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Molecular Plant Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921772/interplay-of-classic-exp-and-specific-vfm-quorum-sensing-systems-on-the-phenotypic-features-of-dickeya-solani-strains-exhibiting-different-virulence-levels
#1
Marta Potrykus, Nicole Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Ewa Lojkowska
Bacteria from the genus Dickeya cause severe symptoms on numerous economically important plants. D. solani is the Dickeya species most frequently found on infected potato plants in Europe. D. solani strains from different countries show high genetic homogeneity but significant differences in their virulence level. Dickeya species possess two quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms: the Exp system based on classic N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals and a specific system depending on the production and perception of a molecule of unknown structure, Virulence Factor Modulating (VFM)...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887856/cassava-brown-streak-disease-historical-timeline-current-knowledge-and-future-prospects
#2
REVIEW
Katie R Tomlinson, Andy M Bailey, Titus Alicai, Sue Seal, Gary D Foster
Cassava is the second most important staple food crop in terms of per capita calories consumed in Africa and holds potential for climate change adaptation. Unfortunately, productivity in East and Central Africa is severely constrained by two viral diseases: cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). CBSD was first reported in 1936 from northeast Tanzania. For approximately seventy years CBSD was restricted to coastal East Africa and so had a relatively low impact on food security compared to CMD...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872759/hijacking-of-the-nucleolar-protein-fibrillarin-by-tgb1-is-required-for-cell-to-cell-movement-of-barley-stripe-mosaic-virus
#3
Zhenggang Li, Yongliang Zhang, Zhihao Jiang, Xuejiao Jin, Kun Zhang, Xianbing Wang, Chenggui Han, Jialin Yu, Dawei Li
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) TGB1 is a multifunctional movement protein with RNA binding, ATPase, and helicase activities that mainly localizes to the plasmodesmata (PD) in infected cells. Here we show that TGB1 localizes to the nucleus and the nucleolus, as well as the cytoplasm, and that TGB1 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking is required for BSMV cell-to-cell movement. Prediction analyses and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) experiments verified that TGB1 has a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) (aa 95-104) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) (aa 227-238)...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868644/plant-like-bacterial-expansins-play-contrasting-roles-in-two-tomato-vascular-pathogens
#4
Matthew A Tancos, Tiffany M Lowe-Power, F Christopher Peritore-Galve, Tuan M Tran, Caitilyn Allen, Christine D Smart
Expansin proteins, which loosen plant cell walls, play critical roles in normal plant growth and development. The horizontal acquisition of functional plant-like expansin genes in numerous xylem-colonizing phytopathogenic bacteria suggests that bacterial expansins may also contribute to virulence. To investigate the role of bacterial expansins in plant diseases, we mutated the non-chimeric expansin genes (CmEXLX2 and RsEXLX) of two xylem-inhabiting bacterial pathogens, the Actinobacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp...
September 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862813/polyamine-is-a-critical-determinant-of-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-o6-for-gacs-dependent-bacterial-cell-growth-and-biocontrol-capacity
#5
Ju Yeon Park, Beom Ryong Kang, Choong-Min Ryu, Anne J Anderson, Young Cheol Kim
The Gac/Rsm network regulates at the transcriptional level many beneficial traits in biocontrol-active pseudomonads. In this study, we used Phenotype MicroArrays followed by specific growth studies and mutational analysis to understand how catabolism is regulated by this sensor kinase system in the biocontrol isolate, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. Growth of a gacS mutant was decreased significantly compared to that of the wild-type on ornithine and arginine, and the precursor of these amino acids, N-acetyl-l-glutamic acid...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846191/rmg8-and-rmg7-wheat-genes-for-resistance-to-the-wheat-blast-fungus-recognize-the-same-avirulence-gene-avr-rmg8
#6
Vu Lan Anh, Yoshihiro Inoue, Soichiro Asuke, Trinh Thi Phuong Vy, Nguyen Tuan Anh, Shizhen Wang, Izumi Chuma, Yukio Tosa
Rmg8 and Rmg7 are genes for resistance to the wheat blast fungus (Pyricularia oryzae) located on 2B chromosome in hexaploid wheat and 2A chromosome in tetraploid wheat, respectively. AVR-Rmg8, an avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg8, was isolated from a wheat blast isolate through map-based strategy. The cloned fragment encoded a small protein containing a putative signal peptide. AVR-Rmg8 was recognized not only by Rmg8 but also by Rmg7, suggesting that these two resistance genes are equivalent to a single gene from the viewpoint of resistance breeding...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846186/puccinia-coronata-f-sp-avenae-a-threat-to-global-oat-production
#7
Eric S Nazareno, Feng Li, Madeleine Smith, Robert F Park, Shahryar F Kianian, Melania Figueroa
Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Pca) causes crown rust disease in cultivated and wild oat (Avena spp.). The significant yield losses inflicted by this pathogen makes crown rust the most devastating disease in the oat industry. Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae is a basidiomycete fungus with an obligate biotrophic lifestyle and is classified as a typical macrocyclic and heteroecious fungus. The asexual phase in the life cycle of Pca occurs in oat while the sexual phase occurs primarily in Rhamnus species as the alternate host...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834153/transcript-level-expression-control-of-plant-nlr-genes
#8
REVIEW
Yan Lai, Thomas Eulgem
Plant NLR genes encode sensitive immune receptors that can mediate specific recognition of pathogen avirulence effectors and activate a strong defense response termed effector-triggered immunity. The expression of NLRs requires strict regulation, as their ability to trigger immunity is dependent on their dose and overexpression of NLRs results in autoimmunity and massive fitness costs. An elaborate interplay of different mechanisms controlling NLR transcript levels allows plants to maximize their defense capacity, while limiting negative impact on their fitness...
