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Mycorrhiza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866744/basidiospores-attach-to-the-seed-of-shorea-leprosula-in-lowland-tropical-dipterocarp-forest-and-form-functional-ectomycorrhiza-on-seed-germination
#1
Indriati Ramadhani, Nampiah Sukarno, Sri Listiyowati
This research aimed to study the ectomycorrhiza formed by basidiospores attached to the outer surface of Shorea leprosula (Dipterocarpaceae) seed collected from a lowland tropical dipterocarp forest. Two groups of seeds were collected: control seeds collected from plastic net hanging 2 m above the ground and forest floor seeds collected on the forest floor. Before planting, 15 seeds from each group were observed for basidiospores attached to the seed. Ten of the 3-week-old S. leprosula seedlings of each group were individually grown in 1...
September 2, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842791/a-plant-growth-promoting-symbiosis-between-mycena-galopus-and-vaccinium-corymbosum-seedlings
#2
Gwen-Aëlle Grelet, Ren Ba, Dagmar F Goeke, Gary J Houliston, Andy F S Taylor, Daniel M Durall
Typically, Mycena species are viewed as saprotrophic fungi. However, numerous detections of Mycena spp. in the roots of green plants suggest that a continuum from saprotrophy to biotrophy could exist. In particular, mycenoid species have repeatedly been found in Ericaceae plant roots. Our study asked whether (1) Mycena species are commonly found in the roots of green Ericaceae plants; (2) Mycena sequences are limited to a single group/lineage within the genus; and (3) a Mycena sp. can behave as a beneficial root associate with a typical ericoid mycorrhizal plant (Vaccinium corymbosum), regardless of how much external labile carbon is available...
August 25, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840358/ectomycorrhizal-fungi-reduce-the-light-compensation-point-and-promote-carbon-fixation-of-pinus-thunbergii-seedlings-to-adapt-to-shade-environments
#3
Liang Shi, Jie Wang, Binhao Liu, Kazuhide Nara, Chunlan Lian, Zhenguo Shen, Yan Xia, Yahua Chen
We examined the effects of three ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbionts on the growth and photosynthesis capacity of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) seedlings and estimated physiological and photosynthetic parameters such as the light compensation point (LCP), biomass, and phosphorus (Pi) concentration of P. thunbergii seedlings. Through this investigation, we documented a new role of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi: enhancement of the survival and competitiveness of P. thunbergii seedlings under low-light condition by reducing the LCP of seedlings...
August 24, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819747/word-wide-meta-analysis-of-quercus-forests-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-reveals-southwestern-mexico-as-a-hotspot
#4
Olimpia Mariana García-Guzmán, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Edith Hernández, Elsa Arellano-Torres, Ken Oyama
Quercus is the most diverse genus of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host plants; it is distributed in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, from temperate to tropical regions. However, their ECM communities have been scarcely studied in comparison to those of conifers. The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of ECM fungi associated with oak forests in the Cuitzeo basin in southwestern Mexico; and to determine the level of richness, potential endemism and species similarity among ECM fungal communities associated with natural oak forests worldwide through a meta-analysis...
August 17, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812152/native-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-alters-foliar-bacterial-community-composition
#5
Anbu Poosakkannu, Riitta Nissinen, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant-associated microbes are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that colonization by an AM fungus affects microbial species richness and microbial community composition of host plant tissues. We grew the grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a greenhouse with or without the native AM fungus, Claroideoglomus etunicatum. We divided clonally produced tillers into two parts: one inoculated with AM fungus spores and one without AM fungus inoculation (non-mycorrhizal, NM)...
August 15, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799077/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-inoculation-reduces-the-drought-resistance-advantage-of-endophyte-infected-versus-endophyte-free-leymus-chinensis
#6
Hui Liu, Wei Chen, Man Wu, Rihan Wu, Yong Zhou, Yubao Gao, Anzhi Ren
Grasses can be infected simultaneously by endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophyte-associated drought resistance of a native grass was affected by an AM fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant species native to the Inner Mongolia steppe, under altered water and AM fungus availability. The results showed that endophyte infection significantly increased drought resistance of the host grass, but the beneficial effects were reduced by AM fungus inoculation...
