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European Journal of Applied Physiology

U Drescher, J Koschate, L Thieschäfer, S Schneider, U Hoffmann
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to test whether or not the arteriovenous oxygen concentration difference (avDO2 ) kinetics at the pulmonary (avDO2 pulm) and muscle (avDO2 musc) levels is significantly different during dynamic exercise. METHODS: A re-analysis involving six publications dealing with kinetic analysis was utilized with an overall sample size of 69 participants. All studies comprised an identical pseudorandom binary sequence work rate (WR) protocol-WR changes between 30 and 80 W-to analyze the kinetic responses of pulmonary ([Formula: see text]) and muscle ([Formula: see text]) oxygen uptake kinetics as well as those of avDO2 pulm and avDO2 musc...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ethan C Hill, Terry J Housh, Joshua L Keller, Cory M Smith, Richard J Schmidt, Glen O Johnson
PURPOSE: Low-intensity venous blood flow restriction (vBFR) resistance training has been shown to promote increases in muscle strength and size. Eccentric-only muscle actions are typically a more potent stimulus to increase muscle strength and size than concentric-only muscle actions performed at the same relative intensities. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the time-course of changes in muscle strength, hypertrophy, and neuromuscular adaptations following 4 weeks of unilateral forearm flexion low-intensity eccentric vBFR (Ecc-vBFR) vs...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Akihiro Sakamoto, Akihiro Kuroda, Peter James Sinclair, Hisashi Naito, Kazuhiko Sakuma
PURPOSE: Maximum force exertion against various resistance levels (heavy-light) is commonly implemented to improve both strength- and speed-oriented components of power. Medium-light resistances allow rapid accelerations, yet incur significant decelerations in the later concentric phase to bring the bar to a halt, which may limit the concentric effort and, therefore, the effectiveness of training. Accordingly, ballistic actions have been recommended. This study evaluated the effectiveness of power bench press training, with the bar thrown on a Smith machine (BPthrow ) or without throwing (BPnon-throw ), for developing strength and shot put distance...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Todd A Astorino, Jamie deRevere, Theodore Anderson, Erin Kellogg, Patrick Holstrom, Sebastian Ring, Nicholas Ghaseb
Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) leads to significant increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ) and oxidative capacity. However, individual responses to HIIT have been identified as approximately 20-40% of individuals show no change in VO2max , which may be due to the relatively homogeneous approach to implementing HIIT. PURPOSE: This study tested the effects of HIIT prescribed using ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in VO2max and cycling performance. METHODS: Fourteen active men and women (age and VO2max  = 27 ± 8 year and 38 ± 4 mL/kg/min) underwent nine sessions of HIIT, and 14 additional men and women (age and VO2max  = 22 ± 3 year and 40 ± 5 mL/kg/min) served as controls...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Suzanne Broadbent, Sonja Coetzee, Rosalind Beavers
PURPOSE: This pilot pre-and post-intervention study investigated the effects of a short-term aquatic exercise programme on physiological outcomes, symptoms and exercise capacity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). METHODS: Eleven women (54.8 ± 12.4 year) volunteered for the 5-week program; an initial 20-min aquatic exercise session then two self-paced 20-min sessions per week for 4 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention outcomes were physiological measures, 6 min Walk Test (6MWT), perceived exertion (RPE), hand grip strength, Sit-to-Stand, Sit-Reach test, Apley's shoulder test, FACIT questionnaire, and 24-h post-test tiredness and pain scores (0-10 visual analogue scale)...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Terumasa Takahara, Hidetaka Yamaguchi, Kazutoshi Seki, Megumi Murata, Sho Onodera
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect one-sided skeletal muscle contraction has on the circulatory system, spinal α-motoneuron excitability, and somatosensory-system-evoked potential. METHOD: Nine healthy males maintained tension at 10, 20, and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction in static gripping in right hand. Heart rate, ln high frequency (HF), blood pressure (BP), F-wave, and somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) were recorded during gripping task...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Rachel N Lord, Victor Utomi, David L Oxborough, Bryony A Curry, Megan Brown, Keith P George
BACKGROUND: The cardiac consequences of undertaking endurance exercise are the topic of recent debate. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on a growing body of literature, focusing on left ventricular (LV) function following prolonged endurance exercise over 2 h in duration which have employed novel techniques, including myocardial speckle tracking, to provide a more comprehensive global and regional assessment of LV mechanics. METHODS: Prospective studies were filtered independently following a pre-set criteria, resulting in the inclusion of 27 studies in the analyses...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Conall F Murtagh, Michael Stubbs, Jos Vanrenterghem, Andrew O'Boyle, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust, Robert M Erskine
PURPOSE: To investigate potential differences in patellar tendon properties between elite and non-elite soccer players, and to establish whether tendon properties were related to power assessed during unilateral jumps performed in different directions. METHODS: Elite (n = 16; age 18.1 ± 1.0 years) and non-elite (n = 13; age 22.3 ± 2.7 years) soccer players performed vertical, horizontal-forward and medial unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs) on a force plate...
