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European Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687267/muscle-quality-characteristics-of-muscles-in-the-thigh-upper-arm-and-lower-back-in-elderly-men-and-women
#1
Akito Yoshiko, Takashi Kaji, Hiroki Sugiyama, Teruhiko Koike, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
PURPOSE: The ratio of fat within skeletal muscle is an important parameter that is indicative of muscle quality, and can be assessed using ultrasonography to measure echo intensity (EI). Muscle EI indicates muscle strength and risk of physical dysfunction; however, this observation was determined following examinations of only selected muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the EI characteristics of muscles in several regions in elderly men and women, using physical function tests and serum cholesterol levels...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687266/physiological-and-psychological-determinants-of-whole-body-endurance-exercise-following-short-term-sustained-operations-with-partial-sleep-deprivation
#2
Michail E Keramidas, Magnus Gadefors, Lars-Ove Nilsson, Ola Eiken
PURPOSE: The study examined the effects of short-term field-based military training with partial sleep deprivation on whole-body endurance performance in well-trained individuals. METHODS: Before and after a 2-day sustained operations (SUSOPS), 14 cadets performed a 15-min constant-load cycling at 65% of peak power output (PPO; CLT65 ), followed by an exhaustive constant-load trial at 85% of PPO (CLT85 ). Physiological [oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2 ), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and regional oxygenation (TOI) in the frontal cerebral cortex and vastus lateralis muscle] and psychological [effort perception (RPE), affective valence (FS), and perceived activation (FAS)] variables were monitored during exercise...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679248/effects-of-training-intensity-in-electromyostimulation-on-human-skeletal-muscle
#3
Toshiharu Natsume, Hayao Ozaki, Ryo Kakigi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Hisashi Naito
PURPOSE: High-intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training can induce muscle hypertrophy at the whole muscle and muscle fiber levels. However, whether low-intensity NMES training has a similar result is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether low-intensity NMES training could elicit muscle hypertrophy at the whole muscle and muscle fiber levels in the human skeletal muscle. METHODS: Eight untrained young males were subjected to 18 min of unilateral NMES training for 8 weeks...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679247/neuromuscular-and-electromechanical-properties-of-ultra-power-athletes-the-traceurs
#4
Sidney Grosprêtre, Philippe Gimenez, Alain Martin
PURPOSE: Practising a power-type activity over years can shape the neuromuscular profile of athletes. This study aimed at comparing the neuromuscular profile of a non-trained group (NT, n = 10) to power athletes practising Parkour (= traceurs, group PK, n = 11), an activity consisting of jumping obstacles mostly in an urban landscape. METHODS: Maximal isometric plantar flexion force (MVC) and rate of torque development (RTD) were evaluated, and neuromuscular function of triceps surae muscles was assessed and compared between groups through the analysis of evoked potentials from posterior tibial nerve stimulation...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679246/reliability-of-tensiomyography-and-myotonometry-in-detecting-mechanical-and-contractile-characteristics-of-the-lumbar-erector-spinae-in-healthy-volunteers
#5
Christine Lohr, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Ruediger Reer, Jan Schroeder, Tobias Schmidt
PURPOSE: Tensiomyography™ (TMG) and MyotonPRO® (MMT) are two non-invasive devices for monitoring muscle contractile and mechanical characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate the test-retest reliability of TMG and MMT parameters for measuring (TMG:) muscle displacement (Dm ), contraction time (Tc ), and velocity (Vc ) and (MMT:) frequency (F), stiffness (S), and decrement (D) of the erector spinae muscles (ES) in healthy adults. A particular focus was set on the establishment of reliability measures for the previously barely evaluated secondary TMG parameter Vc ...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671061/historical-perspectives-in-the-assessment-of-cardiovascular-structure-and-function
#6
EDITORIAL
Keith P George, Daniel J Green
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663075/comparison-of-running-and-cycling-economy-in-runners-cyclists-and-triathletes
