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Molecular Plant Pathology

Shujie Luo, Shiming Liu, Lingan Kong, Huan Peng, Wenkun Huang, Heng Jian, Deliang Peng
Despite venom allergen-like proteins (VAPs) having been identified in many animal and plant parasitic nematodes, studies on VAPs in Heterodera avenae, which is an important phytonematode, are still in their infancy. Here we isolated, cloned and characterized two VAPs, named HaVAP1 and HaVAP2, from H. avenae. The two encoded proteins, HaVAP1 and HaVAP2, harbour a SCP-like domain each but share only 38% identity with each other. HaVAP1 and HaVAP2 are expressed in subventral esophageal glands and dorsal esophageal gland, respectively...
November 13, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Aranka M van der Burgh, Jelle Postma, Silke Robatzek, Matthieu H A J Joosten
Leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) and LRR-receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) trigger immune signalling to promote plant resistance against pathogens. LRR-RLPs lack an intracellular kinase domain, and several of these receptors have been shown to constitutively interact with the LRR-RLK Suppressor Of BIR1-1/EVERSHED (SOBIR1/EVR) to form signalling-competent receptor complexes. Ligand perception by LRR-RLPs initiates recruitment of the co-receptor BRI1-Associated Kinase 1/Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase 3 (BAK1/SERK3) to the LRR-RLP/SOBIR1 complex, thereby activating LRR-RLP-mediated immunity...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
D J Studholme, P Panda, E Sanfuentes Von Stowasser, M González, R Hill, C Sambles, M Grant, N M Williams, R L McDougal
Genome sequences were generated for six oomycete isolates collected from forests in Valdivia, Chile. Three of the isolates were identified morphologically as Phytophthora kernoviae while two were similar to clade 10 Phytophthora species. One isolate was tentatively identified as Nothophytophthora valdiviana based on nucleotide sequence similarity in the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. This is the first genome sequence for this recently described genus. The genome assembly was more fragmented and contained many duplicated genes, as compared to the other Phytophthora sequences...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Naoyoshi Kumakura, Akiko Ueno, Ken Shirasu
Genome sequencing of pathogenic fungi has revealed the presence of various effectors that help their invasion by manipulating plant immunity. Effectors are often individually dispensable, because of duplication and functional redundancy as a result of the arms race between host plants and pathogens. To study effectors that have functional redundancy, multiple gene disruption is often required. However, the number of selection markers that can be used for gene targeting has been limited. Here, we established a marker recycling system that allows to use of the same selection marker in successive transformations in the model fungal pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare, a causal agent for anthracnose disease in Cucurbitaceae plants...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Katri Eskelin, Markku Varjosalo, Janne Ravantti, Kristiina Mäkinen
Nicotiana benthamiana is an important model plant for plant-microbe interaction studies. Here we compared ribosome profiles and riboproteomes of healthy and infected N. benthamiana plants. We affinity-purified ribosomes from transgenic leaves having FLAG-tagged ribosomal large subunit protein RPL18B of Arabidopsis thaliana incorporated to N. benthamiana ribosomes. Purifications were made from healthy plants and plants that were infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying infectious cDNA of potato virus A (PVA) or firefly luciferase gene, referred here as PVA- or Agrobacterium -infected plants...
October 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Liming Wu, Liumin Ma, Xi Li, Ziyang Huang, Xuewen Gao
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes a damaging bacterial leaf blight disease in rice. Cold shock proteins (Csps) are highly conserved nucleic acid-binding proteins present in various bacterial genera, but relatively little is known about their functions in Xanthomonas. Herein, we identified four cold shock proteins (CspA-D) in the PXO99A strain. Deletion of cspA decreased cold adaptation and a few known pathogenic factors, including bacterial pathogenicity, biofilm formation and polysaccharide production. Furthermore, we performed transcriptomic and chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments to identify direct targets of CspA and determine its DNA-binding sequence...
