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Tanja Mrak, Katja Kühdorf, Tine Grebenc, Ines Štraus, Babette Münzenberger, Hojka Kraigher
Despite its broad host range and distribution and its potential applications in commercial plantation forests, comprehensive descriptions of Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae are available only for Scleroderma citrinum, Scleroderma bovista and Scleroderma sinnamariense. This study provides a morphological and anatomical description of tree nursery derived ectomycorrhizae of Scleroderma areolatum on Fagus sylvatica, grown for several years in a climatized room. Ectomycorrhizae of S. areolatum were silvery white with abundant rhizomorphs; all mantle layers were plectenchymatous, rhizomorphs of type E, with prominent emanating hyphae with thick cell wall...
December 2, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Cameron P Egan, Ragan M Callaway, Miranda M Hart, Jason Pither, John Klironomos
Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi within terrestrial ecosystems, we know little about how natural AM fungal communities are structured. To date, the majority of studies examining AM fungal community diversity have focused on single habitats with similar environmental conditions, with relatively few studies having assessed the diversity of AM fungi over large-scale environmental gradients. In this study, we characterized AM fungal communities in the soil along a high-elevation gradient in the North American Rocky Mountains...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Bang Feng, Jian Wei Liu, Jianping Xu, Kuan Zhao, Zai Wei Ge, Zhu L Yang
The Alpine porcini, Boletus reticuloceps, is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom distributed in subalpine areas of Southwest China, central China, and Taiwan Island. This distribution pattern makes it an ideal organism to infer how ectomycorrhizal fungi have reacted to historical tectonic and climatic changes, and to illustrate the mechanism for the disjunction of organisms between Southwest China and Taiwan. In this study, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of B. reticuloceps by microsatellite genotyping, DNA sequencing, ecological factor analysis, and species distribution modeling...
December 1, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Bailey A Nicholson, Melanie D Jones
After stand-replacing disturbance, regenerating conifer seedlings become colonized by different ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) than the locally adapted EMF communities present on seedlings in mature forests. We studied whether EMF species that colonized subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) seedlings in clearcuts differed from those that colonized seedlings in adjacent mature forests with respect to mycorrhizoplane extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) and N status of the seedlings. We tested two alternate hypotheses: (1) that EEAs would differ between the two EMF communities, with higher activities associated with forest-origin communities, and (2) that acclimation to soil environment was considerable enough that EEAs would be determined primarily by the soil type in which the ectomycorrhizas were growing...
November 29, 2016: Mycorrhiza
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November 26, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Rodica Pena, Christa Lang, Gertrud Lohaus, Steffen Boch, Peter Schall, Ingo Schöning, Christian Ammer, Markus Fischer, Andrea Polle
Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxonomic, phylogenetic, and trait diversity (exploration types) were analyzed in beech and conifer forests along a north-to-south gradient in three biogeographic regions in Germany. The taxonomic community structures of the ectomycorrhizal assemblages in top soil were influenced by stand density and forest type, by biogeographic environmental factors (soil physical properties, temperature, and precipitation), and by nitrogen forms (amino acids, ammonium, and nitrate). While α-diversity did not differ between forest types, β-diversity increased, leading to higher γ-diversity on the landscape level when both forest types were present...
November 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Stefania Cevallos, Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cony Decock, Stéphane Declerck, Juan Pablo Suárez
In epiphytic orchids, distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the symbiotic association. However, little is known about the factors that determine the mycorrhizal community structure. Here, we analyzed the orchid mycorrhizal fungi communities associated with three sympatric Cymbidieae epiphytic tropical orchids (Cyrtochilum flexuosum, Cyrtochilum myanthum, and Maxillaria calantha) at two sites located within the mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. To characterize these communities at each orchid population, the ITS2 region was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq technology...
November 23, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Giorgio Marozzi, Sergio Sánchez, Gian Maria Niccolò Benucci, Gregory Bonito, Leonardo Baciarelli Falini, Emidio Albertini, Domizia Donnini
Pecan, Carya illinoinensis, is an economically important nut producing tree that can establish ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with a high diversity of fungi. In the southern USA, truffles (Tuber spp.) sometimes fruit prolifically in cultivated pecan orchards and regularly associate with pecan roots as ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). It has been demonstrated that some valuable European truffle species (e.g., Tuber borchii and Tuber aestivum) can form ECMs with pecan seedlings in nursery conditions. Thus, pecan may represent an attractive alternative host to forest trees for truffle growers given the potential for co-cropping truffles and pecans...
November 12, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Ellen K Holste, Richard K Kobe, Catherine A Gehring
Experiments with plant species that can host both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are important to separating the roles of fungal type and plant species and understanding the influence of the types of symbioses on plant growth and nutrient acquisition. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal fungal type on the growth and tissue nutrient content of two tree species (Eucalyptus grandis and Quercus costaricensis) grown under four nutrient treatments (combinations of low versus high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) with different N:P ratios) in the greenhouse...
