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Pawel Rosikiewicz, Jérémy Bonvin, Ian R Sanders
One of the bottlenecks in mycorrhiza research is that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have to be cultivated with host plant roots. Some AMF species, such as Rhizophagus irregularis, can be grown in vitro on dual-compartment plates, where fungal material can be harvested from a fungus-only compartment. Plant roots often grow into this fungus compartment, and regular root trimming is required if the fungal material needs to be free of traces of plant material. Trimming also increases unwanted contamination by other microorganisms...
February 16, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Ingrid Lenoir, Joël Fontaine, Benoît Tisserant, Frédéric Laruelle, Anissa Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are able to improve plant establishment in polluted soils but little is known about the genes involved in the plant protection against pollutant toxicity by mycorrhization, in particular in the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The present work aims at studying in both symbiotic partners, Medicago truncatula and Rhizophagus irregularis: (i) expression of genes putatively involved in PAH tolerance (MtSOD, MtPOX, MtAPX, MtGST, MtTFIIS, and MtTdp1α), (ii) activities of antioxidant (SOD, POX) and detoxification (GST) enzymes, and (iii) H2O2 and the heavy PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) accumulation...
February 15, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Wentao Hu, Haoqiang Zhang, Hui Chen, Ming Tang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can assist their hosts to cope with water stress and other abiotic stresses in different ways. In order to test whether AM plants have a greater capacity than control plants to cope with water stress, we investigated the water status and photosynthetic capacity of Lycium barbarum colonized or not by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis under three water conditions during a hot summer. Sugar levels and transcriptional responses of both plant and AM fungus aquaporin genes in roots were analyzed...
February 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Xiaobing Wang, Jianjun Liu, Dongfeng Long, Qisheng Han, Jian Huang
Quercus liaotungensis is a major tree species in deciduous broad-leaved forests in northern China. In this study, we investigated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities associated with Q. liaotungensis from five typical habitats across northern China. We used internal transcribed spacer-polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to identify ECM fungi, and we detected 220 operational taxonomic units. In general, at the regional scale, the dominant ECM lineages were /tomentella-thelephora, /cenococcum, /russula-lactarius, and /inocybe...
January 24, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Mieke van der Heyde, Brian Ohsowski, Lynette K Abbott, Miranda Hart
Anthropogenic disturbance is one of the most important forces shaping soil ecosystems. While organisms that live in the soil, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, are sensitive to disturbance, their response is not always predictable. Given the range of disturbance types and differences among AM fungi in their growth strategies, the unpredictability of the responses of AM fungi to disturbance is not surprising. We investigated the role of disturbance type (i.e., soil disruption, agriculture, host perturbation, and chemical disturbance) and fungus identity on disturbance response in the AM symbiosis...
January 24, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Muhammad Waseem, Marc Ducousso, Yves Prin, Odile Domergue, Laure Hannibal, Clarisse Majorel, Philippe Jourand, Antoine Galiana
New Caledonian serpentine (ultramafic) soils contain high levels of toxic heavy metals, in particular nickel, (up to 20 g kg(-1)) and are deficient in essential elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus while having a high magnesium/calcium ratio. Although previous studies showed that ectomycorrhizal symbioses could play an important role in the adaptation of the endemic plants to ultramafic soils (FEMS Microbiol Ecol 72:238-49, 2010), none of them have compared the diversity of microbial communities from ultramafic vs non-ultramafic soils in New Caledonia...
January 13, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Petr Kohout, Leho Tedersoo
Ericoid mycorrhiza represents a key adaptation of the Ericaceae plants to facilitate their establishment in harsh conditions. The Ericaceae are a large family of flowering plants, with global distribution. However, our current knowledge about the ericoid mycorrhizal fungal diversity and ecology largely relates to the Northern Hemisphere. Our study focused on the assembly of root-associated fungal (RAF) communities of Erica dominans in two types of microhabitats of contrasting moisture along an elevation gradient in Drakensberg mountains in South Africa...
January 12, 2017: Mycorrhiza
F Rineau, H Lmalem, D Ahren, F Shah, T Johansson, L Coninx, J Ruytinx, H Nguyen, I Grigoriev, A Kuo, A Kohler, E Morin, J Vangronsveld, F Martin, J V Colpaert
Hydrophobins are small secreted proteins that are present as several gene copies in most fungal genomes. Their properties are now well understood: they are amphiphilic and assemble at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces. However, their physiological functions remain largely unexplored, especially within mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we identified hydrophobin genes and analysed their distribution in eight mycorrhizal genomes. We then measured their expression levels in three different biological conditions (mycorrhizal tissue vs...
January 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
Chao Wang, Philip J White, Chunjian Li
Effects of soil depth and plant growth stages on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonization and community structure in maize roots and their potential contribution to host plant phosphorus (P) nutrition under different P-fertilizer inputs were studied. Research was conducted on a long-term field experiment over 3 years. AMF colonization was assessed by AM colonization rate and arbuscule abundances and their potential contribution to host P nutrition by intensity of fungal alkaline phosphatase (ALP)/acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and expressions of ZmPht1;6 and ZmCCD8a in roots from the topsoil and subsoil layer at different growth stages...
December 30, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Jane Oja, Johanna Vahtra, Mohammad Bahram, Petr Kohout, Tiiu Kull, Riinu Rannap, Urmas Kõljalg, Leho Tedersoo
Orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi play a crucial role in the ontogeny of orchids, yet little is known about how the structure of OrM fungal communities varies with space and environmental factors. Previous studies suggest that within orchid patches, the distance to adult orchids may affect the abundance of OrM fungi. Many orchid species grow in species-rich temperate semi-natural grasslands, the persistence of which depends on moderate physical disturbances, such as grazing and mowing. The aim of this study was to test whether the diversity, structure and composition of OrM fungal community are influenced by the orchid patches and management intensity in semi-natural grasslands...
