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Molecular Plant Pathology

Emmanuel Aguilar, Francisco J Del Toro, Chantal Brosseau, Peter Moffett, Tomás Canto, Francisco Tenllado
The synergistic interaction of Potato virus X (PVX) with a number of potyviruses results in systemic necrosis in Nicotiana spp. Previous investigations have indicated that the viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) protein P25 of PVX triggers systemic necrosis in PVX-associated synergisms in a threshold-dependent manner. However, little is still known about the cellular processes that lead to this necrosis, and whether the VSR activity of P25 is involved in its elicitation. Here, we show that transient expression of P25 in the presence of VSRs from different viruses, including the HC-Pro of potyviruses, induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), which ultimately lead to ER collapse...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Paulo Cezar Ceresini, Vanina Lilián Castroagudín, Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues, Jonas Alberto Rios, Carlos Eduardo Aucique-Pérez, Silvino Intra Moreira, Daniel Croll, Eduardo Alves, Giselle de Carvalho, Joao Leodato Nunes Maciel, Bruce Alan McDonald
Wheat blast was first reported in Brazil in 1985. It spread rapidly across the wheat cropping areas of Brazil to become the most important biotic constraint on wheat production in the region. The alarming appearance of wheat blast in Bangladesh in 2016 greatly increased the urgency of understanding this disease, including its causes and consequences. Here we summarize the current state of knowledge of wheat blast and aim to identify the most important gaps in our understanding of the disease. We also propose a research agenda that aims to improve management of wheat blast and limit the threat it poses to global wheat production...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Harold J G Meijer, Charikleia Schoina, Shutong Wang, Klaas Bouwmeester, Chenlei Hua, Francine Govers
Successful invasion of host tissue by (hemi-)biotrophic plant pathogens is dependent on modifications of the host plasma membrane to facilitate two-way transfer of proteins and other compounds. Haustorium formation and establishment of extrahaustorial membranes is likely dependent on a variety of enzymes that modify membranes in a coordinated fashion. Phospholipases, enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids, have been implicated as virulence factors in several pathogens. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that causes potato late blight...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Sonja Warmerdam, Mark G Sterken, Casper van Schaik, Marian E P Oortwijn, Jose L Lozano-Torres, Jaap Bakker, Aska Goverse, Geert Smant
Root-knot nematodes transform vascular host cells into permanent feeding structures to selectively withdraw their nutrients from host plants during the course of several weeks. Susceptibility of host plants to root-knot nematode infections is thought to be a complex trait involving many genetic loci. However, genome-wide association analysis has so far revealed only four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to reproductive success of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Arabidopsis thaliana, which suggests that the genetic architecture underlying host susceptibility could be much simpler than previously thought...
August 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hassan Ghareeb, Yulei Zhao, Jan Schirawski
The biotrophic maize head smut fungus Sporisorium reilianum is a close relative of the tumor-inducing maize smut fungus Ustilago maydis with a distinct disease etiology. Maize infection with S. reilianum occurs at the seedling stage but spores first form in inflorescences after a long endophytic growth phase. To identify S. reilianum-specific virulence effectors we defined two gene sets by genome comparison to U. maydis and to the barley smut fungus Ustilago hordei. We tested virulence function by individual- and cluster deletion analysis of 66 genes and by using a sensitive assay for virulence evaluation that considers both disease incidence (number of plants with a particular symptom) and disease severity (number and strength of symptoms displayed on any individual plant)...
August 23, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Qiongnan Gu, Qinfeng Yuan, Dian Zhao, Junbin Huang, Tom Hsiang, Yangdou Wei, Lu Zheng
Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in amino acid, protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Here, we genetically dissected distinct roles of two acetyl-CoA synthetase genes, ChAcs1 and ChAcs2, in regulation of fermentation, lipid metabolism and virulence of the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum. ChAcs1 and ChAcs2 are both highly expressed during appressorial development and primary hyphae formation stages and constitutively expressed in the cytoplasm throughout development stages...
