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Molecular Plant Pathology

Kai Sun, Xin Zhou, Wenye Lin, Xueping Zhou, Andrew O Jackson, Zhenghe Li
Nucleorhabdoviruses such as Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) replicate in the nuclei and undergo morphogenesis at the inner nuclear membrane (IM) in plant cells. Mature particles are presumed to form by budding of the Matrix (M) protein-nucleocapsid complexes through host IMs to acquire host phospholipids and the surface glycoproteins (G). To address mechanisms underlying nucleorhabdovirus budding, we generated recombinant SYNV G mutants containing a truncated amino-terminal (NT) or carboxyl-terminal (CT) domain...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Denise Seitner, Simon Uhse, Michelle Gallei, Armin Djamei
The biotrophic pathogen Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, infects one of the most important crops worldwide - Zea mays. To successfully colonize its host, U. maydis secretes proteins, known as effectors, that suppress plant defense responses and facilitate the establishment of biotrophy. In this work, we describe the U. maydis effector protein Cce1. Cce1 is essential for virulence and is upregulated during infection. Through microscopic analysis and in vitro assays, we show that Cce1 is secreted from hyphae during filamentous growth of the fungus...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Stacey N Barnes, Catherine L Wram, Melissa G Mitchum, Thomas J Baum
Cyst nematodes are plant pathogens that infect a wide range of economically important crops. One parasitic mechanism employed by cyst nematodes is the production and in planta delivery of effector proteins to modify plant cells and suppress defenses to favor parasitism. This study focused on GLAND4, an effector of Heterodera glycines and H. schachtii, the soybean and sugar beet cyst nematodes, respectively. We showed that GLAND4 is recognized by the plant cellular machinery and is transported to the plant nucleus, an organelle where little is known about plant nematode effector functions...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Wenxiu Ma, Lifang Zou, Zhiyuan Ji, Xiameng Xu, Zhengyin Xu, Yangyang Yang, James R Alfano, Gongyou Chen
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) of rice, uses transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to interact with the basal transcription factor gama subunit OsTFIIAγ5 (Xa5) and activates transcription of host genes. However, how OsTFIIAγ1, the other OsTFIIAγ protein, functions in the presence of TALEs remains unclear. In this study, we show that OsTFIIAγ1 plays a compensatory role in the absence of Xa5. The expression of OsTFIIAγ1, which is activated by TALE PthXo7, increased the expression of host genes targeted by avirulent and virulent TALEs...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Wenjie Qiao, Aleksandra Zarzyńska-Nowak, Luca Nerva, Yen-Wen Kuo, Bryce W Falk
RNA silencing is a conserved antiviral defense mechanism that has been used to develop robust resistance against plant virus infections. Previous efforts have been made to develop RNA silencing-mediated resistance to criniviruses, yet none have given immunity. In this study, transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants harboring a hairpin construct of the Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RdRp sequence exhibited immunity to systemic LIYV infection. Deep-sequencing analysis was performed to characterize virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs) generated upon systemic LIYV infection in non-transgenic N...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ailian Qiu, Yufen Lei, Sheng Yang, Ji Wu, Jiazhi Li, Bingjin Bao, Yiting Cai, Song Wang, Jinhui Lin, Yuzhu Wang, Lei Shen, Jinsen Cai, Deyi Guan, Shuilin He
Tandem CCCH Zinc Finger (TZnF) proteins have been implicated in plant defense, but their role in pepper (Capsicum annuum) is unclear. In the present study, the role of CaC3H14, a pepper TZnF protein, in the immune response of pepper plants to Ralstonia solanacearum infection was characterized. When fused to the green fluorescent protein, CaC3H14 was localized exclusively to nuclei in leaf cells of Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing CaC3H14. Transcript abundance of CaC3H14 was upregulated by inoculation with R...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Young Cheol Kim, Anne J Anderson
Many root-colonizing microbes are multifaceted in traits that improve plant health. Although isolates designated as biological control agents directly reduce pathogen growth, many exert additional beneficial features that parallel changes induced in animal and other hosts by health-promoting microbes termed probiotics. Both animal and plant probiotics cause direct antagonism of pathogens and induce systemic immunity in the host to pathogens and other stresses. They also alter host development, and improve host nutrition...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yang Wang, Wenwu Ye, Yuanchao Wang
Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) identified and characterized in mammals, plants, and fungi have been found to play critical regulatory roles in biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in oomycete plant pathogens, which cause devastating damage to the economy and ecosystems. We used strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate a computational pipeline to identify lncRNAs in Phytophthora sojae, a model oomycete plant pathogen. In total, 940 lncRNAs with 1,010 isoforms were identified from RNA-seq data obtained from four representative stages of P...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Noam Eckshtain-Levi, Alexandra J Weisberg, Boris A Vinatzer
Detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by plant pattern receptors (PRRs) is an essential part of plant immunity. Until recently, elf18, an epitope of elongation factor tu (EF-Tu), was the sole confirmed PAMP of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease, limiting our understanding of R. solanacearum - plant interactions. Therefore, we set out to identify additional R. solanacearum PAMPs based on the hypothesis that genes encoding PAMPs are under selection to avoid recognition by plant PRRs...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yunxie Wei, Guoyin Liu, Yanli Chang, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
As the terminal components of signal transduction, heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) mediate the activation of multiple genes responsive to various stresses. However, the information and functional analysis are very limited in non-model plants, especially in cassava (Manihot esculenta), one of the most important crops in the tropical area. In this study, 32 MeHsfs were identified from cassava genome, the evolutionary tree, gene structures and motifs were also analyzed. Gene expression analysis found that MeHsfs were commonly regulated by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam)...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Paola Battilani, Alessandra Lanubile, Valeria Scala, Massimo Reverberi, Rossella Gregori, Claudia Falavigna, Chiara Dall'Asta, Yong-Soon Park, John Bennett, Eli J Borrego, Michael V Kolomiets
Oxylipins are a newly emerging group of signals that serve either defense roles or promote virulence. To identify specific host and fungal genes and oxylipins governing the interactions between maize and Fusarium verticillioides, maize wild-type and lipoxygenase3 (lox3) mutant were inoculated with either F. verticillioides wild-type or linoleate-diol-synthase 1-deleted mutant (ΔFvlds1D). Results showed that lox3 mutants were more resistant to F. verticillioides. The reduced colonization on lox3 was associated with reduced fumonisin production and with a stronger and earlier induction of ZmLOX4, ZmLOX5, and ZmLOX12...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yue Gao, Chong Zhang, Xiao Han, Zi Yuan Wang, Lai Ma, De Peng Yuan, Jing Ni Wu, Xiao Feng Zhu, Jing Miao Liu, Dao Pin Li, Yi Bing Hu, Yuan Hu Xuan
Pathogen-host interaction is a complicated process; pathogens mainly infect host plants to acquire nutrients, especially sugars. Rhizoctonia solani, the causative agent of sheath blight disease, is a major pathogen of rice. However, it is not known, as to how this pathogen obtains sugar from rice plants. In this study, we found that the rice sugar transporter, OsSWEET11 is involved in the pathogenesis of sheath blight disease. qRT-PCR and β-d-glucuronidase expression analyses showed that R. solani infection significantly enhanced OsSWEET11 expression in leaves among the clade III SWEET members...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yoshimitsu Takakura, Hisashi Udagawa, Akira Shinjo, Kazuharu Koga
Eukaryotic translation-initiation factors eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E in plants play key roles in infection by potyviruses and other plant RNA viruses. Mutations in the genes encoding these factors reduce susceptibility to the viruses, and are the basis of several recessive virus-resistance genes widely used in plant breeding. Because virus variants occasionally break such resistance, the molecular basis for this process must be elucidated. Although deletion mutants of eIF4E1-S of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) resist Potato virus Y (PVY; the type member of the genus Potyvirus), resistance-breaking strains of PVY threaten tobacco production worldwide...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
You-Jin Lim, Ki-Tae Kim, Yong-Hwan Lee
