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European Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536754/movement-amplitude-on-the-functional-re-adaptive-exercise-device-deep-spinal-muscle-activity-and-movement-control
#1
A Winnard, D Debuse, M Wilkinson, L Samson, T Weber, Nick Caplan
PURPOSE: Lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA) show altered motor control, and LM is atrophied, in people with low-back pain (LBP). The Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) involves cyclical lower-limb movement against minimal resistance in an upright posture. It has been shown to recruit LM and TrA automatically, and may have potential as an intervention for non-specific LBP. However, no studies have yet investigated the effects of changes in FRED movement amplitude on the activity of these muscles...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534200/atrophy-of-calf-muscles-by-unloading-results-in-an-increase-of-tissue-sodium-concentration-and-fat-fraction-decrease-a-23-na-mri-physiology-study
#2
D A Gerlach, K Schopen, P Linz, B Johannes, J Titze, J Zange, J Rittweger
PURPOSE: (23)Na MRI demonstrated increased tissue sodium concentrations in a number of pathologies. Acute atrophy results in muscle fibre volume shrinking that may result in a relative increase of extracellular volume and might affect sodium concentration. Thus, we hypothesized that local unloading of the calf muscles would lead to a decrease in muscle volume and an increase in muscle tissue sodium concentration. METHOD: One lower leg of 12 healthy male subjects was submitted to a 60 day long period of unloading using the Hephaistos orthosis, while the other leg served as control...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527013/central-activation-metabolites-and-calcium-handling-during-fatigue-with-repeated-maximal-isometric-contractions-in-human-muscle
#3
Simeon P Cairns, Luke A G Inman, Caroline P MacManus, Ingrid G L van de Port, Patricia A Ruell, Jeanette M Thom, Martin W Thompson
PURPOSE: To determine the roles of calcium (Ca(2+)) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and central activation impairment (i.e., central fatigue) during fatigue with repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) in human muscles. METHODS: Contractile performance was assessed during 3 min of repeated MVCs (7-s contraction, 3-s rest, n = 17). In ten participants, in vitro SR Ca(2+)-handling, metabolites, and fibre-type composition were quantified in biopsy samples from quadriceps muscle, along with plasma venous [K(+)]...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527012/effect-of-voluntary-hypocapnic-hyperventilation-or-moderate-hypoxia-on-metabolic-and-heart-rate-responses-during-high-intensity-intermittent-exercise
#4
Kohei Dobashi, Naoto Fujii, Kazuhito Watanabe, Bun Tsuji, Yosuke Sasaki, Tomomi Fujimoto, Satoru Tanigawa, Takeshi Nishiyasu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation or moderate hypoxia on metabolic and heart rate responses during high-intensity intermittent exercise. METHODS: Ten males performed three 30-s bouts of high-intensity cycling [Ex1 and Ex2: constant-workload at 80% of the power output in the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), Ex3: WAnT] interspaced with 4-min recovery periods under normoxic (Control), hypocapnic or hypoxic (2500 m) conditions...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516252/chronic-eccentric-arm-cycling-improves-maximum-upper-body-strength-and-power
#5
Steven J Elmer, Dakota J Anderson, Travis R Wakeham, Matthew A Kilgas, John J Durocher, Stan L Lindstedt, Paul C LaStayo
INTRODUCTION: Eccentric leg cycling (cycle ergometry adapted to impose muscle lengthening contractions) offers an effective exercise for restoring lower-body muscular function, maintaining health, and improving performance in clinical and athletic populations. PURPOSE: We extended this model to the upper body and evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-week eccentric arm cycling (ECCarm) intervention to improve upper-body muscular function. We also explored whether ECCarm would alter arterial function...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509954/evidence-in-the-human-of-a-hypotensive-and-a-bradycardic-effect-after-mouth-opening-maintained-for-10%C3%A2-min
#6
Cristina Del Seppia, Sergio Ghione, Paola Foresi, Dominga Lapi, Enza Fommei, Antonio Colantuoni, Rossana Scuri
PURPOSE: We have recently shown that in humans submaximal mouth opening associated with partial masticatory movements for 10 min is followed by a small but significant and prolonged reduction of blood pressure and heart rate. We here report the effects of a fixed mouth opener. METHODS: In 22 seated normotensive volunteers the effect on blood pressure and heart rate was studied in randomized order after fixed mandibular extension and after a control procedure consisting in keeping a stick between the incisor teeth (both for 10 min)...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508114/oral-l-menthol-reduces-thermal-sensation-increases-work-rate-and-extends-time-to-exhaustion-in-the-heat-at-a-fixed-rating-of-perceived-exertion
