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Molecular Plant Pathology

Victor Phani, Tagginahalli N Shivakumara, Keith G Davies, Uma Rao
Mucins are highly glycosylated polypeptides involved in many host parasite interactions, but their function in plant-parasitic nematodes is still unknown. In this study, a mucin-like gene was cloned from M. incognita (Mi-muc-1, 1125 bp) and characterized. The protein was found to be rich in serine and threonine content with numerous O-glycosylation sites in the sequence. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT PCR) showed the highest expression in the adult female and in situ hybridization revealed the localization of Mi-muc-1 mRNA expression in the tail area in the region of the phasmid...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Shu Wang, Weijun Cui, Xinyang Wu, Quan Yuan, Jinping Zhao, Hongying Zheng, Yuwen Lu, Jiejun Peng, Lin Lin, Jianping Chen, Fei Yan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in plant development. There is increasing evidence that changed expression of miRNAs in virus-infected plants contributes to the development of viral symptoms. Here, we analyzed the altered expression of miRNAs of Nicotiana benthamiana in response to potato virus X (PVX) by Illumina Solexa sequencing. One of the 21 miRNAs significantly affected, nbe-miR166h-p5, was closely associated with viral symptoms. Using the tobacco rattle virus-based miRNA suppression (VbMS) system, we found that the suppression of nbe-miR166h-p5 in plants caused leaves to turn dark green with increased chlorophyll...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Chunli Xu, Yaxin Wang, Shiyao Liu, Qingbiao Xie, Chenyi Shi, Chaozu He, Chunxia Li, Jun Tao
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease, which is an important reason for the reduction in rice production. The interaction between Xoo and rice is a model for the study of the gene-for-gene hypothesis, in which a resistance (R) gene that encodes a product that interacts with an effector molecule is encoded by a corresponding bacterial avirulence (avr) gene. Rice XA21 functions as a plant innate immune receptor (R protein) and recognizes the avirulence protein (RaxX) of Xoo to induce the immune response and cope with pathogen attack...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama, Teruo Sano, Jean-Pierre Perreault
Viroid infection often leads to early flowering in the host plant. This report describes the targeting of the FRIGIDA-Like protein 3 (FRL3) mRNA in tomato plants by a small RNA derived from the conserved left terminal region of the potato spindle tuber viroid. This targeting lead to the silencing of the FRL3 mRNA. Viroid infection assays using a severe variant of PSTVd induced early flowering in tomato plants by down-regulating greater amounts of the target than did a mild PSTVd variant. The targeting of the FRL3 mRNA by RNA silencing was validated by both an artificial microRNA experiment transiently expressing viroid derived small RNAs in tomato plants, and by 5' RNA ligase mediated RACE...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Raj Kumar Verma, Biswajit Samal, Subhadeep Chatterjee
The Xanthomonas group of phytopathogens causes several economically important diseases in crops. In the bacterial pathogen of rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), it has been proposed that chemotaxis may play a role in the entry and colonization of the pathogen inside the host. However, components of the chemotaxis system, including chemoteceptor involved, and their role in entry and virulence is not well defined. In this study we show that Xoo displayed a positive chemotaxis response to components of rice xylem sap, glutamine, xylose, methionine...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jose Fernando Gil, Sebastian Liebe, Heike Thiel, Britt-Louise Lennfors, Thomas Kraft, David Gilmer, Edgar Maiss, Mark Varrelmann, Eugene I Savenkov
Rhizomania of sugar beet, caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is characterized by excessive lateral root (LR) formation leading to dramatic reduction of taproot weight and massive yield losses. LR formation represents a developmental process tightly controlled by auxin signaling through AUX/IAA-ARF responsive module and LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) transcriptional network. Several LBD transcription factors play central roles in auxin-regulated LR development and act upstream of EXPANSINS (EXPs), cell wall (CW)-loosening proteins involved in plant development via disruption of the extracellular matrix for CW relaxation and expansion...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Diana Naalden, Annelies Haegeman, Janice de Almeida-Engler, Firehiwot Birhane Eshetu, Lander Bauters, Godelieve Gheysen
