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Molecular Plant Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817232/crystal-structure-of-the-melampsora-lini-effector-avrp-reveals-insights-into-a-possible-nuclear-function-and-recognition-by-the-flax-disease-resistance-protein-p
#1
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Nadya Farah, Laura Rolston, Daniel J Ericsson, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Maud Bernoux, Thomas Ve, Katerina Bendak, Chunhong Chen, Joel P Mackay, Gregory J Lawrence, Adrienne Hardham, Jeffrey G Ellis, Simon J Williams, Peter N Dodds, David A Jones, Bostjan Kobe
The effector protein AvrP is secreted by the flax rust fungal pathogen (Melampsora lini) and recognized specifically by the flax (Linum usitatissimum) P disease resistance protein, leading to effector-triggered immunity. To investigate the biological function of this effector and mechanisms of specific recognition by the P resistance protein, we determined the crystal structure of AvrP. The structure reveals an elongated zinc-finger-like structure with a novel interleaved zinc-binding topology. The residues responsible for zinc binding are conserved in AvrP effector variants and mutations of these motifs result in loss of P-mediated recognition...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815858/loss-of-chloroplast-localized-protein-phosphatase-2cs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-leads-to-enhancement-of-the-plant-immunity-and-resistance-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-infection
#2
Chiharu Akimoto-Tomiyama, Shigeru Tanabe, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Eiichi Minami, Hirokazu Ochiai
Protein phosphatases (PPs) counteract kinases in reversible phosphorylation events during numerous signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. PP2Cs, one of the four major classes of serine/threonine specific PPs family is greatly expanded in plants. Thus PP2C is thought to have a specific role in a signal transduction pathway. Some rice PP2Cs classified to subgroup K were responsive to the infection by the compatible Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight. In A. thaliana, orthologous PP2C genes (AtPP2C62 and AtPP2C26) classified to subgroup K were also responsive to Xanthomonas campestris pv...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802024/the-cereal-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-produces-a-new-class-of-active-cytokinins-during-infection
#3
Jens Laurids Sørensen, Aurelie H Benfield, Rasmus Dam Wollenberg, Klaus Westphal, Reinhard Wimmer, Mikkel Rank Nielsen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Jason Carere, Lorenzo Covarelli, Giovanni Beccari, Jonathan Powell, Takafumi Yamashino, Herbert Kogler, Teis Esben Sondergaard, Donald Max Gardiner
The fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum causes important diseases of wheat and barley. During a survey of secondary metabolites produced by this fungus, a novel class of cytokinins, herein termed Fusarium cytokinins, was discovered. Cytokinins are known for their growth promoting and anti-senescence activities and the production of a cytokinin mimic by what was once considered a necrotrophic pathogen that promotes cell death and senescence challenges the simple view that this pathogen invades its hosts by employing a barrage of lytic enzymes and toxins...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802023/the-agrobacterium-vire2-effector-interacts-with-multiple-members-of-the-arabidopsis-vip1-protein-family
#4
Luyao Wang, Benoît Lacroix, Jianhua Guo, Vitaly Citovsky
T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium to its host plant genome relies on multiple interactions between plant proteins and bacterial effectors. One of such plant proteins is the Arabidopsis VirE2 interacting protein (AtVIP1), a transcription factor that binds A. tumefaciens C58 VirE2, potentially acting as an adaptor between VirE2 and several other host factors. It remains unknown, however, whether the same VirE2 protein has evolved to interact with multiple VIP1 homologs in the same host, and whether VirE2 homologs encoded by different bacterial strains/species recognize AtVIP1 or its homologs...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802020/investigating-the-diversity-of-effector-genes-in-the-banana-pathogen-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cubense-reveals-evidence-of-horizontal-gene-transfer
#5
Elizabeth Czislowski, Sam Fraser-Smith, Manuel Zander, Wayne T O'Neill, Rachel A Meldrum, Lucy T T Tran-Nguyen, Jacqueline Batley, Elizabeth A B Aitken
It is hypothesised that the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi is mediated through the secretion of small effector proteins that interfere with the defence responses of the host plant. In Fusarium oxysporum, one family of effectors, the secreted in xylem (SIX) genes, have been identified. We sought to characterise the diversity and evolution of the SIX genes in the banana-infecting lineages of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc). Whole-genome sequencing data was generated for the 23 genetic lineages of Foc, which were subsequently queried for the 14 known SIX genes (SIX1-SIX14)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802018/characterization-of-two-catalase-peroxidase-encoding-genes-in-fusarium-verticillioides-reveals-differential-responses-to-in-vitro-versus-in-planta-oxidative-challenges
#6
Shan Gao, Scott E Gold, Anthony E Glenn
Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are a superfamily of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes believed to be horizontally acquired by ancient Ascomycota from bacteria. Subsequent gene duplication resulted in two KatG paralogs in ascomycetes: the widely distributed intracellular KatG1 group, and the phytopathogen-dominated extracellular KatG2 group. To functionally characterize FvCP01 (KatG1) and FvCP02 (KatG2) in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, single and double gene deletion mutants were examined in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779550/the-tnl-gene-rdr1-confers-broad-spectrum-resistance-to-diplocarpon-rosae
#7
Ina Menz, Jannis Straube, Marcus Linde, Thomas Debener
Black spot disease, which is caused by the ascomycete Diplocarpon rosae, is the most severe disease in field-grown roses in temperate regions and has been distributed worldwide, likely along with commercial cultivars. Here, we present data supporting that muRdr1A is the active Rdr1 gene, a single-dominant TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) type resistance gene against black spot disease that acts against a broad range of pathogenic isolates independently of the genetic background of the host genotype. The molecular analyses revealed that compared to the original donor genotype, the multiple integrations that are found in the primary transgenic clone segregate into different integration patterns in its sexual progeny and do not show any sign of overexpression...
