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Molecular Plant Pathology

Xiao Yu Liang, Xiaoyue Yu, Xiayan Pan, Jian Wu, Yabing Duan, Jianxin Wang, Mingguo Zhou
Thiazole, isothiazole, thiadiazole, and their derivatives are widely thought to induce host defenses against plant pathogens. However, this article reports that bismerthiazol, a thiadiazole molecule, reduces disease by inhibiting the histidine utilization (Hut) pathway and quorum sensing (QS). Bismerthiazol provides excellent control of bacterial rice leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) but does not greatly inhibit Xoo growth in vitro. According to RNA-seq analysis, transcription of Hut pathway genes of Xoo ZJ173 was inhibited after 4...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Feifei Cheng, Anzhou Ma, Guoqiang Zhuang, Rupert G Fray
In order to cope with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense pathogenic attacks and to induce defence responses. The N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria regulates diverse physiological processes including those involved in pathogenicity. In this work, we study the interactions between AHL-producing transgenic tobacco plants and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528). Both a reduced incidence of disease and decrease in the growth of P...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Luisa F Castiblanco, George W Sundin
Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), protein, and nucleic acids, which determines the architecture of the biofilm. Erwinia amylovora Ea1189 forms a biofilm inside the xylem of its host, that results in vessel plugging and water transport impairment. Production of the EPSs amylovoran and levan are critical for the formation of a mature biofilm. Additionally, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) was reported to positively regulate amylovoran biosynthesis and biofilm formation in E...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yin Song, Bart P H J Thomma
Verticillium wilt, caused by soil-borne fungi of the genus Verticillium, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of host plants. Unfortunately, host resistance against Verticillium wilts is not available for many plant species, and the disease is notoriously difficult to combat. Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an RNA interference (RNAi) based process in which small RNAs are produced by the host plant to target parasite transcripts. HIGS has emerged as a promising strategy for improving plant resistance against pathogens by silencing genes that are essential for these pathogens...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Akanksha Dubey, Junhyun Jeon
Evidently, epigenetics is at forefront in explaining the mechanisms that underlie the success of human pathogens and identifying pathogen-induced modifications within the host plants. But, the lack of studies highlighting the role of epigenetics in modulating the growth and pathogenicity of fungal plant pathogens is gaping wide. In the first of its kind review, we attempt here to highlight and discuss the role of epigenetics in regulating the growth and pathogenicity of fungal phytopathogens using Magnaporthe oryzae (hereafter M...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Thabiso E Motaung, Toi J Tsilo, Hiromasa Saitoh
Plant pathogenic fungi cause diseases to all major crop plants world-wide and threaten global food security. Underpinning fungal diseases are virulence genes facilitating plant host colonization that often marks pathogenesis and crop failures, as well a rise in staple food prices. Fungal molecular genetics is therefore the cornerstone to sustainable prevention of disease outbreaks. Pathogenicity studies using mutant collections provide immense function-based information regarding virulence genes of economically relevant fungi...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jorge L Sarmiento-Villamil, Nicolás E García-Pedrajas, Lourdes Baeza-Montañez, María D García-Pedrajas
Plant pathogens of the genus Verticillium pose a threat to many important crops worldwide. They are soil-borne fungi which invade the plant systemically, causing wilt symptoms. We functionally characterized the APSES family transcription factor Vst1 in two Verticillium species, V. dahliae and V. nonalfalfae, which produce microsclerotia and melanised hyphae as resistant structures, respectively. We found that in V. dahliae Δvst1 strains, microsclerotium biogenesis stalled after an initial swelling of hyphal cells and cultures were never pigmented...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Shanshan Xie, Haoyu Zang, Huijun Wu, Uddin Rajer Faheem, Xuewen Gao
Recent investigations have demonstrated that bacteria employ the volatile compounds they produce during interactions with other organisms such as plants, fungi, nematodes and bacteria. However, studies focused on the antibacterial activity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) volatiles against bacterial phytopathogens are still rare. In this study, Bacillus strain D13, which is antagonistic to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), was isolated and screened. Volatile compounds emitted from strain D13 reduced the colony diameter and cell motility of Xoo cultured in divided Petri plates...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Angelica Marsberg, Martin Kemler, Fahimeh Jami, Jan H Nagel, Alisa Postma-Smidt, Sanushka Naidoo, Michael J Wingfield, Pedro W Crous, Joseph Spatafora, Cedar N Hesse, Barbara Robbertse, Bernard Slippers
: Botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of Botryosphaeria (Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeriales). Fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with B. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of hosts. Its taxonomic circumscription has undergone substantial change in the past decade, making it difficult to interpret the large volume of literature linked to the name B. dothidea. This pathogen profile synthesises the current understanding of B...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Huan Wang, Zhongling Yang, Shuo Du, Lin Ma, Yao Liao, Yujie Wang, Ian Toth, Jiaqin Fan
Identifying phytopathogen proteins that are differentially expressed in the course of establishing an infection is important to better understand the infection process. In vitro approaches, using plant extracts added to culture medium, have been used to identify such proteins but the biological relevance of these findings for in planta infection are often uncertain until confirmed by in vivo studies. Here, we compared proteins of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PccS1 differentially expressed in LB medium supplemented with extracts of the ornamental plant Zantedeschia elliotiana cultivar 'Black magic' (in vitro) and in plant tissues (in vivo) by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yu Zhang, Tao Gao, Wenyong Shao, Zhitian Zheng, Mingguo Zhou, Changjun Chen
Septins are a highly conserved family of GTP-binding proteins that contribute to many cellular and metabolic functions including cell polarity, cytokinesis, cell morphogenesis and pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized the septins FaCdc3 and FaCdc12 in the filamentous fungus F. asiaticum. The functions of FaCdc3 and FaCdc12 were evaluated by constructing deletion mutants of FaCdc3 and FaCdc12, designated ΔFaCdc3-5 and ΔFaCdc12-71, respectively. The deletion mutants exhibited a reduced rate of mycelial growth, increased aerial hyphae formation, irregularly shaped hyphae, reduced conidiation and a lack of sexual reproduction in wheat kernels...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Roxana A Roeschlin, María A Favaro, María A Chiesa, Sergio Alemano, Adrián A Vojnov, Atilio P Castagnaro, María P Filippone, Frederick G Gmitter, José Gadea, María R Marano
Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (X. citri) is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a disease that seriously affects most commercially important Citrus species worldwide. We have previously identified a natural variant, X. citri A(T) , that triggers a host-specific defense response in Citrus limon. However, the mechanisms involved in this canker disease resistance are unknown. In this work, the defense response induced by X. citri A(T) was assessed by transcriptomic, physiological and ultrastructural analyses and the effects on bacterial biofilm formation were monitored in parallel...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Mélanie Massonnet, Abraham Morales-Cruz, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Daniel P Lawrence, Kendra Baumgartner, Dario Cantu
The ascomycete Neofusicoccum parvum, one of the causal agents of Botryosphaeria dieback, is a destructive wood-infecting fungus and a serious threat to grape production worldwide. The capability of colonizing woody tissue combined with the secretion of phytotoxic compounds is thought to underlie its pathogenicity and virulence. Here, we describe the repertoire of virulence factors and their transcriptional dynamics as the fungus feeds on different substrates and colonizes the woody stem. We assembled and annotated a highly contiguous genome using single molecule real-time DNA sequencing...
