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Laura Bogar, Kabir Peay, Ari Kornfeld, Julia Huggins, Sara Hortal, Ian Anderson, Peter Kennedy
Although ectomycorrhizal fungi have well-recognized effects on ecological processes ranging from plant community dynamics to carbon cycling rates, it is unclear if plants are able to actively influence the structure of these fungal communities. To address this knowledge gap, we performed two complementary experiments to determine (1) whether ectomycorrhizal plants can discriminate among potential fungal partners, and (2) to what extent the plants might reward better mutualists. In experiment 1, split-root Larix occidentalis seedlings were inoculated with spores from three Suillus species (S...
January 7, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Alena Voříšková, Jan Jansa, David Püschel, Miroslav Vosátka, Petr Šmilauer, Martina Janoušková
The relationship between mycorrhiza functioning and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities is an important but experimentally still rather little explored topic. The main aim of this study was thus to link magnitude of plant benefits from AM symbiosis in different abiotic contexts with quantitative changes in AM fungal community composition. A synthetic AM fungal community inoculated to the model host plant Medicago truncatula was exposed to four different abiotic contexts, namely drought, elevated phosphorus availability, and shading, as compared to standard cultivation conditions, for two cultivation cycles...
January 5, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Meili Baragatti, Paul-Marie Grollemund, Pierre Montpied, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Joël Gravier, Claude Murat, François Le Tacon
From 1903-1904 to 1988-1989, the two World Wars and sociological factors as rural desertification and changes in land uses mainly explained the decline of black truffle production in the Vaucluse department, which well reflects that of the whole of France. These can be correlated with the annual climatic variations as well as, from 1924-1925 to 1948-1949, the raw production rates of the managed truffle orchard of Pernes-les-Fontaines located in Vaucluse. The two methods used (correlation coefficients and Bayesian functional linear regression with Sparse Step functions) gave consistent results: the main factor explaining the annual variations of truffle production was the summer climatic water deficit of the year n...
January 3, 2019: Mycorrhiza
Nan Yang, Olaf Butenschoen, Rumana Rana, Lars Köhler, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner, Stefan Scheu, Andrea Polle, Rodica Pena
In forest ecosystems, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important for plant growth and soil biogeochemical processes. The biochemical composition of ECM mycelium is an important fungal effect trait with consequences for its decomposition rate, and consequently on soil carbon pools and plant nutrition. Although the link between ECM fungi and leaf litter-released nutrients is well known, the response of ECM fungal biochemical composition to different leaf litter species remains poorly understood. To determine how leaf litter quality influences ECM fungi's biochemical profiles, we planted young beech trees in an oak forest and replaced the natural leaf litter with that of European beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), or lime (Tilia cordata)...
December 13, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Babacar Thioye, Diederik van Tuinen, Aboubacry Kane, Sergio Mania de Faria, Cheikh Ndiaye, Robin Duponnois, Samba Ndao Sylla, Amadou Mustapha Bâ
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a major role as biofertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Nevertheless, it is still poorly documented whether inoculated AMF can successfully establish in field soils as exotic AMF and improve plant growth and productivity. Further, the fate of an exogenous inoculum is still poorly understood. Here, we pre-inoculated two cultivars (Tasset and Gola) of the fruit tree Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube) with the exotic AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis isolate IR27 before transplantation in the field...
November 21, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Carlos Urcelay, Silvana Longo, József Geml, Paula A Tecco
It is generally assumed that recruitment and expansion of alien species along elevation gradients are constrained by climate. But, if plants are not fully constrained by climate, their expansion could be facilitated or hindered by other factors such as biotic interactions. Here, we assessed the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soils along an elevation gradient (i.e. 900 m, 1600 m, 2200 m and 2700 m a.s.l.) through a fungal DNA meta-barcoding approach. In addition, we studied in the greenhouse the effects of AMF on growth and phosphorous (P) nutrition of seedlings of the alien trees Gleditsia triacanthos, Ligustrum lucidum and Pyracantha angustifolia cultivated in soils from those elevations, spanning the elevation at which they already form monospecific stands (below 1450 m a...
