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Molecular Plant Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911046/verticillium-dahliae-lysm-effectors-differentially-contribute-to-virulence-on-plant-hosts
#1
Anja Kombrink, Hanna Rovenich, Xiaoqian Shi-Kunne, Eduardo Rojas-Padilla, Grardy C M van den Berg, Emmanouil Domazakis, Ronnie de Jonge, Dirk-Jan Valkenburg, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Michael F Seidl, Bart P H J Thomma
Chitin-binding LysM effectors contribute to virulence of various plant pathogenic fungi that are causal agents of foliar diseases. Here, we report on LysM effectors of the soil-borne fungal vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Comparative genomics revealed three core LysM effectors that are conserved in a collection of V. dahliae strains. Remarkably, and in contrast to the previously studied LysM effectors of other plant pathogens, no expression of core LysM effectors was monitored in planta in a taxonomically diverse panel of host plants...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888554/a-high-resolution-genetic-map-of-the-cereal-crown-rot-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-provides-a-near-complete-genome-assembly
#2
Donald M Gardiner, Aurelie H Benfield, Jiri Stiller, Stuart Stephen, Karen Aitken, Chunji Liu, Kemal Kazan
Fusarium pseudograminearum is an important pathogen of wheat and barley, particularly in semi-arid environments. Previous genome assemblies for this organism were based entirely on short read data and are highly fragmented. In this work, a genetic map of F. pseudograminearum has been constructed for the first time based on a mapping population of 178 individuals. The genetic map, along with long read scaffolding of a short read-based genome assembly, was used to give a near complete assembly of the four F. pseudograminearum chromosomes...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885775/the-coffee-leaf-rust-pathogen-hemileia-vastatrix-one-and-a-half-centuries-around-the-tropics
#3
Pedro Talhinhas, Dora Batista, Inês Diniz, Ana Vieira, Diogo N Silva, Andreia Loureiro, Sílvia Tavares, Ana Paula Pereira, Helena G Azinheira, Leonor Guerra-Guimarães, Vítor Várzea, Maria do Céu Silva
Taxonomy and history: Hemileia vastatrix Berk. and Broome (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) was described in 1869 in Eastern Africa and Ceylon as the agent of Coffee Leaf Rust and spread to all coffee cultivation areas worldwide. Major disease outbreaks in Asia, Africa and America caused and continue to cause severe yield losses, making this the most important disease of Arabica coffee, a cash crop for many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Life cycle and disease symptoms: Hemileia vastatrix is a hemicyclic fungus with the urediniosporic life cycle as its most important (if not only) source of inoculum...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880983/pantoea-ananatis-genomic-insights-into-a-versatile-pathogen
#4
Tania Weller-Stuart, Pieter De Maayer, Teresa Coutinho
Pantoea ananatis, a bacterium that is well-known for its phytopathogenic characteristics, has been isolated from a myriad of ecological niches and hosts. Infection of agronomic crops such as maize and rice can result in substantial economic losses. In the last few years, much of the research done on P. ananatis has been based on the sequencing and analysis of the genomes of strains isolated from different environments and with different lifestyles. In this review we summarise the advances made in terms of pathogenicity determinants of phytopathogenic strains of P...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879040/differential-expression-of-cucumber-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-1-genes-during-antiviral-defense-and-resistance
#5
Diana Leibman, Michael Kravchik, Dalia Wolf, Sabrina Haviv, Mira Weissberg, Ron Ophir, Harry S Paris, Peter Palukaitis, Shou-Wei Ding, Victor Gaba, Amit Gal-On
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) plays a crucial role in plant defense against viruses. We observed that cucumber, Cucumis sativus, uniquely encodes a small gene family of four RDR1 genes. The cucumber RDR1 genes (CsRDR1a, CsRDR1b and duplicated CsRDR1c1/c2) shared 55-60% homology in their encoded amino acid sequences. In healthy cucumber plants, RDR1a and RDR1b transcripts were expressed at higher levels than transcripts of RDR1c1/c2, which were barely detectable. Expression of all four CsRDR1 genes was induced by virus infection, after which, the expression level of CsRDR1b increased 10- to 20-fold in several virus-resistant cucumber cultivars and in a broad virus-resistant transgenic cucumber line expressing a high level of transgene small RNAs, all without alteration in salicylic acid (SA) levels...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868376/n-terminal-region-of-cysteine-rich-protein-crp-in-carlaviruses-is-involved-in-the-determination-of-symptom-types
