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Stav Livne-Luzon, Yael Avidan, Gil Weber, Hen Migael, Thomas Bruns, Ofer Ovadia, Hagai Shemesh
The success of dispersal events depend on the organism's ability to reach and establish in a new habitat. In symbiotic organisms, establishment also depends on the presence of their symbiont partner in the new habitat. For instance, the establishment of obligate ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees outside the forest is largely limited by the presence of EM fungi in soil. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are important dispersal agents of EM fungal spores, particularly in the moderately dry Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to explore how EM fungal spores dispersed by wild boars influence the EM fungal community associated with the roots of Pinus halepensis seedlings at different habitat types...
October 26, 2016: Mycorrhiza
M Clara Bruzone, Judith Fehrer, Sonia B Fontenla, Martin Vohník
Ericoid mycorrhiza is arguably the least investigated mycorrhizal type, particularly when related to the number of potential hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Little is known about the global distribution of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi, and this holds true even for the prominent ErM mycobiont Rhizoscyphus ericae. Earlier studies suggested R. ericae might be low in abundance or absent in the roots of Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae, and our previous investigations in two Argentine Patagonian forests supported this view...
October 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito
The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions...
October 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
K Huusko, A L Ruotsalainen, A M Markkola
Soil fungal community and dominant mycorrhizal types are known to shift along with plant community changes during primary succession. However, it is not well understood how and why root fungal symbionts and colonization types vary within the plant host when the host species is able to thrive both at young and at old successional stages with different light and nutrient resource availability. We asked (i) how root fungal colonization of Deschampsia flexuosa (Poaceae) by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and dark septate endophytes (DSE) changes along a postglacial primary successional land uplift gradient...
October 19, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Mónica Sebastiana, Joana Martins, Andreia Figueiredo, Filipa Monteiro, Jordi Sardans, Josep Peñuelas, Anabela Silva, Peter Roepstorff, Maria Salomé Pais, Ana Varela Coelho
An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species to ectomycorrhizae formation using a proteomics approach complemented by biochemical analysis of carbohydrate levels. Comparative proteome analysis between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cork oak plants revealed no differences at the foliar level...
October 7, 2016: Mycorrhiza
S Mehra, P D Morrison, F Coates, A C Lawrie
Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy...
September 17, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Marta L Majewska, Kaja Rola, Szymon Zubek
While a number of recent studies have revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can mediate invasive plant success, the influence of these symbionts on the most successful and high-impact invaders is largely unexplored. Two perennial herbs of this category of invasive plants, Rudbeckia laciniata and Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae), were thus tested in a pot experiment to determine whether AMF influence their growth, the concentration of phosphorus in biomass, and photosynthesis. The following treatments, including three common AMF species, were prepared on soils representative of two habitats that are frequently invaded by both plants, namely fallow and river valley: (1) control-soil without AMF, (2) Rhizophagus irregularis, (3) Funneliformis mosseae, and (4) Claroideoglomus claroideum...
August 31, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Andrés Argüelles-Moyao, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Laura Margarita Márquez-Valdelamar, Elsa Arellano-Torres
Abies religiosa is an endemic conifer of Mexico, where its monodominant forests are the winter refuge of the monarch butterfly. Due to climate change, it has been estimated that by 2090, A. religiosa populations will decline by 96.5 %. To achieve success, reforestation programs should consider its ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We used ITS nrDNA sequences to identify the ECM fungi associated with A. religiosa and, based on its abundance and frequency, determined the diversity and community structure in a pure A...
August 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Edward Hacskaylo
One of the pioneers of research on ectomycorrhizas in the mid-1900s was Elias Melin in Uppsala Sweden. The author spent a year in the Melin lab conducting his doctoral research. Here he describes that experience and the work of some others of the next generation of mycorrhiza researchers who also were members of the Melin lab.
August 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Bryony M Horton, Morag Glen, Neil J Davidson, David A Ratkowsky, Dugald C Close, Tim J Wardlaw, Caroline Mohammed
Fungal diversity of Australian eucalypt forests remains underexplored. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal community characteristics of declining temperate eucalypt forests in Tasmania. Within this context, we explored the diversity of EcM fungi of two forest types in the northern highlands in the east and west of the island. We hypothesised that EcM fungal community richness and composition would differ between forest type but that the Cortinariaceae would be the dominant family irrespective of forest type...
August 22, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Renata Slavíková, David Püschel, Martina Janoušková, Martina Hujslová, Tereza Konvalinková, Hana Gryndlerová, Milan Gryndler, Martin Weiser, Jan Jansa
Quantification of carbon (C) fluxes in mycorrhizal plants is one of the important yet little explored tasks of mycorrhizal physiology and ecology. (13)CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiments are increasingly being used to track the fate of C in these plant-microbial symbioses. Nevertheless, continuous monitoring of both the below- and aboveground CO2 emissions remains a challenge, although it is necessary to establish the full C budget of mycorrhizal plants. Here, a novel CO2 collection system is presented which allows assessment of gaseous CO2 emissions (including isotopic composition of their C) from both belowground and shoot compartments...
August 22, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Amandine Viollet, Barbara Pivato, Christophe Mougel, Jean-Claude Cleyet-Marel, Cécile Gubry-Rangin, Philippe Lemanceau, Sylvie Mazurier
Type three secretion systems (T3SSs) mediate cell-to-cell interactions between Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes. We hypothesized that fluorescent pseudomonads harboring T3SS (T3SS+) would be beneficial to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis because non-pathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads have been previously shown to be much more abundant in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal roots. We tested this hypothesis by comparing mycorrhization and the associated rhizosphere microbial communities of Medicago truncatula grown in a non-sterile soil inoculated with either the T3SS+ mycorrhiza helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (C7R12) or a T3SS- mutant of the strain...
