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Marcin Pietras, Monika Litkowiec, Joanna Gołębiewska
Suillus lakei is an ectomycorrhizal fungus native to North America and known in Europe, South America, and New Zealand. This contribution aims to illustrate the worldwide biogeography of S. lakei based on sporocarp records. Species distribution modeling was used to assess the suitable niche distribution of S. lakei, based on the climatic variables as well as distribution of its ectomycorrhizal partner, Douglas fir. In general, distribution of suitable niches of S. lakei greatly overlaps with the distribution of Douglas fir in North America...
May 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Frédéric G Masclaux, Tania Wyss, Ivan D Mateus-Gonzalez, Consolée Aletti, Ian R Sanders
The genetic state of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus species Rhizophagus irregularis differs among isolates, including both homokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates. Via the production of multi-nucleate axexual spores, siblings of dikaryotic isolates may inherit unequal frequencies of nucleotypes. Using bg112, a microsatellite marker, previous studies revealed that lines deriving from single spores of the dikaryotic R. irregularis isolate C3 differed in their proportions of different alleles. A genomic study of single nuclei of R...
April 19, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Francisca Reis, Teresa Valdiviesso, Carolina Varela, Rui M Tavares, Paula Baptista, Teresa Lino-Neto
Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) forests play an important ecological and economic role. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are key components for the sustainability and functioning of these ecosystems. The community structure and composition of ECMF associated with Q. suber in different landscapes of distinct Mediterranean bioclimate regions have not previously been compared. In this work, soil samples from cork oak forests residing in different bioclimates (arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, and humid) were collected and surveyed for ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tips...
April 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
François Maillard, Margaux Didion, Laure Fauchery, Cyrille Bach, Marc Buée
Chitin is one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing polymers in forest soil. Ability of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi to utilize chitin may play a key role in the EM symbiosis nutrition and soil carbon cycle. In forest, EM fungi exhibit high diversity, which could be based on function partitioning and trait complementarity. Although it has long been recognized that closely related species share functional characteristics, the phylogenetic conservatism of functional traits within microorganisms remains unclear...
April 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
C P Patrick Reid
Edward Hacskaylo was a pioneer in many aspects of mycorrhiza research and significantly influenced our understanding of the physiology and ecology of mycorrhizas. This memoir highlights Dr. Hacskaylo's many contributions and his impact on mycorrhiza research, especially through his encouragement and mentoring of young scientists.
April 10, 2018: Mycorrhiza
P E Courty, M Buée, J J T Tech, D Brulé, Y Colin, J H J Leveau, S Uroz
Understanding how soil pedogenesis affects microbial communities and their in situ activities according to ecosystem functioning is a central issue in soil microbial ecology, as soils represent essential nutrient reservoirs and habitats for the biosphere. To address this question, soil chronosequences developed from a single, shared mineralogical parent material and having the same climate conditions are particularly useful, as they isolate the factor of time from other factors controlling the character of soils...
March 25, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Cristiana Sbrana, Patrizia Strani, Alessandra Pepe, Candido Barreto de Novais, Manuela Giovannetti
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread, important plant symbionts. They absorb and translocate mineral nutrients from the soil to host plants through an extensive extraradical mycelium, consisting of indefinitely large networks of nonseptate, multinucleated hyphae which may be interconnected by hyphal fusions (anastomoses). This work investigated whether different lineages of the same isolate may lose the ability to establish successful anastomoses, becoming vegetatively incompatible, when grown separately...
March 25, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Seung-Yoon Oh, Young Woon Lim
Tricholoma matsutake (pine mushroom) (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) is a valuable edible fungal species that cannot be cultivated artificially. As an ectomycorrhizal fungus, T. matsutake interacts with trees belonging to the Pinaceae and Fagaceae, and forms fairy rings around host trees that are arc-shaped areas with dense hyphae of T. matsutake in the soil. Because the fairy rings maintain their dense hyphae for several years and form fruiting bodies, the characteristics of the fairy ring may be important in understanding the ecology of T...
March 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
David J Midgley, Brodie Sutcliffe, Paul Greenfield, Nai Tran-Dinh
This study describes a novel ericoid mycorrhizal fungus (ErMF), Gamarada debralockiae Midgley and Tran-Dinh gen. nov. sp. nov. Additionally, catabolism was explored from a genomic perspective. The nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of G. debralockiae were sequenced. Morphological characteristics were assessed on various media. Catabolic genes of G. debralockiae were explored using SignalP and dbCAN. Phylogenetic comparisons were undertaken using The 58.5-Mbp draft genome of G. debralockiae contained 17,075 putative genes...