November 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Awagul Awaydul, Wanying Zhu, Yongge Yuan, Jing Xiao, Hao Hu, Xin Chen, Roger T Koide, Lei Cheng
Invasive species often reduce ecosystem services and lead to a serious threat to native biodiversity. Roots of invasive plants are often linked to roots of native plants by common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but whether and how CMNs mediate interactions between invasive and native plant species remains largely uninvestigated. We conducted two microcosm experiments, one in which we amended the soil with mineral N and another in which we amended the soil with mineral P. In each experiment, we grew a pair of test plants consisting of Kummerowia striata (native to our research site) and Solidago canadensis (an invasive species)...
November 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Lu-Min Vaario, Shambhu Prasad Sah, Mariko Norisada, Maki Narimatsu, Norihisa Matsushita
Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus capable of in vitro saprotrophic growth, but the sources of C and N used to generate sporocarps in vivo are not well understood. We examined natural abundance isotope data to investigate this phenomenon. For this purpose, C, N and their stable isotopes (13 C, 15 N) content of fungal sporocarps and their potential nutrient sources (i.e., foliage, litter, fine roots, wood, and soil) were investigated from two well-studied sites in Finland and Japan. Our results show that δ13 C values of T...
November 8, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Michael Bitterlich, Philipp Franken, Jan Graefe
Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) consume plant carbon and impact photosynthesis, but effects of AMF on plant gas exchange are transient and hardly predictable. This is at least partially because plant-internal nutrient-, water-, and sink-related effects, which can be influenced AMF, and atmospheric conditions integrate at the photosynthesis level. In nature and in plant production, plants face periodical and random short-term switches of environmental conditions that limit photosynthesis, which may impede stimulatory effects of AMF on leaf photosynthetic capacities...
October 31, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Lin Zhang, Jiequn Fan, Gu Feng, Stéphane Declerck
An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can cooperate with other soil microorganisms, e.g., bacteria, which develop near or on the surface of the extraradical hyphae where they perform multiple functions. However, the mechanisms involved in this privileged relationship are still poorly known. In the present study, we investigated how the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 43194 influences the three pace-making enzymes (i.e., citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium Rahnella aquatilis HX2...
October 27, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Mengjiao Li, Runze Wang, Hui Tian, Yajun Gao
The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the expression of genes in the roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at the transcriptome level is largely unknown. A pot experiment was established to study the responses of the transcriptome profile in the roots of wheat to colonization by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis using high through-put sequencing methods. The results indicated that the expression of 11,746 genes was regulated by AM colonization, and 64.7% of them were up-regulated genes...
November 2018: Mycorrhiza
Fengjuan Zhang, Qiao Li, Ellen Heininger Yerger, Xue Chen, Qing Shi, Fanghao Wan
Invasive species often cause enormous economic and ecological damage, and this is especially true for invasive plants in the Asteraceae family. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in the successful invasion by exotic plant species because of their ability to promote growth and influence interspecific competition. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of invasive Asteraceae species on AMF diversity and how feedback mechanisms during competition with native species subsequently affect the accumulation of nutrient resources...
November 2018: Mycorrhiza
Clifton P Bueno de Mesquita, Cormac M Martinez Del Río, Katharine N Suding, Steven K Schmidt
Fungal root endophytes play an important role in plant nutrition, helping plants acquire nutrients in exchange for photosynthates. We sought to characterize the progression of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), dark septate endophytes (DSE), and fine root endophytes (FRE) over an alpine growing season, and to understand the role of the host plant and environment in driving colonization levels. We sampled four forbs on a regular schedule from June 26th-September 11th from a moist meadow (3535 m a...