#6
Naoko Fujita, Ken Komatsu, Yu Ayukawa, Yuki Matsuo, Masayoshi Hashimoto, Osamu Netsu, Tohru Teraoka, Yasuyuki Yamaji, Shigetou Namba, Tsutomu Arie
Plant viruses in the genus Carlavirus include more than 65 members. Plants infected with carlaviruses exhibit various symptoms including leaf malformation and plant stunting. Cysteine-rich protein (CRP) encoded by carlaviruses has been reported to be a pathogenicity determinant. Carlavirus CRPs contain two motifs in their central part: nuclear localization signal (NLS) and zinc finger motif (ZF). Besides these two conserved motifs, carlavirus CRPs possess highly diverged N-terminal 34 amino acid residues with unknown function...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868335/the-elongator-complex-associated-protein-drl1-plays-a-positive-role-in-immune-responses-against-necrotrophic-fungal-pathogens-in-arabidopsis
#7
Chenggang Wang, Xudong Zhang, Jian-Liang Li, Yanping Zhang, Zhonglin Mou
DEFORMED ROOT AND LEAVES1 (DRL1) is an Arabidopsis homologue of the yeast TOXIN TARGET4 (TOT4)/KILLER TOXIN-INSENSITIVE12 (KTI12) protein that is physically associated with the RNA polymerase II interacting protein complex named Elongator. Mutations in DRL1 and Elongator lead to similar morphological and molecular phenotypes, suggesting that DRL1 and Elongator may functionally overlap in Arabidopsis. We have previously shown that Elongator plays an important role in both salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated defense responses...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868326/qtl-mapping-reveals-complex-genetic-architecture-of-quantitative-virulence-in-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#8
Ethan L Stewart, Daniel Croll, Mark H Lendenmann, Andrea Sanchez-Vallet, Fanny E Hartmann, Javier Palma-Guerrero, Xin Ma, Bruce A McDonald
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of virulence in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici using QTL mapping. High throughput phenotyping based on automated image analysis allowed measurement of pathogen virulence on a scale and with a precision that was not previously possible. Across two mapping populations encompassing more than 520 progeny, 540,710 pycnidia were counted and their sizes and grey values were measured. A significant correlation was found between pycnidia size and both spore size and number...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868319/infection-assays-in-arabidopsis-reveal-candidate-effectors-from-the-poplar-rust-fungus-that-promote-susceptibility-to-bacteria-and-oomycete-pathogens
#9
Hugo Germain, David L Joly, Caroline Mireault, Mélodie B Plourde, Claire Letanneur, Donald Stewart, Marie-Josée Morency, Benjamin Petre, Sébastien Duplessis, Armand Séguin
Fungi of the Pucciniales order cause rust diseases, which altogether affect thousands of plant species worldwide and pose major threat to several crops. How rust effectors - virulence proteins delivered into infected tissues to modulate host functions - contribute to pathogen virulence remains poorly understood. Melampsora larici-populina is a devastating and widespread rust pathogen of poplars and its genome encodes 1,184 identified small secreted proteins that could potentially act as effectors. Here, following specific criteria we selected 16 candidate effector proteins and characterized their virulence activities and subcellular localizations in the leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860150/a-functionally-conserved-zn2-cys6-binuclear-cluster-transcription-factor-class-regulates-necrotrophic-effector-gene-expression-and-host-specific-virulence-of-two-major-pleosporales-fungal-pathogens-of-wheat
#10
Kasia Rybak, Pao Theen See, Huyen T T Phan, Robert A Syme, Caroline S Moffat, Richard P Oliver, Kar-Chun Tan
The fungus Parastagonospora nodorum is the causal agent of septoria nodorum blotch of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The interaction is mediated by multiple fungal necrotrophic effector-dominant host sensitivity gene interactions. The three best characterised effector-sensitivity gene systems are SnToxA-Tsn1, SnTox1-Snn1 and SnTox3-Snn3. These effector genes are highly expressed during early infection but expression decreases as the infection progresses to tissue necrosis and sporulation. However, the mechanism of regulation is unknown...
