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Molecular Plant Pathology

Kaveh Ghanbarnia, Lisong Ma, Nicholas J Larkan, Parham Haddadi, W G Dilantha Fernando, M Hossein Borhan
Blackleg disease of Brassica napus caused by Leptosphaeria maculans (Lm) is largely controlled by deploying race-specific resistance (R) genes. However, selection pressure exerted by R genes causes Lm to adapt and give rise to new virulent strains through mutation and deletion of effector genes. Therefore, knowledge of effector gene function is necessary for effective management of the disease. Here we report cloning of Lm effector AvrLm9 that is recognised by the resistance gene Rlm9 in B. napus cultivar Goéland...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Diogo Nuno Silva, Vítor Várzea, Octávio Salgueiro Paulo, Dora Batista
Coffee Leaf Rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix (Hv), represents the biggest threat to coffee production worldwide and ranks amongst the most serious fungal diseases in history. Despite a recent series of outbreaks and emergence of hyper-virulent strains, the population evolutionary history and potential of this pathogen remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we used RADseq to generate ∼19,000 SNPs across a worldwide collection of 37 Hv samples. Contrarily to the longstanding idea that Hv represents a genetically unstructured and cosmopolitan species, our results reveal the existence of a cryptic species complex with marked host tropism...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yucheng Zhang, Guangde Jiang, Yousong Ding, Rosemary Loria
With few exceptions, thaxtomin A (ThxA), a nitrated diketopiperazine, is the pathogenicity determinant for plant pathogenic Streptomyces species. In Streptomyces scabiei (syn. S. scabies), the ThxA biosynthetic cluster is located within a 177 Kb mobile pathogenicity island, called the toxicogenic region (TR). In S. turgidiscabies, the ThxA biosynthetic cluster is located within a 674 Kb pathogenicity island (PAIst). Emergence of new plant pathogens occurs in this genus, but not frequently. This raises the question of whether mobilization of these pathogenicity regions, through mating, is widespread and whether TR and PAIst can confer plant pathogenicity...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hai-Lei Wei, Alan Collmer
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and its derivatives cause disease in tomato, Arabidopsis, and Nicotiana benthamiana. Primary virulence factors include a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system and the phytotoxin coronatine. The complete repertoire of effector genes and key coronatine biosynthesis genes have been progressively deleted and minimally reassembled to reconstitute basic pathogenic ability in N. benthamiana and also in Arabidopsis plants that have mutations in target genes that mimic effector actions...
December 25, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Sivasubramanian Rajarammohan, Akshay Kumar Pradhan, Deepak Pental, Jagreet Kaur
Quantitative disease resistance (QDR) is the predominant form of resistance against necrotrophic pathogens. The genes and mechanisms underlying QDR are not well known. In the current study the Arabidopsis - Alternaria brassicae pathosystem was used to uncover the genetic architecture underlying resistance to A. brassicae, in a set of geographically diverse Arabidopsis accessions. Arabidopsis accessions revealed a rich variation in the host responses to the pathogen varying from complete resistance to high susceptibility...
December 22, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Mateusz Labudda, Elżbieta Różańska, Weronika Czarnocka, Mirosław Sobczak, Jolanta Maria Dzik
Photosynthetic efficiency and redox homeostasis are important for plant physiological processes during regular development as well as defence responses. The second-stage juveniles of the Heterodera schachtii, induce syncytial feeding sites in host roots. To ascertain whether development of the syncytia alters photosynthesis and metabolism of ROS, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and antioxidant responses were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana shoots at the day of inoculation and at 3, 7 and 15 days post-inoculation (dpi)...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Li-Chao Yang, Yong-Liang Gan, Li-Yan Yang, Bo-Le Jiang, Ji-Liang Tang
The essential stages of bacterial cell separation are described as the synthesis and hydrolysis of septal peptidoglycan (PG). The amidase, AmiC, which cleaves the peptide side-chains linked to the glycan strands, contributes critically to this process and has been extensively studied in model strains of Escherichia coli. However, insights into the contribution of this protein to other processes in the bacterial cell have been limited. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a phytopathogen that causes black rot disease in many economically important plants...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Sara Klee, Islam Mostafa, Sixue Chen, Craig Dufresne, Brian L Lehman, Judith P Sinn, Kari A Peter, Timothy W McNellis
The gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, an economically-important disease of apples and pears. Elongation Factor P (EF-P) is a highly conserved protein that stimulates the formation of the first peptide bond of certain proteins and facilitates translation of certain proteins, including those with polyproline motifs. YjeK and YjeA are two enzymes involved in the essential post-translational β-lysylation of EF-P at a conserved lysine residue, K34. EF-P, YjeA, and YjeK have been shown to be essential for full virulence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, with efp, yjeA, and yjeK mutants having highly similar phenotypes...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jingtao Li, Wenhui Mu, Selvakumar Veluchamy, Yanzhi Liu, Yanhua Zhang, Hongyu Pan, Jeffrey A Rollins
The sclerotium, a multicellular structure made from the compact aggregation of vegetative hyphae, is critical for the long-term survival and sexual reproduction of the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The development and carpogenic germination of sclerotia are regulated by integrating signals from both environmental and endogenous processes. Here we report on the regulatory functions of the S. sclerotiorum GATA-type IVb zinc-finger transcription factor SsNsd1 in these processes. SsNsd1 is orthologous to the Aspergillus nidulans NsdD (never in sexual development) and the Neurospora crassa SUB-1 (submerged protoperithecia-1) proteins...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Bryan A Bailey, Harry C Evans, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Shahin S Ali, Lyndel W Meinhardt
Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. (1978); Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: M. roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. M. roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Quan Zeng, Zhouqi Cui, Jie Wang, Kevin L Childs, George W Sundin, Daniel R Cooley, Ching-Hong Yang, Elizabeth Garofalo, Alan Eaton, Regan B Huntley, Xiaochen Yuan, Neil P Schultes
Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, one of the most devastating diseases of apple and pear. E. amylovora is thought to have originated in North America and has now spread to at least 50 countries worldwide. Understanding the diversity of the pathogen population and the transmission to different geographical regions is important for the future mitigation of this disease. In this research, we performed a comprehensive comparative genomic study of the Spiraeoideae-infecting (SI) E. amylovora population in North America and Europe...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
M R Hajimorad, L L Domier, S A Tolin, S A Whitham, M A Saghai Maroof
Taxonomy. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae that includes almost a quarter of all known plant RNA viruses affecting agriculturally important plants. The Potyvirus genus is the largest of all genera of plant RNA viruses with 160 species. Particle. The filamentous particles of SMV, typical of potyviruses, are about 7,500 Å long and 120 Å in diameter with a central hole of about 15 Å in diameter. Coat protein residues are arranged in helice of about 34 Å pitch having slightly less than 9 subunits per turn...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yuxing Wu, Liangsheng Xu, Zhiyuan Yin, Qingqing Dai, Xiaoning Gao, Hao Feng, Ralf T Voegele, Lili Huang
Velvet protein family members are important fungal-specific regulators that are involved in conidial development, secondary metabolism, and virulence. To gain broader insight into the physiological functions into the velvet protein family of Valsa mali, which causes a highly destructive canker disease on apple, we conducted a functional analysis of two Velvet protein family members (VmVeA and VmVelB) via gene replacement strategy. Deletion mutants of VmVeA and VmVelB showed increased melanin production, conidiation, and sensitivity to abiotic stresses, but exhibited reduced virulence on detached apple leaves and twigs...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hongying Shan, Fabio Pasin, Ioannis E Tzanetakis, Carmen Simón-Mateo, Juan Antonio García, Bernardo Rodamilans
The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes ca. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B based, among other things, on their dependency or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family characterizing their host factor requirements...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Christopher M Ference, Alberto M Gochez, Franklin Behlau, Nian Wang, James H Graham, Jeffrey B Jones
Taxonomic status: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadles; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). Host range: Compatible hosts vary in their susceptibility to CC, with grapefruit, lime, and lemon being most susceptible, sweet orange being moderately susceptible, and kumquat and calamondin being among the least susceptible (Gottwald et al., 1993). Microbiological properties: Xcc is a rod-shaped (1.5 - 2.0 X 0.5 - 0.75 µm) gram-negative, aerobic bacterium with a single polar flagellum...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Caucasella Diaz-Trujillo, Pablo Chong, Ioannis Stergiopoulos, Viviane Cordovez, Mauricio Guzman, Pierre J G M De Wit, Harold J G Meijer, Rafael E Arango Isaza, Gabriel Scalliet, Helge Sierotzki, Esther Lilia Peralta, Gerrit H J Kema
The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors (DMIs). The continued use of DMIs puts a considerable selection pressure on natural P. fijiensis populations enabling the selection of novel genotypes with reduced sensitivity. The hitherto explanatory mechanism for this reduced sensitivity was the presence of non-synonymous point mutations in the target gene Pfcyp51, encoding the sterol 14α-demethylase enzyme...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kemal Kazan, Donald Gardiner
Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Chen Wang, Xiaowen He, Yuzhen Li, Lijun Wang, Xulei Guo, Xingqi Guo
Fusarium wilt is one of the most serious diseases affecting cotton. However, the pathogenesis and mechanism by which F. oxysporum overcomes plant defence responses are unclear. Here, a new group D MAPK gene, GhMPK20, was identified and functionally analysed in cotton. GhMPK20 expression was significantly induced by F. oxysporum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhMPK20 in cotton increased the tolerance to F. oxysporum, while ectopic GhMPK20 overexpression in N. benthamiana reduced F. oxysporum resistance via disrupting the SA-mediated defence pathway...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Shanshan Xie, Haiyang Jiang, Ting Ding, Qianqian Xu, Wenbo Chai, Beijiu Cheng
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a kind of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that activates induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis. Blocking in cyclic lipopeptides and 2,3-butanediol synthesis of FZB42, which were proved to be involved in priming ISR, resulted in abolishment of plant defense responses. To further clarify the ISR activated by PGPR at miRNA level, sRNA libraries from Arabidopsis leaves after root-irrigated with FZB42, FZB42ΔsfpΔalsS and control were constructed and sequenced...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Guangfei Tang, Chengqi Zhang, Zhenzhen Ju, Shiyu Zheng, Ziyue Wen, Sunde Xu, Yun Chen, Zhonghua Ma
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced in cereal crops infected with Fusarium graminearum. DON poses a serious threat to human and animal health and is a critical virulence factor. Various environmental factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to interfere with DON biosynthesis in this pathogen. The regulatory mechanisms of how ROS trigger DON production have been extensively investigated in F. graminearum. However, the role of the endogenous ROS generating system in DON biosynthesis is largely unknown...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
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