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Molecular Plant Pathology

Munmun Nandi, Jacqueline MacDonald, Peng Liu, Brian Weselowski, Ze-Chun Yuan
Bacterial canker disease is considered one of the most destructive diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is caused by the seed-borne gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). This vascular pathogen generally invades and proliferates in the xylem through natural openings or wounds, causing wilt and canker symptoms. The incidence of symptomless latent infections and the invasion of tomato seeds by Cmm are widespread. Pathogenicity is mediated by virulence factors and transcriptional regulators encoded by the chromosome and two natural plasmids...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Qunqun Hao, Wenqiang Wang, Xiuli Han, Jingzheng Wu, Bo Lyu, Fengjuan Chen, Allan Caplan, Caixia Li, Jiajie Wu, Wei Wang, Qian Xu, Daolin Fu
Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in signal transduction and disease resistance. In Arabidopsis, SA can be made by either of two biosynthetic branches, one involving isochorismate synthase (ICS) and the other involving phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). However, the biosynthetic pathway and the importance of SA remains largely unknown in Triticeae. Here, we cloned one ICS and seven PAL genes from barley, and studied their functions by overexpressing and suppressing them in that plant. Suppression of the ICS gene significantly delayed plant growth, while PAL genes, both overexpressed and suppressed, had no significant effect on plant growth...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Christelle El Hajj Assaf, Selma Snini, Souria Tadrist, Sylviane Bailly, Claire Naylies, Isabelle P Oswald, Sophie Lorber, Olivier Puel
Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of the blue mold disease, produces the mycotoxins patulin and citrinin among other secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolism is associated with fungal development, which responds to numerous biotic and abiotic external triggers. The global transcription factor VeA plays a key role in the coordination of secondary metabolism and differentiation processes in many fungal species. The specific role of VeA in P. expansum remains unknown. A null mutant PeΔveA strain and a complemented PeΔveA:veA strain were generated in P...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Papaiah Sardaru, Laura Sinausía, Silvia López-González, Jelena Zindovic, Flora Sánchez, Fernando Ponz
Two different isolates of Turnip mosaic virus (UK 1 and JPN 1) belonging to different virus strains were tested on three different Brassica species, namely turnip (Brassica rapa L.), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), and Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun). Whereas all three hosts were readily infected by isolate UK 1, isolate JPN 1 was able to establish a visible systemic infection only in the first two. Ethiopian mustard plants showed no local or systemic symptoms, and no virus antigens could be detected by ELISA...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jinhong Kan, Lin An, Yao Wu, Jia Long, Liyang Song, Rongxiang Fang, Yantao Jia
During plant-pathogen interactions, pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to cope with the sophisticated defense systems of host plants. Proline iminopeptidase (PIP) is essential to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) virulence, and conserved in many plant-associated bacteria, but its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that disrupting pip in Xcc enhanced its flagella-mediated bacterial motility by decreasing intracellular c-di-GMP levels, and overexpression of pip restricted bacterial motility by elevating c-di-GMP levels...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Pedro Talhinhas, Andreia Loureiro, Helena Oliveira
Olive anthracnose causes fruit rot leading to its drop or mummification, resulting in yield losses and in the degradation of oil quality. Taxonomy and distribution: The disease is caused by diverse species of Colletotrichum, mostly clustering in the C. acutatum species complex. Colletotrichum nymphaeae and C. godetiae are the prevalent species in the Northern Hemisphere, while C. acutatum sensu stricto is the most frequent species in the Southern Hemisphere, although it is recently and quickly emerging in the Northern Hemisphere...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Po-Yuan Shih, Shu-Jen Chou, Caroline Müller, Barbara Ann Halkier, Rosalia Deeken, Erh-Min Lai
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the causal agent of crown gall disease in a wide range of plants via a unique interkingdom DNA transfer from bacterial cells into the plant genome. A. tumefaciens is capable of transferring its T-DNA into different plant parts at different developmental stages for transient and stable transformation. However, the plant genes and mechanisms involved in these transformation processes are not well understood. We used Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 seedlings to reveal the gene expression profiles at early time points during Agrobacterium infection...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jiansong Chen, Lili Hu, Longhua Sun, Borong Lin, Kun Huang, Kan Zhuo, Jinling Liao