August 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752181/asymmetric-response-of-root-associated-fungal-communities-of-an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-grass-and-an-ectomycorrhizal-tree-to-their-coexistence-in-primary-succession
#7
Tereza Knoblochová, Petr Kohout, David Püschel, Pavla Doubková, Jan Frouz, Tomáš Cajthaml, Jaroslav Kukla, Miroslav Vosátka, Jana Rydlová
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass Calamagrostis epigejos and predominantly ectomycorrhizal (EcM) tree Salix caprea co-occur at post-mining sites spontaneously colonized by vegetation. During succession, AM herbaceous vegetation is replaced by predominantly EcM woody species. To better understand the interaction of AM and EcM plants during vegetation transition, we studied the reciprocal effects of these species' coexistence on their root-associated fungi (RAF). We collected root and soil samples from three different microenvironments: stand of C...
July 27, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730541/increased-sequencing-depth-does-not-increase-captured-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#8
Martti Vasar, Reidar Andreson, John Davison, Teele Jairus, Mari Moora, Maido Remm, J P W Young, Martin Zobel, Maarja Öpik
The arrival of 454 sequencing represented a major breakthrough by allowing deeper sequencing of environmental samples than was possible with existing Sanger approaches. Illumina MiSeq provides a further increase in sequencing depth but shorter read length compared with 454 sequencing. We explored whether Illumina sequencing improves estimates of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal richness in plant root samples, compared with 454 sequencing. We identified AM fungi in root samples by sequencing amplicons of the SSU rRNA gene with 454 and Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing...
July 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730540/gigaspora-margarita-with-and-without-its-endobacterium-shows-adaptive-responses-to-oxidative-stress
#9
Francesco Venice, Maria Concetta de Pinto, Mara Novero, Stefano Ghignone, Alessandra Salvioli, Paola Bonfante
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi experience oxidative stress during the plant-fungal interaction, due to endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by fungal metabolism and exogenous ROS produced by plant cells. Here, we examine the responses to H2O2 in Gigaspora margarita, an AM fungus containing the endobacterial symbiont Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum (CaGg). Previous studies revealed that G. margarita with its endobacterium produces more ATP and has higher respiratory activity than a cured line that lacks the endobacterium...
July 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725961/the-plasma-membrane-proteome-of-medicago-truncatula-roots-as-modified-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#10
Achref Aloui, Ghislaine Recorbet, Christelle Lemaître-Guillier, Arnaud Mounier, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Daniel Wipf, Eliane Dumas-Gaudot
In arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots, the plasma membrane (PM) of the host plant is involved in all developmental stages of the symbiotic interaction, from initial recognition to intracellular accommodation of intra-radical hyphae and arbuscules. Although the role of the PM as the agent for cellular morphogenesis and nutrient exchange is especially accentuated in endosymbiosis, very little is known regarding the PM protein composition of mycorrhizal roots. To obtain a global overview at the proteome level of the host PM proteins as modified by symbiosis, we performed a comparative protein profiling of PM fractions from Medicago truncatula roots either inoculated or not with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis...
July 19, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707027/root-associated-fungal-communities-in-three-pyroleae-species-and-their-mycobiont-sharing-with-surrounding-trees-in-subalpine-coniferous-forests-on-mount-fuji-japan
#11
Shuzheng Jia, Takashi Nakano, Masahira Hattori, Kazuhide Nara
Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests...
July 13, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695334/arbuscular-mycorrhizas-are-present-on-spitsbergen
#12
K K Newsham, P B Eidesen, M L Davey, J Axelsen, E Courtecuisse, C Flintrop, A G Johansson, M Kiepert, S E Larsen, K E Lorberau, M Maurset, J McQuilkin, M Misiak, A Pop, S Thompson, D J Read
A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp...
July 10, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685256/influence-of-host-tree-species-on-isolation-and-communities-of-mycorrhizal-and-endophytic-fungi-from-roots-of-a-tropical-epiphytic-orchid-dendrobium-sinense-orchidaceae
#13
Xiaoming Wang, Yijia Li, Xiqiang Song, Qianwan Meng, Jie Zhu, Ying Zhao, Wengang Yu
Most studies on the host preference of orchids have focused on the association between orchids and host characteristics, but little is known about the differences of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungal communities in epiphytic orchids growing on different host tree species. We selected Dendrobium sinense, a tropical epiphytic orchid, to determine if fungal endophytes from the roots of D. sinense were preferentially correlated with host tree species. Fifty-six fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 36 host trees were identified...