#7
Wannes Swinnen, Shalaya Kipp, Rodger Kram
PURPOSE: Exercise economy is one of the main physiological factors determining performance in endurance sports. Running economy (RE) can be improved with running-specific training, while the improvement of cycling economy (CE) with cycling-specific training is controversial. We investigated whether exercise economy reflects sport-specific skills/adaptations or is determined by overall physiological factors. METHODS: We compared RE and CE in 10 runners, 9 cyclists and 9 triathletes for running at 12 km/h and cycling at 200 W...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654404/asymmetrical-intrapleural-pressure-distribution-a-cause-for-scoliosis-a-computational-analysis
#8
Benedikt Schlager, Frank Niemeyer, Fabio Galbusera, Hans-Joachim Wilke
PURPOSE: The mechanical link between the pleural physiology and the development of scoliosis is still unresolved. The intrapleural pressure (IPP) which is distributed across the inner chest wall has yet been widely neglected in etiology debates. With this study, we attempted to investigate the mechanical influence of the IPP distribution on the shape of the spinal curvature. METHODS: A finite element model of pleura, chest and spine was created based on CT data of a patient with no visual deformities...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644392/effect-of-a-rest-pause-vs-traditional-squat-on-electromyography-and-lifting-volume-in-trained-women
#9
John A Korak, Max R Paquette, Dana K Fuller, Jennifer L Caputo, John M Coons
PURPOSE: Rest-pause (4 s unloaded rest between repetitions) single session training effects on lifting volume, and muscle activity via electromyography (EMG) are currently vague in the literature and can benefit strength and conditioning professionals for resistance training program design. This study compared differences in volume lifted and muscle activity between a rest-pause vs. traditional protocol. METHODS: Trained females (N = 13) completed both a rest-pause and traditional squat protocol consisting of four sets to movement failure at 80% pretest 1 repetition maximum load with 2-min rest between sets...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633017/influence-of-subject-presentation-on-interpretation-of-body-composition-change-after-6-months-of-self-selected-training-and-diet-in-athletic-males
#10
Ava D Kerr, Gary J Slater, Nuala M Byrne
PURPOSE: High precision body composition assessment methods accurately monitor physique traits in athletes. The acute impact of subject presentation (ad libitum food and fluid intake plus physical activity) on body composition estimation using field and laboratory methods has been quantified, but the impact on interpretation of longitudinal change is unknown. This study evaluated the impact of athlete presentation (standardised versus non-standardised) on interpretation of change in physique traits over time...
April 10, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627864/exercise-intensity-and-its-impact-on-relationships-between-salivary-immunoglobulin-a-saliva-flow-rate-and-plasma-cortisol-concentration
#11
Christof A Leicht, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Nicolette C Bishop
INTRODUCTION: Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), saliva flow rate and plasma cortisol concentrations have been shown to be influenced by exercise, particularly the intensity exercise is performed at, and circadian variation. The autonomic nervous system partly regulates salivary secretion, but it is not yet known whether cortisol also explains some variation in salivary parameters. METHODS: Twelve moderately trained male individuals ([Formula: see text]peak legs : 46...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623400/biomechanical-properties-of-the-patellar-tendon-in-children-with-heritable-connective-tissue-disorders
#12
Jacob K Jensen, Rie H Nygaard, Rene B Svensson, Hanne D Hove, S Peter Magnusson, Michael Kjær, Christian Couppé
PURPOSE: Hereditary connective tissue disorders (HCTDs), such as classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) and Marfan syndrome (MS) share overlapping features like hypermobility and tissue fragility. In clinical practice it remains a challenge to distinguish children and adolescents with HCTD from healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of the patellar tendon and joint laxity (Beighton score) in children with HCTDs (n = 7) compared to healthy controls (n = 14)...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619595/new-zealand-blackcurrant-extract-enhances-fat-oxidation-during-prolonged-cycling-in-endurance-trained-females