#7
T R Flood, M Waldron, O Jeffries
PURPOSE: The study investigated the effect of a non-thermal cooling agent, L-menthol, on exercise at a fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in a hot environment. METHOD: Eight male participants completed two trials at an exercise intensity between 'hard' and 'very hard', equating to 16 on the RPE scale at ~35 °C. Participants were instructed to continually adjust their power output to maintain an RPE of 16 throughout the exercise trial, stopping once power output had fallen by 30%...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508113/doubly-labelled-water-assessment-of-energy-expenditure-principle-practice-and-promise
#8
REVIEW
Klaas R Westerterp
The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen ((2)H) and heavy oxygen ((18)O), and then determining the difference in washout kinetics between both isotopes, being a function of carbon dioxide production. In practice, subjects get a measured amount of doubly labelled water ((2)H 2(18) O) to increase background enrichment of body water for (18)O of 2000 ppm with at least 180 ppm and background enrichment of body water for (2)H of 150 ppm with 120 ppm...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508112/response-to-comments-on-high-intensity-aerobic-interval-training-improves-aerobic-fitness-and-hba1c-among-persons-diagnosed-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
LETTER
Eva Maria Støa, Øyvind Støren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508111/effect-of-high-intensity-aerobic-exercise-on-aerobic-fitness-and-hba1c-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
LETTER
Tomoyuki Kawada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501908/a-tale-of-three-cuffs-the-hemodynamics-of-blood-flow-restriction
#11
J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Samuel L Buckner, Brittany R Counts, Jeremy P Loenneke
INTRODUCTION: The blood flow response to relative levels of blood flow restriction (BFR) across varying cuff widths is not well documented. With the variety of cuff widths and pressures reported in the literature, the effects of different cuffs and pressures on blood flow require investigation. PURPOSE: To measure blood pressure using three commonly used BFR cuffs, examine possible venous/arterial restriction pressures, and measure hemodynamic responses to relative levels of BFR using these same cuffs...
May 13, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500416/effects-of-breaking-up-prolonged-sitting-following-low-and-high-glycaemic-index-breakfast-consumption-on-glucose-and-insulin-concentrations
#12
Daniel P Bailey, Benjamin D Maylor, Charlie J Orton, Julia K Zakrzewski-Fruer
PURPOSE: Breaking up prolonged sitting can attenuate the postprandial rise in glucose and insulin. Whether such effects are dependent of the glycaemic index (GI) of the consumed carbohydrate is unknown. This study examined the acute effects of breaking up prolonged sitting following a low GI and a high GI breakfast on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. PROCEDURES: Fourteen adult males aged 22.1 ± 1.2 years completed four, 4 h experimental conditions: high GI breakfast followed by uninterrupted sitting (HGI-SIT), low GI breakfast followed by uninterrupted sitting (LGI-SIT), high GI breakfast followed by 2 min activity breaks every 20 min (HGI-ACT), and low GI breakfast followed by 2 min activity breaks every 20 min (LGI-ACT)...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500415/mind-muscle-connection-training-principle-influence-of-muscle-strength-and-training-experience-during-a-pushing-movement
#13
Joaquin Calatayud, Jonas Vinstrup, Markus D Jakobsen, Emil Sundstrup, Juan Carlos Colado, Lars L Andersen
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of different attentional focus conditions on muscle activity during the push-up exercise and to assess the possible influence of muscle strength and training experience. METHODS: Eighteen resistance-trained men performed 1RM bench press testing and were familiarized with the procedure during the first session. In the second session, three different conditions were randomly performed: regular push-up and push-up focusing on using the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles, respectively...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497386/oral-contraceptive-pill-use-and-the-susceptibility-to-markers-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#14
K M Hicks, G Onambélé-Pearson, K Winwood, C I Morse