July 6, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667402/phylogenetic-structural-and-functional-characterization-of-amt3-1-an-ammonium-transporter-induced-by-mycorrhization-among-model-grasses
#14
Sally Koegel, Delphine Mieulet, Sefer Baday, Odile Chatagnier, Moritz F Lehmann, Andres Wiemken, Thomas Boller, Daniel Wipf, Simon Bernèche, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
In the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, plants satisfy part of their nitrogen (N) requirement through the AM pathway. In sorghum, the ammonium transporters (AMT) AMT3;1, and to a lesser extent AMT4, are induced in cells containing developing arbuscules. Here, we have characterized orthologs of AMT3;1 and AMT4 in four other grasses in addition to sorghum. AMT3;1 and AMT4 orthologous genes are induced in AM roots, suggesting that in the common ancestor of these five plant species, both AMT3;1 and AMT4 were already present and upregulated upon AM colonization...
June 30, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569349/real-time-pcr-quantification-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-does-the-use-of-nuclear-or-mitochondrial-markers-make-a-difference
#15
Alena Voříšková, Jan Jansa, David Püschel, Manuela Krüger, Tomáš Cajthaml, Miroslav Vosátka, Martina Janoušková
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be quantified by different approaches. We compared two approaches that enable discrimination of specific AMF taxa and are therefore emerging as alternative to most commonly performed microscopic quantification of AMF in roots: quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using markers in nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA (mtDNA). In a greenhouse experiment, Medicago truncatula was inoculated with four isolates belonging to different AMF species (Rhizophagus irregularis, Claroideoglomus claroideum, Gigaspora margarita and Funneliformis mosseae)...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547294/seasonal-dynamics-of-extraradical-mycelium-and-mycorrhizas-in-a-black-truffle-tuber-melanosporum-plantation
#16
Mikel Queralt, Javier Parladé, Joan Pera, Ana María DE Miguel
Seasonal dynamics of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) extraradical mycelium as well as the associated mycorrhizal community have been evaluated in a 16-year-old plantation with productive and non-productive trees. Mycelium biomass was seasonally quantified by real-time PCR over two consecutive years and the correlation with environmental variables explored. Extraradical mycelium biomass varied seasonally and between the two consecutive years, being correlated with the precipitation that occurred 1 month before sampling...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536847/an-empirical-investigation-of-the-possibility-of-adaptability-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-to-new-hosts
#17
Akihiro Koyama, Olivia Pietrangelo, Laura Sanderson, Pedro M Antunes
Little is known about the adaptive capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to novel hosts. Here we assessed the possibility of two heterospecific AM fungal isolates to adaptively change, in terms of host biomass response, as a function of host plant identity, over the course of a growing season. First, we produced pure inocula of Rhizophagus clarus and Rhizophagus intraradices, each starting from a single spore. Second, we "trained" each isolate individually in a community with two plants, sudangrass (Sorgum bicolour subsp...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488060/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-pseudomonas-in-reduce-drought-stress-damage-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-a-field-study
#18
Saeedeh Rahimzadeh, Alireza Pirzad
Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively)...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424944/indirect-interactions-between-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-spodoptera-exigua-alter-photosynthesis-and-plant-endogenous-hormones
#19
Lei He, Changyou Li, Runjin Liu
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Linn. cv: Luhua 11) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv: Zhongshu 4) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae BEG167 (Fm), Rhizophagus intraradices BEG141 (Ri), and Glomus versiforme Berch (Gv), and/or Spodoptera exigua (S. exigua) under greenhouse conditions. Results indicated that feeding by S. exigua had little influence on colonization of peanut plants by AMF, but improved colonization of tomato by Fm and Gv. Feeding by S. exigua had little influence on leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of nonmycorrhizal peanut plants but significantly improved net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of mycorrhizal plants of both hosts...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421312/an-annotated-translation-of-no%C3%A3-l-bernard-s-1899-article-on-the-germination-of-neottia-nidus-avis
#20
Marc-André Selosse, Julita Minasiewicz, Bernard Boullard
We translate Noël Bernard's discovery of orchid symbiotic germination discovered on Neottia nidus-avis, as published in the May 1899 issue of the Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. In his note, Bernard (1874-1911) establishes the need for a fungus, which is also forming mycorrhizae in adults, for seeds germination. We provide illustrations reproduced from his later works, and summaries of the French text he cited. In our annotations, we show how early this discovery was done in Bernard's career, and insist on the scientific framework at the end of the nineteenth century, where orchid germination was mysterious and the need for vicinity of parents was not fully understood...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
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