November 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862864/biological-relevance-of-volatile-organic-compounds-emitted-during-the-pathogenic-interactions-between-apple-plants-and-erwinia-amylovora
#11
Antonio Cellini, Giampaolo Buriani, Lorenzo Rocchi, Elena Rondelli, Stefano Savioli, Maria T Rodriguez Estrada, Simona M Cristescu, Guglielmo Costa, Francesco Spinelli
Volatile organic compounds emitted during the infection of apple (Malus pumila var. domestica) plants by Erwinia amylovora or Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and used to treat uninfected plants. Infected plants showed a disease specific emission of volatile organic compounds, including several bio-active compounds, such as hexenal isomers and 2,3-butanediol. Leaf growth promotion and a higher resistance to the pathogen, expressed as a lower bacterial growth and migration in plant tissues, were detected in plants exposed to volatile compounds from E...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862834/transcriptional-response-of-erwinia-amylovora-upon-copper-shock-in-vivo-role-of-the-copa-gene
#12
Begoña Águila-Clares, Luisa F Castiblanco, José Manuel Quesada, Ramón Penyalver, Juan Carbonell, María M López, Ester Marco-Noales, George W Sundin
Fire blight is a devastating plant disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora and its control frequently is based on the use of copper-based compounds, for which the mechanisms of action are not well known. Consequently, here we investigate the response of E. amylovora to copper shock by a whole genome microarray approach. Transcriptional analyses showed that, in the presence of copper, 23 genes were increased in expression; these genes were classified mainly into the transport and stress functional categories...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862839/frontiers-for-research-on-the-ecology-of-plant-pathogenic-bacteria-fundamentals-for-sustainability
#13
REVIEW
Cindy E Morris, Marie-Anne Barny, Odile Berge, Linda L Kinkel, Christelle Lacroix
Methods to assure the health of crops owe their efficacy to the extent to which we understand the ecology and biology of environmental microorganisms and the conditions under which their interactions with plants lead to losses in crop quality or yield. But in the pursuit of this knowledge, notions of the ecology of plant pathogenic microorganisms have been reduced to a plant-centric and agro-centric focus. With increasing global change, i.e. changes that encompass not only the climate but also biodiversity, geographic distribution of biomes, human demographic and socio-economic adaptations and land use, new plant health problems will emerge via a range of processes influenced by these changes...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798954/evolution-genomics-and-epidemiology-of-pseudomonas-syringae
#14
REVIEW
David A Baltrus, Honour C McCann, David S Guttman
A remarkable shift in our understanding of plant pathogenic bacteria is underway. Until recently, nearly all research on phytopathogenic bacteria was focused on a small number of model strains, which provided a deep, but narrow perspective on plant-microbe interactions. Advances in genome sequencing technologies have changed this by enabling the incorporation of much greater diversity into comparative and functional research. We are now moving beyond a typological understanding of a select collection of strains, to a more generalized appreciation of breadth and scope of plant-microbe interactions...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798950/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-xanthomonas-citri-subsp-citri-periplasmic-proteins-reveals-changes-in-cellular-envelope-metabolism-during-in-vitro-pathogenicity-induction
#15
Juliana Artier, Flávia da Silva Zandonadi, Flávia Maria de Souza Carvalho, Bianca Alves Pauletti, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Carolina Moretto Carnielli, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre de Araujo, Maria Célia Bertolini, Jesus Aparecido Ferro, José Belasque Júnior, Julio Cezar Franco de Oliveira, Maria Teresa Marques Novo-Mansur
Citrus canker is a plant disease caused by gram-negative bacteria from the genus Xanthomonas, and the most virulent species is Xanthomonas citri subsp.citri (XAC), which attacks a wide range of citrus hosts. Differential proteomic analysis of periplasm-enriched fraction was performed for XAC cells grown in pathogenicity-inducing (XAM-M) and pathogenicity non-inducing (NB) media, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the 40 proteins identified, transglycosylase was detected in a highly abundant spot in XAC cells grown under inducing condition...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785876/eumicrobedblite-a-lightweight-genomic-resource-and-analytic-platform-for-draft-oomycete-genomes
#16
Arijit Panda, Deeya Sen, Arup Ghosh, Akash Gupta, Mathu Malar C, Gyan Prakash Mishra, Deeksha Singh, Wenwu Ye, Brett M Tyler, Sucheta Tripathy
We have developed EuMicrobedbLite - A light weight comprehensive genome resource and sequence analysis platform for oomycete organisms. EuMicrobedbLite is a successor of the VBI Microbial Database (VMD) that was built using the Genome Unified Schema (GUS). In this version, the GUS schema has been greatly simplified with removal of many obsolete modules and redesign of others to incorporate contemporary data. Several dependencies such as perl object layers used for data loading in VMD have been replaced with independent light weight scripts...