August 22, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Salma Taktek, Marc St-Arnaud, Yves Piché, J André Fortin, Hani Antoun
Biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces was studied with two hyphobacteria, strongly attached to the surface of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizoglomus irregulare (Ri) DAOM 197198 and two mycorrhizobacteria, loosely attached to the roots of different mycorrhizal plants. When the sparingly soluble igneous phosphate rock (PR) from Quebec, or when the chemical hydroxyapatite were used as sole phosphorus (P) source, hyphobacteria Rhizobium miluonense Rm3 and Burkholderia anthina Ba8 produced significantly more biofilms than mycorrhizobacteria Rahnella sp...
August 19, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Elisa Bona, Simone Cantamessa, Nadia Massa, Paola Manassero, Francesco Marsano, Andrea Copetta, Guido Lingua, Giovanni D'Agostino, Elisa Gamalero, Graziella Berta
The aim of this work was to assess the effects of plant-beneficial microorganisms (two Pseudomonas strains and a mixed mycorrhizal inoculum, alone or in combination) on the quality of tomato fruits of plants grown in the field and subjected to reduced fertilization. Pseudomonas strain 19Fv1T was newly characterized during this study. The size and quality of the fruits (concentration of sugars, organic acids and vitamin C) were assessed. The microorganisms positively affected the flower and fruit production and the concentrations of sugars and vitamins in the tomato fruits...
August 18, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Shivani Srivastava, Xavier A Conlan, David M Cahill, Alok Adholeya
Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association formed between plant roots and soil borne fungi that alter and at times improve the production of secondary metabolites. Detailed information is available on mycorrhizal development and its influence on plants grown under various edapho-climatic conditions, however, very little is known about their influence on transformed roots that are rich reserves of secondary metabolites. This raises the question of how mycorrhizal colonization progresses in transformed roots grown in vitro and whether the mycorrhizal fungus presence influences the production of secondary metabolites...
November 2016: Mycorrhiza
Lin Zhang, Caiyun Jiang, Jiachao Zhou, Stéphane Declerck, Changyan Tian, Gu Feng
Plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) acquire phosphorus via roots and extraradical hyphae. How soil P level affects P accumulation within hyphae and how P in hyphae influences the accumulation of metal minerals remains little explored. A bi-compartmented in vitro cultivation system separating a root compartment (RC), containing a Ri T-DNA transformed carrot root associated to the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198, from a hyphal compartment (HC), containing only the extraradical hyphae, was used...
November 2016: Mycorrhiza
Virginie Molinier, Claude Murat, Andri Baltensweiler, Ulf Büntgen, Francis Martin, Barbara Meier, Barbara Moser, Ludger Sproll, Ulrich Stobbe, Willy Tegel, Simon Egli, Martina Peter
Although the Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum) is an ectomycorrhizal fungus of important economic value, its subterranean life cycle and population biology are still poorly understood. Here, we determine mating type and simple sequence repeat (SSR) maternal genotypes of mapped fruiting bodies to assess their genetic structure within two naturally colonized forest sites in southern Germany. Forty-one genotypes were identified from 112 fruiting bodies. According to their mating types, the maternal genotypes were aggregated only in one population...
November 2016: Mycorrhiza
Tao Li, Yuqing Sun, Yuan Ruan, Lijiiao Xu, Yajun Hu, Zhipeng Hao, Xin Zhang, Hong Li, Youshan Wang, Liguo Yang, Baodong Chen
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is known to stimulate plant drought tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying the synergistic responses of the symbiotic partners to drought stress are largely unknown. A split-root experiment was designed to investigate the molecular interactions between a host plant and an AM fungus (AMF) under drought stress. In the two-compartment cultivation system, an entire or only a half root system of a maize plant was inoculated with an AMF, Rhizophagus intraradices, in the presence of localized or systemic drought treatment...
November 2016: Mycorrhiza
Laetitia Herrmann, Didier Lesueur, Lambert Bräu, John Davison, Teele Jairus, Henri Robain, Agnès Robin, Martti Vasar, Wanpen Wiriyakitnateekul, Maarja Öpik
Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is of major economic importance in Southeast Asia and for small land holders in Thailand in particular. Due to the high value of latex, plantations are expanding into unsuitable areas, such as the northeast province of Thailand where soil fertility is very low and therefore appropriate management practices are of primary importance. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contribute to plant growth through a range of mechanisms and could play a key role in a more sustainable management of the rubber plantations...
November 2016: Mycorrhiza
Rosanne A Healy, Hannah Zurier, Gregory Bonito, Matthew E Smith, Donald H Pfister
During a study comparing the ectomycorrhizal root communities in a native forest with those at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts (USA), the European species Tuber borchii was detected on the roots of a native red oak in the arboretum over two successive years. Since T. borchii is an economically important edible truffle native to Europe, we conducted a search of other roots in the arboretum to determine the extent of colonization. We also wanted to determine whether other non-native Tuber species had been inadvertently introduced into this 140-year-old Arboretum because many trees were imported into the site with intact soil and roots prior to the 1921 USDA ban on these horticultural practices in the USA...
October 2016: Mycorrhiza
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