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European Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450628/relation-between-lactic-acid-and-base-excess-during-muscular-exercise
#1
LETTER
Dieter Böning, Norbert Maassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450627/can-the-use-of-a-single-integrated-unitary-autonomic-index-provide-early-clues-for-eventual-eligibility-for-olympic-games
#2
Daniela Lucini, Roberto Sala, Antonio Spataro, Mara Malacarne, Manuela Benzi, Stefano Tamorri, Massimo Pagani
PURPOSE: Optimal autonomic regulation and stress resilience might be considered critical elements of athletic performance. We hypothesize that a novel unitary autonomic index for sports (ANSIs), together with a somatic stress related symptom score (4SQ) might help characterize athletes who were eventually selected for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games Italian team (Rio +). METHODS: In this retrospective study we examined 778 athletes (age 24.4 ± 6.7 yrs) who underwent a planned yearly pre-participation screening...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441401/exercise-induced-fatigue-in-young-people-advances-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Dimitrios A Patikas, Craig A Williams, Sébastien Ratel
PURPOSE: In recent decades, the interest for exercise-induced fatigue in youth has substantially increased, and the effects of growth on the peripheral (muscular) and central (neural) mechanisms underpinning differences in neuromuscular fatigue between healthy children and adults have been described more extensively. The purpose of this review is to retrieve, report, and analyse the findings of studies comparing neuromuscular fatigue between children and adults. Objective measures of the evaluation of the physiological mechanisms are discussed...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435760/prescribing-6-weeks-of-running-training-using-parameters-from-a-self-paced-maximal-oxygen-uptake-protocol
#4
James S Hogg, James G Hopker, Sarah L Coakley, Alexis R Mauger
PURPOSE: The self-paced maximal oxygen uptake test (SPV) may offer effective training prescription metrics for athletes. This study aimed to examine whether SPV-derived data could be used for training prescription. METHODS: Twenty-four recreationally active male and female runners were randomly assigned between two training groups: (1) Standardised (STND) and (2) Self-Paced (S-P). Participants completed 4 running sessions a week using a global positioning system-enabled (GPS) watch: 2 × interval sessions; 1 × recovery run; and 1 × tempo run...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427238/opinion-paper-scientific-philosophical-and-legal-consideration-of-doping-in-sports
#5
REVIEW
Massimo Negro, Natale Marzullo, Francesca Caso, Luca Calanni, Giuseppe D'Antona
The term doping is generally used to indicate practices based on the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) or the abuse of medical therapies. Mostly analysed by doctors and officials, doping nevertheless also requires a philosophical consideration to avoid being simplistically portrayed as an isolated practice. To do this, we need to pay attention to the contradictions and paradoxes in the modern approach to doping in sport. In this context, doping is not only relevant to the health of an individual involved in the violation of World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) criteria, but it actually represents a double-edged phenomenon containing ethical and legal points of view...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423544/high-intensity-interval-training-in-hypoxia-does-not-affect-muscle-hif-responses-to-acute-hypoxia-in-humans
#6
Stefan De Smet, Gommaar D'Hulst, Chiel Poffé, Ruud Van Thienen, Emanuele Berardi, Peter Hespel
PURPOSE: The myocellular response to hypoxia is primarily regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs thus conceivably are implicated in muscular adaptation to altitude training. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hypoxic versus normoxic training during a period of prolonged hypoxia ('living high') on muscle HIF activation during acute ischaemia. METHODS: Ten young male volunteers lived in normobaric hypoxia for 5 weeks (5 days per week, ~ 15.5 h per day, FiO2: 16...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417205/localised-cutaneous-microvascular-adaptation-to-exercise-training-in-humans
#7
Ceri L Atkinson, Howard H Carter, Dick H J Thijssen, Gurpreet K Birk, N Timothy Cable, David A Low, Floortje Kerstens, Iris Meeuwis, Ellen A Dawson, Daniel J Green
PURPOSE: Exercise training induces adaptation in conduit and resistance arteries in humans, partly as a consequence of repeated elevation in blood flow and shear stress. The stimuli associated with intrinsic cutaneous microvascular adaptation to exercise training have been less comprehensively studied. METHODS: We studied 14 subjects who completed 8-weeks cycle ergometer training, with partial cuff inflation on one forearm to unilaterally attenuate cutaneous blood flow responses during each exercise-training bout...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411129/associations-between-physical-activity-resilience-and-quality-of-life-in-people-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Katrina Taylor, Philip W Scruggs, Onesmo B Balemba, Michelle M Wiest, Chantal A Vella
