comprehensive descriptions of Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae are available only for Scleroderma citrinum, Scleroderma bovista and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study provides a morphological and anatomical description of tree nursery derived ectomycorrhizae of Scleroderma areolatum on Fagus sylvatica, grown for several years in a climatized room. Ectomycorrhizae of S. areolatum were silvery white with abundant rhizomorphs; all mantle layers were plectenchymatous, rhizomorphs of type E, with prominent emanating hyphae with thick cell wall...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909817/phylogenetic-structure-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-along-an-elevation-gradient
#14
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909816/ecological-and-physical-barriers-shape-genetic-structure-of-the-alpine-porcini-boletus-reticuloceps
#15
Bang Feng, Jian Wei Liu, Jianping Xu, Kuan Zhao, Zai Wei Ge, Zhu L Yang
The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900594/early-successional-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-effectively-support-extracellular-enzyme-activities-and-seedling-nitrogen-accumulation-in-mature-forests
#16
Bailey A Nicholson, Melanie D Jones
After stand-replacing disturbance, regenerating conifer seedlings become colonized by different ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) than the locally adapted EMF communities present on seedlings in mature forests. We studied whether EMF species that colonized subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) seedlings in clearcuts differed from those that colonized seedlings in adjacent mature forests with respect to mycorrhizoplane extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) and N status of the seedlings. We tested two alternate hypotheses: (1) that EEAs would differ between the two EMF communities, with higher activities associated with forest-origin communities, and (2) that acclimation to soil environment was considerable enough that EEAs would be determined primarily by the soil type in which the ectomycorrhizas were growing...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885418/phylogenetic-and-functional-traits-of-ectomycorrhizal-assemblages-in-top-soil-from-different-biogeographic-regions-and-forest-types
#17
Rodica Pena, Christa Lang, Gertrud Lohaus, Steffen Boch, Peter Schall, Ingo Schöning, Christian Ammer, Markus Fischer, Andrea Polle
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait diversity (exploration types) were analyzed in beech and conifer forests along a north-to-south gradient in three biogeographic regions in Germany. The taxonomic community structures of the ectomycorrhizal assemblages in top soil were influenced by stand density and forest type, by biogeographic environmental factors (soil physical properties, temperature, and precipitation), and by nitrogen forms (amino acids, ammonium, and nitrate). While α-diversity did not differ between forest types, β-diversity increased, leading to higher γ-diversity on the landscape level when both forest types were present...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882467/are-there-keystone-mycorrhizal-fungi-associated-to-tropical-epiphytic-orchids
#18
Stefania Cevallos, Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cony Decock, Stéphane Declerck, Juan Pablo Suárez
In epiphytic orchids, distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the symbiotic association. However, little is known about the factors that determine the mycorrhizal community structure. Here, we analyzed the orchid mycorrhizal fungi communities associated with three sympatric Cymbidieae epiphytic tropical orchids (Cyrtochilum flexuosum, Cyrtochilum myanthum, and Maxillaria calantha) at two sites located within the mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. To characterize these communities at each orchid population, the ITS2 region was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq technology...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838857/mycorrhization-of-pecan-carya-illinoinensis-with-black-truffles-tuber-melanosporum-and-tuber-brumale
#19
Giorgio Marozzi, Sergio Sánchez, Gian Maria Niccolò Benucci, Gregory Bonito, Leonardo Baciarelli Falini, Emidio Albertini, Domizia Donnini
Pecan, Carya illinoinensis, is an economically important nut producing tree that can establish ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with a high diversity of fungi. In the southern USA, truffles (Tuber spp.) sometimes fruit prolifically in cultivated pecan orchards and regularly associate with pecan roots as ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). It has been demonstrated that some valuable European truffle species (e.g., Tuber borchii and Tuber aestivum) can form ECMs with pecan seedlings in nursery conditions. Thus, pecan may represent an attractive alternative host to forest trees for truffle growers given the potential for co-cropping truffles and pecans...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838856/plant-species-differ-in-early-seedling-growth-and-tissue-nutrient-responses-to-arbuscular-and-ectomycorrhizal-fungi
#20
Ellen K Holste, Richard K Kobe, Catherine A Gehring
Experiments with plant species that can host both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are important to separating the roles of fungal type and plant species and understanding the influence of the types of symbioses on plant growth and nutrient acquisition. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal fungal type on the growth and tissue nutrient content of two tree species (Eucalyptus grandis and Quercus costaricensis) grown under four nutrient treatments (combinations of low versus high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) with different N:P ratios) in the greenhouse...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
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