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Molecular Plant Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524452/subtilisin-like-proteases-in-plant-defence-the-past-the-present-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Joana Figueiredo, Marta Sousa Silva, Andreia Figueiredo
Subtilisin-like proteases (or subtilases) are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms, but mostly in plants. With a broad spectrum of biological functions ranging from protein turnover and plant development to interactions with the environment, subtilases have been gaining more attention for their involvement in plant defence responses against the most diverse pathogens. On the last 5 years, the number of published studies associating plant subtilases with pathogen resistance and plant immunity increased tremendously...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520093/verticillium-dahliae-transcription-factor-vdftf1-regulates-the-expression-of-multiple-secreted-virulence-factors-and-is-required-for-full-virulence-in-cotton
#2
Wen-Qi Zhang, Yue-Jing Gui, Dylan P G Short, Ting-Gang Li, Dan-Dan Zhang, Lei Zhou, Chun Liu, Yu-Ming Bao, Krishna V Subbarao, Jie-Yin Chen, Xiao-Feng Dai
Fungal transcription factors (TFs) implicated in the regulation of virulence gene expression have been identified in a number of plant pathogens. In Verticillium dahliae, despite its agricultural importance, few regulators of transcription have been characterized. In this study, a T-DNA insertional mutant with significantly reduced virulence toward cotton was identified. The T-DNA was traced to VdFTF1, a gene encoding a TF containing a Fungal_trans domain. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells indicated that VdFTF1 is localized to the nucleus...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519717/phytophthora-cinnamomi
#3
Adrienne R Hardham, Leila M Blackman
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most devastating plant pathogens in the world. It infects close to 5,000 species of plants, including many of importance in agriculture, forestry and horticulture. Inadvertent introduction of P. cinnamomi into natural ecosystems, including a number of recognised Global Biodiversity Hotspots, has disastrous consequences for the environment and biodiversity of flora and fauna. The genus Phytophthora belongs to the Class Oomycetes, a group of fungus-like organisms that initiate plant disease through the production of motile zoospores...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509355/lon-protease-modulates-virulence-traits-in-erwinia-amylovora-by-directly-monitoring-major-regulators-and-indirectly-through-the-rcs-and-gac-csr-regulatory-systems
#4
Jae Hoon Lee, Veronica Ancona, Youfu Zhao
Lon, an ATP-dependent protease in bacteria, influences diverse cellular processes by degrading damaged, misfolded and short-lived regulatory proteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of lon mutation and determined the molecular mechanisms underlying Lon-mediated virulence regulation in Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterial pathogen of apple. E. amylovora depends on the type III secretion system (T3SS) and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran to cause disease. Our results showed that mutation of the lon gene led to overproduction of amylovoran, increased T3SS gene expression and non-motile phenotype...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494519/molecular-insights-into-cassava-brown-streak-virus-susceptibility-and-resistance-by-profiling-of-the-early-host-response
#5
Ravi B Anjanappa, Devang Mehta, Michal J Okoniewski, Alicja Szabelska, Wilhelm Gruissem, Hervé Vanderschuren
Cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) are responsible for significant cassava yield losses in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To study the possible mechanisms of plant resistance to CBSVs we inoculated CBSV-susceptible and -resistant cassava varieties with a mixed infection of CBSVs using top-cleft grafting. Transcriptome profiling of the two cassava varieties was performed at the earliest time-point of full infection (28 days after grafting) in the susceptible scions. The expression of genes encoding proteins in RNA silencing, salicylic acid pathways and callose deposition was altered in the susceptible cassava variety but transcriptional changes were limited in the resistant variety...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467007/fsr1-a-striatin-homolog-forms-an-endomembrane-associated-complex-that-regulates-virulence-in-the-maize-pathogen-fusarium-verticillioides
#6
Huan Zhang, Mala Mukherjee, Jung-Eun Kim, Wenying Yu, Won-Bo Shim
Fsr1, a homolog of mammalian striatin, containing multiple protein-binding domains and a coiled-coil (CC) domain is critical for F. verticillioides virulence. In mammals, striatin interacts with multiple proteins to form a STRIPAK (striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase) complex that regulates a variety of developmental processes and cellular mechanisms. In this study, we identified the homolog of a key mammalian STRIPAK component STRIP1/2 in F. verticillioides, FvStp1, that interacts with Fsr1 in vivo...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466509/a-spatial-temporal-analysis-of-the-fusarium-graminearum-transcriptome-during-symptomless-and-symptomatic-wheat-infection
#7
Neil A Brown, Jess Evans, Andrew Mead, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
Fusarium head blight of wheat is one of the most serious and hazardous crop diseases worldwide. Here, a transcriptomic investigation of Fusarium graminearum reveals a new model for symptomless and symptomatic wheat infection. The predicted metabolic state and secretome of F. graminearum were distinct within symptomless and symptomatic wheat tissue. Transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol, plus other characterised and putative secondary metabolite clusters increased in abundance in symptomless tissue...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452203/brachypodium-distachyon-as-alternative-model-host-system-for-the-ergot-fungus-claviceps-purpurea
#8
Sabine Kind, Selma Schurack, Janine Hinsch, Paul Tudzynski
To investigate its susceptibility to ergot infection we inoculated Brachypodium distachyon with Claviceps purpurea and compared the infection symptoms to those on rye (Secale cereale). We showed that after inoculation of Brachypodium with Claviceps the same disease symptoms occurred in comparable temporal and spatial patterns as on rye. The infection rate of Claviceps on this host is reduced compared to rye, but the disease can be surveyed by fungal gDNA quantification. Mutants of Claviceps which are virulence-attenuated on rye were also affected on Brachypodium...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411402/transcriptomics-of-cereal-fusarium-graminearum-interactions-what-we-have-learned-so-far
#9
REVIEW
Kemal Kazan, Donald M Gardiner
The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes the globally important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease on cereal hosts such as wheat, barley and maize. In addition to reducing grain yield, infection by this pathogen causes major quality losses. In particular, the contamination of food and feed with the F. graminearum trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) can have many adverse short- and long-term effects on human and animal health. During the last decade, the interaction between F. graminearum and both cereal and model hosts has been extensively studied through transcriptome analyses...