While invading roots, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effectors to manipulate cellular regulation of the host to promote parasitism. The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is one of the most damaging nematodes of rice. Here, we identified a novel effector of this nematode named Mg16820, expressed in the nematode subventral glands. We have localized the Mg16820 effector in the apoplast during the migration phase of the second-stage juvenile in rice roots. In addition, during early development of the feeding site, Mg16820 was localized in the giant cells where it accumulates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Manon M S Richard, Ariane Gratias, Blake C Meyers, Valérie Geffroy
Crop diseases cause significant yield losses while the use of resistant cultivars can effectively mitigate these losses and control many plant diseases. Most plant resistance (R) genes encode immune receptors comprised of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) domains. These proteins mediate the specific recognition of pathogen avirulence effectors to induce defense responses. However, NLR-triggered immunity can be associated with a reduction in growth and yield, so-called "fitness costs"...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Virginia Ruiz-Ferrer, Javier Cabrera, Isabel Martinez-Argudo, Haydeé Artaza, Carmen Fenoll, Carolina Escobar
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are sedentary biotrophic pathogens that establish within the vascular cylinder of plant roots forming a gall and inducing several feeding cells essential for the completion of their life cycle, giant cells (GCs). GCs suffer gene expression changes, repeated mitosis and endoreduplication events. Transcriptomics revealed an extensive down-regulation of transcripts, a molecular signature of early developing galls and GCs that is conserved in tomato and Arabidopsis may be achieved through small RNAs gene silencing pathways...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Cheng-Cheng Lee, Yi-Jhen Wu, Chia-Hsin Hsueh, Yu-Ting Huang, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Menghsiao Meng
In plants, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are the central signaling pathways of the complicated defense network triggered by the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns to repel pathogens. The Arabidopsis thaliana MAPK phosphatase 1 (AtMKP1) negatively regulates the activation of MAPKs. Recently, the AtMKP1 homolog of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbMKP1) was found in association with the Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) replication complex. This study aimed to investigate the role of NbMKP1 in BaMV multiplication in N...
May 28, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Jaime Simbaqueba, Ann-Maree Catanzariti, Carolina González, David A Jones
RNAseq reads from cape-gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali (Foph) were mapped against the lineage-specific transcriptome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) to look for putative effector genes. Homologues of Fol SIX1 (designated SIX1a and SIX1b), SIX7, SIX10, SIX12, SIX15 and Ave1 were identified. The near identity of the Foph and Fol SIX7, SIX10 and SIX12 genes and their intergenic regions suggest that this gene cluster may have undergone recent lateral transfer...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kai Sun, Xin Zhou, Wenye Lin, Xueping Zhou, Andrew O Jackson, Zhenghe Li
Nucleorhabdoviruses such as Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) replicate in the nuclei and undergo morphogenesis at the inner nuclear membrane (IM) in plant cells. Mature particles are presumed to form by budding of the Matrix (M) protein-nucleocapsid complexes through host IMs to acquire host phospholipids and the surface glycoproteins (G). To address mechanisms underlying nucleorhabdovirus budding, we generated recombinant SYNV G mutants containing a truncated amino-terminal (NT) or carboxyl-terminal (CT) domain...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Denise Seitner, Simon Uhse, Michelle Gallei, Armin Djamei
The biotrophic pathogen Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, infects one of the most important crops worldwide - Zea mays. To successfully colonize its host, U. maydis secretes proteins, known as effectors, that suppress plant defense responses and facilitate the establishment of biotrophy. In this work, we describe the U. maydis effector protein Cce1. Cce1 is essential for virulence and is upregulated during infection. Through microscopic analysis and in vitro assays, we show that Cce1 is secreted from hyphae during filamentous growth of the fungus...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Stacey N Barnes, Catherine L Wram, Melissa G Mitchum, Thomas J Baum