June 2, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jeam Marcel Geremia, Bruno Manfredini Baroni, Maarten Frank Bobbert, Rodrigo Rico Bini, Fabio Juner Lanferdini, Marco Aurélio Vaz
PURPOSE: To document the magnitude and time course of human Achilles tendon adaptations (i.e. changes in tendon morphological and mechanical properties) during a 12-week high-load plantar flexion training program. METHODS: Ultrasound was used to determine Achilles tendon cross-sectional area (CSA), length and elongation as a function of plantar flexion torque during voluntary plantar flexion. Tendon force-elongation and stress-strain relationships were determined before the start of training (pre-training) and after 4 (post-4), 8 (post-8) and 12 (post-12) training weeks...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Matthew A Tucker, Aaron R Caldwell, Cory L Butts, Forrest B Robinson, Stavros A Kavouras, Brendon P McDermott, Tyrone A Washington, Ronna C Turner, Matthew S Ganio
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and hypohydration independently affect postsynaptic endothelial function, but it is unknown if hypohydration affects lean and obese individuals differently. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of hypohydration on postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in men with high and low adiposity (HI- and LO-BF, respectively). METHODS: Ten males with LO-BF and ten with HI-BF were instrumented for forearm microdialysis when euhydrated and hypohydrated...
May 31, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alessandra Ferri, Alice Panariti, Giuseppe Miserocchi, Marcella Rocchetti, Gaia Buoli Comani, Ilaria Rivolta, David J Bishop
PURPOSE: Exposure to hypoxia has been suggested to activate multiple adaptive pathways so that muscles are better able to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. However, there is limited research regarding the tissue specificity of this response. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tissue specificity on mitochondrial adaptations of rat skeletal and heart muscles after 4 weeks of normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 : 0.10). METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either normobaric hypoxia or normoxia...
May 31, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Luke J Heales, Rohitha Badya, Brandon Ziegenfuss, François Hug, Jeff S Coombes, Wolbert van den Hoorn, Kylie Tucker, Brooke K Coombes
PURPOSE: To determine whether stiffness of the patellar tendon and quadriceps muscles is altered immediately after and 48 h after a single bout of maximal eccentric exercise of the knee extensor muscles. METHODS: Thirteen healthy individuals [group mean (SD) age 22.4 (3.5) years; 7 female] performed a single bout of maximal eccentric exercise of the non-dominant knee extensors, using an isokinetic dynamometer. Shear-wave velocity (an index of tissue stiffness) was recorded from the patellar tendon, vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL), before, following (post0 ), and 48 h after (post48 ) exercise...
May 31, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ryota Asahara, Kana Endo, Nan Liang, Kanji Matsukawa
PURPOSE: We have reported using near-infrared spectroscopy that an increase in prefrontal oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) at the start of cycling exercise has relation to central command, defined as a feedforward signal descending from higher brain centers. The final output of central command evokes the exercise effort-dependent cardiovascular responses. If the prefrontal cortex may output the final signal of central command toward the autonomic nervous system, the prefrontal oxygenation should increase depending on exercise effort...
