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Mycorrhiza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110091/tree-species-identity-and-diversity-drive-fungal-richness-and-community-composition-along-an-elevational-gradient-in-a-mediterranean-ecosystem
#1
Alessandro Saitta, Sten Anslan, Mohammad Bahram, Luca Brocca, Leho Tedersoo
Ecological and taxonomic knowledge is important for conservation and utilization of biodiversity. Biodiversity and ecology of fungi in Mediterranean ecosystems is poorly understood. Here, we examined the diversity and spatial distribution of fungi along an elevational gradient in a Mediterranean ecosystem, using DNA metabarcoding. This study provides novel information about diversity of all ecological and taxonomic groups of fungi along an elevational gradient in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Our analyses revealed that among all biotic and abiotic variables tested, host species identity is the main driver of the fungal richness and fungal community composition...
November 6, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101543/multi-cropping-edible-truffles-and-sweet-chestnuts-production-of-high-quality-castanea-sativa-seedlings-inoculated-with-tuber-aestivum-its-ecotype-t-uncinatum-t-brumale-and-t-macrosporum
#2
Amaya Álvarez-Lafuente, Luis F Benito-Matías, Juan L Peñuelas-Rubira, Laura M Suz
The plantation and management of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) orchards is a common and traditional land use system in many areas of Europe that offers the advantage of simultaneous production of nuts and timber. During the last decades, sweet chestnut has declined dramatically in many regions because of the profound social changes in rural areas coupled with pathogen attacks. Truffles, the hypogeous ascocarps of the ectomycorrhizal genus Tuber, are currently cultivated using host trees inoculated with these fungi for improving production in truffle orchards...
November 3, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046936/localization-of-helotialean-fungi-on-ectomycorrhizae-of-castanopsis-cuspidata-visualized-by-in-situ-hybridization
#3
Noritaka Nakamura, Eiji Tanaka, Chihiro Tanaka, Yuko Takeuchi-Kaneko
Non-ectomycorrhizal fungi that associate with typical ectomycorrhizae often remain hidden, and their localization inside ectomycorrhizal (ECM) roots has remained uncharacterized. In this study, the fungal community associated with the ectomycorrhizae of Castanopsis cuspidata was investigated using a culture-dependent isolation technique. Additionally, the species composition and localization were determined using molecular techniques. The results of the isolation and identification of fungal species revealed the predominance of a few species belonging to the order Helotiales...
October 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993893/identification-of-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-inducible-nitrate-transporter-1-peptide-transporter-family-npf-genes-in-rice
#4
Navina Drechsler, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Daphnée Brulé, Reinhard Kunze
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize up to 90% of all land plants and facilitate the acquisition of mineral nutrients by their hosts. Inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) and nitrogen (N) are the major nutrients transferred from the fungi to plants. While plant Pi transporters involved in nutrient transfer at the plant-fungal interface have been well studied, the plant N transporters participating in this process are largely unknown except for some ammonium transporters (AMT) specifically assigned to arbuscule-colonized cortical cells...
October 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986642/arbuscular-common-mycorrhizal-networks-mediate-intra-and-interspecific-interactions-of-two-prairie-grasses
#5
Joanna Weremijewicz, Leonel da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly Sternberg, David P Janos
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form extensive common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) that may interconnect neighboring root systems of the same or different plant species, thereby potentially influencing the distribution of limiting mineral nutrients among plants. We examined how CMNs affected intra- and interspecific interactions within and between populations of Andropogon gerardii, a highly mycorrhiza dependent, dominant prairie grass and Elymus canadensis, a moderately dependent, subordinate prairie species. We grew A...
October 7, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948352/nitrogen-form-and-mycorrhizal-inoculation-amount-and-timing-affect-flavonol-biosynthesis-in-onion-allium-cepa-l
#6
Mohanna Mollavali, Henrike Perner, Sascha Rohn, Peer Riehle, Franziska S Hanschen, Dietmar Schwarz
Mycorrhizal symbiosis is known to be the most prevalent form of fungal symbiosis with plants. Although some studies focus on the importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis for enhanced flavonoids in the host plants, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship still is lacking. Therefore, we studied the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation of onions (Allium cepa L.) regarding flavonol concentration and the genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis when different forms of nitrogen were supplied. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal inoculation can act as a biotic stress and might lead to an increase in flavonols and expression of related genes...