December 30, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Raffaella Balestrini, Alessandra Salvioli, Alessandra Dal Molin, Mara Novero, Giovanni Gabelli, Eleonora Paparelli, Fabio Marroni, Paola Bonfante
Grapevine, cultivated for both fruit and beverage production, represents one of the most economically important fruit crops worldwide. With the aim of better understanding how grape roots respond to beneficial microbes, a transcriptome sequencing experiment has been performed to evaluate the impact of a single arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species (Funneliformis mosseae) versus a mixed inoculum containing a bacterial and fungal consortium, including different AM species, on Richter 110 rootstock. Results showed that the impact of a single AM fungus and of a complex microbial inoculum on the grapevine transcriptome differed...
December 27, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Silvia Lazzara, Marcello Militello, Alessandra Carrubba, Edoardo Napoli, Sergio Saia
St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a perennial herb able to produce water-soluble active ingredients (a.i.), mostly in flowers, with a wide range of medicinal and biotechnological uses. However, information about the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to affect its biomass accumulation, flower production, and concentration of a.i. under contrasting nutrient availability is still scarce. In the present experiment, we evaluated the role of AMF on growth, flower production, and concentration of bioactive secondary metabolites (hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin) of H...
December 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
M-L Bouffaud, C Bragalini, A Berruti, M Peyret-Guzzon, S Voyron, H Stockinger, D van Tuinen, E Lumini, D Wipf, P Plassart, P Lemanceau, V Bianciotto, D Redecker, M Girlanda
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities have been demonstrated to respond to a variety of biotic and abiotic factors, including various aspects of land management. Numerous studies have specifically addressed the impact of land use on AMF communities, but usually have been confined to one or a few sites. In this study, soil AMF assemblages were described in four different long-term observatories (LTOs) across Europe, each of which included a site-specific high-intensity and a low-intensity land use...
December 10, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Charline Henry, Jeanne-Françoise Raivoarisoa, Angélo Razafimamonjy, Heriniaina Ramanankierana, Paul Andrianaivomahefa, Marc Ducousso, Marc-André Selosse
Mycorrhizal symbiosis is extremely important for tree growth, survival and resistance after transplantation particularly in Madagascar where deforestation is a major concern. The importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis is further increased when soil conditions at the planting site are limiting. To identify technical itineraries capable of improving ecological restoration in Madagascar, we needed to obtain native ectomycorrhizal (ECM) saplings with a wide diversity of ECM fungi. To this end, we transplanted ECM seedlings from the wild (wildlings) to a nursery...
December 8, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Camille S Delavaux, Tessa Camenzind, Jürgen Homeier, Rosa Jiménez-Paz, Mark Ashton, Simon A Queenborough
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition are increasing worldwide largely due to increased fertilizer use and fossil fuel combustion. Most work with N and P deposition in natural ecosystems has focused on temperate, highly industrialized, regions. Tropical regions are becoming more developed, releasing large amounts of these nutrients into the atmosphere. Nutrient enrichment in nutrient-poor systems such as tropical montane forest can represent a relatively large shift in nutrient availability, especially for sensitive microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)...
December 6, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Tanja Mrak, Katja Kühdorf, Tine Grebenc, Ines Štraus, Babette Münzenberger, Hojka Kraigher
Despite its broad host range and distribution and its potential applications in commercial plantation forests, comprehensive descriptions of Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae are available only for Scleroderma citrinum, Scleroderma bovista and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study provides a morphological and anatomical description of tree nursery derived ectomycorrhizae of Scleroderma areolatum on Fagus sylvatica, grown for several years in a climatized room. Ectomycorrhizae of S. areolatum were silvery white with abundant rhizomorphs; all mantle layers were plectenchymatous, rhizomorphs of type E, with prominent emanating hyphae with thick cell wall...
December 2, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Bang Feng, Jian Wei Liu, Jianping Xu, Kuan Zhao, Zai Wei Ge, Zhu L Yang
The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Bailey A Nicholson, Melanie D Jones
After stand-replacing disturbance, regenerating conifer seedlings become colonized by different ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) than the locally adapted EMF communities present on seedlings in mature forests. We studied whether EMF species that colonized subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) seedlings in clearcuts differed from those that colonized seedlings in adjacent mature forests with respect to mycorrhizoplane extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) and N status of the seedlings. We tested two alternate hypotheses: (1) that EEAs would differ between the two EMF communities, with higher activities associated with forest-origin communities, and (2) that acclimation to soil environment was considerable enough that EEAs would be determined primarily by the soil type in which the ectomycorrhizas were growing...
November 29, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Marta L Majewska, Kaja Rola, Szymon Zubek
While a number of recent studies have revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can mediate invasive plant success, the influence of these symbionts on the most successful and high-impact invaders is largely unexplored. Two perennial herbs of this category of invasive plants, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae), were thus tested in a pot experiment to determine whether AMF influence their growth, the concentration of phosphorus in biomass, and photosynthesis. The following treatments, including three common AMF species, were prepared on soils representative of two habitats that are frequently invaded by both plants, namely fallow and river valley: (1) control-soil without AMF, (2) Rhizophagus irregularis, (3) Funneliformis mosseae, and (4) Claroideoglomus claroideum...
February 2017: Mycorrhiza
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