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Mycorrhiza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335775/a-new-genus-planticonsortium-mucoromycotina-and-new-combination-p-tenue-for-the-fine-root-endophyte-glomus-tenue-basionym-rhizophagus-tenuis
#1
Christopher Walker, Armelle Gollotte, Dirk Redecker
In 1977, the fine root endophyte, originally named Rhizophagus tenuis, was transferred into the genus Glomus as G. tenue, thus positioning the species with all other known arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota, Glomeromycotina). Recent molecular evidence, however, places it in a different subphylum, Mucoromycotina in the Mucoromycota. No suitable genus exists in the Mucoromycotina to accommodate G. tenue, so it is moved to Planticonsortium gen. nov. as P. tenue comb. nov.
January 15, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330574/ectomycorrhizal-fungal-communities-in-alpine-relict-forests-of-pinus-pumila-on-mt-norikura-japan
#2
Takahiko Koizumi, Masahira Hattori, Kazuhide Nara
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses are indispensable for the establishment of host trees, yet available information of ECM symbiosis in alpine forests is scarce. Pinus pumila is a typical ice age relict tree species in Japan and often forms monodominant dwarf vegetation above the tree line in mountains. We studied ECM fungi colonizing P. pumila on Mt. Norikura, Japan, with reference to host developmental stages, i.e., from current-year seedlings to mature trees. ECM fungal species were identified based on rDNA ITS sequences...
January 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290018/beyond-icom8-perspectives-on-advances-in-mycorrhizal-research-from-2015-to-2017
#3
Catherine A Gehring, Nancy C Johnson
This report reviews important advances in mycorrhizal research that occurred during the past 2 years. We highlight major advancements both within and across levels of biological organization and describe areas where greater integration has led to unique insights. Particularly active areas of research include exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the development of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, the mycorrhizal microbiome, comparisons among types of mycorrhizas from molecular to ecosystem scales, the extent and function of mycorrhizal networks and enhanced understanding of the role of mycorrhizas in carbon dynamics from local to global scales...
December 30, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274039/an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-and-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae-var-lolii-reduce-bipolaris-sorokiniana-disease-incidence-and-improve-perennial-ryegrass-growth
#4
Fang Li, Yan'e Guo, Michael J Christensen, Ping Gao, Yanzhong Li, Tingyu Duan
Leaf spot of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is an important disease in temperate regions of the world. We designed this experiment to test for the combined effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Claroideoglomus etunicatum and the grass endophyte fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii on growth and disease occurrence in perennial ryegrass. The results show that C. etunicatum increased plant P uptake and total dry weight and that this beneficial effect was slightly enhanced when in association with the grass endophyte...
December 22, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274038/a-glance-at-the-2017-edition-of-the-international-molecular-mycorrhiza-meetings
#5
Guillaume Bécard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243065/long-term-effects-of-grazing-and-topography-on-extra-radical-hyphae-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-semi-arid-grasslands
#6
Haiyan Ren, Weiyang Gui, Yongfei Bai, Claudia Stein, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Gail W T Wilson, Adam B Cobb, Yingjun Zhang, Gaowen Yang
Grazing and topography have drastic effects on plant communities and soil properties. These effects are thought to influence arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, the simultaneous impacts of grazing pressure (sheep ha-1) and topography on plant and soil factors and their relationship to the production of extra-radical AM hyphae are not well understood. Our 10-year study assessed relationships between grazing, plant species richness, aboveground plant productivity, soil nutrients, edaphic properties, and AM hyphal length density (HLD) in different topographic areas (flat or sloped)...
December 14, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192362/the-ninth-international-conference-on-mycorrhiza-in-prague-across-mycorrhizal-symbioses-from-molecules-to-global-scales
#7
Martin I Bidartondo, Mohamed Hijri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181636/accounting-for-local-adaptation-in-ectomycorrhizas-a-call-to-track-geographical-origin-of-plants-fungi-and-soils-in-experiments
#8
Megan A Rúa, Louis J Lamit, Catherine Gehring, Pedro M Antunes, Jason D Hoeksema, Cathy Zabinski, Justine Karst, Cole Burns, Michaela J Woods
Local adaptation, the differential success of genotypes in their native versus foreign environments, can influence ecological and evolutionary processes, yet its importance is difficult to estimate because it has not been widely studied, particularly in the context of interspecific interactions. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and their host plants could serve as model system for investigations of local adaptation because they are widespread and affect plant responses to both biotic and abiotic selection pressures...
