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Mycorrhiza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647757/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-effects-on-plant-performance-under-osmotic-stress
#1
REVIEW
Christian Santander, Ricardo Aroca, Juan Manuel Ruiz-Lozano, Jorge Olave, Paula Cartes, Fernando Borie, Pablo Cornejo
At present, drought and soil salinity are among the most severe environmental stresses that affect the growth of plants through marked reduction of water uptake which lowers water potential, leading to osmotic stress. In general, osmotic stress causes a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that affect plant performance. Several studies have found that diverse types of soil microorganisms improve plant growth, especially when plants are under stressful conditions. Most important are the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) which form arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) with approximately 80% of plant species and are present in almost all terrestrial ecosystems...
June 25, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608039/antifungal-genes-expressed-in-transgenic-pea-pisum-sativum-l-do-not-affect-root-colonization-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-fungi
#2
Jagroop Gill Kahlon, Hans-Jörg Jacobsen, James F Cahill, Linda M Hall
Genetically modified crops have raised concerns about unintended consequences on non-target organisms including beneficial soil associates. Pea transformed with four antifungal genes 1-3 β glucanase, endochitinase, polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins, and stilbene synthase is currently under field-testing for efficacy against fungal diseases in Canada. Transgenes had lower expression in the roots than leaves in greenhouse experiment. To determine the impact of disease-tolerant pea or gene products on colonization by non-target arbuscular mycorrhizae and nodulation by rhizobium, a field trial was established...
June 12, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593465/high-effectiveness-of-rhizophagus-irregularis-is-linked-to-superior-modulation-of-antioxidant-defence-mechanisms-in-cajanus-cajan-l-millsp-genotypes-grown-under-salinity-stress
#3
Rekha Pandey, Neera Garg
Salinity stress leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative damage in plants. A correlation between antioxidant capacity and salt tolerance has been demonstrated in several plant species, which may be enhanced by inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, plant responses to mycorrhization may differ depending on the host plant as well as AMF isolate. It has been proposed that AMF sourced from stressed environments may be better suited as stress ameliorators than non-native/exotic ones...
June 7, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593464/fine-root-endophytes-under-scrutiny-a-review-of-the-literature-on-arbuscule-producing-fungi-recently-suggested-to-belong-to-the-mucoromycotina
#4
REVIEW
Suzanne Orchard, Rachel J Standish, Ian A Dickie, Michael Renton, Christopher Walker, Derrick Moot, Megan H Ryan
Fine root endophytes (FRE) are arbuscule-forming fungi presently considered as a single species-Glomus tenue in the Glomeromycota (Glomeromycotina)-but probably belong within the Mucoromycotina. Thus, FRE are the only known arbuscule-forming fungi not within the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomeromycotina) as currently understood. Phylogenetic differences between FRE and AMF could reflect ecological differences. To synthesize current ecological knowledge, we reviewed the literature on FRE and identified 108 papers that noted the presence of FRE and, in some, the colonization levels for FRE or AMF (or both)...
June 7, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585092/rhizophagus-irregularis-mucl-41833-transitorily-reduces-tomato-bacterial-wilt-incidence-caused-by-ralstonia-solanacearum-under-in-vitro-conditions
#5
Marie Chave, Patrice Crozilhac, Péninna Deberdt, Katia Plouznikoff, Stéphane Declerck
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the world's most important soil-borne plant diseases. In Martinique, French West Indies, a highly virulent new pathogenic variant of this bacterium (phylotype IIB/4NPB) severely impacts tomato production. Here we report on the effect of R. solanacearum CFBP 6783, classified in phytotype IIB/4NPB, on tomato plantlets grown under strict in vitro culture conditions in the presence or absence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833...