August 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779542/random-mutagenesis-screen-shows-that-phytophthora-capsici-crn83_152-mediated-cell-death-is-not-required-for-its-virulence-function-s
#8
Tiago M M M Amaro, Gaëtan J A Thilliez, Rory A McLeod, Edgar Huitema
With the increasing availability of plant pathogen genomes, secreted proteins that aid infection (effectors) have emerged as key factors that help govern plant-microbe interactions. The conserved CRN (CRinkling and Necrosis) effector family was first described in oomycetes by their capacity to induce host cell death. Despite recent advances towards elucidation of CRN virulence functions, the relevance of CRN induced cell death remains unclear. In planta over-expression of PcCRN83_152, a CRN effector from P...
August 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756640/signaling-requirements-for-erwinia-amylovora-induced-disease-resistance-callose-deposition-and-cell-growth-in-the-nonhost-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Safae Hamdoun, Min Gao, Manroop Gill, Ashley Kwon, John L Norelli, Hua Lu
Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight disease in some plants of the Rosaceae family. The nonhost plant Arabidopsis serves as a powerful system to dissect mechanisms of resistance to E. amylovora. Although not yet known to mount gene-for-gene resistance to E. amylovora, we found that Arabidopsis activated strong defense signaling mediated by salicylic acid (SA) with kinetics and amplitude similar to that induced by the resistance protein RPM1 recognition of bacterial effector avrRpm1. Genetic analysis further revealed that SA signaling but not those mediated by ethylene and jasmonic acid is required for E...
July 29, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752569/the-first-phlebo-like-virus-infecting-plants-a-case-study-on-the-adaptation-of-negative-stranded-rna-viruses-to-new-hosts
#10
Beatriz Navarro, Maria Minutolo, Angelo De Stradis, Francesco Palmisano, Daniela Alioto, Francesco Di Serio
A novel negative-stranded (ns) RNA virus associated with a severe citrus disease reported more than eighty years ago has been identified. Transmission electron microscopy showed that this novel virus, tentatively named citrus concave gum-associated virus (CCGaV), is flexuous and non-enveloped. Notwithstanding, its two genomic RNAs share structural features with members of the genus Phlebovirus, which are enveloped arthropod-transmitted viruses infecting mammals, and with a group of still unclassified phlebo-like viruses infecting prevalently arthropods...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752677/new-findings-on-phosphodiesterases-mopdeh-and-mopdel-in-magnaporthe-oryzae-revealed-by-structure-analysis
#11
Li-Na Yang, Ziyi Yin, Xi Zhang, Wanzheng Feng, Yuhan Xiao, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
The cyclic AMP signaling pathway mediates signal communication and sensing during infection-related morphogenesis in eukaryotes. Many studies have implicated cAMP as a critical mediator of appressorium development in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. The cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases, MoPdeH and MoPdeL, as key regulators of intracellular cAMP levels, play pleiotropic roles in cell wall integrity, cellular morphology, appressorium formation, and infectious growth in M. oryzae. Here, we analyzed the roles of domains of MoPdeH and MoPdeL separately or in chimeras...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742234/xylella-fastidiosa-an-examination-of-a-re-emerging-plant-pathogen
#12
Jeannette Rapicavoli, Brian Ingel, Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Dario Cantu, Caroline Roper
Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen with an extremely wide host range. This species has recently been resolved into subspecies that correlate with host specificity. This review focuses on the status of X. fastidiosa pathogenic associations in plant hosts where the bacterium is either endemic or recently introduced. Plant diseases associated with X. fastidiosa have been documented for over a century and much about what we know in the context of host-pathogen interactions is based on these hosts, such as grape and citrus, where this pathogen has been well described...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727279/characterization-of-two-homeodomain-transcription-factors-with-critical-but-distinct-roles-in-virulence-in-the-vascular-pathogen-verticillium-dahliae
#13
J L Sarmiento-Villamil, P Prieto, S J Klosterman, M D García-Pedrajas
Vascular wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a destructive disease that represents a chronic economic problem on crop production worldwide. In this work we characterized two new regulators of pathogenicity in this species. Vph1 (VDAG_06555) was identified in a candidate gene approach as a putative homolog of the transcription factor Ste12. Vhb1 (VDAG_08786), identified in a forward genetics approach, is similar to the homeobox transcription factor Htf1, reported as a regulator of conidiogenesis in several fungi...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722830/ralfuranones-contribute-to-mushroom-type-biofilm-formation-by-ralstonia-solanacearum-strain-oe1-1
#14
Yuka Mori, Yuki Hosoi, Shiho Ishikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Yu Asai, Hideyuki Ohnishi, Mika Shimatani, Kanako Inoue, Kenichi Ikeda, Hitoshi Nakayashiki, Yasuyo Nishimura, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai, Yasufumi Hikichi