PURPOSE: Firstly, to establish whether oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users are more susceptible to muscle damage compared to non-users, and secondly, to establish whether differences can be attributed to differences in patella tendon properties. METHODS: Nine female OCP users and 9 female non-users participated in the investigation. Combining dynamometry, electromyography and ultrasonography, patella tendon properties and vastus lateralis architectural properties were measured pre and during the first of 6 sets of 12 maximal voluntary eccentric knee extensions...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497385/associations-of-human-skeletal-muscle-fiber-type-and-insulin-sensitivity-blood-lipids-and-vascular-hemodynamics-in-a-cohort-of-premenopausal-women
#15
Gordon Fisher, Samuel T Windham, Perry Griffin, Jonathan L Warren, Barbara A Gower, Gary R Hunter
PURPOSE: Cardiometabolic disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed nations. Consequently, identifying and understanding factors associated with underlying pathophysiological processes leading to chronic cardio metabolic conditions is critical. Metabolic health, arterial elasticity, and insulin sensitivity (SI) may impact disease risk, and may be determined in part by myofiber type. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that type I myofiber composition would be associated with high SI, greater arterial elasticity, lower blood pressure, and blood lipids; whereas, type IIx myofibers would be associated with lower SI, lower arterial elasticity, higher blood pressure, blood lipids...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497384/physiological-responses-to-incremental-interval-and-continuous-counterweighted-single-leg-and-double-leg-cycling-at-the-same-relative-intensities
#16
Martin J MacInnis, Nathaniel Morris, Michael W Sonne, Amanda Farias Zuniga, Peter J Keir, Jim R Potvin, Martin J Gibala
PURPOSE: We compared physiological responses to incremental, interval, and continuous counterweighted single-leg and double-leg cycling at the same relative intensities. The primary hypothesis was that the counterweight method would elicit greater normalized power (i.e., power/active leg), greater electromyography (EMG) responses, and lower cardiorespiratory demand. METHODS: Graded-exercise tests performed by 12 men (age: 21 ± 2 years; BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m(2)) initially established that peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]; 76 ± 8...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493030/ambulatory-blood-pressure-response-to-a-bout-of-hiit-in-metabolic-syndrome-patients
#17
M Ramirez-Jimenez, F Morales-Palomo, J G Pallares, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez, J F Ortega
PURPOSE: The effectiveness of exercise to lower blood pressure may depend on the type and intensity of exercise. We study the short-term (i.e., 14-h) effects of a bout of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. METHODS: Nineteen MetS patients (55.2 ± 7.3 years, 6 women) entered the study. Eight of them were normotensive and eleven hypertensive according to MetS threshold (≥130 mmHg for SBP and/or ≥85 mmHg for DBP)...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493029/age-and-sex-differences-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fibrosis-markers-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling
#18
Lewan Parker, Marissa K Caldow, Rani Watts, Pazit Levinger, David Cameron-Smith, Itamar Levinger
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine whether higher fibrosis markers in skeletal muscle of older adults are accompanied by increased expression of components of the canonical TGF-β signal transduction pathway. METHODS: Fourteen healthy young (21-35 years; 9 males and 5 females) and seventeen older (55-75 years; 9 males and 8 females) participants underwent vastus lateralis biopsies to determine intramuscular mRNA and protein expression of fibrogenic markers and TGF-β signaling molecules related to TGF-β1 and myostatin...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488137/acute-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-sessions-on-cardiorespiratory-parameters-in-healthy-young-men
#19
Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Cristine Lima Alberton, Diego Oliveira Ribeiro, Stephanie Santana Pinto
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. METHODS: The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488136/bilateral-differences-in-muscle-fascicle-architecture-are-not-related-to-the-preferred-leg-in-jumping-athletes
#20
Jeroen Aeles, Sietske Lenchant, Liesbeth Vanlommel, Benedicte Vanwanseele
PURPOSE: In many sports, athletes have a preferred leg for sport-specific tasks, such as jumping, which leads to strength differences between both legs, yet the underlying changes in force-generating mechanical properties of the muscle remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the muscle architecture of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) is different between both legs in well-trained jumping athletes and untrained individuals. In addition, we investigated the effect of two ankle joint positions on ultrasound muscle architecture measurements...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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