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Seung-Yoon Oh, Young Woon Lim
Tricholoma matsutake (pine mushroom) (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) is a valuable edible fungal species that cannot be cultivated artificially. As an ectomycorrhizal fungus, T. matsutake interacts with trees belonging to the Pinaceae and Fagaceae, and forms fairy rings around host trees that are arc-shaped areas with dense hyphae of T. matsutake in the soil. Because the fairy rings maintain their dense hyphae for several years and form fruiting bodies, the characteristics of the fairy ring may be important in understanding the ecology of T...
March 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Peter G Kennedy, Louis A Mielke, Nhu H Nguyen
Despite covering vast areas of boreal North America, the ecological factors structuring mycorrhizal fungal communities in peatland forests are relatively poorly understood. To assess how these communities vary by age (younger vs. mature), habitat (fen vs. bog), and host (conifer trees vs. ericaceous shrub), we sampled the roots of two canopy trees (Larix laricina and Picea mariana) and an ericaceous shrub (Ledum groenlandicum) at four sites in northern Minnesota, USA. To characterize the specific influence of host co-occurrence on mycorrhizal fungal community structure, we also conducted a greenhouse bioassay using the same three hosts...
March 4, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Charlotte Berthelot, Damien Blaudez, Thierry Beguiristain, Michel Chalot, Corinne Leyval
The presence of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant roots and their effects on plant fitness have been extensively described. However, little is known about their interactions when they are simultaneously colonizing a plant root, especially in trace element (TE)-polluted soils. We therefore investigated the effects of Cadophora sp. and Funneliformis mosseae on ryegrass (Lolium perenne) growth and element uptake in a Cd/Zn/Pb-polluted soil. The experiment included four treatments, i...
March 3, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Wei Xie, Zhipeng Hao, Xiaofu Zhou, Xuelian Jiang, Lijiao Xu, Songlin Wu, Aihua Zhao, Xin Zhang, Baodong Chen
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is an important medicinal plant for which there is a huge market demand. It has been reported that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and drought stress can stimulate the accumulation of the active ingredients, glycyrrhizin and liquiritin, in liquorice plants, but the potential interactions of AM symbiosis and drought stress remain largely unknown. In the present work, we investigated mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in liquorice plants under different water regimes...
February 17, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Petra Bukovská, Michael Bonkowski, Tereza Konvalinková, Olena Beskid, Martina Hujslová, David Püschel, Veronika Řezáčová, María Semiramis Gutiérrez-Núñez, Milan Gryndler, Jan Jansa
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can significantly contribute to plant nitrogen (N) uptake from complex organic sources, most likely in concert with activity of soil saprotrophs and other microbes releasing and transforming the N bound in organic forms. Here, we tested whether AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis) extraradical hyphal networks showed any preferences towards certain forms of organic N (chitin of fungal or crustacean origin, DNA, clover biomass, or albumin) administered in spatially discrete patches, and how the presence of AM fungal hyphae affected other microbes...
February 17, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Jan V Colpaert, David P Janos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Siim-Kaarel Sepp, Teele Jairus, Martti Vasar, Martin Zobel, Maarja Öpik
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities vary across habitat types, as well as across different land use types. Most relevant research, however, has focused on agricultural or other severely human-impacted ecosystems. Here, we compared AM fungal communities across six habitat types: calcareous grassland, overgrown ungrazed calcareous grassland, wooded meadow, farmyard lawn, boreonemoral forest, and boreonemoral forest clear-cut, exhibiting contrasting modes of land use. AM fungi in the roots of a single host plant species, Prunella vulgaris, and in its rhizosphere soil were identified using 454-sequencing from a total of 103 samples from 12 sites in Estonia...
January 31, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Rafał Ważny, Piotr Rozpądek, Roman J Jędrzejczyk, Marta Śliwa, Anna Stojakowska, Teresa Anielska, Katarzyna Turnau
Phytoremediation of polluted sites can be improved by co-inoculation with mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. In this study, the effects of single- and co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Rhizoglomus intraradices, and endophytic fungi, Mucor sp. or Trichoderma asperellum, on plant growth, vitality, toxic metal accumulation, sesquiterpene lactone production and flavonoid concentration in the presence of toxic metals were evaluated. Inoculation with the AM fungus increased biomass yield of the plants grown on non-polluted and polluted substrate...
January 23, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Martina Vašutová, Magda Edwards-Jonášová, Petra Veselá, Lenka Effenberková, Peter Fleischer, Pavel Cudlín
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, as symbionts of many tree species in temperate forests, are thought to play an important role in forest regeneration processes after large disturbances. Their reaction to different disturbance and management regimes was studied in spruce forests (Lariceto-Piceetum) 10 years after a severe windthrow in the Tatra National Park (Slovak Republic). ECM community structure was compared between different "management types″-cleared area (EXT), area affected by wildfire (FIRE), uncleared area left for natural development (NEX), and mature forest as a control (REF)...