May 2018: Mycorrhiza
Peter G Kennedy, Louis A Mielke, Nhu H Nguyen
Despite covering vast areas of boreal North America, the ecological factors structuring mycorrhizal fungal communities in peatland forests are relatively poorly understood. To assess how these communities vary by age (younger vs. mature), habitat (fen vs. bog), and host (conifer trees vs. ericaceous shrub), we sampled the roots of two canopy trees (Larix laricina and Picea mariana) and an ericaceous shrub (Ledum groenlandicum) at four sites in northern Minnesota, USA. To characterize the specific influence of host co-occurrence on mycorrhizal fungal community structure, we also conducted a greenhouse bioassay using the same three hosts...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Charlotte Berthelot, Damien Blaudez, Thierry Beguiristain, Michel Chalot, Corinne Leyval
The presence of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant roots and their effects on plant fitness have been extensively described. However, little is known about their interactions when they are simultaneously colonizing a plant root, especially in trace element (TE)-polluted soils. We therefore investigated the effects of Cadophora sp. and Funneliformis mosseae on ryegrass (Lolium perenne) growth and element uptake in a Cd/Zn/Pb-polluted soil. The experiment included four treatments, i...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Wei Xie, Zhipeng Hao, Xiaofu Zhou, Xuelian Jiang, Lijiao Xu, Songlin Wu, Aihua Zhao, Xin Zhang, Baodong Chen
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is an important medicinal plant for which there is a huge market demand. It has been reported that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and drought stress can stimulate the accumulation of the active ingredients, glycyrrhizin and liquiritin, in liquorice plants, but the potential interactions of AM symbiosis and drought stress remain largely unknown. In the present work, we investigated mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in liquorice plants under different water regimes...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Petra Bukovská, Michael Bonkowski, Tereza Konvalinková, Olena Beskid, Martina Hujslová, David Püschel, Veronika Řezáčová, María Semiramis Gutiérrez-Núñez, Milan Gryndler, Jan Jansa
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can significantly contribute to plant nitrogen (N) uptake from complex organic sources, most likely in concert with activity of soil saprotrophs and other microbes releasing and transforming the N bound in organic forms. Here, we tested whether AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis) extraradical hyphal networks showed any preferences towards certain forms of organic N (chitin of fungal or crustacean origin, DNA, clover biomass, or albumin) administered in spatially discrete patches, and how the presence of AM fungal hyphae affected other microbes...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Jan V Colpaert, David P Janos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Siim-Kaarel Sepp, Teele Jairus, Martti Vasar, Martin Zobel, Maarja Öpik
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities vary across habitat types, as well as across different land use types. Most relevant research, however, has focused on agricultural or other severely human-impacted ecosystems. Here, we compared AM fungal communities across six habitat types: calcareous grassland, overgrown ungrazed calcareous grassland, wooded meadow, farmyard lawn, boreonemoral forest, and boreonemoral forest clear-cut, exhibiting contrasting modes of land use. AM fungi in the roots of a single host plant species, Prunella vulgaris, and in its rhizosphere soil were identified using 454-sequencing from a total of 103 samples from 12 sites in Estonia...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Mónica Sebastiana, Anabela Bernardes da Silva, Ana Rita Matos, André Alcântara, Susana Silvestre, Rui Malhó
We investigated whether the performance of cork oak under drought could be improved by colonization with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius. Results show that inoculation alone had a positive effect on plant height, shoot biomass, shoot basal diameter, and root growth. Under drought, root growth of mycorrhizal plants was significantly increased showing that inoculation was effective in increasing tolerance to drought. In accordance, mycorrhizal plants subjected to drought showed less symptoms of stress when compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, such as lower concentration of soluble sugars and starch, increased ability to maintain fatty acid content and composition, and increased unsaturation level of membrane lipids...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Rafał Ważny, Piotr Rozpądek, Roman J Jędrzejczyk, Marta Śliwa, Anna Stojakowska, Teresa Anielska, Katarzyna Turnau
Phytoremediation of polluted sites can be improved by co-inoculation with mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. In this study, the effects of single- and co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Rhizoglomus intraradices, and endophytic fungi, Mucor sp. or Trichoderma asperellum, on plant growth, vitality, toxic metal accumulation, sesquiterpene lactone production and flavonoid concentration in the presence of toxic metals were evaluated. Inoculation with the AM fungus increased biomass yield of the plants grown on non-polluted and polluted substrate...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Martina Vašutová, Magda Edwards-Jonášová, Petra Veselá, Lenka Effenberková, Peter Fleischer, Pavel Cudlín
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, as symbionts of many tree species in temperate forests, are thought to play an important role in forest regeneration processes after large disturbances. Their reaction to different disturbance and management regimes was studied in spruce forests (Lariceto-Piceetum) 10 years after a severe windthrow in the Tatra National Park (Slovak Republic). ECM community structure was compared between different "management types″-cleared area (EXT), area affected by wildfire (FIRE), uncleared area left for natural development (NEX), and mature forest as a control (REF)...
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Christopher Walker, Armelle Gollotte, Dirk Redecker
In 1977, the fine root endophyte, originally named Rhizophagus tenuis, was transferred into the genus Glomus as G. tenue, thus positioning the species with all other known arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota, Glomeromycotina). Recent molecular evidence, however, places it in a different subphylum, Mucoromycotina in the Mucoromycota. No suitable genus exists in the Mucoromycotina to accommodate G. tenue, so it is moved to Planticonsortium gen. nov. as P. tenue comb. nov.
April 2018: Mycorrhiza
Takahiko Koizumi, Masahira Hattori, Kazuhide Nara
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses are indispensable for the establishment of host trees, yet available information of ECM symbiosis in alpine forests is scarce. Pinus pumila is a typical ice age relict tree species in Japan and often forms monodominant dwarf vegetation above the tree line in mountains. We studied ECM fungi colonizing P. pumila on Mt. Norikura, Japan, with reference to host developmental stages, i.e., from current-year seedlings to mature trees. ECM fungal species were identified based on rDNA ITS sequences...
February 2018: Mycorrhiza
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