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Molecular Plant Pathology

M R Hajimorad, L L Domier, S A Tolin, S A Whitham, M A Saghai Maroof
Taxonomy. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae that includes almost a quarter of all known plant RNA viruses affecting agriculturally important plants. The Potyvirus genus is the largest of all genera of plant RNA viruses with 160 species. Particle. The filamentous particles of SMV, typical of potyviruses, are about 7,500 Å long and 120 Å in diameter with a central hole of about 15 Å in diameter. Coat protein residues are arranged in helice of about 34 Å pitch having slightly less than 9 subunits per turn...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yuxing Wu, Liangsheng Xu, Zhiyuan Yin, Qingqing Dai, Xiaoning Gao, Hao Feng, Ralf T Voegele, Lili Huang
Velvet protein family members are important fungal-specific regulators that are involved in conidial development, secondary metabolism, and virulence. To gain broader insight into the physiological functions into the velvet protein family of Valsa mali, which causes a highly destructive canker disease on apple, we conducted a functional analysis of two Velvet protein family members (VmVeA and VmVelB) via gene replacement strategy. Deletion mutants of VmVeA and VmVelB showed increased melanin production, conidiation, and sensitivity to abiotic stresses, but exhibited reduced virulence on detached apple leaves and twigs...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hongying Shan, Fabio Pasin, Ioannis E Tzanetakis, Carmen Simón-Mateo, Juan Antonio García, Bernardo Rodamilans
The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes ca. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B based, among other things, on their dependency or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family characterizing their host factor requirements...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Christopher M Ference, Alberto M Gochez, Franklin Behlau, Nian Wang, James H Graham, Jeffrey B Jones
Taxonomic status: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadles; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). Host range: Compatible hosts vary in their susceptibility to CC, with grapefruit, lime, and lemon being most susceptible, sweet orange being moderately susceptible, and kumquat and calamondin being among the least susceptible (Gottwald et al., 1993). Microbiological properties: Xcc is a rod-shaped (1.5 - 2.0 X 0.5 - 0.75 µm) gram-negative, aerobic bacterium with a single polar flagellum...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Caucasella Diaz-Trujillo, Pablo Chong, Ioannis Stergiopoulos, Viviane Cordovez, Mauricio Guzman, Pierre J G M De Wit, Harold J G Meijer, Rafael E Arango Isaza, Gabriel Scalliet, Helge Sierotzki, Esther Lilia Peralta, Gerrit H J Kema
The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors (DMIs). The continued use of DMIs puts a considerable selection pressure on natural P. fijiensis populations enabling the selection of novel genotypes with reduced sensitivity. The hitherto explanatory mechanism for this reduced sensitivity was the presence of non-synonymous point mutations in the target gene Pfcyp51, encoding the sterol 14α-demethylase enzyme...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kemal Kazan, Donald Gardiner
Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Chen Wang, Xiaowen He, Yuzhen Li, Lijun Wang, Xulei Guo, Xingqi Guo
Fusarium wilt is one of the most serious diseases affecting cotton. However, the pathogenesis and mechanism by which F. oxysporum overcomes plant defence responses are unclear. Here, a new group D MAPK gene, GhMPK20, was identified and functionally analysed in cotton. GhMPK20 expression was significantly induced by F. oxysporum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhMPK20 in cotton increased the tolerance to F. oxysporum, while ectopic GhMPK20 overexpression in N. benthamiana reduced F. oxysporum resistance via disrupting the SA-mediated defence pathway...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Shanshan Xie, Haiyang Jiang, Ting Ding, Qianqian Xu, Wenbo Chai, Beijiu Cheng
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a kind of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that activates induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Arabidopsis. Blocking in cyclic lipopeptides and 2,3-butanediol synthesis of FZB42, which were proved to be involved in priming ISR, resulted in abolishment of plant defense responses. To further clarify the ISR activated by PGPR at miRNA level, sRNA libraries from Arabidopsis leaves after root-irrigated with FZB42, FZB42ΔsfpΔalsS and control were constructed and sequenced...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Guangfei Tang, Chengqi Zhang, Zhenzhen Ju, Shiyu Zheng, Ziyue Wen, Sunde Xu, Yun Chen, Zhonghua Ma
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced in cereal crops infected with Fusarium graminearum. DON poses a serious threat to human and animal health and is a critical virulence factor. Various environmental factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to interfere with DON biosynthesis in this pathogen. The regulatory mechanisms of how ROS trigger DON production have been extensively investigated in F. graminearum. However, the role of the endogenous ROS generating system in DON biosynthesis is largely unknown...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Dousheng Wu, Niklas Schandry, Thomas Lahaye
Members of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (Rssc) cause bacterial wilt, a devastating plant disease that affects numerous economically important crops. Like other bacterial pests, Rssc injects a cocktail of effector proteins via the bacterial type III secretion system into host cells that collectively promote disease. Given their functional relevance in disease, identification of Rssc effectors and investigation of their in planta function is likely to provide clues on how to generate pest-resistant crop plants...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Samuel Jourdan, Isolde M Francis, Benoit Deflandre, Elodie Tenconi, Jennifer Riley, Sören Planckaert, Pierre Tocquin, Loïc Martinet, Bart Devreese, Rosemary Loria, Sébastien Rigali
Common scab disease on root and tuber plants is caused by Streptomyces scabies and related species which use the cellulose synthase inhibitor thaxtomin A as the main phytotoxin. Thaxtomin production is primarily triggered by the import of cello-oligosaccharides. Once inside the cell, the fate of the cello-oligosaccharides is dichotomized into i) fueling glycolysis with glucose for the saprophytic lifestyle through the action of β-glucosidase(s) (BG), and ii) eliciting the pathogenic lifestyle by inhibiting the CebR-mediated transcriptional repression of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Nan-Yang Li, Xue-Feng Ma, Dylan P G Short, Ting-Gang Li, Lei Zhou, Yue-Jing Gui, Zhi-Qiang Kong, Dan-Dan Zhang, Wen-Qi Zhang, Jun-Jiao Li, Krishna V Subbarao, Jie-Yin Chen, Xiao-Feng Dai
Wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae significantly reduces cotton yields, as host resistance in commercially cultivated Gossypium species is lacking. Understanding the molecular bases of disease resistance in non-commercial Gossypium species could galvanize the development of Verticillium wilt resistance in the cultivated species. Nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins play a central role in plant defense against pathogens. In this study, we focused on the relationship between a locus enriched with eight NBS-LRR genes and Verticillium wilt resistance in G...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Melania Figueroa, Kim E Hammond-Kosack, Peter S Solomon
Wheat is one of the primary staple foods throughout the planet. Significant yield gains in wheat production over the past 40 years have resulted in a steady balance of supply versus demand. However, predicted global population growth rates and dietary changes necessitate substantial yield gains over the next several decades to meet this escalating demand. A key component to meeting this challenge is better management of fungal incited diseases, which can be responsible for 15-20% yield losses per annum. Prominent diseases of wheat that currently contribute to these losses include the rusts, the blotches and head blight/scab...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Aayushi Shukla, Israel Pagán, Fernando García-Arenal
Plant viruses often harm their hosts, which have developed mechanisms to prevent or minimise the effects of virus infection. Resistance and tolerance are the two main plant defences to pathogens. Although resistance to plants viruses has been extensively studied, tolerance has received much less attention. Theory predicts that tolerance to low virulent parasites would be achieved through resource reallocation from growth to reproduction, whereas tolerance to high virulent parasites would be attained through shortening of the pre-reproductive period...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Sandra Martínez-Turiño, José de Jesús Pérez, Marta Hervás, Rosana Navajas, Sergio Ciordia, Namrata D Udeshi, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Donald F Hunt, Juan Antonio García
Phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation are two widespread post-translational modifications (PTM), often affecting the same eukaryotic target protein. Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus that infects a wide range of plant species. O-GlcNAcylation of the capsid protein (CP) of PPV has been extensively studied, and some evidence about CP phosphorylation has been additionally reported. Here, we use proteomics analyses to demonstrate that PPV CP is phosphorylated in vivo at the N-terminus and the beginning of the core region...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Yue Liang, Wei Xiong, Siegrid Steinkellner, Jie Feng
The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic plant pathogen causing significant damage on a broad range of crops. This fungus produces sclerotia that serve as the long-term survival structures in the life cycle and the primary inoculum in the disease cycle. Melanin plays an important role for protecting mycelia and sclerotia from ultraviolet radiation and other adverse environmental conditions. In this study two genes, SCD1 encoding a scytalone dehydratase and THR1 encoding a trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, were disrupted by target gene replacement and their roles in mycelial growth, sclerotial development and fungal pathogenicity were investigated...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Vivek Verma, Fenella Crolley, Ari Sadanandom
The sessile nature of plants requires them to cope with an ever changing environment. Effective adaptive responses require sophisticated cellular mechanisms at post-transcriptional and -translational levels. Post-translational modification by Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) proteins is emerging as a key player in these adaptive responses. SUMO conjugation can rapidly change the overall fate of target proteins by altering their stability or interaction with partner proteins or DNA. SUMOylation entails an enzyme cascade that leads to the activation, conjugation and ligation of SUMO to lysine residues of target proteins...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Milena Mitic, Daniel Berry, Emma Brasell, Kimberly Green, Carolyn A Young, Sanjay Saikia, Jasna Rakonjac, Barry Scott
Calcineurin is a conserved calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, consisting of a catalytic subunit A and a regulatory subunit B, which is involved in calcium-dependent signalling and regulation of various important cellular processes. In this study we functionally characterised the catalytic subunit A (CnaA) of the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae that forms a symbiotic association with the grass host Lolium perenne. We deleted the CnaA-encoding gene cnaA in E. festucae and examined its role in hyphal growth, cell wall integrity and symbiosis...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Shakhina Khanam, Lander Bauters, Richard Raj Singh, Ruben Verbeek, Ashley Haeck, Md Saeed Sultan, Kristof Demeestere, Tina Kyndt, Godelieve Gheysen
The incompatible interaction between the rice cultivar Manikpukha and the rice stem nematode Ditylenchus angustus has recently been reported. This research focusses on the underlying mechanisms of resistance in Manikpukha. Invasion, post-infectional development and reproduction of D. angustus were compared in a compatible and incompatible reaction to identify the stage in which resistance occurs. Results indicate that resistance in Manikpukha is associated with reduced development and reproduction, implying that resistance acts post-invasion...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Sander Y A Rodenburg, Michael F Seidl, Dick de Ridder, Francine Govers
Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide a functional view of the complex network of biochemical reactions in the living cell. Initially mainly applied to reconstruct the metabolism of model organisms, the availability of increasingly sophisticated reconstruction methods and more extensive biochemical databases now make it possible to reconstruct GEMs for less characterized organisms as well, and have the potential to unravel the metabolism in pathogen-host systems. Here we present a GEM for the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans as a first step towards an integrative model with its host...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
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