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Molecular Plant Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220688/the-dnaj-protein-osdja6-negatively-regulates-rice-innate-immunity-to-the-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#1
Xionghui Zhong, Jiuxia Yang, Yanlong Shi, Xuli Wang, Guo-Liang Wang
Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (synonym: Pyricularia oryzae), severely reduces rice production and grain quality. The molecular mechanism of rice resistance to M. oryzae is not fully understood. In the present study, we identified a chaperone DnaJ protein, OsDjA6, that is involved in basal resistance to M. oryzae in rice. The OsDjA6 protein is distributed in the entire rice cell. The expression of OsDjA6 is significantly induced in rice after infection with a compatible isolate. Silencing of OsDjA6 in transgenic rice enhances resistance to M...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220595/guanosine-tetraphosphate-modulates-salicylic-acid-signaling-and-the-resistance-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-to-turnip-mosaic-virus
#2
Hela Abdelkefi, Matteo Sugliani, Ke Hang, Seddik Harchouni, Ludivine Soubigou-Taconnat, Sylvie Citerne, Gregory Mouille, Hatem Fakhfakh, Christophe Robaglia, Ben Field
Chloroplasts can act as key players in the perception and acclimation of plants to incoming environmental signals. A growing body of evidence indicates that chloroplasts play a critical role in plant immunity. Chloroplast function can be regulated by the nucleotides guanosine tetraphosphate and pentaphosphate ((p)ppGpp). In plants (p)ppGpp levels increase in response to abiotic stress and to plant hormones that are involved in abiotic and biotic stress signaling. Here we analyzed the transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants that over accumulate (p)ppGpp and unexpectedly found a decrease in the levels of a broad range of transcripts for plant defense and immunity...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220591/transcriptome-analysis-of-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-infected-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-roots-reveals-complex-gene-expression-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-of-both-host-and-nematode-during-susceptible-and-resistance-responses
#3
Neha Shukla, Rachita Yadav, Pritam Kaur, Simon Rasmussen, Shailendra Goel, Manu Agarwal, Arun Jagannath, Ramneek Gupta, Amar Kumar
Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible plants and two infection time intervals from resistant plants, grown under soil conditions. Differentially expressed genes during susceptible (1827-tomato, 462-RKN) and resistance (25-tomato, 160-RKN) interactions were identified...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218463/closed-reference-metatranscriptomics-enables-in-planta-profiling-of-putative-virulence-activities-in-the-grapevine-trunk-disease-complex
#4
Abraham Morales-Cruz, Gabrielle Allenbeck, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Vanessa E Ashworth, Daniel P Lawrence, Renaud Travadon, Rhonda J Smith, Kendra Baumgartner, Philippe E Rolshausen, Dario Cantu
Grapevines, like other perennial crops, are affected by so-called 'trunk diseases', which damage the trunk and other woody tissues. Mature grapevines typically contract more than one trunk disease and often multiple grapevine trunk pathogens (GTPs) are recovered from infected tissues. The co-existence of different GTP species in complex and dynamic microbial communities complicates the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease development especially under vineyard conditions. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a community-level transcriptomics (i...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218447/the-role-of-type-three-effectors-from-xanthomonas-axonopodis-pv-manihotis-in-virulence-and-suppression-of-plant-immunity
#5
Cesar Augusto Medina, Paola Andrea Reyes, Cesar Augusto Trujillo, Juan Luis Gonzalez, David Alejandro Bejarano, Nathaly Andrea Montenegro, Jonathan M Jacobs, Anna Joe, Silvia Restrepo, James R Alfano, Adriana Jimena Bernal
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) causes cassava bacterial blight, the most important bacterial disease of cassava. Xam, like other Xanthomonas species, requires type III effectors (T3Es) for maximal virulence. Xam strain CIO151 has 17 predicted T3Es belonging to the Xanthomonas outer protein class (Xop). This work aimed at characterizing nine Xop effectors present in Xam CIO151 for their role in virulence and modulation of plant immunity. Our findings demonstrate the importance of XopZ, XopX, XopAO1, and AvrBs2 for full virulence, as well as a redundant function in virulence between XopN and XopQ in susceptible cassava plants...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213905/a-ten-gene-containing-genomic-island-determines-flagellin-glycosylation-implication-for-its-regulatory-role-in-motility-and-virulence-of-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#6
Chao Yu, Huamin Chen, Fang Tian, Fenghuan Yang, Xiaochen Yuan, Ching-Hong Yang, Chenyang He
