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Mycorrhiza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317065/interactions-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-and-endophytic-fungi-improve-seedling-survival-and-growth-in-post-mining-waste
#1
Katarzyna Wężowicz, Piotr Rozpądek, Katarzyna Turnau
The impact of fungal endophytes and the modulating role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the vitality of Verbascum lychnitis, grown in the laboratory in a substratum from a post-mining waste dump was investigated. We report that inoculation with a single endophyte negatively affected the survival rate and biomass production of most of the plant-endophyte consortia examined. The introduction of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi into this setup (dual inoculation) had a beneficial effect on both biomass yield and survivability...
March 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315064/first-evidence-of-pezoloma-ericae-in-australia-using-the-biomes-of-australia-soil-environments-base-to-explore-the-australian-phylogeography-of-known-ericoid-mycorrhizal-and-root-associated-fungi
#2
David J Midgley, Paul Greenfield, Andrew Bissett, Nai Tran-Dinh
The prominent ericoid mycorrhizal fungus, Pezoloma ericae, has not been found in Australia to date. In the present study, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data from the Biomes of Australia Soil Environments (BASE) was searched for evidence of P. ericae and other known ericoid mycorrhizal and root-associated taxa. ITS sequences with high identity to P. ericae, Meliniomyces bicolor, Meliniomyces variabilis, Cairneyella sp. 2, Cadophora finlandica and Woollsia mycorrhizal fungus VI were identified and their distribution in Australia visualised...
March 17, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280941/diversity-and-community-structure-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-associated-with-larix-chinensis-across-the-alpine-treeline-ecotone-of-taibai-mountain
#3
Qisheng Han, Jian Huang, Dongfeng Long, Xiaobing Wang, Jianjun Liu
Alpine treeline ecotones represent ecosystems that are vulnerable to climate change. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community, which has potential to stabilize alpine ecosystems. ECM communities associated with Larix chinensis were studied in four zones along a natural ecotone from a mixed forest stand over pure forest stands, the timberline, and eventually, the treeline (3050-3450 m) in Tabai Mountain, China. Sixty operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of ECM fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA internal transcribed spacer of ECM tips...
March 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210812/cost-efficient-production-of-in-vitro-rhizophagus-irregularis
#4
Pawel Rosikiewicz, Jérémy Bonvin, Ian R Sanders
One of the bottlenecks in mycorrhiza research is that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have to be cultivated with host plant roots. Some AMF species, such as Rhizophagus irregularis, can be grown in vitro on dual-compartment plates, where fungal material can be harvested from a fungus-only compartment. Plant roots often grow into this fungus compartment, and regular root trimming is required if the fungal material needs to be free of traces of plant material. Trimming also increases unwanted contamination by other microorganisms...
February 16, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197735/beneficial-contribution-of-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-rhizophagus-irregularis-in-the-protection-of-medicago-truncatula-roots-against-benzo-a-pyrene-toxicity
#5
Ingrid Lenoir, Joël Fontaine, Benoît Tisserant, Frédéric Laruelle, Anissa Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are able to improve plant establishment in polluted soils but little is known about the genes involved in the plant protection against pollutant toxicity by mycorrhization, in particular in the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The present work aims at studying in both symbiotic partners, Medicago truncatula and Rhizophagus irregularis: (i) expression of genes putatively involved in PAH tolerance (MtSOD, MtPOX, MtAPX, MtGST, MtTFIIS, and MtTdp1α), (ii) activities of antioxidant (SOD, POX) and detoxification (GST) enzymes, and (iii) H2O2 and the heavy PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) accumulation...
February 15, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185001/arbuscular-mycorrhizas-influence-lycium-barbarum-tolerance-of-water-stress-in-a-hot-environment
#6
Wentao Hu, Haoqiang Zhang, Hui Chen, Ming Tang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can assist their hosts to cope with water stress and other abiotic stresses in different ways. In order to test whether AM plants have a greater capacity than control plants to cope with water stress, we investigated the water status and photosynthetic capacity of Lycium barbarum colonized or not by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis under three water conditions during a hot summer. Sugar levels and transcriptional responses of both plant and AM fungus aquaporin genes in roots were analyzed...
February 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120112/the-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-communities-associated-with-quercus-liaotungensis-in-different-habitats-across-northern-china
#7
Xiaobing Wang, Jianjun Liu, Dongfeng Long, Qisheng Han, Jian Huang
Quercus liaotungensis is a major tree species in deciduous broad-leaved forests in northern China. In this study, we investigated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities associated with Q. liaotungensis from five typical habitats across northern China. We used internal transcribed spacer-polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to identify ECM fungi, and we detected 220 operational taxonomic units. In general, at the regional scale, the dominant ECM lineages were /tomentella-thelephora, /cenococcum, /russula-lactarius, and /inocybe...