November 27, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181635/caryophyllales-are-the-main-hosts-of-a-unique-set-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-in-a-neotropical-dry-forest
#9
Julieta Alvarez-Manjarrez, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Matthew E Smith
The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis was long thought to be restricted to temperate forests. However, as tropical forests have been explored, it has become clear that these habitats host unique ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We have been exploring tropical dry forests (TDF), which are endangered terrestrial ecosystems and hotspots of endemism. Since Fabaceae is the main plant family in this environment, we hypothesized that trees in this lineage would be the main ECM hosts. We sequenced the ITS rDNA region from fungi and both rbcL and trnL cpDNA from plants to identify both symbiotic partners from root tips...
November 27, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177968/microscopic-characterization-of-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungi-scleroderma-as-a-putative-novel-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungus-of-vanilla-in-different-crop-systems
#10
Ma Del Carmen A González-Chávez, Terry J Torres-Cruz, Samantha Albarrán Sánchez, Rogelio Carrillo-González, Luis Manuel Carrillo-López, Andrea Porras-Alfaro
Vanilla is an orchid of economic importance widely cultivated in tropical regions and native to Mexico. We sampled three species of Vanilla (V. planifolia, V. pompona, and V. insignis) in different crop systems. We studied the effect of crop system on the abundance, type of fungi, and quality of pelotons found in the roots using light and electron microscopy and direct sequencing of mycorrhizal structures. Fungi were identified directly from pelotons obtained from terrestrial roots of vanilla plants in the flowering stage...
November 25, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167981/transcriptional-induction-of-two-phosphate-transporter-1-genes-and-enhanced-root-branching-in-grape-plants-inoculated-with-funneliformis-mosseae
#11
Laure Valat, Laurence Deglène-Benbrahim, Melha Kendel, Réjane Hussenet, Christine Le Jeune, Paul Schellenbaum, Pascale Maillot
We investigated the effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae on the growth and root architecture of plantlets of the grape rootstock 41B MGt under hydroponic conditions, and analyzed the concomitant expression of putative mycorrhizal-specific phosphate transporter 1 (PHT1) genes. In vitro propagated plantlets were acclimatized to ex vitro culture before AMF inoculation and grown under low phosphate (Pi) nutrition conditions during 6 weeks. Grape roots could be efficiently colonized by F...
November 22, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164316/heavy-ion-beam-mutagenesis-of-the-ectomycorrhizal-agaricomycete-tricholoma-matsutake-that-produces-the-prized-mushroom-matsutake-in-conifer-forests
#12
Hitoshi Murata, Tomoko Abe, Hiroyuki Ichida, Yoriko Hayashi, Takashi Yamanaka, Tomoko Shimokawa, Ko Tahara
Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal agaricomycete that produces the prized mushroom "matsutake" in Pinaceae forests. Currently, there are no available cultivars or cultivation methods that produce fruiting bodies. Heavy-ion beams, which induce mutations through double-stranded DNA breaks, have been used widely for plant breeding. In the present study, we examined whether heavy-ion beams could be useful in isolating T. matsutake mutants. An argon-ion beam gave a suitable lethality curve in relation to irradiation doses, accelerating killing at 100-150 Gy...
November 21, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110091/tree-species-identity-and-diversity-drive-fungal-richness-and-community-composition-along-an-elevational-gradient-in-a-mediterranean-ecosystem
#13
Alessandro Saitta, Sten Anslan, Mohammad Bahram, Luca Brocca, Leho Tedersoo
Ecological and taxonomic knowledge is important for conservation and utilization of biodiversity. Biodiversity and ecology of fungi in Mediterranean ecosystems is poorly understood. Here, we examined the diversity and spatial distribution of fungi along an elevational gradient in a Mediterranean ecosystem, using DNA metabarcoding. This study provides novel information about diversity of all ecological and taxonomic groups of fungi along an elevational gradient in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Our analyses revealed that among all biotic and abiotic variables tested, host species identity is the main driver of the fungal richness and fungal community composition...
November 6, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101543/multi-cropping-edible-truffles-and-sweet-chestnuts-production-of-high-quality-castanea-sativa-seedlings-inoculated-with-tuber-aestivum-its-ecotype-t-uncinatum-t-brumale-and-t-macrosporum
#14
Amaya Álvarez-Lafuente, Luis F Benito-Matías, Juan L Peñuelas-Rubira, Laura M Suz
The plantation and management of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) orchards is a common and traditional land use system in many areas of Europe that offers the advantage of simultaneous production of nuts and timber. During the last decades, sweet chestnut has declined dramatically in many regions because of the profound social changes in rural areas coupled with pathogen attacks. Truffles, the hypogeous ascocarps of the ectomycorrhizal genus Tuber, are currently cultivated using host trees inoculated with these fungi for improving production in truffle orchards...
