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Molecular Plant Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727279/characterization-of-two-homeodomain-transcription-factors-with-critical-but-distinct-roles-in-virulence-in-the-vascular-pathogen-verticillium-dahliae
#1
J L Sarmiento-Villamil, P Prieto, S J Klosterman, M D García-Pedrajas
Vascular wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a destructive disease that represents a chronic economic problem on crop production worldwide. In this work we characterized two new regulators of pathogenicity in this species. Vph1 (VDAG_06555) was identified in a candidate gene approach as a putative homolog of the transcription factor Ste12. Vhb1 (VDAG_08786), identified in a forward genetics approach, is similar to the homeobox transcription factor Htf1, reported as a regulator of conidiogenesis in several fungi...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722830/ralfuranones-contribute-to-mushroom-type-biofilm-formation-by-ralstonia-solanacearum-strain-oe1-1
#2
Yuka Mori, Yuki Hosoi, Shiho Ishikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Yu Asai, Hideyuki Ohnishi, Mika Shimatani, Kanako Inoue, Kenichi Ikeda, Hitoshi Nakayashiki, Yasuyo Nishimura, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai, Yasufumi Hikichi
After invasion into intercellular spaces of tomato plants, the soil-borne plant pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum strain OE1-1 forms mushroom-shaped biofilms (mushroom-type biofilms, mBFs) on tomato cells, leading to its virulence. The strain OE1-1 produces aryl-furanone secondary metabolites, ralfuranones (A, B, J, K and L), dependent on the quorum sensing (QS) system with methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME) synthesized by PhcB as a QS signal. Ralfuranones are associated with the feedback loop of the QS system...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710879/the-transcription-factor-pstste12-is-required-for-virulence-of-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici
#3
Xiaoguo Zhu, Wei Liu, Xiuling Chu, Qixiong Sun, Chenglong Tan, Qian Yang, Min Jiao, Jun Guo, Zhensheng Kang
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is an obligate biotrophic fungus that causes extensive damage in wheat. The pathogen is now known to be a heteroecious fungus with an intricate life cycle containing sexual and asexual stages. Orthologs of the STE12 transcription factor that regulate mating and filamentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as virulence in other fungi has been extensively described. Because reliable transformation and gene disruption methods are lacking for Pst, knowledge about the function of its STE12 ortholog is limited...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695996/downregulation-of-genes-coding-for-core-rnai-components-and-disease-resistance-proteins-via-corresponding-micrornas-might-be-correlated-with-successful-smv-infection-in-soybean
#4
Duran Bao, Oyunchuluun Ganbaatar, Xiuqi Cui, Ruonan Yu, Wenhua Bao, Bryce W Falk, Hada Wuriyanghan
Plants protect themselves from virus infections by several different defense mechanisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is one prominent antiviral mechanism, which requires the participation of AGO (Argonaute) and Dicer/DCL (Dicer-like) proteins. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an antiviral mechanism mediated by resistance (R) genes, most of which encode NBS-LRR family proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in plants, including regulation of host defenses. SMV (Soybean mosaic virus) is the most common virus in soybean and here we identified dozens of SMV-responsive miRNAs by microarray analysis in a SMV-susceptible soybean line...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677296/pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-polymutants-deploying-coronatine-and-two-type-iii-effectors-produce-quantifiable-chlorotic-spots-from-individual-bacterial-colonies-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#5
Suma Chakravarthy, Jay N Worley, Adriana Montes-Rodriguez, Alan Collmer
Primary virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 include the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) and a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS). DC3000 derivatives differentially producing COR, the T3SS machinery, and subsets of key effectors were constructed and assayed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Bacteria were inoculated by dipping of whole plants and assayed for population growth and production of chlorotic spots on leaves. The strains fell into three classes...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677256/xanthomonas-campestris-pv-musacearum-a-major-constraint-to-banana-plantain-and-enset-production-in-central-and-east-africa-over-the-past-decade
#6
Valentine Nakato, George Mahuku, Teresa Coutinho
Taxonomy: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; currently classified as X. campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm). However, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, genetic and genomic evidence suggest that this pathogen is X. vasicola and resides in a separate pathovar. Isolation and detection: Xcm can be isolated on Yeast Peptone Glucose Agar (YPGA), Cellobiose Cephalexin Agar and Yeast Tryptone Sucrose Agar (YTSA) complemented with 5-flouro-uracil, cephalexin and cycloheximide to confer semi-selectivity...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675630/erwinia-amylovora-catalases-kata-and-katg-are-virulence-factors-and-delay-the-starvation-induced-viable-but-nonculturable-vbnc-response
#7
Ricardo D Santander, Àngela Figàs-Segura, Elena G Biosca
The life cycle of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora comprises periods inside and outside the host in which it faces oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and other compounds. Sources of this stress are plant defences, other microorganisms and/or exposure to starvation or other environmental challenges. However, the functional roles of H2 O2 neutralizing enzymes like catalases during plant-pathogen interactions and/or under starvation conditions in phytopathogens of the family Erwiniaceae or closely related families have not been yet investigated...