January 24, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120111/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-responses-to-disturbance-are-context-dependent
#8
Mieke van der Heyde, Brian Ohsowski, Lynette K Abbott, Miranda Hart
Anthropogenic disturbance is one of the most important forces shaping soil ecosystems. While organisms that live in the soil, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, are sensitive to disturbance, their response is not always predictable. Given the range of disturbance types and differences among AM fungi in their growth strategies, the unpredictability of the responses of AM fungi to disturbance is not surprising. We investigated the role of disturbance type (i.e., soil disruption, agriculture, host perturbation, and chemical disturbance) and fungus identity on disturbance response in the AM symbiosis...
January 24, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091750/ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-associated-with-endemic-tristaniopsis-spp-myrtaceae-in-ultramafic-and-volcano-sedimentary-soils-in-new-caledonia
#9
Muhammad Waseem, Marc Ducousso, Yves Prin, Odile Domergue, Laure Hannibal, Clarisse Majorel, Philippe Jourand, Antoine Galiana
New Caledonian serpentine (ultramafic) soils contain high levels of toxic heavy metals, in particular nickel, (up to 20 g kg(-1)) and are deficient in essential elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus while having a high magnesium/calcium ratio. Although previous studies showed that ectomycorrhizal symbioses could play an important role in the adaptation of the endemic plants to ultramafic soils (FEMS Microbiol Ecol 72:238-49, 2010), none of them have compared the diversity of microbial communities from ultramafic vs non-ultramafic soils in New Caledonia...
January 13, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083703/effect-of-soil-moisture-on-root-associated-fungal-communities-of-erica-dominans-in-drakensberg-mountains-in-south-africa
#10
Petr Kohout, Leho Tedersoo
Ericoid mycorrhiza represents a key adaptation of the Ericaceae plants to facilitate their establishment in harsh conditions. The Ericaceae are a large family of flowering plants, with global distribution. However, our current knowledge about the ericoid mycorrhizal fungal diversity and ecology largely relates to the Northern Hemisphere. Our study focused on the assembly of root-associated fungal (RAF) communities of Erica dominans in two types of microhabitats of contrasting moisture along an elevation gradient in Drakensberg mountains in South Africa...
January 12, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066872/comparative-genomics-and-expression-levels-of-hydrophobins-from-eight-mycorrhizal-genomes
#11
F Rineau, H Lmalem, D Ahren, F Shah, T Johansson, L Coninx, J Ruytinx, H Nguyen, I Grigoriev, A Kuo, A Kohler, E Morin, J Vangronsveld, F Martin, J V Colpaert
Hydrophobins are small secreted proteins that are present as several gene copies in most fungal genomes. Their properties are now well understood: they are amphiphilic and assemble at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces. However, their physiological functions remain largely unexplored, especially within mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we identified hydrophobin genes and analysed their distribution in eight mycorrhizal genomes. We then measured their expression levels in three different biological conditions (mycorrhizal tissue vs...
January 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039601/colonization-and-community-structure-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-maize-roots-at-different-depths-in-the-soil-profile-respond-differently-to-phosphorus-inputs-on-a-long-term-experimental-site
#12
Chao Wang, Philip J White, Chunjian Li
Effects of soil depth and plant growth stages on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization and community structure in maize roots and their potential contribution to host plant phosphorus (P) nutrition under different P-fertilizer inputs were studied. Research was conducted on a long-term field experiment over 3 years. AMF colonization was assessed by AM colonization rate and arbuscule abundances and their potential contribution to host P nutrition by intensity of fungal alkaline phosphatase (ALP)/acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and expressions of ZmPht1;6 and ZmCCD8a in roots from the topsoil and subsoil layer at different growth stages...
December 30, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039600/local-scale-spatial-structure-and-community-composition-of-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-semi-natural-grasslands
#13
Jane Oja, Johanna Vahtra, Mohammad Bahram, Petr Kohout, Tiiu Kull, Riinu Rannap, Urmas Kõljalg, Leho Tedersoo
Orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi play a crucial role in the ontogeny of orchids, yet little is known about how the structure of OrM fungal communities varies with space and environmental factors. Previous studies suggest that within orchid patches, the distance to adult orchids may affect the abundance of OrM fungi. Many orchid species grow in species-rich temperate semi-natural grasslands, the persistence of which depends on moderate physical disturbances, such as grazing and mowing. The aim of this study was to test whether the diversity, structure and composition of OrM fungal community are influenced by the orchid patches and management intensity in semi-natural grasslands...