Plant-parasitic nematodes can secrete effector proteins into the host tissue to facilitate their parasitism. In this study, we reported a novel effector protein, MgMO237, from Meloidogyne graminicola, which was exclusively expressed within the dorsal esophageal gland cell and markedly up-regulated in parasitic third/fourth stage juveniles of M. graminicola. Transient expression of MgMO237 in protoplasts from rice roots showed that MgMO237 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cells. Rice plants overexpressing MgMO237 had an increased susceptibility to M...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Duy An Duong, Roderick V Jensen, Ann M Stevens
The bacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn. P. stewartii is transmitted to plants via corn flea beetles where it first colonizes the apoplast causing water-soaked lesions, then migrates to the xylem and forms a biofilm that blocks water transport. Bacterial quorum sensing insures the exopolysaccharide production necessary for biofilm formation occurs only at high cell density. A genomic-level Tn-Seq analysis was performed to identify additional bacterial genes essential for survival in planta and to provide insights into the plant-microbe interactions occurring during wilt disease...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Zoran S Radakovic, Muhammad Shahzad Anjam, Elizabeth Escobar, Divykriti Chopra, Javier Cabrera, Ana Cláudia Silva, Carolina Escobar, Miroslaw Sobczak, Florian M W Grundler, Shahid Siddique
Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are obligate biotrophs that infect the roots of their host plant. Their parasitism is based on modification of root cells to form a hypermetabolic syncytium from which the nematodes draw their nutrients. The aim of this study was to identify nematode susceptibility genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and to characterize their roles in supporting the parasitism of Heterodera schachtii. By selecting genes that were most strongly upregulated in response to cyst nematode infection, we identified HIPP27 (HEAVY METAL-ASSOCIATED ISOPRENYLATED PLANT PROTEIN 27) as a host susceptibility factor required for beet cyst nematode infection and development...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Shuo Duan, Hongge Jia, Zhiqian Pang, Doron Teper, Frank White, Jeffrey Jones, Changyong Zhou, Nian Wang
Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc) is an important plant pathogenic bacterium that causes citrus canker disease worldwide. PthA, a transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effector, directs the expression of canker susceptibility gene CsLOB1. Here, we report our recent progress in functional characterization of CsLOB1. Subcellular localization analysis of CsLOB1 protein in citrus protoplast revealed that CsLOB1 is primarily localized in the nucleus. We showed that CsLOB1 expression driven by the dexamethasone (DEX) in the CsLOB1-GR transgenic plants is associated with pustule formation following treatment with DEX...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Paulo Vieira, Thomas Mayer, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Dana K Howe, Inga Zasada, Thomas Baum, Jonathan D Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo
Pratylenchus penetrans is one of the most important species among root lesion nematodes (RLNs) due to the detrimental and economic impact that it causes in a wide range of crops. Similar to other plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs), P. penetrans harbors a significant number of secreted proteins that play key roles during parasitism. Here we combined spatially and temporally resolved next generation sequencing datasets of P. penetrans to select a list of candidate genes aimed at the identification of a panel of effector genes for this species...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Bo Wang, Guichun Wu, Yuqiang Zhang, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Hypothetical proteins without defined functions are largely distributed in all sequenced bacterial genomes. Understanding their potent functionalities is a basic demand for bacteriologists. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight of rice, is one of the model systems for studying molecular plant pathology. One quarter of proteins in the genome of this bacterium were defined as hypothetical proteins, but their roles in Xoo pathogenicity is unknown. Here, we generated in-frame deletions for six hypothetical proteins selected from strain PXO99A and found one (PXO_03177) of them is required for the full virulence of this strain...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Xiaochen Yuan, Fang Tian, Chenyang He, Geoffrey B Severin, Christopher M Waters, Quan Zeng, Fengquan Liu, Ching-Hong Yang
