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Sarah Symanczik, Moritz F Lehmann, Andres Wiemken, Thomas Boller, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
Drought is a limiting factor for crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. In this study, Sorghum bicolor plants were inoculated, or not, with Rhizophagus irregularis, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) strain typical for temperate climates, or Rhizophagus arabicus, a strain endemic to hyper-arid ecosystems. Plants were grown under well-watered or drought conditions in compartmented microcosms. Transpiration rates, plant growth, and nutrient uptake (using 15 N as a tracer) were determined to assess the impact of drought stress on sorghum plants in AM symbiosis...
July 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
H Meglouli, A Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, M Magnin-Robert, B Tisserant, M Hijri, J Fontaine
Little is known about the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculum sources on phytoremediation efficiency. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of two mycorrhizal inocula (indigenous and commercial inocula) in association with alfalfa and tall fescue on the plant growth, the bacterial, fungal, and archaeal communities, and on the removal of dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) from a historically polluted soil after 24 weeks of culture in microcosms. Our results showed that both mycorrhizal indigenous and commercial inocula were able to colonize plant roots, and the growth response depends on the AMF inoculum...
July 9, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Xiaoliang Li, Meng Xu, Peter Christie, Xiaolin Li, Junling Zhang
Understanding the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in extreme conditions is fundamental to predict the occurrence and evolution of either symbiotic partner in alpine ecosystems. We investigated the AMF associations of three plant species at elevations ranging between 3105 and 4556 m a.s.l. on Mount Segrila on the Tibetan Plateau. Three of four locations were studied in two consecutive years. The AMF diversity and community composition in the roots of Carex pseudofoetida, Pennisetum centrasiaticum, and Fragaria moupinensis differed little...
June 30, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Petra Bukovská, Michael Bonkowski, Tereza Konvalinková, Olena Beskid, Martina Hujslová, David Püschel, Veronika Řezáčová, María Semiramis Gutiérrez-Núñez, Milan Gryndler, Jan Jansa
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can significantly contribute to plant nitrogen (N) uptake from complex organic sources, most likely in concert with activity of soil saprotrophs and other microbes releasing and transforming the N bound in organic forms. Here, we tested whether AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis) extraradical hyphal networks showed any preferences towards certain forms of organic N (chitin of fungal or crustacean origin, DNA, clover biomass, or albumin) administered in spatially discrete patches, and how the presence of AM fungal hyphae affected other microbes...
June 28, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Yuan Qin, Guoxiu Duan, Zhiliang Zhao, Hui Tian, Zakaria M Solaiman
The application of 33 P or 32 P isotopes to directly trace phosphorus (P) uptake during arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is limited by the radioactivity of the two P isotopes, especially under field conditions. A potential alternative method for tracing P uptake in plant-soil systems relies on the analysis of the stable oxygen (O) isotopes of ortho-phosphate (Pi); however, little is known about the fate of the P-O bond during Pi uptake in AM symbioses. This study investigated whether the abundance of 18 O in Pi extracted from the shoots of maize increased after 18 O-labeled Pi added to soil was taken up by either roots of maize or AM extraradical hyphae...
June 27, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Michela Palla, Fabio Battini, Caterina Cristani, Manuela Giovannetti, Andrea Squartini, Monica Agnolucci
Most beneficial services provided by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), encompassing improved crop performance and soil resource availability, are mediated by AMF-associated bacteria, showing key-plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits, i.e., the production of indole acetic acid, siderophores and antibiotics, and activities increasing the availability of plant nutrients by nitrogen fixation and phosphate mobilization. Such functions may be affected by the ability of AMF-associated bacteria to communicate through the production and secretion of extracellular small diffusible chemical signals, N-acyl homoserine lactone signal molecules (AHLs), that regulate bacterial behavior at the community level (quorum sensing, QS)...
June 24, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Xiaoxu Fan, Fuqiang Song
Atrazine induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are detoxified by enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms in plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve on this first level of plant resistance to environmental stresses through the antioxidant defense system, but the way in which nonenzymatic antioxidants relate to atrazine in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots is not well-known. In this study, a symbiotic relationship between Funneliformis mosseae and Medicago sativa L. roots was established successfully...
