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Francisco Arenas, Alfonso Navarro-Ródenas, Daniel Chávez, Almudena Gutiérrez, Manuela Pérez-Gilabert, Asunción Morte
Terfezia claveryi Chatin was the first desert truffle species to be cultivated, the mycorrhizal plants being successfully produced by using both desert truffle spores and mycelia. However, it is more advisable to use mycelium than spores whenever possible and profitable. Given the low yields of mycelia obtained using traditional culture methods of this truffle, the medium composition was modified in an attempt to determine its nutritional requirements. For this, an assay involving response surface methodology was performed using Box-Behnken design to find the optimal parameters for the high production of mycelial biomass...
September 20, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Fengjuan Zhang, Qiao Li, Ellen Heininger Yerger, Xue Chen, Qing Shi, Fanghao Wan
Invasive species often cause enormous economic and ecological damage, and this is especially true for invasive plants in the Asteraceae family. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in the successful invasion by exotic plant species because of their ability to promote growth and influence interspecific competition. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of invasive Asteraceae species on AMF diversity and how feedback mechanisms during competition with native species subsequently affect the accumulation of nutrient resources...
September 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Mika T Tarkka, Barbara Drigo, Aurelie Deveau
This Mycorrhiza issue groups topical papers based on presentations and discussions at the Mycorrhizal Microbiomes session at 9th International Conference on Mycorrhiza, Prague, Czech Republic, August 2017. The five articles that appear in this special issue advance the field of mycorrhizal microbiomes, not simply by importing ideas from an emerging area, but by using them to inform rich and methodologically grounded research. The aim of this special issue is to explore the interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and surrounding complex environments from a distinct but complementary point of view, highlighting the large spectrum of unknowns that still need to be explored...
September 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Sidney L Stürmer, James D Bever, Joseph B Morton
Information on the biogeography of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important because this group of obligately symbiotic soil microbes is a ubiquitous and functionally critical component of terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we utilize a biogeography database summarizing data on AMF species distribution linked to geographic and environmental conditions to describe global distribution patterns and interpret these patterns within a phylogenetic perspective. The data were obtained from accessions in living culture collections (INVAM, CICG), species descriptions, and other published literature from 1960 to 2012...
September 5, 2018: Mycorrhiza
J Tyburska-Woś, K Nowak, B Kieliszewska-Rokicka
In many parts of Europe, the white horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) has been attacked by the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić), which causes premature leaf dieback. A. hippocastanum L. establishes mutualistic symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This study involved a comparison of mature A. hippocastanum individuals susceptible to C. ohridella and individuals resistant to this insect after a one-time treatment with a chemical preparation injected into the tree trunks 7 years before the investigation began...
August 25, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Clifton P Bueno de Mesquita, Cormac M Martinez Del Río, Katharine N Suding, Steven K Schmidt
Fungal root endophytes play an important role in plant nutrition, helping plants acquire nutrients in exchange for photosynthates. We sought to characterize the progression of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), dark septate endophytes (DSE), and fine root endophytes (FRE) over an alpine growing season, and to understand the role of the host plant and environment in driving colonization levels. We sampled four forbs on a regular schedule from June 26th-September 11th from a moist meadow (3535 m a...
August 23, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Maryline Calonne-Salmon, Katia Plouznikoff, Stéphane Declerck
The accumulation of phosphorus (P) in plants increases their biomass and resistance/tolerance to organic pollutants. Both characteristics are mandatory for the utilization of plants in phytoremediation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi improve plant P nutrition, and thus growth. However, only a few studies have focused on the dynamics of inorganic P (Pi) uptake in AM fungal-colonized plants in the presence of organic pollutants. Indeed, most of the results so far were obtained after harvesting the plants, thus by evaluating P concentration and content at a single time point...