October 29, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Wei Wu, Zhiwen Zhao, Xuming Luo, Xiaojing Fan, Tao Zhuo, Xun Hu, Jun Liu, Huasong Zou
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, a polarly flagellated bacterium, causes citrus canker disease worldwide. In this study, we found that the X. citri subsp. citri response regulator VemR plays a regulatory role in flagellum-derived cell motility. Deletion of the vemR gene resulted in a reduction in cell motility, as well as reductions in virulence and exopolysaccharide production. RT-PCR demonstrated that vemR is transcribed in an operon together with rpoN2 and fleQ. In the vemR mutant, the flagellar distal rod gene flgG was significantly downregulated...
October 23, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Konstantina Katsarou, Eleni Mitta, Eirini Bardani, Anastasis Oulas, Elena Dadami, Kriton Kalantidis
RNA silencing is a universal mechanism involved in development, epigenetic modifications and responses against biotic (viruses-viroids) and abiotic stresses. The major components of this mechanism are Dicer-like (DCL), Argonaute (AGO) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins. Understanding the role of each component is of great scientific and agronomic importance. Plants including Nicotiana benthamiana, an important plant model, have usually four DCL proteins, each of which has a specific role namely, being responsible for the production of an exclusive small RNA population...
October 21, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Lifan Sun, Jun Qin, Wei Rong, Hao Ni, Hui-Shan Guo, Jie Zhang
The soil-borne vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects many dicotyledonous plants to cause devastating wilt diseases. During colonization, V. dahliae spores develop hyphae surrounding the roots. Only a few hyphae that adhere tightly to the root surface form hyphopodia at the infection site which further differentiate into penetration pegs to facilitate infection. The molecular mechanisms controlling hyphopodium formation in V. dahliae remain unclear. Here, we uncovered a cellophane surface-induced gene (VdCSIN1) as a regulator of V...
October 19, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Guiyan Huang, Zhirou Liu, Biao Gu, Hong Zhao, Jinbu Jia, Guangjin Fan, Yuling Meng, Yu Du, Weixing Shan
RXLR effectors encoded by Phytophthora species play a central role in pathogen-plant interactions. Understanding the biological functions of RXLR effectors are conducive to illuminating pathogenic mechanisms and developing disease-control strategies. However, the virulence function of Phytophthora parasitica RXLR effectors is poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of a P. parasitica RXLR effector gene, PPTG00121 (PpE4), which is highly transcribed during the early stages of infection and conserved among various Phytophthora species...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kan Zhuo, Diana Naalden, Silke Nowak, Nguyen Xuan Huy, Lander Bauters, Godelieve Gheysen
C-type lectins (CTLs), a class of multifunctional proteins, are numerous in nematodes. One CTL gene, Mg01965, shown to be expressed in the subventral glands, especially in the second-stage juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola, was further analysed in this study. In vitro RNA interference targeting Mg01965 in the preparasitic juveniles significantly reduced their ability to infect host plant roots. Immunolocalizations showed that Mg01965 is secreted by M. graminicola into the roots during the early parasitic stages and accumulates in the apoplast...
October 13, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kazusa Hayashi, Kenji Kai, Yuka Mori, Shiho Ishikawa, Yumeto Ujita, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Yasufumi Hikichi
The soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum invades the roots and colonizes the intercellular species and then the xylem. The expression of lecM, encoding a lectin LecM, is induced by an OmpR family response regulator HrpG in R. solanacearum strain OE1-1. LecM contributes to the attachment of strain OE1-1 to host cells of intercellular spaces. OE1-1 produces methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME) through a methyltransferase (PhcB) and extracellularly secretes the chemical as a quorum-sensing (QS) signal, which activates QS...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Janneke Aylward, Francois Roets, Leánne L Dreyer, Michael J Wingfield
BACKGROUND: Teratosphaeria gauchensis and T. zuluensis are closely related fungi that cause Teratosphaeria (previously Coniothyrium) stem canker disease on Eucalyptus species propagated in plantations for commercial purposes. This disease is present in many countries in which Eucalyptus trees are planted, and continues to spread with the international trade of infected plant germplasm. TAXONOMY: Fungi, Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Dothideomycetes, Dothideomycetidae, Capnodiales, Teratosphaeriaceae, Teratosphaeria...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yan Zhang, Lizhu Wu, Xingfen Wang, Bin Chen, Jing Zhao, Jing Cui, Zhikun Li, Jun Yang, Liqiang Wu, Jinhua Wu, Guiyin Zhang, Zhiying Ma
Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt diseases responsible for considerable decreases in cotton yields. The lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defense mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the function of laccase in defense-induced lignification has not been described. Screening a SSH library of a resistant cotton cultivar, Jimian20, inoculated with V. dahliae revealed a laccase gene that was strongly induced by the pathogen...