November 12, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Anja Müller, Benard Ngwene, Edgar Peiter, Eckhard George
The formation of storage organs, such as spores and vesicles, is a central part of the life cycle of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), but the conditions under which this occurs in AMF are not well understood. Here, quantity and distribution of storage organs formed by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae within dead (excised) roots were characterised. 'Trap roots' (TR), separated from the growth substrate by a 30-μm mesh, supported hyphal growth and formation of storage organs of the AMF...
November 12, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Min Liu, Rong Zheng, Shulan Bai, Yv E Bai, Jugang Wang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis plays an important role in ecosystem functioning, particularly in fragile environments. Little is known, however, about how AM fungus community composition responds to slope aspect. Our objective was to compare the AM fungus communities between sunny and shady slopes and to detect factors that influenced the distributions of AM fungi in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China. AM fungus communities were evaluated based on small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSUs) using Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
November 12, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Kohei Yamamoto, Naoki Endo, Yousuke Degawa, Masaki Fukuda, Akiyoshi Yamada
The order Endogonales in Mucoromycotina, an early divergent lineage of fungi, includes ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. This order is therefore considered a key taxon for elucidation of the evolution of EM associations. Recent studies have revealed high diversity of EM lineages of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota; however, EM associations of Endogonales and its relatives remain largely unknown. In this study, EM root tips with a unique fungal sheath, with aseptate and highly branched hyphae of variable widths, were identified in Quercus acutissima and Quercus crispula forests in the temperate zone of Japan...
November 5, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Hector Herrera, Rafael Valadares, Domingo Contreras, Yoav Bashan, Cesar Arriagada
Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus...
October 29, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Stav Livne-Luzon, Yael Avidan, Gil Weber, Hen Migael, Thomas Bruns, Ofer Ovadia, Hagai Shemesh
The success of dispersal events depend on the organism's ability to reach and establish in a new habitat. In symbiotic organisms, establishment also depends on the presence of their symbiont partner in the new habitat. For instance, the establishment of obligate ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees outside the forest is largely limited by the presence of EM fungi in soil. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are important dispersal agents of EM fungal spores, particularly in the moderately dry Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to explore how EM fungal spores dispersed by wild boars influence the EM fungal community associated with the roots of Pinus halepensis seedlings at different habitat types...
October 26, 2016: Mycorrhiza
M Clara Bruzone, Judith Fehrer, Sonia B Fontenla, Martin Vohník
Ericoid mycorrhiza is arguably the least investigated mycorrhizal type, particularly when related to the number of potential hosts and the ecosystems they inhabit. Little is known about the global distribution of ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi, and this holds true even for the prominent ErM mycobiont Rhizoscyphus ericae. Earlier studies suggested R. ericae might be low in abundance or absent in the roots of Southern Hemisphere's Ericaceae, and our previous investigations in two Argentine Patagonian forests supported this view...
October 25, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito
The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions...
October 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
K Huusko, A L Ruotsalainen, A M Markkola
Soil fungal community and dominant mycorrhizal types are known to shift along with plant community changes during primary succession. However, it is not well understood how and why root fungal symbionts and colonization types vary within the plant host when the host species is able to thrive both at young and at old successional stages with different light and nutrient resource availability. We asked (i) how root fungal colonization of Deschampsia flexuosa (Poaceae) by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and dark septate endophytes (DSE) changes along a postglacial primary successional land uplift gradient...
October 19, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Mónica Sebastiana, Joana Martins, Andreia Figueiredo, Filipa Monteiro, Jordi Sardans, Josep Peñuelas, Anabela Silva, Peter Roepstorff, Maria Salomé Pais, Ana Varela Coelho
An increased knowledge on the real impacts of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in forest species is needed to optimize forest sustainable productivity and thus to improve forest services and their capacity to act as carbon sinks. In this study, we investigated the response of an oak species to ectomycorrhizae formation using a proteomics approach complemented by biochemical analysis of carbohydrate levels. Comparative proteome analysis between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cork oak plants revealed no differences at the foliar level...
October 7, 2016: Mycorrhiza
S Mehra, P D Morrison, F Coates, A C Lawrie
Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy...
September 17, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Shivani Srivastava, Xavier A Conlan, David M Cahill, Alok Adholeya
Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association formed between plant roots and soil borne fungi that alter and at times improve the production of secondary metabolites. Detailed information is available on mycorrhizal development and its influence on plants grown under various edapho-climatic conditions, however, very little is known about their influence on transformed roots that are rich reserves of secondary metabolites. This raises the question of how mycorrhizal colonization progresses in transformed roots grown in vitro and whether the mycorrhizal fungus presence influences the production of secondary metabolites...
November 2016: Mycorrhiza
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