Among the various post-translational modifications (PTMs), SUMOylation is a conserved process of attaching small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) to protein substrate in eukaryotes. This process regulates many important biological mechanisms including transcriptional regulation, protein stabilization, cell cycle, DNA repair, and pathogenesis. However, the functional role of SUMOylation is not well understood in plant pathogenic fungi including the model fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, we elucidated the roles of four SUMOylation-associated genes that encode one SUMO protein (MoSMT3), two E1 enzymes (MoAOS1 and MoUBA2), and one E2 enzyme (MoUBC9) in fungal development and pathogenicity...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jun Wang, Xuan Zeng, Dongsheng Tian, Xiaobei Yang, Lanlan Wang, Zhongchao Yin
Transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-dependent dominant disease resistance (R) genes in plants, also referred to as executor R genes, are induced upon infection by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas harbouring the corresponding TALE genes. Unlike the traditional R proteins, the executor R proteins do not determine the resistance specificity and may function broadly in different plant species. The executor R gene Bs4C-R in the resistant genotype PI 235047 of the pepper species Capsicum pubescens (CpBs4C-R) confers disease resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
James E Lincoln, Juan P Sanchez, Kristina Zumstein, David G Gilchrist
A role for programmed cell death (PCD) has been established as the basis for plant-microbe interactions. A functional plant-based cDNA library screen identified possible anti-PCD genes, including one member of the PR1 family, designated P14a, from tomato. Members of the PR1 family have been subject to extensive research in view of their possible role in resistance against pathogens. The PR1 family is represented in every plant species studied to date and homologues have been found in animals, fungi and insects...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jerson Garita-Cambronero, Ana Palacio-Bielsa, Jaime Cubero
Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) causes bacterial spot of stone fruits and almond, an important disease that may reduce the yield and vigor of the trees, as well as the marketability of affected fruits. Xap, is within the Xanthomonas genus which has been intensively studied due its strain specialization and the host range complexity. Here, we have summarized the recent advances in our understanding of the complexities of Xap, including the studies of molecular features that resulted after comparative phenotypic and genomic analyses, in order to obtain a clearer overview of the bacterial behavior and their infection mechanisms in the context of the X...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Khushwant Singh, Stephen N Wegulo, Anna Skoracka, Jiban Kumar Kundu
Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) causes wheat streak mosaic, a disease of cereals and grasses that threatens wheat production worldwide. It is a monopartite, positive-sense single stranded RNA virus and the type member of the genus Tritimovirus in the family Potyviridae. The only known vector is the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella), recently identified as a species complex of biotypes differing in virus transmission. Low rates of seed transmission have been reported. Infected plants are stunted and have a yellow mosaic of parallel discontinuous streaks on the leaves...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Dehong Zheng, Bingbing Xue, Yanan Shao, Haoquan Yu, Xiaoyan Yao, Lifang Ruan
Two-component signal transduction system PhoBR regulates the adaptation to phosphate limitation and the virulence of many animal bacterial pathogens. However, PhoBR in phytopathogens has been rarely investigated. In this study, we found that PhoBR in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the pathogen of rice bacterial leaf blight, also regulates the adaptation to phosphate starvation. Unexpectedly, rice leaves infected by phoBR-deleted mutant and wild-type PXO99A showed similar lesions, indicating that PhoBR is unnecessary for the virulence of Xoo...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ana Rodríguez, Vanessa Kava, Lorena Latorre-García, Geraldo J da Silva, Rosana G Pereira, Chirlei Glienke, Lisandra S Ferreira-Maba, Antonio Vicent, Takehiko Shimada, Leandro Peña
Terpene volatiles play an important role in the interactions between specialized pathogens and fruits. Citrus black spot (CBS), caused by the fungus Phyllosticta citricarpa, is associated with crop losses in different citrus-growing areas worldwide. The pathogen may infect the fruit for 20-24 weeks after petal fall, but the typical hard spot symptoms appear when the fruit have almost reached maturity due to fungal colonization and the induction of cell lysis around essential oil cavities. D-limonene represents approximately 95% of the total oil gland content in mature orange fruit...
March 24, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
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