August 18, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Mylène Hugoni, Patricia Luis, Julien Guyonnet, Feth El Zahar Haichar
The rhizospheric microbiome is clearly affected by plant species and certain of their functional traits. These functional traits allow plants to adapt to their environmental conditions by acquiring or conserving nutrients, thus defining different ecological resource-use plant strategies. In the present study, we investigated whether plants with one of the two nutrient-use strategies (conservative versus exploitative) could influence fungal communities involved in soil organic matter degradation and root exudate assimilation, as well as those colonizing root tissues...
August 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Akihiko Kinoshita, Keisuke Obase, Takashi Yamanaka
Modern truffle cultivation systems started in Europe in the early 1970s and are now successfully used for several European truffles throughout the world. However, systems for indigenous novel truffle species need to be developed in several regions, especially where truffle cultivation has not been attempted so far, such as in Japan. Recently, two new and one known truffle species that are expected to be edible were reported from Japan: Tuber japonicum, T. longispinosum, and T. himalayense. Here, we conducted mycorrhization trials between these three truffle species and four native tree species in Japan (Quercus acutissima, Q...
August 14, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Takeshi Taniguchi, Kuni Kitajima, Greg W Douhan, Norikazu Yamanaka, Michael F Allen
Rapid responses of microbial biomass and community composition following a precipitation event have been reported for soil bacteria and fungi, but measurements characterizing ectomycorrhizal fungi remain limited. The response of ectomycorrhizal fungi after a precipitation event is crucial to understanding biogeochemical cycles and plant nutrition. Here, we examined changes in ectomycorrhizal formation, diversity, and community composition at the end of a summer drought and following precipitation events in a conifer-oak mixed forest under a semiarid, Mediterranean-type climate in CA, USA...
August 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Héctor Herrera, Rafael Valadares, Guilherme Oliveira, Alejandra Fuentes, Leonardo Almonacid, Sidney Vasconcelos do Nascimento, Yoav Bashan, Cesar Arriagada
The adaptation and performance of orchid mycorrhizae in heavy metal-polluted soils have been poorly explored. In the present study, proteomic and metabolic approaches were used to detect physiological changes in orchid roots established in a heavy metal-polluted soil and to ascertain whether mycorrhizal fungi affect the metabolic responses of roots. Young Bipinnula fimbriata plantlets were established in control and heavy metal-polluted soils in a greenhouse. After 14 months, exudation of root organic acids, phenolics, percentage of mycorrhization, mineral content, and differential protein accumulation were measured...
August 9, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Ryota Kusakabe, Takeshi Taniguchi, Altansukh Goomaral, Jamsran Undarmaa, Norikazu Yamanaka, Masahide Yamato
Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in Mongolian grassland were characterized under gradients of grazing intensity at three study sites of different aridity: mountain forest steppe at Hustai National Park (Hustai), and desert steppe at Mandalgovi and Bulgan. Grazing intensity was classified into three categories: lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG), and heavily grazed (HG). With regard to floristic composition, grazing decreased the shoot biomass of Poaceae species, especially Stipa spp...
July 24, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Neera Garg, Amrit Bharti
Salt stress is a major abiotic stress restricting plant growth and reproductive yield. Salicylic acid (SA) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses play key roles in eliminating adverse effects of salt stress by modulating ion homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism in crop plants. Sugars synthesized via carbohydrate metabolism act as osmotic adjustors and signaling molecules in activation of various defense responses against salt stress. The present study investigated the role of SA (0.5 mM) seed priming in establishment of AM symbiosis with Rhizoglomus intraradices and the impact on growth, ion-homeostasis, nutrient uptake, and sugar metabolism in Cicer arietinum L...
July 24, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Roger T Koide, Christopher W Fernandez
To new generations of scientists beginning their careers in research, we strongly recommend the practice of reading older literature. To illustrate the value of doing so, we highlight six insights of one of the most influential mycorrhiza researchers of the twentieth century, Jack Harley. These insights concerning mycotrophy, the new niche, the sheath, C cycling, N cycling, and mutualism were published prior to 1975 and so may have escaped the notice of many, but they laid the groundwork for some of the most important research of today...
