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European Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213750/effect-of-an-acute-dose-of-omega-3-fish-oil-following-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#1
J R Jakeman, D M Lambrick, B Wooley, J A Babraj, J A Faulkner
PURPOSE: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine the effect of two fish oil supplements, one high in EPA (750 mg EPA, 50 mg DHA) and one low in EPA (150 mg EPA, 100 mg DHA), taken acutely as a recovery strategy following EIMD. METHODS: Twenty-seven physically active males (26 ± 4 year, 1.77 ± 0.07 m, 80 ± 10 kg) completed 100 plyometric drop jumps to induce muscle damage. Perceptual (perceived soreness) and functional (isokinetic muscle strength at 60° and 180° s(-1), squat jump performance and countermovement jump performance) indices of EIMD were recorded before, and 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96h after the damaging protocol...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210818/open-circuit-respirometry-a-brief-historical-review-of-the-use-of-douglas-bags-and-chemical-analyzers
#2
REVIEW
Roy J Shephard
The Douglas bag technique is reviewed as one in a series of articles looking at historical insights into measurement of whole body metabolic rate. Consideration of all articles looking at Douglas bag technique and chemical gas analysis has here focused on the growing appreciation of errors in measuring expired volumes and gas composition, and subjective reactions to airflow resistance and dead space. Multiple small sources of error have been identified and appropriate remedies proposed over a century of use of the methodology...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204901/the-effect-of-hydration-status-on-the-measurement-of-lean-tissue-mass-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#3
Clodagh M Toomey, William G McCormack, Phil Jakeman
PURPOSE: Athletes cycle between exercise and recovery. Exercise invokes changes in total body water from thermal sweating, muscle and hepatic glycogen depletion and metabolic water loss. Recovery from exercise results in rehydration, substrate repletion, and possible glycogen supercompensation. Such changes may corrupt the measurement of hydrated tissues, such as lean tissue mass (LTM), by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exercise and thermal dehydration and subsequent glycogen supercompensation on DXA-based measurement of body composition...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194519/electromechanical-delays-during-a-fatiguing-exercise-and-recovery-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#4
Fabio Esposito, Emiliano Cè, Susanna Rampichini, Elena Monti, Eloisa Limonta, Barbara Fossati, Giovanni Meola
PURPOSE: The partitioning of the electromechanical delay by an electromyographic (EMG), mechanomyographic (MMG) and force combined approach can provide further insight into the electrochemical and mechanical processes involved with skeletal muscle contraction and relaxation. The aim of the study was to monitor by this combined approach the changes in delays' electrochemical and mechanical components throughout a fatiguing task and during recovery in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), who present at the skeletal muscle level fibres rearrangement, muscle weakness and myotonia, especially in the distal muscles...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188371/the-effect-of-functional-overreaching-on-parameters-of-autonomic-heart-rate-regulation
#5
Clint R Bellenger, Rebecca L Thomson, Eileen Y Robertson, Kade Davison, Maximillian J Nelson, Laura Karavirta, Jonathan D Buckley
PURPOSE: Correlations between fatigue-induced changes in performance and maximal rate of HR increase (rHRI) may be affected by differing assessment workloads. This study evaluated the effect of assessing rHRI at different workloads on performance tracking, and compared this with HR variability (HRV) and HR recovery (HRR). METHODS: Performance [5-min cycling time trial (5TT)], rHRI (at multiple workloads), HRV and HRR were assessed in 12 male cyclists following 1 week of light training (LT), 2 weeks of heavy training (HT) and a 10-day taper (T)...
February 11, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188370/the-knee-extensor-moment-arm-is-associated-with-performance-in-male-sprinters
#6
Yuto Miyake, Tadashi Suga, Mitsuo Otsuka, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Shoma Kudo, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
PURPOSE: Although large knee extensor torque contributes to superior sprint performance, previous findings have indicated that the quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA), a pivotal morphological regulator of knee extensor torque, is not correlated with performance in sprinters. We hypothesized that the knee extensor moment arm (MA), another main morphological regulator of knee extensor torque, may affect sprint performance. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between knee extensor MA and sprint performance...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185008/physical-activity-initiated-by-employer-induces-improvements-in-a-novel-set-of-biomarkers-of-inflammation-an-8-week-follow-up-study
#7
Lars-Kristian Lunde, Øivind Skare, Hans C D Aass, Asgeir Mamen, Elín Einarsdóttir, Bente Ulvestad, Marit Skogstad
PURPOSE: We investigated the level of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers before and after 8 weeks of unsupervised physical activity (PA) initiated by employer. METHODS: During autumn 2014, background data, blood samples and self-reported exercise level were collected from 76 men and 41 women in a Norwegian road maintenance company. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, adiponectin, p-selectin and CD40 ligand (CD40L) were analyzed...