August 23, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ursla Fernando, Salima Chatur, Manisha Joshi, Christopher Thomas Bonner, Tao Fan, Keith Hubbard, Denise Chabot, Owen Rowland, Li Wang, Rajagopal Subramaniam, Christof Rampitsch
NADPH oxidase (NOX) is one of the sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulates the activity of proteins through modifications of their cysteine residues. Our previous study demonstrated the importance of NOX in both in the development and pathogenicity of the phytopathogen Fusarium graminearum. Comparative proteomics between wildtype and a Nox mutant of F. graminearum has now been used to identify active cysteine residues on candidate redox-sensing proteins. A 2D-gel approach based on labelling with monobromobimane (mBBr) identified 19 candidate proteins and was complemented with a gel-free shotgun approach based on a biotin switch method, which yielded 99 candidates...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Chuanzhong Zhang, Hong Gao, Rongpeng Li, Dan Han, Le Wang, Junjiang Wu, Pengfei Xu, Shuzhen Zhang
Phytophthora sojae is a destructive pathogen of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] causing stem and root rot to soybean plants worldwide. However, the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of plant defense responses against P. sojae are largely unclear. Herein, we document the underlying mechanisms and function of a novel BTB/POZ protein in soybean, GmBTB/POZ, which contains a BTB/POZ domain found in certain animal transcriptional regulators, in host soybean plants in response to P. sojae. It is located in the cell nucleus and transcriptionally up-regulated by P...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Per Fahlberg, Nathalie Buhot, Oskar N Johansson, Mats X Andersson
Non-specific lipid transfer proteins are involved in transport of lipophilic compounds to the cuticular surface on the epidermal cells and defense against pathogens. The role of GPI-anchored LTPs (LTPGs) in resistance against non-host mildews in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated using reverse genetics. Loss of either LTPG1, LTPG2, LTPG5 or LTPG6 increased the susceptibility to penetration of the epidermal cell wall by Blumeria graminis sp hordei (Bgh). No impact on pre-penetration defense against another non-host mildew, Erysiphe pisi (Ep) was however observed...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Guo-Fang Liu, Hui-Zhao Su, Han-Yang Sun, Guang-Tao Lu, Ji-Liang Tang
Transcriptional regulators are key players in pathways that allow bacteria alter gene expression in response to environmental conditions. However, work to understand how such transcriptional regulatory networks interact in bacterial plant pathogens is limited. Here, in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris we demonstrate that the global transcriptional regulator HpaR1 influences many of the same genes as another global regulator Clp, including the engXCA gene that encodes extracellular endoglucanase. We demonstrate that HpaR1 facilitates the binding of RNA polymerase to engXCA promoter...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Meline Valérian, Delage Wesley, Brin Chrystelle, Li-Marchetti Camille, Sochard Daniel, Arlat Matthieu, Rousseau Céline, Darrasse Armelle, Briand Martial, Lebreton Guillaume, Portier Perrine, Fischer-Le Saux Marion, Durand Karine, Jacques Marie-Agnès, Belin Etienne, Boureau Tristan
Cases of emergence of novel plant pathogenic strains are regularly reported that hinder yield of crops and trees. However the molecular mechanisms underlying such emergence are still poorly understood. The acquisition by environmental non-pathogenic strains of novel virulence genes by horizontal gene transfer has been suggested as a driver for the emergence of novel pathogenic strains. In the present study, we tested such an hypothesis by transferring a plasmid encoding the Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) and four associated Type 3 Secreted proteins (T3SPs) to the non-pathogenic strains of Xanthomonas CFBP 7698 and CFBP 7700, that lack genes encoding T3SS and any previously known T3SPs...
August 4, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Elsa Rousseau, Lucie Tamisier, Frederic Fabre, Vincent Simon, Marion Szadkowski, Olivier Bouchez, Catherine Zanchetta, Gregory Girardot, Ludovic Mailleret, Frederic Grognard, Alain Palloix, Benoit Moury
The efficiency of plant major resistance genes is limited by the emergence and spread of resistance-breaking mutants. Modulating the evolutionary forces acting on pathogen populations constitutes a promising way to increase the durability of these genes. We studied the effect of four plant traits affecting these evolutionary forces on the rate of resistance breakdown (RB) by a virus. Two of those traits correspond to virus effective population sizes (Ne ), either at plant inoculation or during infection. The third trait corresponds to differential selection exerted by the plant on the virus population...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jesús Martínez-Cruz, Diego Romero, Antonio de Vicente, Alejandro Pérez-García
A major limitation of molecular studies in powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales) is their genetic intractability. This is because they are obligate biotrophs. In these parasites, biotrophy is determined by the presence of haustoria, specialized structures of parasitism that play an essential role in the acquisition of nutrients and the deliverance of effectors. Podosphaera xanthii is the main causal agent of cucurbit powdery mildew and a major limitation for crop productivity. In a previous study using P. xanthii conidia, we showed for the first time transformation of powdery mildew fungi by Agrobacterium tumefaciens...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Arry Morel, Jérémy Guinard, Fabien Lonjon, Lakshmi Sujeeun, Patrick Barberis, Stéphane Genin, Fabienne Vailleau, Marie-Christine Daunay, Jacques Dintinger, Stéphane Poussier, Nemo Peeters, Emmanuel Wicker