August 19, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817232/crystal-structure-of-the-melampsora-lini-effector-avrp-reveals-insights-into-a-possible-nuclear-function-and-recognition-by-the-flax-disease-resistance-protein-p
#9
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Nadya Farah, Laura Rolston, Daniel J Ericsson, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Maud Bernoux, Thomas Ve, Katerina Bendak, Chunhong Chen, Joel P Mackay, Gregory J Lawrence, Adrienne Hardham, Jeffrey G Ellis, Simon J Williams, Peter N Dodds, David A Jones, Bostjan Kobe
The effector protein AvrP is secreted by the flax rust fungal pathogen (Melampsora lini) and recognized specifically by the flax (Linum usitatissimum) P disease resistance protein, leading to effector-triggered immunity. To investigate the biological function of this effector and mechanisms of specific recognition by the P resistance protein, we determined the crystal structure of AvrP. The structure reveals an elongated zinc-finger-like structure with a novel interleaved zinc-binding topology. The residues responsible for zinc binding are conserved in AvrP effector variants and mutations of these motifs result in loss of P-mediated recognition...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815858/loss-of-chloroplast-localized-protein-phosphatase-2cs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-leads-to-enhancement-of-the-plant-immunity-and-resistance-to-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris-infection
#10
Chiharu Akimoto-Tomiyama, Shigeru Tanabe, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Eiichi Minami, Hirokazu Ochiai
Protein phosphatases (PPs) counteract kinases in reversible phosphorylation events during numerous signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. PP2Cs, one of the four major classes of serine/threonine specific PPs family is greatly expanded in plants. Thus PP2C is thought to have a specific role in a signal transduction pathway. Some rice PP2Cs classified to subgroup K were responsive to the infection by the compatible Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight. In A. thaliana, orthologous PP2C genes (AtPP2C62 and AtPP2C26) classified to subgroup K were also responsive to Xanthomonas campestris pv...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802024/the-cereal-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-produces-a-new-class-of-active-cytokinins-during-infection
#11
Jens Laurids Sørensen, Aurelie H Benfield, Rasmus Dam Wollenberg, Klaus Westphal, Reinhard Wimmer, Mikkel Rank Nielsen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Jason Carere, Lorenzo Covarelli, Giovanni Beccari, Jonathan Powell, Takafumi Yamashino, Herbert Kogler, Teis Esben Sondergaard, Donald Max Gardiner
The fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum causes important diseases of wheat and barley. During a survey of secondary metabolites produced by this fungus, a novel class of cytokinins, herein termed Fusarium cytokinins, was discovered. Cytokinins are known for their growth promoting and anti-senescence activities and the production of a cytokinin mimic by what was once considered a necrotrophic pathogen that promotes cell death and senescence challenges the simple view that this pathogen invades its hosts by employing a barrage of lytic enzymes and toxins...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802023/the-agrobacterium-vire2-effector-interacts-with-multiple-members-of-the-arabidopsis-vip1-protein-family
#12
Luyao Wang, Benoît Lacroix, Jianhua Guo, Vitaly Citovsky
T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium to its host plant genome relies on multiple interactions between plant proteins and bacterial effectors. One of such plant proteins is the Arabidopsis VirE2 interacting protein (AtVIP1), a transcription factor that binds A. tumefaciens C58 VirE2, potentially acting as an adaptor between VirE2 and several other host factors. It remains unknown, however, whether the same VirE2 protein has evolved to interact with multiple VIP1 homologs in the same host, and whether VirE2 homologs encoded by different bacterial strains/species recognize AtVIP1 or its homologs...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802020/investigating-the-diversity-of-effector-genes-in-the-banana-pathogen-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cubense-reveals-evidence-of-horizontal-gene-transfer
#13
Elizabeth Czislowski, Sam Fraser-Smith, Manuel Zander, Wayne T O'Neill, Rachel A Meldrum, Lucy T T Tran-Nguyen, Jacqueline Batley, Elizabeth A B Aitken
It is hypothesised that the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi is mediated through the secretion of small effector proteins that interfere with the defence responses of the host plant. In Fusarium oxysporum, one family of effectors, the secreted in xylem (SIX) genes, have been identified. We sought to characterise the diversity and evolution of the SIX genes in the banana-infecting lineages of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc). Whole-genome sequencing data was generated for the 23 genetic lineages of Foc, which were subsequently queried for the 14 known SIX genes (SIX1-SIX14)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802018/characterization-of-two-catalase-peroxidase-encoding-genes-in-fusarium-verticillioides-reveals-differential-responses-to-in-vitro-versus-in-planta-oxidative-challenges
#14
Shan Gao, Scott E Gold, Anthony E Glenn
Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are a superfamily of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes believed to be horizontally acquired by ancient Ascomycota from bacteria. Subsequent gene duplication resulted in two KatG paralogs in ascomycetes: the widely distributed intracellular KatG1 group, and the phytopathogen-dominated extracellular KatG2 group. To functionally characterize FvCP01 (KatG1) and FvCP02 (KatG2) in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, single and double gene deletion mutants were examined in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779550/the-tnl-gene-rdr1-confers-broad-spectrum-resistance-to-diplocarpon-rosae
#15
Ina Menz, Jannis Straube, Marcus Linde, Thomas Debener
Black spot disease, which is caused by the ascomycete Diplocarpon rosae, is the most severe disease in field-grown roses in temperate regions and has been distributed worldwide, likely along with commercial cultivars. Here, we present data supporting that muRdr1A is the active Rdr1 gene, a single-dominant TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) type resistance gene against black spot disease that acts against a broad range of pathogenic isolates independently of the genetic background of the host genotype. The molecular analyses revealed that compared to the original donor genotype, the multiple integrations that are found in the primary transgenic clone segregate into different integration patterns in its sexual progeny and do not show any sign of overexpression...