September 26, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942552/soil-spore-bank-communities-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-in-endangered-chinese-douglas-fir-forests
#7
Zhugui Wen, Liang Shi, Yangze Tang, Lizhou Hong, Jiawang Xue, Jincheng Xing, Yahua Chen, Kazuhide Nara
Chinese Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga sinensis) is an endangered Pinaceae species found in several isolated regions of China. Although soil spore banks of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can play an important role in seedling establishment after disturbance, such as in the well-known North American relative (Pseudotsuga menziesii), we have no information about soil spore bank communities in relict forests of Chinese Douglas-fir. We conducted bioassays of 73 soil samples collected from three Chinese Douglas-fir forests, using North American Douglas-fir as bait seedlings, and identified 19 species of ECM fungi...
September 23, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866744/basidiospores-attach-to-the-seed-of-shorea-leprosula-in-lowland-tropical-dipterocarp-forest-and-form-functional-ectomycorrhiza-on-seed-germination
#8
Indriati Ramadhani, Nampiah Sukarno, Sri Listiyowati
This research aimed to study the ectomycorrhiza formed by basidiospores attached to the outer surface of Shorea leprosula (Dipterocarpaceae) seed collected from a lowland tropical dipterocarp forest. Two groups of seeds were collected: control seeds collected from plastic net hanging 2 m above the ground and forest floor seeds collected on the forest floor. Before planting, 15 seeds from each group were observed for basidiospores attached to the seed. Ten of the 3-week-old S. leprosula seedlings of each group were individually grown in 1...
September 2, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842791/a-plant-growth-promoting-symbiosis-between-mycena-galopus-and-vaccinium-corymbosum-seedlings
#9
Gwen-Aëlle Grelet, Ren Ba, Dagmar F Goeke, Gary J Houliston, Andy F S Taylor, Daniel M Durall
Typically, Mycena species are viewed as saprotrophic fungi. However, numerous detections of Mycena spp. in the roots of green plants suggest that a continuum from saprotrophy to biotrophy could exist. In particular, mycenoid species have repeatedly been found in Ericaceae plant roots. Our study asked whether (1) Mycena species are commonly found in the roots of green Ericaceae plants; (2) Mycena sequences are limited to a single group/lineage within the genus; and (3) a Mycena sp. can behave as a beneficial root associate with a typical ericoid mycorrhizal plant (Vaccinium corymbosum), regardless of how much external labile carbon is available...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840358/ectomycorrhizal-fungi-reduce-the-light-compensation-point-and-promote-carbon-fixation-of-pinus-thunbergii-seedlings-to-adapt-to-shade-environments
#10
Liang Shi, Jie Wang, Binhao Liu, Kazuhide Nara, Chunlan Lian, Zhenguo Shen, Yan Xia, Yahua Chen
We examined the effects of three ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbionts on the growth and photosynthesis capacity of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) seedlings and estimated physiological and photosynthetic parameters such as the light compensation point (LCP), biomass, and phosphorus (Pi) concentration of P. thunbergii seedlings. Through this investigation, we documented a new role of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi: enhancement of the survival and competitiveness of P. thunbergii seedlings under low-light condition by reducing the LCP of seedlings...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819747/word-wide-meta-analysis-of-quercus-forests-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-reveals-southwestern-mexico-as-a-hotspot
#11
Olimpia Mariana García-Guzmán, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Edith Hernández, Elsa Arellano-Torres, Ken Oyama
Quercus is the most diverse genus of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host plants; it is distributed in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, from temperate to tropical regions. However, their ECM communities have been scarcely studied in comparison to those of conifers. The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of ECM fungi associated with oak forests in the Cuitzeo basin in southwestern Mexico; and to determine the level of richness, potential endemism and species similarity among ECM fungal communities associated with natural oak forests worldwide through a meta-analysis...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812152/native-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-alters-foliar-bacterial-community-composition
#12
Anbu Poosakkannu, Riitta Nissinen, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant-associated microbes are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that colonization by an AM fungus affects microbial species richness and microbial community composition of host plant tissues. We grew the grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a greenhouse with or without the native AM fungus, Claroideoglomus etunicatum. We divided clonally produced tillers into two parts: one inoculated with AM fungus spores and one without AM fungus inoculation (non-mycorrhizal, NM)...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799077/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-inoculation-reduces-the-drought-resistance-advantage-of-endophyte-infected-versus-endophyte-free-leymus-chinensis
#13
Hui Liu, Wei Chen, Man Wu, Rihan Wu, Yong Zhou, Yubao Gao, Anzhi Ren