April 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401640/bacterial-and-plant-natriuretic-peptides-improve-plant-defense-responses-against-pathogens
#10
Florencia A Ficarra, Carolina Grandellis, Betiana S Garavaglia, Natalia Gottig, Jorgelina Ottado
Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are implicated in the regulation of ions and water homeostasis, and their participation in the plant immune response has been also proposed. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri contains a gene encoding a PNP-like protein (XacPNP) that has no homologues in other bacteria. XacPNP mimics its Arabidopsis thaliana homolog AtPNP-A by modifying host responses to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. However, the ability of XacPNP to induce plant defense responses was never investigated...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390170/involvement-of-salicylic-acid-ethylene-and-jasmonate-acid-signaling-pathways-in-susceptibility-of-tomato-for-fusarium-oxysporum
#11
Xiaotang Di, Jo Gomila, Frank L W Takken
Phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) play key roles in plant defense following pathogen attack. Involvement of these hormones in susceptibility following Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) infection has mostly been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. Fo, however, causes vascular wilt disease in a broad range of crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Surprisingly little is known about the involvement of these phytohormones in susceptibility of tomato towards Fo f. sp. lycopersici (Fol)...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390168/molecular-and-pathobiological-characterization-of-sixty-one-potato-mop-top-virus-full-length-cdnas-reveals-great-variability-of-the-virus-in-the-center-of-potato-domestication-novel-genotypes-and-evidence-for-recombination
#12
Pruthvi Kalyandurg, Jose Fernando Gil, Nina I Lukhovitskaya, Betty Flores, Giovanna Müller, Carlos Chuquillanqui, Ladislao Palomino, Aderito Monjane, Ian Barker, Jan Kreuze, Eugene I Savenkov
Evolutionary divergence of potato mop-top virus (PMTV), a tri-partite single-stranded RNA virus, is exceptionally low, based on the analysis of sequences obtained from isolates from Europe, Asia, and North America. In general, RNA viruses exist as dynamic populations of closely related and recombinant genomes that are subjected to continuous genetic variation. The reason behind the low genetic variation of PMTV remains unclear. The question remains whether low variability is a shared property of all PMTV isolates or is a result of the limited number of isolates characterized so far...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387997/genome-wide-functional-characterization-of-putative-peroxidases-in-the-head-blight-fungus-fusarium-graminearum
#13
Yoonji Lee, Hokyoung Son, Ji Young Shin, Gyung Ja Choi, Yin-Won Lee
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with various developmental processes and host-pathogen interactions in pathogenic fungi. Peroxidases are a group of ROS-detoxifying enzymes that are involved in the oxidative stress response and in a variety of physiological processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide functional characterization of putative peroxidase genes in Fusarium graminearum, a head blight pathogen of cereal crops. We identified 31 putative peroxidase genes and generated deletion mutants for these genes...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387986/the-fifty-distal-amino-acids-of-the-2a-hp-homing-protein-of-grapevine-fanleaf-virus-elicit-a-hypersensitive-reaction-on-nicotiana-occidentalis
#14
Isabelle R Martin, Emmanuelle Vigne, François Berthold, Véronique Komar, Olivier Lemaire, Marc Fuchs, Corinne Schmitt-Keichinger
Avirulence factors are critical for the arm's race between a virus and its host in determining incompatible reactions. The response of plants to viruses from the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae, including grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), is well characterized although the nature and characteristics of a viral avirulence factor remains elusive. By using infectious clones of GFLV strains F13 and GHu in a reverse genetics approach with wild-type, assortant and chimeric viruses, the determinant of necrotic lesions caused by GFLV-F13 on inoculated leaves of Nicotiana occidentalis was mapped to the RNA2-encoded protein 2A(HP) , particularly to its fifty C-terminal amino acids...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378935/the-pathogenic-development-of-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-in-soybean-requires-specific-host-nadph-oxidases
#15
Ashish Ranjan, Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Craig Grau, John H Hill, Steven A Whitham, Jean-Michel Ané, Damon L Smith, Mehdi Kabbage