July 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665481/the-pkr-regulatory-subunit-of-pka-is-involved-in-regulating-growth-sexual-and-asexual-development-and-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#8
Chaoqun Li, Yonghui Zhang, Huan Wang, Lingfeng Chen, Ju Zhang, Manli Sun, Jin-Rong Xu, Chenfang Wang
Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of the wheat scab disease and a producer of deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxins. Treatment with exogenous cAMP increased its DON production. To better understand the role of the cAMP-PKA pathway in F. graminearum, in this study we functionally characterized the PKR gene encoding the regulatory subunit of PKA. Mutants deleted of PKR were viable but had severe defects in growth, conidiation, and plant infection. The pkr mutant produced compact colonies with shorter aerial hyphae that were increased in the number of nuclei in hyphal compartments...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665036/ghjaz2-attenuates-cotton-resistance-to-biotic-stresses-via-inhibiting-the-transcriptional-activity-of-ghbhlh171
#9
Xin He, Longfu Zhu, Ghulam Mustafa Wassan, Yujing Wang, Yuhuan Miao, Muhammad Shaban, Haiyan Hu, Heng Sun, Xianlong Zhang
Plants evolve effective mechanisms to protect themselves against multiple stresses and employ jasmonates (JA) as vital defense signals to defend against pathogen infection. Accumulation of JA induced by signals from biotic and abiotic stresses, results in degradation of Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins, and then de-repressed the JAZ-repressed transcription factors (such as MYC2) to activate defense responses and developmental processes. Here, we characterized a JAZ family protein, GhJAZ2, from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which was induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and inoculation of Verticillium dahliae...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661570/one-gene-one-name-the-avrlmj1-avirulence-gene-of-leptosphaeria-maculans-is-avrlm5
#10
Clémence Plissonneau, Thierry Rouxel, Anne-Marie Chèvre, Angela P Van de Wouw, Marie-Hélène Balesdent
Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of blackleg disease, interacts with Brassica napus (oilseed rape, canola) and other Brassica hosts, in a gene-for-gene manner. The avirulence gene AvrLmJ1 was previously cloned and shown to interact with an unidentified B. juncea resistance gene. In this study, we show that the AvrLmJ1 gene maps to the same position as the AvrLm5 locus. Furthermore, isolates complemented with the AvrLmJ1 locus confer avirulence towards B. juncea genotypes harbouring Rlm5. These findings demonstrate AvrLmJ1 is AvrLm5 and highlight the need for shared resources to characterise accurately avirulence and/or resistance genes...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621835/exogenously-applied-dsrna-molecules-deriving-from-zucchini-yellow-mosaic-virus-genome-move-systemically-and-protect-cucurbits-against-zymv
#11
Athanasios Kaldis, Margarita Berbati, Ourania Melita, Chrysavgi Reppa, Maria Holeva, Patricia Otten, Andreas Voloudakis
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) causes serious damage in a great number of cucurbits and control measures are necessary. Transgenic cucurbits expressing parts of ZYMV genome were shown to be resistant against the cognate virus. A non-transgenic approach involving exogenous application of dsRNA has also been shown to induce resistance in tobacco against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In the present study, dsRNA molecules derived from the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) and coat protein (CP) genes of the ZYMV_DE_2014 isolate were produced in vitro...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605157/different-mechanisms-of-trichoderma-virens-mediated-resistance-in-tomato-against-fusarium-wilt-involve-the-jasmonic-and-salicylic-acid-pathways
#12
Sudisha Jogaiah, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Shin-Ichi Ito
In the present study, we investigated the role of Trichoderma virens (TriV_JSB100) spores or cell-free culture filtrate in regulating the growth and activating the defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by developing a biocontrol-plant-pathogen interaction system. Two-week-old tomato seedlings primed with TriV_JSB100 spores cultured on barley grains (BGS) or cell-free culture filtrate (CF) were inoculated with Fusarium pathogen under greenhouse conditions; this resulted in significant lower disease incidence in tomato Oogata-Fukuju plants treated with BGS than in CF-treated plants...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600875/plant-elicitor-peptides-promote-plant-defenses-against-nematodes-in-soybean
#13
Min Woo Lee, Alisa Huffaker, Devany Crippen, Robert T Robbins, Fiona Goggin
Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are widely distributed among angiosperms, and have been shown to amplify immune responses in multiple plant families. Here we characterize three Peps from soybean (Glycine max) and describe their effects on plant defenses against two damaging agricultural pests, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Seed treatments with exogenous GmPep1, GmPep2, or GmPep3 significantly reduced the reproduction of both nematodes. Pep treatment also protected plants from the inhibitory effects of root-knot nematodes on aboveground growth, and upregulated basal expression levels of nematode-responsive defense genes...