June 22, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Maria Rudawska, Tomasz Leski, Robin Wilgan, Leszek Karliński, Marta Kujawska, Daniel Janowski
We studied mycorrhizal associations of North American Carya laciniosa and Carya cordiformis trees, successfully acclimated to local habitat conditions of the historic Kórnik Arboretum in Poland, in order to better understand mycorrhizal host range extensions in new environments. The root systems of Carya seedlings (1-3 years old), regenerated under a canopy of mature hickory trees, were analyzed using microscopic, morphological, and molecular techniques. Our results, for the first time, indicate that C. laciniosa and C...
June 22, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Andrea Berruti, Valeria Bianciotto, Erica Lumini
Intensive farming practices that implement deep and frequent tillage, high input inorganic fertilization, cultivation with non-host species, and pesticide use are widely reported to be detrimental for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are one of the most important plant biofertilizers. The effect of the reduction of agricultural input on AMF community dynamics following conversion from conventional non-mycorrhizal to lower input mycorrhizal crop cultivation has not yet been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of the reduction of agricultural input, rotation, and season on AMF communities in winter wheat field soil after conversion from long-term (more than 20 years) non-mycorrhizal (sugar beet) crop cultivation...
June 21, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Milan Gryndler, Petr Šmilauer, David Püschel, Petra Bukovská, Hana Hršelová, Martina Hujslová, Hana Gryndlerová, Olena Beskid, Tereza Konvalinková, Jan Jansa
Establishment of nonmycorrhizal controls is a "classic and recurrent theme" in mycorrhizal research. For decades, authors reported mycorrhizal plant growth/nutrition as compared to various nonmycorrhizal controls. In such studies, uncertainties remain about which nonmycorrhizal controls are most appropriate and, in particular, what effects the control inoculations have on substrate and root microbiomes. Here, different types of control and mycorrhizal inoculations were compared with respect to plant growth and nutrition, as well as the structure of root and substrate microbiomes, assessed by next-generation sequencing...
June 21, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Soon-Jae Lee, Mengxuan Kong, David Morse, Mohamed Hijri
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligatory plant symbionts that live underground, so few studies have examined their response to light. Responses to blue light by other fungi can be mediated by White Collar-1 (WC-1) and WC-2 proteins. These wc genes, together with the frequency gene (frq), also form part of the endogenous circadian clock. The clock mechanism has never been studied in AMF, although circadian growth of their hyphae in the field has been reported. Using both genomic and transcriptomic data, we have found homologs of wc-1, wc-2, and frq and related circadian clock genes in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizoglomus irregulare (synonym Rhizophagus irregularis)...
June 21, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Andrés Argüelles-Moyao, Roberto Garibay-Orijel
Abies religiosa forests in central Mexico are the only overwinter refuge of the monarch butterfly and provide important ecosystem services. These forests have lost 55% of their original area and as a consequence, diversity and biotic interactions in these ecosystems are in risk. The aim of this study was to compare the soil fungal diversity and community structure in the Abies religiosa forests and surrounding Pinus montezumae, Pinus hartwegii, and coniferous mixed forest plant communities to provide data on ecology of mycorrhizal interactions for the assisted migration of A...
June 11, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Cahya Prihatna, Nicholas James Larkan, Martin John Barbetti, Susan Jane Barker
Mycorrhizal symbiosis requires several common symbiosis genes including CYCLOPS/IPD3. The reduced mycorrhizal colonisation (rmc) tomato mutant has a deletion of five genes including CYCLOPS/IPD3, and rmc is more susceptible to Fusarium wilt than its wild-type parental line. This study investigated the genetic defects leading to both fungal interaction phenotypes and whether these were separable. Complementation was performed in rmc to test the requirement for CYCLOPS/IPD3 in mycorrhiza formation and Fusarium wilt tolerance...