November 3, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842791/a-plant-growth-promoting-symbiosis-between-mycena-galopus-and-vaccinium-corymbosum-seedlings
#15
Gwen-Aëlle Grelet, Ren Ba, Dagmar F Goeke, Gary J Houliston, Andy F S Taylor, Daniel M Durall
Typically, Mycena species are viewed as saprotrophic fungi. However, numerous detections of Mycena spp. in the roots of green plants suggest that a continuum from saprotrophy to biotrophy could exist. In particular, mycenoid species have repeatedly been found in Ericaceae plant roots. Our study asked whether (1) Mycena species are commonly found in the roots of green Ericaceae plants; (2) Mycena sequences are limited to a single group/lineage within the genus; and (3) a Mycena sp. can behave as a beneficial root associate with a typical ericoid mycorrhizal plant (Vaccinium corymbosum), regardless of how much external labile carbon is available...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840358/ectomycorrhizal-fungi-reduce-the-light-compensation-point-and-promote-carbon-fixation-of-pinus-thunbergii-seedlings-to-adapt-to-shade-environments
#16
Liang Shi, Jie Wang, Binhao Liu, Kazuhide Nara, Chunlan Lian, Zhenguo Shen, Yan Xia, Yahua Chen
We examined the effects of three ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbionts on the growth and photosynthesis capacity of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) seedlings and estimated physiological and photosynthetic parameters such as the light compensation point (LCP), biomass, and phosphorus (Pi) concentration of P. thunbergii seedlings. Through this investigation, we documented a new role of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi: enhancement of the survival and competitiveness of P. thunbergii seedlings under low-light condition by reducing the LCP of seedlings...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819747/word-wide-meta-analysis-of-quercus-forests-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-reveals-southwestern-mexico-as-a-hotspot
#17
Olimpia Mariana García-Guzmán, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Edith Hernández, Elsa Arellano-Torres, Ken Oyama
Quercus is the most diverse genus of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) host plants; it is distributed in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, from temperate to tropical regions. However, their ECM communities have been scarcely studied in comparison to those of conifers. The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of ECM fungi associated with oak forests in the Cuitzeo basin in southwestern Mexico; and to determine the level of richness, potential endemism and species similarity among ECM fungal communities associated with natural oak forests worldwide through a meta-analysis...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812152/native-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-alters-foliar-bacterial-community-composition
#18
Anbu Poosakkannu, Riitta Nissinen, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant-associated microbes are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that colonization by an AM fungus affects microbial species richness and microbial community composition of host plant tissues. We grew the grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a greenhouse with or without the native AM fungus, Claroideoglomus etunicatum. We divided clonally produced tillers into two parts: one inoculated with AM fungus spores and one without AM fungus inoculation (non-mycorrhizal, NM)...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799077/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-inoculation-reduces-the-drought-resistance-advantage-of-endophyte-infected-versus-endophyte-free-leymus-chinensis
#19
Hui Liu, Wei Chen, Man Wu, Rihan Wu, Yong Zhou, Yubao Gao, Anzhi Ren
Grasses can be infected simultaneously by endophytic fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophyte-associated drought resistance of a native grass was affected by an AM fungus. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared the performance of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) Leymus chinensis, a dominant species native to the Inner Mongolia steppe, under altered water and AM fungus availability. The results showed that endophyte infection significantly increased drought resistance of the host grass, but the beneficial effects were reduced by AM fungus inoculation...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752181/asymmetric-response-of-root-associated-fungal-communities-of-an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-grass-and-an-ectomycorrhizal-tree-to-their-coexistence-in-primary-succession
#20
Tereza Knoblochová, Petr Kohout, David Püschel, Pavla Doubková, Jan Frouz, Tomáš Cajthaml, Jaroslav Kukla, Miroslav Vosátka, Jana Rydlová
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass Calamagrostis epigejos and predominantly ectomycorrhizal (EcM) tree Salix caprea co-occur at post-mining sites spontaneously colonized by vegetation. During succession, AM herbaceous vegetation is replaced by predominantly EcM woody species. To better understand the interaction of AM and EcM plants during vegetation transition, we studied the reciprocal effects of these species' coexistence on their root-associated fungi (RAF). We collected root and soil samples from three different microenvironments: stand of C...
November 2017: Mycorrhiza
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