November 2018: Mycorrhiza
Maryline Calonne-Salmon, Katia Plouznikoff, Stéphane Declerck
The accumulation of phosphorus (P) in plants increases their biomass and resistance/tolerance to organic pollutants. Both characteristics are mandatory for the utilization of plants in phytoremediation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi improve plant P nutrition, and thus growth. However, only a few studies have focused on the dynamics of inorganic P (Pi) uptake in AM fungal-colonized plants in the presence of organic pollutants. Indeed, most of the results so far were obtained after harvesting the plants, thus by evaluating P concentration and content at a single time point...
November 2018: Mycorrhiza
Neera Garg, Amrit Bharti
Salt stress is a major abiotic stress restricting plant growth and reproductive yield. Salicylic acid (SA) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses play key roles in eliminating adverse effects of salt stress by modulating ion homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism in crop plants. Sugars synthesized via carbohydrate metabolism act as osmotic adjustors and signaling molecules in activation of various defense responses against salt stress. The present study investigated the role of SA (0.5 mM) seed priming in establishment of AM symbiosis with Rhizoglomus intraradices and the impact on growth, ion-homeostasis, nutrient uptake, and sugar metabolism in Cicer arietinum L...
November 2018: Mycorrhiza
Yuan Qin, Guoxiu Duan, Zhiliang Zhao, Hui Tian, Zakaria M Solaiman
The application of 33 P or 32 P isotopes to directly trace phosphorus (P) uptake during arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is limited by the radioactivity of the two P isotopes, especially under field conditions. A potential alternative method for tracing P uptake in plant-soil systems relies on the analysis of the stable oxygen (O) isotopes of ortho-phosphate (Pi); however, little is known about the fate of the P-O bond during Pi uptake in AM symbioses. This study investigated whether the abundance of 18 O in Pi extracted from the shoots of maize increased after 18 O-labeled Pi added to soil was taken up by either roots of maize or AM extraradical hyphae...
November 2018: Mycorrhiza
C Guillermo Bueno, Maret Gerz, Martin Zobel, Mari Moora
Empirical and taxonomic approaches are the two main methods used to assign plant mycorrhizal traits to species lists. While the empirical approach uses only available empirical information, the taxonomic approach extrapolates certain core information about plant mycorrhizal types and statuses to related species. Despite recent claims that the taxonomic approach is now almost definitive, with little benefit to be gained from further empirical data collection, it has not been thoroughly compared with the empirical approach...
October 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Francisco Arenas, Alfonso Navarro-Ródenas, Daniel Chávez, Almudena Gutiérrez, Manuela Pérez-Gilabert, Asunción Morte
Terfezia claveryi Chatin was the first desert truffle species to be cultivated, the mycorrhizal plants being successfully produced by using both desert truffle spores and mycelia. However, it is more advisable to use mycelium than spores whenever possible and profitable. Given the low yields of mycelia obtained using traditional culture methods of this truffle, the medium composition was modified in an attempt to determine its nutritional requirements. For this, an assay involving response surface methodology was performed using Box-Behnken design to find the optimal parameters for the high production of mycelial biomass...
October 2018: Mycorrhiza
Sidney L Stürmer, James D Bever, Joseph B Morton
Information on the biogeography of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important because this group of obligately symbiotic soil microbes is a ubiquitous and functionally critical component of terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, we utilize a biogeography database summarizing data on AMF species distribution linked to geographic and environmental conditions to describe global distribution patterns and interpret these patterns within a phylogenetic perspective. The data were obtained from accessions in living culture collections (INVAM, CICG), species descriptions, and other published literature from 1960 to 2012...
October 2018: Mycorrhiza
Akihiko Kinoshita, Keisuke Obase, Takashi Yamanaka
Modern truffle cultivation systems started in Europe in the early 1970s and are now successfully used for several European truffles throughout the world. However, systems for indigenous novel truffle species need to be developed in several regions, especially where truffle cultivation has not been attempted so far, such as in Japan. Recently, two new and one known truffle species that are expected to be edible were reported from Japan: Tuber japonicum, T. longispinosum, and T. himalayense. Here, we conducted mycorrhization trials between these three truffle species and four native tree species in Japan (Quercus acutissima, Q...
October 2018: Mycorrhiza
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