June 9, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Peter Jeffries
The mycorrhiza and, more generally, soil microbiology research communities recently have lost one of their most ardent scientists. José Miguel Barea was a world leader of arbuscular mycorrhiza research and pioneered the establishment of such studies in Spain and Latin American. He was a prolific publisher, enthusiastic teacher of many graduate students and a genial host to visitors of his beloved Granada. He will be missed wherever mycorrhizasts gather.
June 7, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Thai Khan Ramírez-Viga, Ramiro Aguilar, Silvia Castillo-Argüero, Xavier Chiappa-Carrara, Patricia Guadarrama, José Ramos-Zapata
The presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in wetlands is widespread. Wetlands are transition ecosystems between aquatic and terrestrial systems, where shallow water stands or moves over the land surface. The presence of AMF in wetlands suggests that they are ecologically significant; however, their function is not yet clearly understood. With the aim of determining the overall magnitude and direction of AMF effect on wetland plants associated with them in pot assays, we conducted a meta-analysis of data extracted from 48 published studies...
June 4, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Francesca Ori, James Trappe, Marco Leonardi, Mirco Iotti, Giovanni Pacioni
Truffles, as hypogeous, ectomycorrhizal fungi, have no means to actively discharge spores into the environment and thus depend on mycophagists for spore dispersal. After consumption of fruiting bodies by animals and passage through the digestive tract, the spores are released in faecal pellets. Recently, in the Abruzzo region (Italy), Hystrix cristata has been spotted inside private truffières, but its role in spore dispersal has never been investigated. Here, we report our research on the occurrence of Tuber aestivum spores in porcupine's faecal contents in a truffière in L'Aquila, Italy, where a H...
June 4, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Stephen P Dearth, Hector F Castro, Francesco Venice, Eric D Tague, Mara Novero, Paola Bonfante, Shawn Robert Campagna
Metabolomic profiling is becoming an increasingly important technique in the larger field of systems biology by allowing the simultaneous measurement of thousands of small molecules participating in and resulting from cellular reactions. In this way, metabolomics presents an opportunity to observe the physiological state of a system, which may provide the ability to monitor the whole of cellular metabolism as the technology progresses. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita has not previously been explored with regard to metabolite composition...
June 2, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Marcin Pietras, Monika Litkowiec, Joanna Gołębiewska
Suillus lakei is an ectomycorrhizal fungus native to North America and known in Europe, South America, and New Zealand. This contribution aims to illustrate the worldwide biogeography of S. lakei based on sporocarp records. Species distribution modeling was used to assess the suitable niche distribution of S. lakei, based on the climatic variables as well as distribution of its ectomycorrhizal partner, Douglas fir. In general, distribution of suitable niches of S. lakei greatly overlaps with the distribution of Douglas fir in North America...
May 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
David J Midgley, Brodie Sutcliffe, Paul Greenfield, Nai Tran-Dinh
This study describes a novel ericoid mycorrhizal fungus (ErMF), Gamarada debralockiae Midgley and Tran-Dinh gen. nov. sp. nov. Additionally, catabolism was explored from a genomic perspective. The nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of G. debralockiae were sequenced. Morphological characteristics were assessed on various media. Catabolic genes of G. debralockiae were explored using SignalP and dbCAN. Phylogenetic comparisons were undertaken using The 58.5-Mbp draft genome of G. debralockiae contained 17,075 putative genes...
May 2018: Mycorrhiza
Frédéric G Masclaux, Tania Wyss, Ivan D Mateus-Gonzalez, Consolée Aletti, Ian R Sanders
The genetic state of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus species Rhizophagus irregularis differs among isolates, including both homokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates. Via the production of multi-nucleate axexual spores, siblings of dikaryotic isolates may inherit unequal frequencies of nucleotypes. Using bg112, a microsatellite marker, previous studies revealed that lines deriving from single spores of the dikaryotic R. irregularis isolate C3 differed in their proportions of different alleles. A genomic study of single nuclei of R...
May 2018: Mycorrhiza
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