Flagellin glycosylation plays crucial roles in flagellar assembly, motility and virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the genetic determinants and biological functions of flagellin glycosylation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal pathogen of bacterial blight of rice. Here, the structure, regulation and functions of a ten-gene cluster gigX (glycosylation island genes of Xoo), which was embedded in a flagellar regulon were characterized. gigX1 through gigX10, encoded putative enzymes or proteins involved in glycan biosynthesis and transfer, including a nucleotide sugar transaminase, an acyl-carrier protein (ACP), a 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase, a 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase, a dehydrogenase, an acetyltransferase, a ring hydroxylating dioxygenase, a hypothetical protein, a methyltransferanse, and a glycosyltransferase, respectively...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142223/cryphonectria-parasitica-the-causal-agent-of-chestnut-blight-invasion-history-population-biology-and-disease-control
#7
Daniel Rigling, Simone Prospero
Chestnut blight, caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, is a devastating disease infecting American and European chestnut trees. The pathogen is native to East Asia and was spread to other continents via infected chestnut plants. This review summarizes the current state of research on this pathogen with a special emphasis on its interaction with a hyperparasitic mycovirus that acts as a biological control agent of chestnut blight. Taxonomy: Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. is a Sordariomycete (ascomycete) fungus in the family Cryphonetriaceae (Order Diaporthales)...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142220/glutamate-synthase-moglt1-mediated-glutamate-homeostasis-is-important-for-autophagy-virulence-and-conidiation-in-the-rice-blast-fungus
#8
Wei Zhou, Wei Shi, Xiao-Wen Xu, Zhi-Gang Li, Chang-Fa Yin, Jun-Bo Peng, Song Pan, Xiao-Lin Chen, Wen-Sheng Zhao, Yan Zhang, Jun Yang, You-Liang Peng
Glutamate homeostasis plays vital roles in central nitrogen metabolism and coordinates several key metabolic functions. However, its functions in fungal pathogenesis and development have not been well investigated. In this study, we identified and characterized a glutamate synthase gene MoGLT1 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that was important to glutamate homeostasis. MoGLT1 was constitutively expressed but had the highest expression level in appressoria. Deletion of MoGLT1 resulted in significant reductions in conidiation and virulence...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142217/the-cyclase-associated-protein-fgcap1-has-both-pka-dependent-and-independent-functions-during-don-production-and-plant-infection-in-fusarium-graminearum
#9
Tao Yin, Qiang Zhang, Jianhua Wang, Huiquan Liu, Chenfang Wang, Jin-Rong Xu, Cong Jiang
Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of wheat scab and a producer of trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). The expression of trichothecene biosynthesis (TRI) genes and DON production are mainly regulated by the cAMP-PKA pathway and two pathway-specific transcription factors (TRI6 and TRI10). Interestingly, mutants deleted of TRI6 had reduced expression of several components of cAMP signaling, including the FgCAP1 adenylate binding protein gene that has not been functionally characterized in F. graminearum...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120374/confocal-microscopy-reveals-in-planta-dynamic-interactions-between-pathogenic-avirulent-and-non-pathogenic-pseudomonas-syringae-strains
#10
José S Rufián, Alberto P Macho, David S Corry, John Mansfield, Javier Ruiz-Albert, Dawn Arnold, Carmen R Beuzón
Recent advances in genomics and single-cell analysis have demonstrated the extraordinary complexity that microbial populations may reach within their hosts. Communities range from complex multispecies groups, to homogeneous populations differentiating into lineages through genetic or non-genetic mechanisms. Diversity within bacterial populations is recognised as a key driver of the evolution of animal pathogens. In plants, however, little is known about how interactions between different pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants within the host impacts on defence responses or how presence within a mixture may affect the development or the fate of each variant...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116815/involvement-of-ralfuranones-in-the-quorum-sensing-signaling-pathway-and-virulence-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-strain-oe1-1
#11
Yuka Mori, Shiho Ishikawa, Hideyuki Ohnishi, Mika Shimatani, Yukino Morikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai, Yasufumi Hikichi
The soil-borne plant pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum strain OE1-1 produces and secretes methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME) as a quorum sensing (QS) signal, which contributes to its virulence. A global virulence regulator, PhcA, functioning through the QS system positively regulates the expression of ralA, which encodes furanone synthase, to produce aryl-furanone secondary metabolites, ralfuranones. A ralfuranone-deficient mutant (ΔralA) is weakly virulent when directly inoculated into tomato xylem vessels...
