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European Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052033/a-random-perturbation-therapy-in-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Adamantios Arampatzis, Arno Schroll, Maria Moreno Catalá, Gunnar Laube, Sabine Schüler, Karsten Dreinhofer
The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific rehabilitation therapy for chronic non-specific low-back pain patients, based on a random/irregular functional perturbation training induced by force disturbances to the spine. Forty patients (20 controls and 20 in the perturbation-based group) finished the whole experimental design. A random-perturbation exercise, which included variable and unpredictable disturbances, was implemented in the therapy of the perturbation-based group (13 weeks, two times per week and 1...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043500/optimal-pacing-and-carbohydrate-intake-strategies-for-ultramarathons
#2
Kristopher A Pruitt, Justin M Hill
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to determine the pacing and nutrition strategies which minimize completion time and carbohydrate intake for athletes competing in ultramarathon races. METHODS: We present the formulation of a two-phase optimization model. The first-phase mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) determines the minimum completion time subject to the altitude, terrain, and distance of the race, as well as the mass and cardiovascular fitness of the athlete...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043499/open-circuit-respirometry-a-historical-review-of-portable-gas-analysis-systems
#3
REVIEW
Duncan J Macfarlane
Scientists such as physiologists, engineers, and nutritionists have often sought to estimate human metabolic strain during daily activities and physical pursuits. The measurement of human metabolism can involve direct calorimetry as well as indirect calorimetry using both closed-circuit respirometry and open-circuit methods that can include diluted flow chambers and laboratory-based gas analysis systems. For field studies, methods involving questionnaires, pedometry, accelerometery, heart rate telemetry, and doubly labelled water exist, yet portable metabolic gas analysis remains the gold standard for most field studies on energy expenditure...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032393/acute-effects-of-repeated-cycling-sprints-in-hypoxia-induced-by-voluntary-hypoventilation
#4
Xavier Woorons, Patrick Mucci, Julien Aucouturier, Agathe Anthierens, Grégoire P Millet
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the acute responses to repeated-sprint exercise (RSE) in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (VHL). METHODS: Nine well-trained subjects performed two sets of eight 6-s sprints on a cycle ergometer followed by 24 s of inactive recovery. RSE was randomly carried out either with normal breathing (RSN) or with VHL (RSH-VHL). Peak (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) of each sprint were measured. Arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR), gas exchange and muscle concentrations of oxy-([O2Hb]) and deoxyhaemoglobin/myoglobin ([HHb]) were continuously recorded throughout exercise...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032392/exercise-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-running-induced-changes-in-intestinal-permeability-and-markers-of-gastrointestinal-function-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-runners
#5
Elisa Karhu, Richard A Forsgård, Lauri Alanko, Henrik Alfthan, Pirkko Pussinen, Esa Hämäläinen, Riitta Korpela
PURPOSE: Athletes frequently experience gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during training and competition. Although the prevalence of exercise-induced GI symptoms is high, the mechanisms leading to GI distress during exercise are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify running-induced changes in intestinal permeability and markers of GI function and investigate their association with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: We recruited 17 active runners who we allocated as either asymptomatic or symptomatic based on their history of experiencing GI symptoms during running...