February 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168555/effects-of-resistance-training-at-different-loads-on-inflammatory-markers-in-young-adults
#8
Louis Nuvagah Forti, Evelien Van Roie, Rose Njemini, Walter Coudyzer, Ingo Beyer, Christophe Delecluse, Ivan Bautmans
PURPOSE: Suppressing inflammaging at an early stage in life via exercise might prevent chronic diseases later in life. The aim was to investigate the influence of resistance training at different external loads on inflammatory markers in healthy young adults. METHODS: Serum was collected for basal levels of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, sTNFR1, IL-1RA, IL-10 and GM-CSF) before and after 9 weeks exercise from 36 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy subjects who were randomized to three times weekly supervised resistance training at either HImax (n = 12, 1 × 10-12 repetitions at 80% 1RM), LO (n = 12, 1 × 10-12 repetitions at 40% 1RM), or LOmax (n = 12, 1 × 10-12 repetitions at 40% 1RM preceded by 60 repetitions at 20-25% 1RM) respectively...
February 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168554/effectiveness-of-using-wearable-vibration-therapy-to-alleviate-muscle-soreness
#9
Darryl J Cochrane
PURPOSE: To examine the acute and short-term effect of a wearable vibration device following strenuous eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. METHODS: Physically active males (n = 13) performed vibration therapy (VT) and control following eccentric exercise. The arms were randomised and counterbalanced, separated by 14 days. 15 min of VT (120 Hz) was applied immediately and 24, 48, and 72 h after eccentric exercise while the contralateral arm performed no VT (control)...
February 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161870/acute-effect-of-static-stretching-on-passive-stiffness-of-the-human-gastrocnemius-fascicle-measured-by-ultrasound-shear-wave-elastography
#10
Kosuke Hirata, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Naokazu Miyamoto
PURPOSE: Passive muscle stiffness and muscle architecture at a given joint angle, as well as slack angle of the muscle have been shown to change after an acute bout of stretching. However, it remains unclear whether passive muscle stiffness at a given fascicle length is reduced after stretching. We aimed to elucidate the acute effect of static stretching on the passive fascicle stiffness using ultrasound shear wave elastography. METHODS: Shear modulus, fascicle length, and slack angle of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) as well as passive plantar flexion torque during passive dorsiflexion were measured before and after a 5-min static stretching in 14 healthy males...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160085/transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-reduces-exercise-induced-perceived-pain-and-improves-endurance-exercise-performance
#11
Ali H Y Astokorki, Alexis R Mauger
PURPOSE: Muscle pain is a natural consequence of intense and prolonged exercise and has been suggested to be a limiter of performance. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential current (IFC) have been shown to reduce both chronic and acute pain in a variety of conditions. This study sought to ascertain whether TENS and IFC could reduce exercise-induced pain (EIP) and whether this would affect exercise performance. It was hypothesised that TENS and IFC would reduce EIP and result in an improved exercise performance...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160084/neuromuscular-adaptations-to-sprint-interval-training-and-the-effect-of-mammalian-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation
#12
Evan J H Lewis, Frédéric Stucky, Peter W Radonic, Adam H Metherel, Thomas M S Wolever, Greg D Wells
PURPOSE: Sprint interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid metabolic adaptations within skeletal muscle but the nature of neuromuscular adaptions is unknown. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFA) are suggested to enhance neuromuscular adaptations to exercise. METHODS: We measured the neuromuscular adaptations to SIT (Study-1) and conducted a placebo-controlled randomized double blinded study to determine the effect of N-3 PUFA supplementation on neuromuscular adaptations to SIT (Study-2)...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160083/high-intensity-aerobic-interval-training-improves-aerobic-fitness-and-hba1c-among-persons-diagnosed-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Eva Maria Støa, Sondre Meling, Lill-Katrin Nyhus, Glenn Strømstad, Karl Magnus Mangerud, Jan Helgerud, Solfrid Bratland-Sanda, Øyvind Støren
PURPOSE: It remains to be established how high-intensity aerobic interval training (HAIT) affects risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes (TD2). This study investigated effects of HAIT on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), glycated Hemoglobin type A1C (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR), fat oxidation (FatOx), body weight (BW), percent body fat (%BF), lactate threshold (LT), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid profile (BLP) among persons with T2D. Results were compared to the effects after a moderate-intensity training (MIT) program...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160082/periodization-effects-during-short-term-resistance-training-with-equated-exercise-variables-in-females
#14
Thiemo Pelzer, Boris Ullrich, Mark Pfeiffer