May 31, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Maria Perissiou, Tom G Bailey, Mark Windsor, Michael Chi Yuan Nam, Kim Greaves, Anthony S Leicht, Jonathan Golledge, Christopher D Askew
PURPOSE: Increased arterial stiffness is observed with ageing and in individuals with low cardiorespiratory fitness ([Formula: see text]O2peak ), and associated with cardiovascular risk. Following an exercise bout, transient arterial stiffness reductions offer short-term benefit, but may depend on exercise intensity. This study assessed the effects of exercise intensity on post-exercise arterial stiffness in older adults with varying fitness levels. METHODS: Fifty-one older adults (72 ± 5 years) were stratified into fitness tertiles ([Formula: see text]O2peak : low-, 22...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Leena P Bharath, William W Choi, Jae-Min Cho, Alexus A Skobodzinski, Alexei Wong, Ty E Sweeney, Song-Young Park
INTRODUCTION: Exercise training is recommended for improving health and protecting against the development of metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies. Combined resistance and aerobic exercise training (CRAE) has been shown to provide unique benefits in older adults with cardiovascular diseases. PURPOSE: We sought to determine the beneficial effects of CRAE in adolescent girls who are obese and hyperinsulinemic. METHODS: Forty adolescent girls who are obese (age 14...
May 30, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Z J Zhang, W C Lee, G Y F Ng, S N Fu
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the isometric strength of hip abductors and external rotators in male athletes with and without patellar tendinopathy (PT), and to examine the correlation between hip strength, pain, and functional scores. METHODS: Sixty male athletes (30 with PT and 30 controls) were recruited from local volleyball and basketball teams. The isometric strength of the hip abductors and external rotators was quantified using a belt-stabilized handheld dynamometer...
May 26, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jurij Gorjanc, Shawnda A Morrison, Adam C McDonnell, Igor B Mekjavic
PURPOSE: Cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) is a peripheral blood flow response, observed in both the hands and feet. Exercise has been shown to enhance the response, specifically by increasing mean skin temperatures (Tsk ), in part due to the increased number of CIVD waves. In contrast, hypobaric hypoxia has been suggested to impair digit skin temperature responses, particularly during subsequent hand rewarming following the cold stimulus. This study examined the combined effect of exercise and hypobaric hypoxia on the CIVD response...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
D Peres, L Mourot, A Ménétrier, M Bouhaddi, B Degano, J Regnard, N Tordi
PURPOSE: Both constant and intermittent acute aerobic exercises have been found to decrease arterial stiffness. However, direct comparisons of these two types of exercise are sparse. It is not known which type of exercise has the greatest effect. METHODS: We evaluated the haemodynamic responses in 15 males (age 48.5 ± 1.3 years; BMI 27.5 ± 0.8 kg m-2 ) following acute constant (CE) and intermittent cycling exercise (IE). Duration and heart rate were matched during both exercises (131...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Tjerk Zult, Alli Gokeler, Jos J A M van Raay, Reinoud W Brouwer, Inge Zijdewind, Jonathan P Farthing, Tibor Hortobágyi
PURPOSE: Cross-education reduces quadriceps weakness 8 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery, but the long-term effects are unknown. We investigated whether cross-education, as an adjuvant to the standard rehabilitation, would accelerate recovery of quadriceps strength and neuromuscular function up to 26 weeks post-surgery. METHODS: Group allocation was randomized. The experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 21) group received standard rehabilitation...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Tiago Turnes, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Amadeo Félix Salvador, Felipe Domingos Lisbôa, Kayo Leonardo Pereira, João Antônio Gesser Raimundo, Fabrizio Caputo
PURPOSE: Although ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischaemia and reperfusion, seems to improve exercise performance, the optimal duration of ischaemia-reperfusion cycles is not established. The present study investigated the effect of ischaemia-reperfusion duration within each IPC cycle on performance in a 2000-m rowing ergometer test. METHODS: After incremental and familiarization tests, 16 trained rowers (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 11 years; weight, 74...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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