June 10, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524452/subtilisin-like-proteases-in-plant-defence-the-past-the-present-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Joana Figueiredo, Marta Sousa Silva, Andreia Figueiredo
Subtilisin-like proteases (or subtilases) are a very diverse family of serine peptidases present in many organisms, but mostly in plants. With a broad spectrum of biological functions ranging from protein turnover and plant development to interactions with the environment, subtilases have been gaining more attention for their involvement in plant defence responses against the most diverse pathogens. On the last 5 years, the number of published studies associating plant subtilases with pathogen resistance and plant immunity increased tremendously...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520093/verticillium-dahliae-transcription-factor-vdftf1-regulates-the-expression-of-multiple-secreted-virulence-factors-and-is-required-for-full-virulence-in-cotton
#15
Wen-Qi Zhang, Yue-Jing Gui, Dylan P G Short, Ting-Gang Li, Dan-Dan Zhang, Lei Zhou, Chun Liu, Yu-Ming Bao, Krishna V Subbarao, Jie-Yin Chen, Xiao-Feng Dai
Fungal transcription factors (TFs) implicated in the regulation of virulence gene expression have been identified in a number of plant pathogens. In Verticillium dahliae, despite its agricultural importance, few regulators of transcription have been characterized. In this study, a T-DNA insertional mutant with significantly reduced virulence toward cotton was identified. The T-DNA was traced to VdFTF1, a gene encoding a TF containing a Fungal_trans domain. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells indicated that VdFTF1 is localized to the nucleus...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519717/phytophthora-cinnamomi
#16
Adrienne R Hardham, Leila M Blackman
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most devastating plant pathogens in the world. It infects close to 5,000 species of plants, including many of importance in agriculture, forestry and horticulture. Inadvertent introduction of P. cinnamomi into natural ecosystems, including a number of recognised Global Biodiversity Hotspots, has disastrous consequences for the environment and biodiversity of flora and fauna. The genus Phytophthora belongs to the Class Oomycetes, a group of fungus-like organisms that initiate plant disease through the production of motile zoospores...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509355/lon-protease-modulates-virulence-traits-in-erwinia-amylovora-by-directly-monitoring-major-regulators-and-indirectly-through-the-rcs-and-gac-csr-regulatory-systems
#17
Jae Hoon Lee, Veronica Ancona, Youfu Zhao
Lon, an ATP-dependent protease in bacteria, influences diverse cellular processes by degrading damaged, misfolded and short-lived regulatory proteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of lon mutation and determined the molecular mechanisms underlying Lon-mediated virulence regulation in Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterial pathogen of apple. E. amylovora depends on the type III secretion system (T3SS) and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran to cause disease. Our results showed that mutation of the lon gene led to overproduction of amylovoran, increased T3SS gene expression and non-motile phenotype...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494519/molecular-insights-into-cassava-brown-streak-virus-susceptibility-and-resistance-by-profiling-of-the-early-host-response
#18
Ravi B Anjanappa, Devang Mehta, Michal J Okoniewski, Alicja Szabelska, Wilhelm Gruissem, Hervé Vanderschuren
Cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) are responsible for significant cassava yield losses in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To study the possible mechanisms of plant resistance to CBSVs we inoculated CBSV-susceptible and -resistant cassava varieties with a mixed infection of CBSVs using top-cleft grafting. Transcriptome profiling of the two cassava varieties was performed at the earliest time-point of full infection (28 days after grafting) in the susceptible scions. The expression of genes encoding proteins in RNA silencing, salicylic acid pathways and callose deposition was altered in the susceptible cassava variety but transcriptional changes were limited in the resistant variety...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467007/fsr1-a-striatin-homolog-forms-an-endomembrane-associated-complex-that-regulates-virulence-in-the-maize-pathogen-fusarium-verticillioides
#19
Huan Zhang, Mala Mukherjee, Jung-Eun Kim, Wenying Yu, Won-Bo Shim
Fsr1, a homolog of mammalian striatin, containing multiple protein-binding domains and a coiled-coil (CC) domain is critical for F. verticillioides virulence. In mammals, striatin interacts with multiple proteins to form a STRIPAK (striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase) complex that regulates a variety of developmental processes and cellular mechanisms. In this study, we identified the homolog of a key mammalian STRIPAK component STRIP1/2 in F. verticillioides, FvStp1, that interacts with Fsr1 in vivo...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466509/a-spatial-temporal-analysis-of-the-fusarium-graminearum-transcriptome-during-symptomless-and-symptomatic-wheat-infection
#20
Neil A Brown, Jess Evans, Andrew Mead, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
Fusarium head blight of wheat is one of the most serious and hazardous crop diseases worldwide. Here, a transcriptomic investigation of Fusarium graminearum reveals a new model for symptomless and symptomatic wheat infection. The predicted metabolic state and secretome of F. graminearum were distinct within symptomless and symptomatic wheat tissue. Transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol, plus other characterised and putative secondary metabolite clusters increased in abundance in symptomless tissue...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
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