Grasses can be infected simultaneously by endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophyte-associated drought resistance of a native grass was affected by an AM fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant species native to the Inner Mongolia steppe, under altered water and AM fungus availability. The results showed that endophyte infection significantly increased drought resistance of the host grass, but the beneficial effects were reduced by AM fungus inoculation...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752181/asymmetric-response-of-root-associated-fungal-communities-of-an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-grass-and-an-ectomycorrhizal-tree-to-their-coexistence-in-primary-succession
#14
Tereza Knoblochová, Petr Kohout, David Püschel, Pavla Doubková, Jan Frouz, Tomáš Cajthaml, Jaroslav Kukla, Miroslav Vosátka, Jana Rydlová
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass Calamagrostis epigejos and predominantly ectomycorrhizal (EcM) tree Salix caprea co-occur at post-mining sites spontaneously colonized by vegetation. During succession, AM herbaceous vegetation is replaced by predominantly EcM woody species. To better understand the interaction of AM and EcM plants during vegetation transition, we studied the reciprocal effects of these species' coexistence on their root-associated fungi (RAF). We collected root and soil samples from three different microenvironments: stand of C...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730541/increased-sequencing-depth-does-not-increase-captured-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#15
Martti Vasar, Reidar Andreson, John Davison, Teele Jairus, Mari Moora, Maido Remm, J P W Young, Martin Zobel, Maarja Öpik
The arrival of 454 sequencing represented a major breakthrough by allowing deeper sequencing of environmental samples than was possible with existing Sanger approaches. Illumina MiSeq provides a further increase in sequencing depth but shorter read length compared with 454 sequencing. We explored whether Illumina sequencing improves estimates of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal richness in plant root samples, compared with 454 sequencing. We identified AM fungi in root samples by sequencing amplicons of the SSU rRNA gene with 454 and Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730540/gigaspora-margarita-with-and-without-its-endobacterium-shows-adaptive-responses-to-oxidative-stress
#16
Francesco Venice, Maria Concetta de Pinto, Mara Novero, Stefano Ghignone, Alessandra Salvioli, Paola Bonfante
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi experience oxidative stress during the plant-fungal interaction, due to endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by fungal metabolism and exogenous ROS produced by plant cells. Here, we examine the responses to H2O2 in Gigaspora margarita, an AM fungus containing the endobacterial symbiont Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum (CaGg). Previous studies revealed that G. margarita with its endobacterium produces more ATP and has higher respiratory activity than a cured line that lacks the endobacterium...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707027/root-associated-fungal-communities-in-three-pyroleae-species-and-their-mycobiont-sharing-with-surrounding-trees-in-subalpine-coniferous-forests-on-mount-fuji-japan
#17
Shuzheng Jia, Takashi Nakano, Masahira Hattori, Kazuhide Nara
Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569349/real-time-pcr-quantification-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-does-the-use-of-nuclear-or-mitochondrial-markers-make-a-difference
#18
Alena Voříšková, Jan Jansa, David Püschel, Manuela Krüger, Tomáš Cajthaml, Miroslav Vosátka, Martina Janoušková
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be quantified by different approaches. We compared two approaches that enable discrimination of specific AMF taxa and are therefore emerging as alternative to most commonly performed microscopic quantification of AMF in roots: quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using markers in nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA (mtDNA). In a greenhouse experiment, Medicago truncatula was inoculated with four isolates belonging to different AMF species (Rhizophagus irregularis, Claroideoglomus claroideum, Gigaspora margarita and Funneliformis mosseae)...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547294/seasonal-dynamics-of-extraradical-mycelium-and-mycorrhizas-in-a-black-truffle-tuber-melanosporum-plantation
#19
Mikel Queralt, Javier Parladé, Joan Pera, Ana María DE Miguel
Seasonal dynamics of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) extraradical mycelium as well as the associated mycorrhizal community have been evaluated in a 16-year-old plantation with productive and non-productive trees. Mycelium biomass was seasonally quantified by real-time PCR over two consecutive years and the correlation with environmental variables explored. Extraradical mycelium biomass varied seasonally and between the two consecutive years, being correlated with the precipitation that occurred 1 month before sampling...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536847/an-empirical-investigation-of-the-possibility-of-adaptability-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-to-new-hosts
#20
Akihiro Koyama, Olivia Pietrangelo, Laura Sanderson, Pedro M Antunes
Little is known about the adaptive capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to novel hosts. Here we assessed the possibility of two heterospecific AM fungal isolates to adaptively change, in terms of host biomass response, as a function of host plant identity, over the course of a growing season. First, we produced pure inocula of Rhizophagus clarus and Rhizophagus intraradices, each starting from a single spore. Second, we "trained" each isolate individually in a community with two plants, sudangrass (Sorgum bicolour subsp...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
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