October 14, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027033/auditory-stimulus-has-a-larger-effect-on-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-in-older-than-young-adults-during-choice-step-reaction
#6
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Ippei Nojima
PURPOSE: The study aim was to compare the influence of an auditory stimulus (AS) on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) between young and older adults during a choice step reaction. METHODS: Sixteen young and 19 older adults stepped forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus of an arrow. We used a choice reaction time (CRT) task and a Simon task which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. The direction of the presented arrow and its spatial location matched in the congruent condition while they did not in the incongruent condition...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018989/effects-of-prior-aerobic-exercise-on-sitting-induced-vascular-dysfunction-in-healthy-men
#7
Kevin D Ballard, Robert M Duguid, Craig W Berry, Priyankar Dey, Richard S Bruno, Rose Marie Ward, Kyle L Timmerman
INTRODUCTION: Acute aerobic exercise prevents sitting-induced impairment of flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Further, evidence suggests that sitting-induced impairment of FMD occurs via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism that disrupts endothelial function. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that acute aerobic exercise would prevent impairment of femoral artery FMD by limiting oxidative stress responses that increase endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and disrupt nitric oxide (NO) status...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018954/the-importance-of-cutaneous-feedback-on-neural-activation-during-maximal-voluntary-contraction
#8
Carlos Cruz-Montecinos, Huub Maas, Carla Pellegrin-Friedmann, Claudio Tapia
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of cutaneous feedback on neural activation during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the ankle plantar flexors. METHODS: The effects of cutaneous plantar anaesthesia were assessed in 15 subjects and compared to 15 controls, using a one-day pre/post-repeated measures design. Cutaneous plantar anaesthesia was induced by lidocaine injection at the centre of forefoot, lateral midfoot, and heel...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018949/the-corticospinal-responses-of-metronome-paced-but-not-self-paced-strength-training-are-similar-to-motor-skill-training
#9
Michael Leung, Timo Rantalainen, Wei-Peng Teo, Dawson Kidgell
PURPOSE: The corticospinal responses to skill training may be different to strength training, depending on how the strength training is performed. It was hypothesised that the corticospinal responses would not be different following skill training and metronome-paced strength training (MPST), but would differ when compared with self-paced strength training (SPST). METHODS: Corticospinal excitability, short-interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI) and strength and tracking error were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993881/maximal-rate-of-heart-rate-increase-correlates-with-fatigue-recovery-status-in-female-cyclists
#10
Maximillian J Nelson, Clint R Bellenger, Rebecca L Thomson, Eileen Y Robertson, Kade Davison, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Jonathan D Buckley
PURPOSE: Being able to identify how an athlete is responding to training would be useful to optimise adaptation and performance. The maximal rate of heart rate increase (rHRI), a marker of heart rate acceleration has been shown to correlate with performance changes in response to changes in training load in male athletes; however, it has not been established if it also correlates with performance changes in female athletes. METHODS: rHRI and cycling performance were assessed in six female cyclists following 7 days of light training (LT), 14 days of heavy training (HT) and a 10 day taper period...
October 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988307/effects-of-normoxic-and-hypoxic-exercise-regimens-on-lymphocyte-apoptosis-induced-by-oxidative-stress-in-sedentary-males
#11
Jong-Shyan Wang, Yi-Ching Chen, Wan-Ling Chen, Chin-Pu Lin
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress-induced lymphocyte apoptosis is linked to hypoxemic individuals suffering from cardiopulmonary disorders or exposed to hypoxic environments. What kind of the exercise strategy under hypoxic condition improves exercise performance and simultaneously minimizes lymphocyte dysfunction caused by oxidative stress has not yet been established. This study elucidates how various exercises regimens with/without hypoxia affect lymphocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986697/targeting-mitochondrial-function-and-proteostasis-to-mitigate-dynapenia
#12
REVIEW
Robert V Musci, Karyn L Hamilton, Benjamin F Miller
Traditionally, interventions to treat skeletal muscle aging have largely targeted sarcopenia-the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. Dynapenia refers to the age-related loss in skeletal muscle function due to factors outside of muscle mass, which helps to inform treatment strategies for aging skeletal muscle. There is evidence that mechanisms to maintain protein homeostasis and proteostasis, deteriorate with age. One key mechanism to maintain proteostasis is protein turnover, which is an energetically costly process...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986690/the-role-of-shear-stress-on-cutaneous-microvascular-endothelial-function-in-humans