July 16, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Sarah Symanczik, Moritz F Lehmann, Andres Wiemken, Thomas Boller, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
Drought is a limiting factor for crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. In this study, Sorghum bicolor plants were inoculated, or not, with Rhizophagus irregularis, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) strain typical for temperate climates, or Rhizophagus arabicus, a strain endemic to hyper-arid ecosystems. Plants were grown under well-watered or drought conditions in compartmented microcosms. Transpiration rates, plant growth, and nutrient uptake (using 15 N as a tracer) were determined to assess the impact of drought stress on sorghum plants in AM symbiosis...
July 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
H Meglouli, A Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, M Magnin-Robert, B Tisserant, M Hijri, J Fontaine
Little is known about the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculum sources on phytoremediation efficiency. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of two mycorrhizal inocula (indigenous and commercial inocula) in association with alfalfa and tall fescue on the plant growth, the bacterial, fungal, and archaeal communities, and on the removal of dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) from a historically polluted soil after 24 weeks of culture in microcosms. Our results showed that both mycorrhizal indigenous and commercial inocula were able to colonize plant roots, and the growth response depends on the AMF inoculum...
July 9, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Xiaoliang Li, Meng Xu, Peter Christie, Xiaolin Li, Junling Zhang
Understanding the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in extreme conditions is fundamental to predict the occurrence and evolution of either symbiotic partner in alpine ecosystems. We investigated the AMF associations of three plant species at elevations ranging between 3105 and 4556 m a.s.l. on Mount Segrila on the Tibetan Plateau. Three of four locations were studied in two consecutive years. The AMF diversity and community composition in the roots of Carex pseudofoetida, Pennisetum centrasiaticum, and Fragaria moupinensis differed little...
June 30, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Petra Bukovská, Michael Bonkowski, Tereza Konvalinková, Olena Beskid, Martina Hujslová, David Püschel, Veronika Řezáčová, María Semiramis Gutiérrez-Núñez, Milan Gryndler, Jan Jansa
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can significantly contribute to plant nitrogen (N) uptake from complex organic sources, most likely in concert with activity of soil saprotrophs and other microbes releasing and transforming the N bound in organic forms. Here, we tested whether AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis) extraradical hyphal networks showed any preferences towards certain forms of organic N (chitin of fungal or crustacean origin, DNA, clover biomass, or albumin) administered in spatially discrete patches, and how the presence of AM fungal hyphae affected other microbes...
June 28, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Yuan Qin, Guoxiu Duan, Zhiliang Zhao, Hui Tian, Zakaria M Solaiman
The application of 33 P or 32 P isotopes to directly trace phosphorus (P) uptake during arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is limited by the radioactivity of the two P isotopes, especially under field conditions. A potential alternative method for tracing P uptake in plant-soil systems relies on the analysis of the stable oxygen (O) isotopes of ortho-phosphate (Pi); however, little is known about the fate of the P-O bond during Pi uptake in AM symbioses. This study investigated whether the abundance of 18 O in Pi extracted from the shoots of maize increased after 18 O-labeled Pi added to soil was taken up by either roots of maize or AM extraradical hyphae...
June 27, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Michela Palla, Fabio Battini, Caterina Cristani, Manuela Giovannetti, Andrea Squartini, Monica Agnolucci
Most beneficial services provided by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), encompassing improved crop performance and soil resource availability, are mediated by AMF-associated bacteria, showing key-plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits, i.e., the production of indole acetic acid, siderophores and antibiotics, and activities increasing the availability of plant nutrients by nitrogen fixation and phosphate mobilization. Such functions may be affected by the ability of AMF-associated bacteria to communicate through the production and secretion of extracellular small diffusible chemical signals, N-acyl homoserine lactone signal molecules (AHLs), that regulate bacterial behavior at the community level (quorum sensing, QS)...
June 24, 2018: Mycorrhiza
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