To deploy durable plant resistance, we must understand its underlying molecular mechanisms. The Type III effectors (T3Es) and their recognition play a central role in the interaction between bacterial pathogens and crops. We demonstrate that the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) T3E ripAX2 triggers specific resistance in eggplant AG91-25, which carries the major resistance locus EBWR9. The eggplant accession AG91-25 is resistant to the wild type R. pseudosolanacearum strain GMI1000, while a ripAX2 defective mutant of this strain can cause wilt...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Nahee Bae, Hye-Jee Park, Hanbi Park, Minyoung Kim, Sang-Wook Han
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a Gram-negative bacterium causing bacterial leaf blight disease in rice. Previously, proteomic analysis had shown that outer membrane protein B in Xoo (OprBXo) was more abundant in the wildtype strain compared to the outer membrane protein 1 in Xoo (Omp1X)-knockout mutant. OprBXo shows high homology with OprB, which has been well characterized as a carbohydrate-selective porin in X. citri subsp. citri and Pseudomonas species. However, the functions of OprBXo in Xoo have not yet been documented...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ana Vieira, Diogo Nuno Silva, Victor Várzea, Octávio Salgueiro Paulo, Dora Batista
Pathogenic fungi are emerging at an increasing rate on a wide range of host plants, leading to tremendous threats to global economy and food safety. Several plant pathogens have been considered invasive species, rendering large-scale population genomic analyses crucial to better understand their demographic history and evolutionary potential. Colletotrichum kahawae (Ck) is a highly aggressive and specialized pathogen, causing Coffee Berry Disease in Arabica coffee in Africa. This pathogen leads to severe production losses and its dissemination out of Africa is greatly feared...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Heike Prochaska, Sabine Thieme, Sebastian Daum, Jan Grau, Cornelius Schmidtke, Magnus Hallensleben, Peter John, Kirsten Bacia, Ulla Bonas
The type III-secretion (T3S) system, an essential pathogenicity factor in most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria, injects bacterial effector proteins directly into the plant cell cytosol. Here, the type III effectors (T3Es) manipulate host cell processes to suppress defense and establish proper conditions for bacterial multiplication in the intercellular spaces of the plant tissue. T3E export depends on a secretion signal which is also present in "non-effectors". The latter are secreted extracellular components of the T3S apparatus, but they are not translocated into the plant cell...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Marina Puigvert, Montserrat Solé, Belén López-Garcia, Núria S Coll, Karren D Beattie, Rohan A Davis, Mikael Elofsson, Marc Valls
Finding chemical compounds that prevent and combat bacterial diseases is fundamental for crop production. Bacterial virulence inhibitors are a promising alternative to classical control treatments, because they have a low environmental impact and they are less likely to generate bacterial resistance. The major virulence determinant of most animal and plant bacterial pathogens is the Type III Secretion System (T3SS). In this work, we screened 9 plant extracts and 12 isolated compounds -including molecules effective against human pathogens- for their capacity to inhibit the T3SS of plant pathogens and their applicability as virulence inhibitors for crop protection...
July 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Walter Chitarra, Danila Cuozzo, Alessandra Ferrandino, Francesca Secchi, Sabrina Palmano, Irene Perrone, Paolo Boccacci, Chiara Pagliarani, Ivana Gribaudo, Franco Mannini, Giorgio Gambino
Plant virus infections are often difficult to characterize as they result from a complex molecular and physiological interplay between a pathogen and its host. In this study, the impact of the phloem-limited grapevine virus B (GVB) on the Vitis vinifera L. wine-red cultivar Albarossa was analyzed under field conditions. Trials were carried out over two growing seasons by combining agronomical, molecular, biochemical and ecophysiological approaches. The data showed that GVB did not induce macroscopic symptoms on 'Albarossa', but affected the ecophysiological performances of vines in terms of assimilation rates, particularly at the end of the season, without compromising yield and vigour...
July 28, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Xiaoguo Zhu, Jia Guo, Fuxin He, Yang Zhang, Chenglong Tan, Qian Yang, Chuanming Huang, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Many obligately parasitic pathogens absorb nutrients from host plants by means of specialized infection structures called haustoria and infection hyphae to further extension and growth in the host plant. In the wheat (Triticum aestivum) stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the MAPKKK PsFUZ7 is involved in regulating haustorium formation and invasive growth. Here, we functionally characterized the PsKPP4 of Pst that is homologous with the yeast MAPKKK STE11. Similar to the silencing of PsFUZ7, the knockdown of PsKPP4 was detected in the vegetative hyphae and haustoria, resulting in reduced pathogenicity of Pst...
July 26, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
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