The plant membrane localized NADPH oxidases, also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs), play crucial roles in various cellular activities including plant disease responses, and are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a cosmopolitan fungal pathogen that causes Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) in soybean. Via a key virulence factor, oxalic acid, it induces programmed cell death (PCD) in the host plant, a process that is reliant on ROS generation. In this study, using protein sequence similarity searches, we have identified seventeen soybean RBOHs (GmRBOHs) and studied their contribution to SSR disease development, drought tolerance and nodulation...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378891/disruption-of-actin-motor-function-due-to-momyo5-mutation-impairs-host-penetration-and-pathogenicity-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#16
Wei Tang, Chuyun Gao, Jingzhen Wang, Ziyi Yin, Jinlong Zhang, Jun Ji, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang, Ping Wang
Actin motor myosin proteins are driving forces behind active transport of vesicles, and more than 20 classes of myosin were found to contribute to a wide range of cellular processes, including endocytosis and exocytosis, autophagy, cytokinesis, and actin cytoskeleton. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, class V myosin Myo2 (ScMyo2p) is important for the transport of distinct sets of cargo to regions of the cell along the cytoskeleton for polarized growth. To study whether myosins play a role in the infectious structure appressorium formation or function of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we identified MoMyo5 as an ortholog of ScMyo2p and characterized its function...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371183/the-hcpro-from-the-potyviridae-family-an-enviable-multitasking-helper-component-that-every-virus-would-like-to-have
#17
REVIEW
Adrián A Valli, Araiz Gallo, Bernardo Rodamilans, Juan José López-Moya, Juan Antonio García
RNA viruses have very compact genomes, so that they provide a unique opportunity to study how the evolution works to optimize the use of very limited genomic information. A widespread viral strategy to solve this issue concerning the coding space relies on the expression of proteins with multiple functions. Members of the family Potyviridae, the most abundant group of RNA viruses in plants, certainly offer several attractive examples of viral factors playing roles in diverse infection-related pathways. The Helper Component Proteinase (HCPro) is an essential and well-characterized multitasking protein for which three independent functions, at least, have been described: (i) viral plant-to-plant transmission, (ii) polyprotein maturation, (iii) RNA silencing suppression...
March 29, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322011/fcrav2-a-gene-with-rogdi-domain-involved-in-fusarium-head-blight-and-crown-rot-on-durum-wheat-caused-by-fusarium-culmorum
#18
Francesca Spanu, Barbara Scherm, Irene Camboni, Virgilio Balmas, Giovanna Pani, Safa Oufensou, Nicolo' Macciotta, Matias Pasquali, Quirico Migheli
Fusarium culmorum is a soil-borne fungal pathogen able to cause foot and root rot and Fusarium head blight on small grain cereals, particularly on wheat and barley. It causes significant yield and quality loss and results in the contamination of kernels with type B trichothecene mycotoxins. Knowledge on pathogenicity factors of this fungus is still limited. A transposon tagging approach based on the mimp1/impala double component system has allowed us to select a mutant altered in multiple metabolic and morphological processes, trichothecene production and virulence...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296004/nitrogen-modulation-of-medicago-truncatula-resistance-to-aphanomyces-euteiches-depends-on-plant-genotype
#19
Elise Thalineau, Carine Fournier, Antoine Gravot, David Wendehenne, Sylvain Jeandroz, Hoai-Nam Truong
Nitrogen (N) availability can impact plant resistance to pathogens by the regulation of plant immunity. To better understand the links between N nutrition and plant defence, we analysed the impact of N availability on Medicago truncatula resistance to the root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches. This oomycete is considered to be the most limiting factor for legume production. Ten plant genotypes were tested in vitro for their resistance to A. euteiches in either complete or nitrate-deficient medium. N deficiency led to enhanced or reduced susceptibility depending on the plant genotype...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295994/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-dickeya-dadantii-pecs-regulon-during-the-early-stages-of-interaction-with-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Jacques Pédron, Emilie Chapelle, Benoît Alunni, Frédérique Van Gijsegem
PecS is one of the major global regulators controlling the virulence of Dickeya dadantii, a broad-host-range phytopathogenic bacterium causing soft rot on several plant families. To define the PecS regulon during plant colonization, we analysed the global transcriptome profiles in wild-type and pecS mutant strains during the early colonization of the leaf surfaces and in leaf tissue just before the onset of symptoms, and found that the PecS regulon consists of more than 600 genes. About one-half of these genes are down-regulated in the pecS mutant; therefore, PecS has both positive and negative regulatory roles that may be direct or indirect...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
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