June 5, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573458/an-in-vivo-whole-plant-experimental-system-for-the-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-extraradical-mycorrhizal-mycelium
#6
Alessandra Pepe, Cristiana Sbrana, Nuria Ferrol, Manuela Giovannetti
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish beneficial mutualistic symbioses with land plants, receiving carbon in exchange for mineral nutrients absorbed by the extraradical mycelium (ERM). With the aim of obtaining in vivo produced ERM for gene expression analyses, a whole-plant bi-dimensional experimental system was devised and tested with three host plants and three fungal symbionts. In such a system, Funneliformis mosseae in symbiosis with Cichorium intybus var. foliosum, Lactuca sativa, and Medicago sativa produced ERM whose lengths ranged from 9...
June 1, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569349/real-time-pcr-quantification-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-does-the-use-of-nuclear-or-mitochondrial-markers-make-a-difference
#7
Alena Voříšková, Jan Jansa, David Püschel, Manuela Krüger, Tomáš Cajthaml, Miroslav Vosátka, Martina Janoušková
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be quantified by different approaches. We compared two approaches that enable discrimination of specific AMF taxa and are therefore emerging as alternative to most commonly performed microscopic quantification of AMF in roots: quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using markers in nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA (mtDNA). In a greenhouse experiment, Medicago truncatula was inoculated with four isolates belonging to different AMF species (Rhizophagus irregularis, Claroideoglomus claroideum, Gigaspora margarita and Funneliformis mosseae)...
May 31, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547294/seasonal-dynamics-of-extraradical-mycelium-and-mycorrhizas-in-a-black-truffle-tuber-melanosporum-plantation
#8
Mikel Queralt, Javier Parladé, Joan Pera, Ana María DE Miguel
Seasonal dynamics of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) extraradical mycelium as well as the associated mycorrhizal community have been evaluated in a 16-year-old plantation with productive and non-productive trees. Mycelium biomass was seasonally quantified by real-time PCR over two consecutive years and the correlation with environmental variables explored. Extraradical mycelium biomass varied seasonally and between the two consecutive years, being correlated with the precipitation that occurred 1 month before sampling...
May 25, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536847/an-empirical-investigation-of-the-possibility-of-adaptability-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-to-new-hosts
#9
Akihiro Koyama, Olivia Pietrangelo, Laura Sanderson, Pedro M Antunes
Little is known about the adaptive capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to novel hosts. Here we assessed the possibility of two heterospecific AM fungal isolates to adaptively change, in terms of host biomass response, as a function of host plant identity, over the course of a growing season. First, we produced pure inocula of Rhizophagus clarus and Rhizophagus intraradices, each starting from a single spore. Second, we "trained" each isolate individually in a community with two plants, sudangrass (Sorgum bicolour subsp...
May 24, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488060/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-pseudomonas-in-reduce-drought-stress-damage-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-a-field-study
#10
Saeedeh Rahimzadeh, Alireza Pirzad
Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively)...
May 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424944/indirect-interactions-between-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-spodoptera-exigua-alter-photosynthesis-and-plant-endogenous-hormones
#11
Lei He, Changyou Li, Runjin Liu
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Linn. cv: Luhua 11) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv: Zhongshu 4) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae BEG167 (Fm), Rhizophagus intraradices BEG141 (Ri), and Glomus versiforme Berch (Gv), and/or Spodoptera exigua (S. exigua) under greenhouse conditions. Results indicated that feeding by S. exigua had little influence on colonization of peanut plants by AMF, but improved colonization of tomato by Fm and Gv. Feeding by S. exigua had little influence on leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of nonmycorrhizal peanut plants but significantly improved net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of mycorrhizal plants of both hosts...