After invasion into intercellular spaces of tomato plants, the soil-borne plant pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum strain OE1-1 forms mushroom-shaped biofilms (mushroom-type biofilms, mBFs) on tomato cells, leading to its virulence. The strain OE1-1 produces aryl-furanone secondary metabolites, ralfuranones (A, B, J, K and L), dependent on the quorum sensing (QS) system with methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME) synthesized by PhcB as a QS signal. Ralfuranones are associated with the feedback loop of the QS system...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710879/the-transcription-factor-pstste12-is-required-for-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#15
Xiaoguo Zhu, Wei Liu, Xiuling Chu, Qixiong Sun, Chenglong Tan, Qian Yang, Min Jiao, Jun Guo, Zhensheng Kang
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an obligate biotrophic fungus that causes extensive damage in wheat. The pathogen is now known to be a heteroecious fungus with an intricate life cycle containing sexual and asexual stages. Orthologs of the STE12 transcription factor that regulate mating and filamentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as virulence in other fungi has been extensively described. Because reliable transformation and gene disruption methods are lacking for Pst, knowledge about the function of its STE12 ortholog is limited...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695996/downregulation-of-genes-coding-for-core-rnai-components-and-disease-resistance-proteins-via-corresponding-micrornas-might-be-correlated-with-successful-smv-infection-in-soybean
#16
Duran Bao, Oyunchuluun Ganbaatar, Xiuqi Cui, Ruonan Yu, Wenhua Bao, Bryce W Falk, Hada Wuriyanghan
Plants protect themselves from virus infections by several different defense mechanisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is one prominent antiviral mechanism, which requires the participation of AGO (Argonaute) and Dicer/DCL (Dicer-like) proteins. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an antiviral mechanism mediated by resistance (R) genes, most of which encode NBS-LRR family proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in plants, including regulation of host defenses. SMV (Soybean mosaic virus) is the most common virus in soybean and here we identified dozens of SMV-responsive miRNAs by microarray analysis in a SMV-susceptible soybean line...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677296/pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-polymutants-deploying-coronatine-and-two-type-iii-effectors-produce-quantifiable-chlorotic-spots-from-individual-bacterial-colonies-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#17
Suma Chakravarthy, Jay N Worley, Adriana Montes-Rodriguez, Alan Collmer
Primary virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 include the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) and a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS). DC3000 derivatives differentially producing COR, the T3SS machinery, and subsets of key effectors were constructed and assayed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Bacteria were inoculated by dipping of whole plants and assayed for population growth and production of chlorotic spots on leaves. The strains fell into three classes...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677256/xanthomonas-campestris-pv-musacearum-a-major-constraint-to-banana-plantain-and-enset-production-in-central-and-east-africa-over-the-past-decade
#18
Valentine Nakato, George Mahuku, Teresa Coutinho
Taxonomy: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; currently classified as X. campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm). However, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, genetic and genomic evidence suggest that this pathogen is X. vasicola and resides in a separate pathovar. Isolation and detection: Xcm can be isolated on Yeast Peptone Glucose Agar (YPGA), Cellobiose Cephalexin Agar and Yeast Tryptone Sucrose Agar (YTSA) complemented with 5-flouro-uracil, cephalexin and cycloheximide to confer semi-selectivity...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675630/erwinia-amylovora-catalases-kata-and-katg-are-virulence-factors-and-delay-the-starvation-induced-viable-but-nonculturable-vbnc-response
#19
Ricardo D Santander, Àngela Figàs-Segura, Elena G Biosca
The life cycle of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora comprises periods inside and outside the host in which it faces oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and other compounds. Sources of this stress are plant defences, other microorganisms and/or exposure to starvation or other environmental challenges. However, the functional roles of H2 O2 neutralizing enzymes like catalases during plant-pathogen interactions and/or under starvation conditions in phytopathogens of the family Erwiniaceae or closely related families have not been yet investigated...
July 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665481/the-pkr-regulatory-subunit-of-pka-is-involved-in-regulating-growth-sexual-and-asexual-development-and-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#20
Chaoqun Li, Yonghui Zhang, Huan Wang, Lingfeng Chen, Ju Zhang, Manli Sun, Jin-Rong Xu, Chenfang Wang
Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of the wheat scab disease and a producer of deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxins. Treatment with exogenous cAMP increased its DON production. To better understand the role of the cAMP-PKA pathway in F. graminearum, in this study we functionally characterized the PKR gene encoding the regulatory subunit of PKA. Mutants deleted of PKR were viable but had severe defects in growth, conidiation, and plant infection. The pkr mutant produced compact colonies with shorter aerial hyphae that were increased in the number of nuclei in hyphal compartments...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
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