Dickeya dadantii 3937 secretes pectate lyases (Pels) to degrade the plant cell wall. Previously, we have demonstrated that EGcpB and EcpC function as cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) to positively regulate Pel production. However, the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) responsible for the synthesis of c-di-GMP and dichotomously regulation of Pel has remained a mystery. Here, we identified GcpA is the dominant DGC to negatively regulate Pel production by specifically repressing pelD gene expression...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Lorinda S Bullington, Ylva Lekberg, Richard Sniezko, Beau Larkin
The invasive fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, infects and kills whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) throughout western North America. Whitebark pine has been proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act in the U.S., and the loss of this species is predicted to have severe impacts on ecosystem composition and function in high elevation forests. Numerous fungal endophytes live inside whitebark pine tissues, and they may influence the severity of C. ribicola infection either directly by inhibiting pathogen growth or indirectly by inducing chemical defensive pathways in the tree...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Patrick C Brunner, Bruce A McDonald
We analyzed the population genetic diversity for AvrStb6, the first avirulence gene cloned from the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, using 142 Z. tritici strains sampled from four wheat fields growing on three continents. Though AvrStb6 was located in a recombination hotspot, it was found in every strain, with 71 polymorphic sites that produced 41 distinct DNA haplotypes encoding 30 AvrStb6 protein isoforms. An AvrStb6 homolog was found in the closest known relative, Z. pseudotritici, but not in three other closely related Zymoseptoria species, indicating that this gene emerged in Zymoseptoria quite recently...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yong Zhang, Jiaman Li, Weiqi Zhang, Hualei Shi, Feng Luo, Yasufumi Hikichi, Xiaojun Shi, Kouhei Ohnishi
LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) are ubiquitous and abundant among bacteria and control a variety of cellular processes. Here, we investigated the effect of Rsc1880 (a putative LTTR, hereafter designated PrhO) on pathogenicity of Ralstonia solanacearum. Deletion of prhO substantially reduced the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS) both in vitro and in planta, and resulted in significantly impaired virulence in tomato and tobacco plants. Complementary prhO completely restored the reduced virulence and T3SS expression to that of wild type...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Swarnalok De, Gabriela Chavez-Calvillo, Matti Wahlsten, Kristiina Mäkinen
Infection caused by synergistic interaction of two plant viruses is typically manifested by severe symptoms and increased accumulation of either virus. In potex-potyviral synergism potyviral RNA silencing suppressor HCPro is known to enhance the pathogenicity of the potexvirus counterpart. In line with this Potato virus X (PVX; genus Potexvirus) genomic RNA (gRNA) accumulation and gene expression from subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) increased in Nicotiana benthamiana by Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) HCPro expression...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Rafhael Felipin Azevedo, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc, Maeli Melotto
Receptor-like kinases are membrane proteins that can be shared by diverse signaling pathways. Among them, the Arabidopsis thaliana FERONIA (FER) plays a role in the balance between distinct signals to control growth and defense. We have found that COK-4, a putative kinase encoded in the common bean anthracnose resistance locus Co-4 that is transcriptionally regulated during immune response, is highly similar to the kinase domain of FER. To assess whether COK-4 is a functional ortholog of FER, we expressed COK-4 in the wild type Col-0 and the fer-5 mutant of Arabidopsis and evaluated FER-associated traits...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kaveh Ghanbarnia, Lisong Ma, Nicholas J Larkan, Parham Haddadi, W G Dilantha Fernando, M Hossein Borhan
Blackleg disease of Brassica napus caused by Leptosphaeria maculans (Lm) is largely controlled by deploying race-specific resistance (R) genes. However, selection pressure exerted by R genes causes Lm to adapt and give rise to new virulent strains through mutation and deletion of effector genes. Therefore, knowledge of effector gene function is necessary for effective management of the disease. Here we report cloning of Lm effector AvrLm9 that is recognised by the resistance gene Rlm9 in B. napus cultivar Goéland...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
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