August 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779542/random-mutagenesis-screen-shows-that-phytophthora-capsici-crn83_152-mediated-cell-death-is-not-required-for-its-virulence-function-s
#16
Tiago M M M Amaro, Gaëtan J A Thilliez, Rory A McLeod, Edgar Huitema
With the increasing availability of plant pathogen genomes, secreted proteins that aid infection (effectors) have emerged as key factors that help govern plant-microbe interactions. The conserved CRN (CRinkling and Necrosis) effector family was first described in oomycetes by their capacity to induce host cell death. Despite recent advances towards elucidation of CRN virulence functions, the relevance of CRN induced cell death remains unclear. In planta over-expression of PcCRN83_152, a CRN effector from P...
August 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756640/signaling-requirements-for-erwinia-amylovora-induced-disease-resistance-callose-deposition-and-cell-growth-in-the-nonhost-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Safae Hamdoun, Min Gao, Manroop Gill, Ashley Kwon, John L Norelli, Hua Lu
Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight disease in some plants of the Rosaceae family. The nonhost plant Arabidopsis serves as a powerful system to dissect mechanisms of resistance to E. amylovora. Although not yet known to mount gene-for-gene resistance to E. amylovora, we found that Arabidopsis activated strong defense signaling mediated by salicylic acid (SA) with kinetics and amplitude similar to that induced by the resistance protein RPM1 recognition of bacterial effector avrRpm1. Genetic analysis further revealed that SA signaling but not those mediated by ethylene and jasmonic acid is required for E...
July 29, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752569/the-first-phlebo-like-virus-infecting-plants-a-case-study-on-the-adaptation-of-negative-stranded-rna-viruses-to-new-hosts
#18
Beatriz Navarro, Maria Minutolo, Angelo De Stradis, Francesco Palmisano, Daniela Alioto, Francesco Di Serio
A novel negative-stranded (ns) RNA virus associated with a severe citrus disease reported more than eighty years ago has been identified. Transmission electron microscopy showed that this novel virus, tentatively named citrus concave gum-associated virus (CCGaV), is flexuous and non-enveloped. Notwithstanding, its two genomic RNAs share structural features with members of the genus Phlebovirus, which are enveloped arthropod-transmitted viruses infecting mammals, and with a group of still unclassified phlebo-like viruses infecting prevalently arthropods...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752677/new-findings-on-phosphodiesterases-mopdeh-and-mopdel-in-magnaporthe-oryzae-revealed-by-structure-analysis
#19
Li-Na Yang, Ziyi Yin, Xi Zhang, Wanzheng Feng, Yuhan Xiao, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
The cyclic AMP signaling pathway mediates signal communication and sensing during infection-related morphogenesis in eukaryotes. Many studies have implicated cAMP as a critical mediator of appressorium development in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. The cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases, MoPdeH and MoPdeL, as key regulators of intracellular cAMP levels, play pleiotropic roles in cell wall integrity, cellular morphology, appressorium formation, and infectious growth in M. oryzae. Here, we analyzed the roles of domains of MoPdeH and MoPdeL separately or in chimeras...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742234/xylella-fastidiosa-an-examination-of-a-re-emerging-plant-pathogen
#20
Jeannette Rapicavoli, Brian Ingel, Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Dario Cantu, Caroline Roper
Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen with an extremely wide host range. This species has recently been resolved into subspecies that correlate with host specificity. This review focuses on the status of X. fastidiosa pathogenic associations in plant hosts where the bacterium is either endemic or recently introduced. Plant diseases associated with X. fastidiosa have been documented for over a century and much about what we know in the context of host-pathogen interactions is based on these hosts, such as grape and citrus, where this pathogen has been well described...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
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