January 19, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Christopher Walker, Armelle Gollotte, Dirk Redecker
In 1977, the fine root endophyte, originally named Rhizophagus tenuis, was transferred into the genus Glomus as G. tenue, thus positioning the species with all other known arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota, Glomeromycotina). Recent molecular evidence, however, places it in a different subphylum, Mucoromycotina in the Mucoromycota. No suitable genus exists in the Mucoromycotina to accommodate G. tenue, so it is moved to Planticonsortium gen. nov. as P. tenue comb. nov.
January 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Takahiko Koizumi, Masahira Hattori, Kazuhide Nara
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses are indispensable for the establishment of host trees, yet available information of ECM symbiosis in alpine forests is scarce. Pinus pumila is a typical ice age relict tree species in Japan and often forms monodominant dwarf vegetation above the tree line in mountains. We studied ECM fungi colonizing P. pumila on Mt. Norikura, Japan, with reference to host developmental stages, i.e., from current-year seedlings to mature trees. ECM fungal species were identified based on rDNA ITS sequences...
January 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Catherine A Gehring, Nancy C Johnson
This report reviews important advances in mycorrhizal research that occurred during the past 2 years. We highlight major advancements both within and across levels of biological organization and describe areas where greater integration has led to unique insights. Particularly active areas of research include exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the development of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, the mycorrhizal microbiome, comparisons among types of mycorrhizas from molecular to ecosystem scales, the extent and function of mycorrhizal networks and enhanced understanding of the role of mycorrhizas in carbon dynamics from local to global scales...
December 30, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Fang Li, Yan'e Guo, Michael J Christensen, Ping Gao, Yanzhong Li, Tingyu Duan
Leaf spot of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important disease in temperate regions of the world. We designed this experiment to test for the combined effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Claroideoglomus etunicatum and the grass endophyte fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii on growth and disease occurrence in perennial ryegrass. The results show that C. etunicatum increased plant P uptake and total dry weight and that this beneficial effect was slightly enhanced when in association with the grass endophyte...
December 22, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Guillaume Bécard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Mónica Sebastiana, Anabela Bernardes da Silva, Ana Rita Matos, André Alcântara, Susana Silvestre, Rui Malhó
We investigated whether the performance of cork oak under drought could be improved by colonization with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius. Results show that inoculation alone had a positive effect on plant height, shoot biomass, shoot basal diameter, and root growth. Under drought, root growth of mycorrhizal plants was significantly increased showing that inoculation was effective in increasing tolerance to drought. In accordance, mycorrhizal plants subjected to drought showed less symptoms of stress when compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, such as lower concentration of soluble sugars and starch, increased ability to maintain fatty acid content and composition, and increased unsaturation level of membrane lipids...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Martin I Bidartondo, Mohamed Hijri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Mycorrhiza
Megan A Rúa, Louis J Lamit, Catherine Gehring, Pedro M Antunes, Jason D Hoeksema, Cathy Zabinski, Justine Karst, Cole Burns, Michaela J Woods
Local adaptation, the differential success of genotypes in their native versus foreign environments, can influence ecological and evolutionary processes, yet its importance is difficult to estimate because it has not been widely studied, particularly in the context of interspecific interactions. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and their host plants could serve as model system for investigations of local adaptation because they are widespread and affect plant responses to both biotic and abiotic selection pressures...
February 2018: Mycorrhiza
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Matthew E Smith
The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis was long thought to be restricted to temperate forests. However, as tropical forests have been explored, it has become clear that these habitats host unique ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We have been exploring tropical dry forests (TDF), which are endangered terrestrial ecosystems and hotspots of endemism. Since Fabaceae is the main plant family in this environment, we hypothesized that trees in this lineage would be the main ECM hosts. We sequenced the ITS rDNA region from fungi and both rbcL and trnL cpDNA from plants to identify both symbiotic partners from root tips...
February 2018: Mycorrhiza
Ma Del Carmen A González-Chávez, Terry J Torres-Cruz, Samantha Albarrán Sánchez, Rogelio Carrillo-González, Luis Manuel Carrillo-López, Andrea Porras-Alfaro
Vanilla is an orchid of economic importance widely cultivated in tropical regions and native to Mexico. We sampled three species of Vanilla (V. planifolia, V. pompona, and V. insignis) in different crop systems. We studied the effect of crop system on the abundance, type of fungi, and quality of pelotons found in the roots using light and electron microscopy and direct sequencing of mycorrhizal structures. Fungi were identified directly from pelotons obtained from terrestrial roots of vanilla plants in the flowering stage...
February 2018: Mycorrhiza
Haiyan Ren, Weiyang Gui, Yongfei Bai, Claudia Stein, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Gail W T Wilson, Adam B Cobb, Yingjun Zhang, Gaowen Yang
Grazing and topography have drastic effects on plant communities and soil properties. These effects are thought to influence arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, the simultaneous impacts of grazing pressure (sheep ha-1) and topography on plant and soil factors and their relationship to the production of extra-radical AM hyphae are not well understood. Our 10-year study assessed relationships between grazing, plant species richness, aboveground plant productivity, soil nutrients, edaphic properties, and AM hyphal length density (HLD) in different topographic areas (flat or sloped)...
December 14, 2017: Mycorrhiza
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