PURPOSE: During resistance training, volume and load can be altered either gradually (traditional periodization: TP) or with frequent changes between subsequent sessions (daily undulating periodization: DUP). We hypothesized that the periodization model employed would not impact upon training-induced adaptations when exercise variables are equated. METHODS: Nineteen females (22.0 years, moderate resistance training experience of 27.9 months) performed 6 weeks of knee extensor training with 3 weekly sessions exercising one leg using TP and the contralateral leg using DUP...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154977/sex-differences-in-the-response-of-total-pyy-and-glp-1-to-moderate-intensity-continuous-and-sprint-interval-cycling-exercise
#15
Tom J Hazell, Logan K Townsend, Jillian R Hallworth, Jon Doan, Jennifer L Copeland
BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often less effective at improving body composition for females than males, potentially due to post-exercise hormonal responses that increase energy intake in females. Recently, sprint interval training was shown to effectively reduce body fat in females despite being relatively low during exercise energy expenditure. PURPOSE: To determine whether any sex difference in total PYY, GLP-1 or perceived hunger exists following moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICT) and sprint interval exercise (SIT) METHODS: Twenty-one active participants (11 females) participated in three sessions in a randomized crossover design: (1) MICT, 30-min cycling at 65% VO2max; (2) SIT, 6 × 30 s "all-out" sprints with 4-min recovery periods; (3) control (CTRL; no exercise)...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154976/the-effect-of-temperature-gradient-and-load-carriage-on-oxygen-consumption-posture-and-gait-characteristics
#16
Katrina Hinde, Ray Lloyd, Chris Low, Carlton Cooke
PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of load carriage in a range of temperatures to establish the interaction between cold exposure, the magnitude of change from unloaded to loaded walking and gradient. METHODS: Eleven participants (19-27 years) provided written informed consent before performing six randomly ordered walking trials in six temperatures (20, 10, 5, 0, -5, and -10 °C). Trials involved two unloaded walking bouts before and after loaded walking (18...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154975/actn3-genotype-influences-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-during-a-marathon-competition
#17
Juan Del Coso, Marjorie Valero, Juan José Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Germán Díaz, César Gallo-Salazar, Diana Ruiz-Vicente, Francisco Areces, Carlos Puente, Juan Carlos Carril, Ramón Cacabelos
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced muscle damage has been identified as one of the main causes of the progressive decrease in running and muscular performance in marathoners. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of the ACTN3 genotype on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. METHODS: Seventy-one experienced runners competed in a marathon race. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained and maximal voluntary leg muscle power was measured during a countermovement jump...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154974/effects-of-aging-and-exercise-training-on-the-dynamics-of-vasoconstriction-in-skeletal-muscle-resistance-vessels
#18
Elizabeth M Gittemeier, Tyler Ericson, Payal Ghosh, Steven W Copp, Alexander B Opoku-Acheampong, Bradley J Behnke
: It is unknown whether aging or exercise training affect the dynamics of arteriolar vasoconstriction. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that old age will slow, and exercise training will speed, the dynamics of skeletal muscle arteriolar vasoconstriction in resistance vessels of aged rats. METHOD: Young (6 month old) and aged (24 month old) male Fischer-344 rats were assigned to sedentary (Sed: n = 6/age group) or exercise-trained (ET: n = 5 aged and 6 young; via treadmill running for 10-12 weeks) groups...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150069/influence-of-gender-on-right-ventricle-adaptation-to-endurance-exercise-an-ultrasound-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-stress-study
#19
Maria Sanz-de la Garza, Geneviève Giraldeau, Josefa Marin, Gonzalo Grazioli, Montserrat Esteve, Luigi Gabrielli, Carlos Brambila, Laura Sanchis, Bart Bijnens, Marta Sitges
BACKGROUND: Characteristic right ventricle (RV) remodelling is related to endurance exercise in male athletes (MAs), but data in female athletes (FAs) are scarce. Our aim was to evaluate sex-related influence on exercise-induced RV remodelling and on RV performance during exercise. METHODS: Forty endurance athletes (>10 training hours/week, 50% female) and 40 age-matched controls (<3 h moderate exercise/week, 50% female) were included. Echocardiography was performed at rest and at maximum cycle-ergometer effort...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130628/body-surface-assessment-with-3d-laser-based-anthropometry-reliability-validation-and-improvement-of-empirical-surface-formulae
#20
Andreas Kuehnapfel, Peter Ahnert, Markus Loeffler, Markus Scholz
PURPOSE: Body surface area is a physiological quantity relevant for many medical applications. In clinical practice, it is determined by empirical formulae. 3D laser-based anthropometry provides an easy and effective way to measure body surface area but is not ubiquitously available. We used data from laser-based anthropometry from a population-based study to assess validity of published and commonly used empirical formulae. METHODS: We performed a large population-based study on adults collecting classical anthropometric measurements and 3D body surface assessments (N = 1435)...
January 27, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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