AIM: Research has shown that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with higher health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in healthy individuals. Recent studies have suggested that low- to moderate-intensity physical activity can be beneficial to HRQOL in people with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); however, studies investigating associations between MVPA and HRQOL in this population are lacking. PURPOSE: To understand the relationships among walking, MVPA, resilience, and HRQOL in people with IBD...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411128/effects-of-sprint-interval-training-on-ectopic-lipids-and-tissue-specific-insulin-sensitivity-in-men-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Jack A Sargeant, Stephen Bawden, Guruprasad P Aithal, Elizabeth J Simpson, Ian A Macdonald, Mark C Turner, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, James L Dorling, Penny A Gowland, Myra A Nimmo, James A King
PURPOSE: This study examined the feasibility of sprint interval exercise training (SIT) for men with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its effects on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG), insulin sensitivity (hepatic and peripheral), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (ScAT). METHODS: Nine men with NAFLD (age 41 ± 8 years; BMI 31.7 ± 3.1 kg m-2; IHTG 15.6 ± 8.3%) were assessed at: (1) baseline (2) after a control phase of no intervention (pre-training) and (3) after 6 weeks of SIT (4-6 maximal 30 s cycling intervals, three times per week)...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411127/changes-in-central-and-peripheral-neuromuscular-fatigue-indices-after-concentric-versus-eccentric-contractions-of-the-knee-extensors
#10
Robin Souron, Kazunori Nosaka, Marc Jubeau
PURPOSE: To better understand neuromuscular characteristics of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, this study compared between concentric (CONC) and eccentric (ECC) exercises of knee extensor muscles, and the first (ECC1) and second bouts of the eccentric exercise (ECC2) for central and peripheral parameters associated with neuromuscular fatigue. METHODS: Twelve young men performed three exercise bouts separated by at least 1 week between CONC and ECC1, and 2 weeks between ECC1 and ECC2...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383498/episodic-bouts-of-hyperaemia-and-shear-stress-improve-arterial-blood-flow-and-endothelial-function
#11
Gary J Hodges, Desmond G Stewart, Paul J Davison, Stephen S Cheung
INTRODUCTION: Exercise and heat stress lead to systemic improvements in arterial endothelial function, vascular stiffness, and cardiopulmonary capacity. The improvements in endothelial function may be primarily mediated via increases in shear stress. This study examined whether improvements in arterial function may be achieved in the absence of systemic vascular adaptations. Specifically, we hypothesized that repeated bouts of brief occlusion would improve arterial endothelial function via shear stress-dependent mechanisms...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380044/effects-of-daily-walking-on-intermuscular-adipose-tissue-accumulation-with-age-a-5-year-follow-up-of-participants-in-a-lifestyle-based-daily-walking-program
#12
Eunji Bang, Kai Tanabe, Noriko Yokoyama, Shoko Chijiki, Takuya Tsuruzono, Shinya Kuno
PURPOSE: Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) accumulates with age. However, there has been no long-term intervention study examining whether daily walking prevents or decreases the age-related IMAT accumulation. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of a long-term lifestyle-based daily walking program on age-related IMAT accumulation after a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: Using a pedometer, daily step count was evaluated for 5 years in 24 middle-aged and elderly male and female participants...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372315/predicting-the-ergogenic-response-to-methylphenidate
#13
Michael King, Keelyn Van Breda, Dan J Stein, Kai Lutz, H G Laurie Rauch
PURPOSE: Methylphenidate (MPH) and other stimulants have been shown to enhance physical performance. However, stimulant research has almost exclusively been conducted in young, active persons with a normal BMI, and may not generalize to other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ergogenic response to MPH could be predicted by individual level characteristics. METHODS: We investigated whether weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), age, and BMI could predict the ergogenic response to MPH...