September 29, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kévin Royet, Nicolas Parisot, Agnès Rodrigue, Erwan Gueguen, Guy Condemine
Identification of the virulence factors of plant pathogenic bacteria has relied on the test of individual mutants on plants, a time-consuming process. Tn-seq is a very powerful method for identifying those genes required for bacterial growth in their host. We used this method in a soft-rot pathogenic bacterium to identify the genes required for the multiplication of Dickeya dadantii in chicory. About 100 genes were identified showing decreased or increased fitness in the plant. Most of them had no previously attributed role in plant-bacteria interaction...
September 29, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Wei Guo, Feng Zhang, Aili Bao, Qingbo You, Zeyu Li, Jingsheng Chen, Yihui Cheng, Wei Zhao, Xinjie Shen, Xinan Zhou, Yongqing Jiao
Rhg1 (resistance to Heterodera glycines 1) is an important locus that contributes to resistance against soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe), which is the most economically damaging disease of soybean worldwide. Simultaneous overexpression of three genes encoding a predicted amino acid transporter, an alpha-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (α-SNAP) and a predicted wound-induced protein resulted in resistance to SCN provided by this locus. However, the roles of two of these genes (excluding α-SNAP) remain unknown...
September 28, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
María A Chiesa, Roxana A Roeschlin, María A Favaro, Facundo Uviedo, Laura Campos-Beneyto, Rodrigo D'Andrea, José Gadea, María R Marano
Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by citrus canker, a disease caused by Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (X. citri); thus, new sustainable strategies to manage this disease are needed. Although all Citrus spp. are susceptible to this pathogen, they are resistant to other Xanthomonas species, exhibiting non-host resistance (NHR), for example, to the brassica pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and a gene-for-gene host defence response (HDR) to the canker-causing X...
September 27, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Alexandra J E Pelgrom, Jelle Eikelhof, Joyce Elberse, Claudia-Nicole Meisrimler, Rob Raedts, Joël Klein, Guido Van den Ackerveken
Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete effector proteins to suppress host immune responses. Resistance genes may recognize effectors and activate immunity, which is often associated with a hypersensitive response (HR). Transient expression of effectors in plant germplasm and screening for HR has proven a powerful tool in the identification of new resistance genes. In this study, fourteen effectors from the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae race Bl:24 were screened for HR induction in over 150 lettuce accessions...
September 24, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
André da Silva Xavier, Juliana Cristina Fraleon de Almeida, Alessandra Gonçalves de Melo, Geneviève M Rousseau, Denise M Tremblay, Rafael Reis de Rezende, Sylvain Moineau, Poliane Alfenas-Zerbini
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are composed of an array of short DNA repeat sequences separated by unique spacer sequences that are flanked by associated (Cas) genes. CRISPR-Cas systems are found in the genomes of several microbes and can act as an adaptive immune mechanism against invading foreign nucleic acids, such as phage genomes. Here, we studied the CRISPR-Cas systems in plant-pathogenic bacteria of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC). A CRISPR-Cas system was found in 31% of RSSC genomes present in public databases...
September 24, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Li Wan, Markus Koeck, Simon J Williams, Anthony R Ashton, Gregory J Lawrence, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Mikiko Kojima, Christine Böttcher, Daniel J Ericsson, Adrienne R Hardham, David A Jones, Jeffrey G Ellis, Bostjan Kobe, Peter N Dodds
During infection, plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to facilitate colonization. Compared to our knowledge of bacterial effectors, the current understanding of how fungal effectors function is limited. In this study we show that the effector AvrL567-A from the flax rust fungus Melampsora lini interacts with a flax cytosolic cytokinin oxidase, LuCKX1.1 using both yeast-two-hybrid and in planta bimolecular fluorescence assays. Purified LuCKX1.1 protein shows catalytic activity against both N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)-adenine (iP) and trans-zeatin (tZ) substrates...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
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