Cyst nematodes are plant pathogens that infect a wide range of economically important crops. One parasitic mechanism employed by cyst nematodes is the production and in planta delivery of effector proteins to modify plant cells and suppress defenses to favor parasitism. This study focused on GLAND4, an effector of Heterodera glycines and H. schachtii, the soybean and sugar beet cyst nematodes, respectively. We showed that GLAND4 is recognized by the plant cellular machinery and is transported to the plant nucleus, an organelle where little is known about plant nematode effector functions...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Wenxiu Ma, Lifang Zou, Zhiyuan Ji, Xiameng Xu, Zhengyin Xu, Yangyang Yang, James R Alfano, Gongyou Chen
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) of rice, uses transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to interact with the basal transcription factor gama subunit OsTFIIAγ5 (Xa5) and activates transcription of host genes. However, how OsTFIIAγ1, the other OsTFIIAγ protein, functions in the presence of TALEs remains unclear. In this study, we show that OsTFIIAγ1 plays a compensatory role in the absence of Xa5. The expression of OsTFIIAγ1, which is activated by TALE PthXo7, increased the expression of host genes targeted by avirulent and virulent TALEs...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Wenjie Qiao, Aleksandra Zarzyńska-Nowak, Luca Nerva, Yen-Wen Kuo, Bryce W Falk
RNA silencing is a conserved antiviral defense mechanism that has been used to develop robust resistance against plant virus infections. Previous efforts have been made to develop RNA silencing-mediated resistance to criniviruses, yet none have given immunity. In this study, transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants harboring a hairpin construct of the Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RdRp sequence exhibited immunity to systemic LIYV infection. Deep-sequencing analysis was performed to characterize virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs) generated upon systemic LIYV infection in non-transgenic N...
April 28, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ailian Qiu, Yufen Lei, Sheng Yang, Ji Wu, Jiazhi Li, Bingjin Bao, Yiting Cai, Song Wang, Jinhui Lin, Yuzhu Wang, Lei Shen, Jinsen Cai, Deyi Guan, Shuilin He
Tandem CCCH Zinc Finger (TZnF) proteins have been implicated in plant defense, but their role in pepper (Capsicum annuum) is unclear. In the present study, the role of CaC3H14, a pepper TZnF protein, in the immune response of pepper plants to Ralstonia solanacearum infection was characterized. When fused to the green fluorescent protein, CaC3H14 was localized exclusively to nuclei in leaf cells of Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing CaC3H14. Transcript abundance of CaC3H14 was upregulated by inoculation with R...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Niklas Schandry, Jonathan M Jacobs, Boris Szurek, Alvaro L Perez-Quintero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Hongying Shan, Fabio Pasin, Ioannis E Tzanetakis, Carmen Simón-Mateo, Juan Antonio García, Bernardo Rodamilans
The Potyviridae family is a major group of plant viruses that includes c. 200 species, most of which have narrow host ranges. The potyvirid P1 leader proteinase self-cleaves from the remainder of the viral polyprotein and shows large sequence variability linked to host adaptation. P1 proteins can be classified as Type A or Type B on the basis, amongst other things, of their dependence or not on a host factor to develop their protease activity. In this work, we studied Type A proteases from the Potyviridae family, characterizing their host factor requirements...
June 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Christopher M Ference, Alberto M Gochez, Franklin Behlau, Nian Wang, James H Graham, Jeffrey B Jones
Taxonomic status: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc). Host range: Compatible hosts vary in their susceptibility to citrus canker (CC), with grapefruit, lime and lemon being the most susceptible, sweet orange being moderately susceptible, and kumquat and calamondin being amongst the least susceptible. Microbiological properties: Xcc is a rod-shaped (1.5-2.0 × 0.5-0.75 µm), Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium with a single polar flagellum...
June 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
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