January 23, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093893/arabidopsis-thaliana-glutathione-s-transferase-theta-2-interacts-with-rsi1-fld-to-activate-systemic-acquired-resistance
#12
Zeeshan Zahoor Banday, Ashis Kumar Nandi
A partly infected plant develops systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and shows heightened resistance during subsequent infections. The infected parts generate certain mobile signals that travel to the distal tissues and help in activation of SAR. SAR is associated with epigenetic modifications of several defense-related genes. However, the mechanisms by which mobile signals contribute to epigenetic changes are little known. Previously we had shown that the Arabidopsis REDUCED SYSTEMIC IMMUNITY 1 (RSI1, alias FLOWERING LOCUS D; FLD), which codes for a putative histone demethylase is required for the activation of SAR...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093843/the-discovery-of-the-virulence-gene-toxa-in-the-wheat-and-barley-pathogen-bipolaris-sorokiniana
#13
Megan C Mcdonald, Dag Ahren, Steven Simpfendorfer, Andrew Milgate, Peter S Solomon
Bipolaris sorokiniana is the causal agent of multiple diseases on wheat and barley and is the primary constraint to cereal production throughout South Asia. Despite its significance, the molecular basis of disease is poorly understood. To address this, the genomes of three Australian isolates of B. sorokiniana were sequenced and screened for known pathogenicity genes. Sequence analysis revealed that the isolate BRIP10943 harboured the ToxA gene which was previously associated with disease in the wheat pathogens Parastagonospora nodorum and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093838/fusaric-acid-contributes-to-virulence-of-fusarium-oxysporum-on-plant-and-mammalian-hosts
#14
Cristina López-Díaz, Vahid Rahjoo, Michael Sulyok, Veronica Ghionna, Adela Martín-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Antonio Di Pietro, Manuel S López-Berges
Fusaric acid (FA) is among the oldest identified secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium species, known for a long time to display strong phytotoxicity and moderate toxicity to animal cells; however, the cellular targets of FA as well as its function in fungal pathogenicity remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of FA in Fusarium oxysporum, a soil-borne cross-kingdom pathogen that causes vascular wilt on more than a hundred plant species and opportunistic infections in humans. Targeted deletion of fub1, encoding a predicted orthologue of the polyketide synthase involved in FA biosynthesis in F...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056496/chloroplast-the-trojan-horse-in-plant-virus-interaction
#15
REVIEW
Dhriti Bhattacharyya, Supriya Chakraborty
Chloroplast is one of the most dynamic organelle of a plant cell. It carries out photosynthesis, synthesizes major phytohormones, takes active part in defence response, and is crucial for inter-organelle signaling. Viruses, on the other hand, are extremely strategic in manipulating the internal environment of the host cell. Chloroplast, a prime target for viruses, undergoes enormous structural and functional damage during viral infection. In fact, large proportions of affected gene products in a virus infected plant are closely associated to chloroplast and photosynthesis process...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056495/novel-rosaceae-plant-elicitor-peptides-as-sustainable-tools-to-control-xanthomonas-arboricola-pv-pruni-in-prunus-spp
#16
Cristina Ruiz, Anna Nadal, Emilio Montesinos, Maria Pla
Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, which control is only based on preventive treatment with compounds with limited efficacy and a negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. Plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs)...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052479/a-thioredoxin-nbtrxh2-from-nicotiana-benthamiana-negatively-regulates-the-movement-of-bamboo-mosaic-virus
#17
I-Hsuan Chen, Hui-Ting Chen, Ying-Ping Huang, Hweng-Jan Huang, Lin-Ling Shenkwen, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Ching-Hsiu Tsai
An upregulated gene derived from Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plant was cloned and characterized in this study; BaMV is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. This gene product, designated as NbTRXh2, was matched with sequences of thioredoxin h proteins, a group of small proteins with a conserved active-site motif WCXPC conferring disulfide reductase activity. To examine how NbTRXh2 is involved in the infection cycle of BaMV, we used the virus-induced gene silencing technique to knock down NbTRXh2 expression in N...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026146/profiling-the-extended-phenotype-of-plant-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Gail M Preston
One of the most fundamental questions in plant pathology is what determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? This question is frequently studied in terms of the role of elicitors and pathogenicity factors in triggering or overcoming host defences. However, this focus fails to address the basic question of how the environment in host tissues acts to support or restrict pathogen growth. Efforts to understand this aspect of host-pathogen interactions are commonly confounded by several issues, including the complexity of the plant environment, the artificial nature of many experimental infection systems, and the fact that the physiological properties of a pathogen growing in association with a plant can be very different from the properties of that pathogen in culture...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026103/artificial-micrornas-and-synthetic-trans-acting-small-interfering-rnas-interfere-with-viroid-infection
#19
Alberto Carbonell, José-Antonio Daròs
Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs) are two classes of artificial small RNAs (sRNAs) engineered to silence endogenous transcripts as well as viral RNAs in plants. Here, we explore the possibility of using amiRNAs and syn-tasiRNAs to specifically interfere with infections by viroids, small (250-400 nt) non-coding circular RNAs with compact secondary structure infecting a wide range of plant species. The combined use of recent high-throughput methods for artificial sRNA construct generation and of the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd)/Nicotiana benthamiana pathosystem allowed for the simple and time-effective screening of multiple artificial sRNAs targeting sites distributed along PSTVd RNAs of (+) or (-) polarity...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026097/barley-susceptibility-factor-racb-modulates-transcript-levels-of-signalling-protein-genes-in-compatible-interaction-with-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-hordei
#20
Vera Schnepf, A Corina Vlot, Karl Kugler, Ralph Hückelhoven
RHO (rat sarcoma homologue) GTPases are regulators of downstream transcriptional responses of eukaryotes to intracellular and extracellular stimuli. For plants, little is known about the function of Rho-like GTPases (called RACs [rat sarcoma-related C botulinum substrate] or ROPs [RHO of plants]) in transcriptional reprogramming of cells. However, in plant hormone response and innate immunity RAC/ROP proteins influence gene expression patterns. The barley RAC/ROP RACB is required for full susceptibility of barley to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
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