April 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421312/an-annotated-translation-of-no%C3%A3-l-bernard-s-1899-article-on-the-germination-of-neottia-nidus-avis
#12
Marc-André Selosse, Julita Minasiewicz, Bernard Boullard
We translate Noël Bernard's discovery of orchid symbiotic germination discovered on Neottia nidus-avis, as published in the May 1899 issue of the Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. In his note, Bernard (1874-1911) establishes the need for a fungus, which is also forming mycorrhizae in adults, for seeds germination. We provide illustrations reproduced from his later works, and summaries of the French text he cited. In our annotations, we show how early this discovery was done in Bernard's career, and insist on the scientific framework at the end of the nineteenth century, where orchid germination was mysterious and the need for vicinity of parents was not fully understood...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421311/long-term-soil-alteration-in-historical-charcoal-hearths-affects-tuber-melanosporum-mycorrhizal-development-and-environmental-conditions-for-fruiting
#13
Sergi Garcia-Barreda, Sara Molina-Grau, Ricardo Forcadell, Sergio Sánchez, Santiago Reyna
Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401349/erratum-to-occurrence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-saline-soils-of-the-tabriz-plain-of-iran-in-relation-to-some-physical-and-chemical-properties-of-soil
#14
N Aliasgharzad, N Saleh Rastin, H Towfighi, A Alizadeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913893/scleroderma-areolatum-ectomycorrhiza-on-fagus-sylvatica-l
#15
Tanja Mrak, Katja Kühdorf, Tine Grebenc, Ines Štraus, Babette Münzenberger, Hojka Kraigher
Despite its broad host range and distribution and its potential applications in commercial plantation forests, comprehensive descriptions of Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae are available only for Scleroderma citrinum, Scleroderma bovista and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study provides a morphological and anatomical description of tree nursery derived ectomycorrhizae of Scleroderma areolatum on Fagus sylvatica, grown for several years in a climatized room. Ectomycorrhizae of S. areolatum were silvery white with abundant rhizomorphs; all mantle layers were plectenchymatous, rhizomorphs of type E, with prominent emanating hyphae with thick cell wall...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909817/phylogenetic-structure-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-communities-along-an-elevation-gradient
#16
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909816/ecological-and-physical-barriers-shape-genetic-structure-of-the-alpine-porcini-boletus-reticuloceps
#17
Bang Feng, Jian Wei Liu, Jianping Xu, Kuan Zhao, Zai Wei Ge, Zhu L Yang
The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900594/early-successional-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-effectively-support-extracellular-enzyme-activities-and-seedling-nitrogen-accumulation-in-mature-forests
#18
Bailey A Nicholson, Melanie D Jones
After stand-replacing disturbance, regenerating conifer seedlings become colonized by different ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) than the locally adapted EMF communities present on seedlings in mature forests. We studied whether EMF species that colonized subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) seedlings in clearcuts differed from those that colonized seedlings in adjacent mature forests with respect to mycorrhizoplane extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) and N status of the seedlings. We tested two alternate hypotheses: (1) that EEAs would differ between the two EMF communities, with higher activities associated with forest-origin communities, and (2) that acclimation to soil environment was considerable enough that EEAs would be determined primarily by the soil type in which the ectomycorrhizas were growing...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885418/phylogenetic-and-functional-traits-of-ectomycorrhizal-assemblages-in-top-soil-from-different-biogeographic-regions-and-forest-types
#19
Rodica Pena, Christa Lang, Gertrud Lohaus, Steffen Boch, Peter Schall, Ingo Schöning, Christian Ammer, Markus Fischer, Andrea Polle
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait diversity (exploration types) were analyzed in beech and conifer forests along a north-to-south gradient in three biogeographic regions in Germany. The taxonomic community structures of the ectomycorrhizal assemblages in top soil were influenced by stand density and forest type, by biogeographic environmental factors (soil physical properties, temperature, and precipitation), and by nitrogen forms (amino acids, ammonium, and nitrate). While α-diversity did not differ between forest types, β-diversity increased, leading to higher γ-diversity on the landscape level when both forest types were present...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882467/are-there-keystone-mycorrhizal-fungi-associated-to-tropical-epiphytic-orchids
#20
Stefania Cevallos, Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cony Decock, Stéphane Declerck, Juan Pablo Suárez
In epiphytic orchids, distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the symbiotic association. However, little is known about the factors that determine the mycorrhizal community structure. Here, we analyzed the orchid mycorrhizal fungi communities associated with three sympatric Cymbidieae epiphytic tropical orchids (Cyrtochilum flexuosum, Cyrtochilum myanthum, and Maxillaria calantha) at two sites located within the mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. To characterize these communities at each orchid population, the ITS2 region was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq technology...
April 2017: Mycorrhiza
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