#13
Gary J Hodges, Desmond G Stewart, Paul J Davison, Stephen S Cheung
PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that exercise and heat stress improve cutaneous endothelial function, caused by increases in shear stress. However, as vasodilatation in the skin is primarily a thermogenic phenomenon, we investigated if shear stress alone without increases in skin temperature that occur with exercise and heat stress increases endothelial function. We examined the hypothesis that repeated bouts of brief occlusion would improve cutaneous endothelial function via shear stress-dependent mechanisms...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965198/time-course-of-recovery-following-resistance-training-leading-or-not-to-failure
#14
Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Carlos E Pérez, Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez, Ernesto de la Cruz-Sánchez, Juan José González-Badillo, Luis Sánchez-Medina, Jesús G Pallarés
PURPOSE: To describe the acute and delayed time course of recovery following resistance training (RT) protocols differing in the number of repetitions (R) performed in each set (S) out of the maximum possible number (P). METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men undertook three RT protocols [S × R(P)]: (1) 3 × 5(10), (2) 6 × 5(10), and (3) 3 × 10(10) in the bench press (BP) and full squat (SQ) exercises. Selected mechanical and biochemical variables were assessed at seven time points (from - 12 h to + 72 h post-exercise)...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956166/acute-and-chronic-changes-in-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-hypobaric-vs-normobaric-hypoxia
#15
Nicolas Bourdillon, Jonas Saugy, Laurent Schmitt, Thomas Rupp, Sasan Yazdani, Jean-Marc Vesin, Grégoire P Millet
Normobaric hypoxia (NH) is used as a surrogate for hypobaric hypoxia (HH). Recent studies reported physiological differences between NH and HH. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreases at altitude or following intense training. However, until now no study compared the acute and chronic changes of BRS in NH vs. HH. First, BRS was assessed in 13 healthy male subjects prior and after 20 h of exposure at 3450 m (study 1), and second in 15 well-trained athletes prior and after 18 days of "live-high train-low" (LHTL) at 2250 m (study 2) in NH vs...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879391/response-to-comments-on-effect-of-high-intensity-aerobic-exercise-on-aerobic-fitness-and-hba1c-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
LETTER
Eva Maria Støa, Øyvind Støren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849258/effect-of-prolonged-vibration-to-synergistic-and-antagonistic-muscles-on-the-rectus-femoris-activation-during-multi-joint-exercises
#17
Ryoichi Ema, Hirokazu Takayama, Naokazu Miyamoto, Ryota Akagi
PURPOSE: Unique neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps femoris is observed during multi-joint leg extensions: lower activation of the biarticular rectus femoris (RF) than monoarticular vasti muscles. As one of the potential mechanisms for the lower RF activation, Ia afferent-mediated inhibitory connections between synergistic muscles and/or between agonist and antagonist muscles have been proposed. If this is the major factor, it is hypothesized that RF activation during multi-joint leg extensions increases after prolonged vibration to synergistic and/or antagonist muscles...
August 28, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823081/neck-inspiratory-muscle-activation-patterns-during-well-controlled-inspiration
#18
Sohei Washino, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuhide Yoshitake
PURPOSE: Surprisingly, the activation characteristics of the neck inspiratory muscles as a function of key inspiratory mechanical parameters have yet to be demonstrated experimentally under well-controlled conditions. This study aimed to elucidate the muscle activation patterns of the neck inspiratory muscles by strictly controlling flow rate and lung volume. METHODS: Thirteen healthy subjects matched their inspiratory flow rate at approximately 20-100% of peak flow rate (PFR) as steady as possible during inspiration...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821900/erratum-to-sitting-position-affects-performance-in-cross-country-sit-skiing
#19
M Lund Ohlsson, M S Laaksonen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821962/influence-of-aerobic-fitness-on-vasoreactivity-in-young-men
#20
Preston L Bell, Edward T Kelley, Stephanie M McCoy, Daniel P Credeur
Previous work has demonstrated a direct relationship between aerobic fitness and vasodilatory function (i.e., flow-mediated dilation; FMD); however, the relation between aerobic fitness and vasoconstrictor responsiveness (i.e., low flow-mediated constriction; L-FMC), and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) is unclear. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that L-FMC and the overall vasoactive range (FMD + L-FMC) will be related to aerobic fitness in young, healthy men. METHODS: Twenty men (age: 23 ± 5 years) were recruited, and divided evenly into a higher (HF) vs...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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