September 8, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Neus Gómez-Muñoz, Karelia Velázquez, María Carmen Vives, Susana Ruiz-Ruiz, José Antonio Pina, Ricardo Flores, Pedro Moreno, José Guerri
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), induces in the field decline and death of citrus varieties grafted on sour orange (SO) rootstock, which has forced the use of alternative decline-tolerant rootstocks in affected countries, despite the highly desirable agronomic features of the SO rootstock. Declining citrus plants display phloem necrosis below the bud union. Also, sour orange is minimally susceptible to CTV compared to other citrus varieties, suggesting partial resistance of SO to CTV. Here, by silencing different citrus genes with a citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector, we have examined the implication of the RNA silencing and salicylic acid (SA) defense pathways in the resistance of SO to CTV...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hongtao Zhang, Xiaojing Wang, Michael J Giroux, Li Huang
The COP9 (constitutive photomorphogenesis 9) signalosome (CSN) is a protein complex involved in the ubiquitin proteasome system and a common host target of diverse pathogens in Arabidopsis. The known derubylation function of the COP9 complex is carried out by subunit 5 encoded by AtCSN5A or AtCSN5B in Arabidopsis. A single CSN5-like gene (designated as TaCSN5) with three homeologues was identified on the long arms of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) group 2 chromosomes. In this study, we identified and characterized the function of TaCSN5 in response to infection by the leaf rust pathogen...
August 31, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Livia Donaire, María A Ayllón
RNA silencing is an ancient regulatory mechanism operating in all eukaryotic cells. In fungi, it was first discovered in Neurospora crassa, although its potential as a defence mechanism against mycoviruses was first reported in Cryphonectria parasitica and, later, in several fungal species. There is little evidence of the antiviral potential of RNA silencing in the phytopathogenic species of the fungal genus Botrytis. Moreover, little is known about the RNA silencing components in these fungi, although the analysis of public genome databases identified two Dicer-like genes in B...
August 31, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ling Li, Jiaoyu Wang, Haili Chen, Zhuokan Gu, Yanli Wang, Guochang Sun
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotic cells that fulfill a variety of biochemical functions. The biogenesis of peroxisomes requires a variety of proteins named peroxins, which are encoded by PEX genes. Pex14/17 is a putative peroxin recently identified, specifically present in filamentous fungal species. Its function in peroxisomal biogenesis is still obscure and its roles in fungal pathogenicity are yet undocumented. Here, we demonstrated the contributions of Pex14/17 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Mopex14/17) to peroxisomal biogenesis and fungal pathogenicity by targeting gene replacement strategies...
August 29, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Matthias Kretschmer, Daniel Croll, James W Kronstad
The ability of biotrophic fungi to metabolically adapt to the host environment is a critical factor in fungal diseases of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of maize tumors induced by Ustilago maydis to identify key features underlying metabolic shifts during disease. Among other metabolic changes, this analysis highlighted modifications during infection in transcriptional regulation of carbohydrate allocation and starch metabolism. We confirmed the relevance of these changes by establishing that symptom development was altered in an id1 (indeterminate1) mutant that has increased accumulation of sucrose as well as being defective in the vegetative to reproductive transition...
August 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Matthias Kretschmer, Daniel Croll, James W Kronstad
Biotrophic fungal pathogens must evade or suppress plant defense responses to establish a compatible interaction in living host tissue. In addition, metabolic changes during disease reflect both the impact of nutrient acquisition by the fungus to support proliferation and the integration of metabolism with the plant defense response. In this study, we used transcriptome analyses to predict that the chloroplast and associated functions are important for symptom formation by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis on maize...
August 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jingzhen Wang, Ziyi Yin, Wei Tang, Xingjia Cai, Chuyun Gao, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
We have previously shown that the transcription factor MoAP1 governs the oxidative response and is important for pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. To explore the underlying mechanism we have identified thioredoxin MoTrx2 as a target of MoAP1 in M. oryzae. Thioredoxins are highly conserved 12-KD oxidoreductase enzymes containing a dithiol-disulfide active site and they function as antioxidants against free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). In yeast and fungi, thioredoxins are important for oxidative stress tolerance and growth...
August 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
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