January 25, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356950/the-reliability-of-methods-to-estimate-the-number-and-size-of-human-motor-units-and-their-use-with-large-limb-muscles
#14
M Piasecki, A Ireland, J Piasecki, D W Stashuk, J S McPhee, D A Jones
PURPOSE: Current methods for estimating muscle motor unit (MU) number provide values which are remarkably similar for muscles of widely differing size, probably because surface electrodes sample from similar and relatively small volumes in each muscle. We have evaluated an alternative means of estimating MU number that takes into account differences in muscle size. METHODS: Intramuscular motor unit potentials (MUPs) were recorded and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using MRI to provide a motor unit number estimate (iMUNE)...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356949/validity-of-the-polar-v800-monitor-for-measuring-heart-rate-variability-in-mountain-running-route-conditions
#15
Pere Caminal, Fuensanta Sola, Pedro Gomis, Eduard Guasch, Alexandre Perera, Núria Soriano, Lluis Mont
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to test, in mountain running route conditions, the accuracy of the Polar V800™ monitor as a suitable device for monitoring the heart rate variability (HRV) of runners. METHOD: Eighteen healthy subjects ran a route that included a range of running slopes such as those encountered in trail and ultra-trail races. The comparative study of a V800 and a Holter SEER 12 ECG Recorder™ included the analysis of RR time series and short-term HRV analysis...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353321/energy-expenditure-of-rugby-players-during-a-14-day-in-season-period-measured-using-doubly-labelled-water
#16
Deborah R Smith, R F G J King, L C Duckworth, L Sutton, T Preston, J P O'Hara, B Jones
Criterion data for total energy expenditure (TEE) in elite rugby are lacking, which prediction equations may not reflect accurately. This study quantified TEE of 27 elite male rugby league (RL) and rugby union (RU) players (U16, U20, U24 age groups) during a 14-day in-season period using doubly labelled water (DLW). Measured TEE was also compared to estimated, using prediction equations. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured using indirect calorimetry, and physical activity level (PAL) estimated (TEE:RMR)...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352330/relationship-between-power-duration-parameters-and-mechanical-and-anthropometric-properties-of-the-thigh-in-elite-cyclists
#17
Mehdi Kordi, Campbell Menzies, Len Parker Simpson
PURPOSE: The curvature constant (W') and asymptote (critical power; CP) of the power-duration relationship are important parameters for explaining cycling performance. Short-duration endurance cycling events rely more heavily on the W'; however, the full mechanistic underpinning of this parameter is yet to be determined. Evidence suggests both muscle volume and muscle strength may contribute to the magnitude of W'. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between power-duration parameters (CP and W') and (1) anthropometric and (2) mechanical properties of thigh muscles in a sample of elite cyclists...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350279/evaluation-of-the-convergent-validity-of-an-estimated-cardiorespiratory-fitness-algorithm
#18
Paul D Loprinzi, Meghan K Edwards, Ovuokerie Addoh, John P Bentley
PURPOSE: Examine the convergent validity of a cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) algorithm when compared to treadmill-assessed CRF. METHODS: Data from the 1999-2004 NHANES were used (N = 3259 adults 20-49 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated from an algorithm. Participants completed a submaximal treadmill-based protocol. We (1) evaluated the pairwise association (and ICC) between estimated and measured cardiorespiratory fitness, (2) employed a paired samples t test to examine potential mean differences between estimated and measured cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) constructed a Bland-Altman plot and 95% limits of agreement (LoA) to explore systematic differences and random error between estimated and measured cardiorespiratory fitness, and (4) examined the association (via linear regression) of estimated and measured cardiorespiratory fitness with chronic disease prevalence and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350278/lower-body-blood-flow-restriction-training-may-induce-remote-muscle-strength-adaptations-in-an-active-unrestricted-arm
#19
Anthony K May, Aaron P Russell, Stuart A Warmington
PURPOSE: We examined the concurrent characteristics of the remote development of strength and cross-sectional area (CSA) of upper body skeletal muscle in response to lower body resistance training performed with an applied blood flow restriction (BFR). METHODS: Males allocated to an experimental BFR group (EXP; n = 12) or a non-BFR control group (CON; n = 12) completed 7-weeks of resistance training comprising three sets of unilateral bicep curls [50% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM)], then four sets of bilateral knee extension and flexion exercises (30% 1-RM)...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344729/sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-improves-severe-intensity-intermittent-exercise-under-moderate-acute-hypoxic-conditions
#20
Sanjoy K Deb, Lewis A Gough, S Andy Sparks, Lars R McNaughton
Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H+) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO2% = 14...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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