December 30, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101667/impact-of-an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-versus-a-mixed-microbial-inoculum-on-the-transcriptome-reprogramming-of-grapevine-roots
#14
Raffaella Balestrini, Alessandra Salvioli, Alessandra Dal Molin, Mara Novero, Giovanni Gabelli, Eleonora Paparelli, Fabio Marroni, Paola Bonfante
Grapevine, cultivated for both fruit and beverage production, represents one of the most economically important fruit crops worldwide. With the aim of better understanding how grape roots respond to beneficial microbes, a transcriptome sequencing experiment has been performed to evaluate the impact of a single arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species (Funneliformis mosseae) versus a mixed inoculum containing a bacterial and fungal consortium, including different AM species, on Richter 110 rootstock. Results showed that the impact of a single AM fungus and of a complex microbial inoculum on the grapevine transcriptome differed...
December 27, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913893/scleroderma-areolatum-ectomycorrhiza-on-fagus-sylvatica-l
#15
Tanja Mrak, Katja Kühdorf, Tine Grebenc, Ines Štraus, Babette Münzenberger, Hojka Kraigher
Despite its broad host range and distribution and its potential applications in commercial plantation forests, comprehensive descriptions of Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae are available only for Scleroderma citrinum, Scleroderma bovista and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study provides a morphological and anatomical description of tree nursery derived ectomycorrhizae of Scleroderma areolatum on Fagus sylvatica, grown for several years in a climatized room. Ectomycorrhizae of S. areolatum were silvery white with abundant rhizomorphs; all mantle layers were plectenchymatous, rhizomorphs of type E, with prominent emanating hyphae with thick cell wall...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909817/phylogenetic-structure-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-along-an-elevation-gradient
#16
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909816/ecological-and-physical-barriers-shape-genetic-structure-of-the-alpine-porcini-boletus-reticuloceps
#17
Bang Feng, Jian Wei Liu, Jianping Xu, Kuan Zhao, Zai Wei Ge, Zhu L Yang
The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885418/phylogenetic-and-functional-traits-of-ectomycorrhizal-assemblages-in-top-soil-from-different-biogeographic-regions-and-forest-types
#18
Rodica Pena, Christa Lang, Gertrud Lohaus, Steffen Boch, Peter Schall, Ingo Schöning, Christian Ammer, Markus Fischer, Andrea Polle
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait diversity (exploration types) were analyzed in beech and conifer forests along a north-to-south gradient in three biogeographic regions in Germany. The taxonomic community structures of the ectomycorrhizal assemblages in top soil were influenced by stand density and forest type, by biogeographic environmental factors (soil physical properties, temperature, and precipitation), and by nitrogen forms (amino acids, ammonium, and nitrate). While α-diversity did not differ between forest types, β-diversity increased, leading to higher γ-diversity on the landscape level when both forest types were present...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882467/are-there-keystone-mycorrhizal-fungi-associated-to-tropical-epiphytic-orchids
#19
Stefania Cevallos, Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cony Decock, Stéphane Declerck, Juan Pablo Suárez
In epiphytic orchids, distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the symbiotic association. However, little is known about the factors that determine the mycorrhizal community structure. Here, we analyzed the orchid mycorrhizal fungi communities associated with three sympatric Cymbidieae epiphytic tropical orchids (Cyrtochilum flexuosum, Cyrtochilum myanthum, and Maxillaria calantha) at two sites located within the mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. To characterize these communities at each orchid population, the ITS2 region was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq technology...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817000/first-detection-of-endogone-ectomycorrhizas-in-natural-oak-forests
#20
Kohei Yamamoto, Naoki Endo, Yousuke Degawa, Masaki Fukuda, Akiyoshi Yamada
The order Endogonales in Mucoromycotina, an early divergent lineage of fungi, includes ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. This order is therefore considered a key taxon for elucidation of the evolution of EM associations. Recent studies have revealed high diversity of EM lineages of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota; however, EM associations of Endogonales and its relatives remain largely unknown. In this study, EM root tips with a unique fungal sheath, with aseptate and highly branched hyphae of variable widths, were identified in Quercus acutissima and Quercus crispula forests in the temperate zone of Japan...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
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