October 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768829/the-ralstonia-solanacearum-type-iii-effector-ripay-targets-plant-redox-regulators-to-suppress-immune-responses
#17
Yuying Sang, Yaru Wang, Hong Ni, Anne-Claire Cazalé, Yi-Min She, Nemo Peeters, Alberto P Macho
The subversion of plant cellular functions is essential for bacterial pathogens to proliferate in host plants and cause disease. Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins inside plant cells, where they contribute to the pathogen-induced alteration of plant physiology. In this work, we found that the Ralstonia solanacearum T3E RipAY suppresses plant immune responses triggered by bacterial elicitors and by the phytohormone salicylic acid. Further biochemical analysis indicated that RipAY associates in planta with thioredoxins from Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756112/a-thiadiazole-reduces-the-virulence-of-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae-by-inhibiting-the-histidine-utilization-pathway-and-quorum-sensing
#18
Xiao Yu Liang, Xiaoyue Yu, Xiayan Pan, Jian Wu, Yabing Duan, Jianxin Wang, Mingguo Zhou
Thiazole, isothiazole, thiadiazole, and their derivatives are widely thought to induce host defenses against plant pathogens. However, this article reports that bismerthiazol, a thiadiazole molecule, reduces disease by inhibiting the histidine utilization (Hut) pathway and quorum sensing (QS). Bismerthiazol provides excellent control of bacterial rice leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) but does not greatly inhibit Xoo growth in vitro. According to RNA-seq analysis, transcription of Hut pathway genes of Xoo ZJ173 was inhibited after 4...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756102/exogenous-n-acyl-homoserine-lactones-enhance-the-expression-of-flagella-of-pseudomonas-syringae-and-activate-defence-responses-in-plants
#19
Feifei Cheng, Anzhou Ma, Guoqiang Zhuang, Rupert G Fray
In order to cope with pathogens, plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to sense pathogenic attacks and to induce defence responses. The N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in bacteria regulates diverse physiological processes including those involved in pathogenicity. In this work, we study the interactions between AHL-producing transgenic tobacco plants and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 11528 (P. syringae 11528). Both a reduced incidence of disease and decrease in the growth of P...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753193/cellulose-production-activated-by-cyclic-di-gmp-through-bcsa-and-bcsz-is-a-virulence-factor-and-an-essential-determinant-of-the-three-dimensional-architecture-of-biofilms-formed-by-erwinia-amylovora-ea1189
#20
Luisa F Castiblanco, George W Sundin
Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix mainly composed of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), protein, and nucleic acids, which determines the architecture of the biofilm. Erwinia amylovora Ea1189 forms a biofilm inside the xylem of its host, that results in vessel plugging and water transport impairment. Production of the EPSs amylovoran and levan are critical for the formation of a mature biofilm. Additionally, cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) was reported to positively regulate amylovoran biosynthesis and biofilm formation in E...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
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