#13
Juliette A Strauss, Mark E T Willems, Sam O Shepherd
PURPOSE: New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract has previously been shown to increase fat oxidation during prolonged exercise, but this observation is limited to males. We examined whether NZBC intake also increases fat oxidation during prolonged exercise in females, and whether this was related to greater concentrations of circulating fatty acids. METHODS: In a randomised, crossover, double-blind design, 16 endurance-trained females (age: 28 ± 8 years, BMI: 21...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619594/make-it-easier-evaluation-of-the-vagal-sympathetic-effect-in-different-conditions-with-r-r-intervals-monitoring
#14
LETTER
André R Medeiros, Scott Michael, Daniel A Boullosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619593/authors-reply-to-medeiros-et-al-make-it-easier-evaluation-of-the-vagal-sympathetic-effect-in-different-conditions-with-r-r-intervals-monitoring
#15
LETTER
Michael R Esco, Henry N Williford, Andrew A Flatt, Todd Freeborn, Fabio Y Nakamura, Michael V Fedewa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616324/variability-in-circulating-gas-emboli-after-a-same-scuba-diving-exposure
#16
V Papadopoulou, P Germonpré, D Cosgrove, R J Eckersley, P A Dayton, G Obeid, A Boutros, M-X Tang, S Theunissen, C Balestra
PURPOSE: A reduction in ambient pressure or decompression from scuba diving can result in ultrasound-detectable venous gas emboli (VGE). These environmental exposures carry a risk of decompression sickness (DCS) which is mitigated by adherence to decompression schedules; however, bubbles are routinely observed for dives well within these limits and significant inter-personal variability in DCS risk exists. Here, we assess the variability and evolution of VGE for 2 h post-dive using echocardiography, following a standardized pool dive in calm warm conditions...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600331/influence-of-fascicle-length-on-twitch-potentiation-of-the-medial-gastrocnemius-across-three-ankle-angles
#17
Samantha L Kuzyk, Rowan R Smart, Carey L Simpson, Andrey Fedorov, Jennifer M Jakobi
PURPOSE: Length dependence of post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a well-established phenomenon in animal models but less certain in intact whole human muscles. Recent advances in B-mode ultrasonography provide real-time imaging and evaluation of human muscle fascicles in vivo, thus removing the assumption that joint positioning alters fascicle length and influences the extent of PAP. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a conditioning maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) would influence the return of medial gastrocnemius (MG) fascicles to baseline length and alter the extent of twitch potentiation between three ankle positions...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594355/high-intensity-intermittent-5-10-15-running-reduces-body-fat-and-increases-lean-body-mass-bone-mineral-density-and-performance-in-untrained-subjects
#18
Tanja Ravnholt, Jonas Tybirk, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Jens Bangsbo
The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10, and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P < 0.01), and lean body mass and bone mineral density was 1.1 and 0.9% higher (P < 0.01), respectively, after compared to before the intervention period (INT)...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589111/effects-of-resistance-training-on-mri-derived-epicardial-fat-volume-and-arterial-stiffness-in-women-with-obesity-a-randomized-pilot-study
#19
Maria Fernandez-Del-Valle, Joaquin U Gonzales, Shelby Kloiber, Sunanda Mitra, Jon Klingensmith, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala
AIM: To date, few studies have analyzed the effects of exercise on cardiac adipose tissue. Overall, exercise programs did not meet the recommendations for significant weight loss, the utilization of resistance training was minimal, and the conclusions derived from these studies have diminished exercise as a strategy for cardiac fat loss. PURPOSE: The objective of this pilot study was to analyze the effects of 3-week high-intensity, moderate-volume muscular endurance resistance training (RT) on cardiac fat and arterial stiffness...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574525/the-putative-leucine-sensor-sestrin2-is-hyperphosphorylated-by-acute-resistance-exercise-but-not-protein-ingestion-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#20
Nina Zeng, Randall F D'Souza, Brie Sorrenson, Troy L Merry, Matthew P G Barnett, Cameron J Mitchell, David Cameron-Smith
PURPOSE: Dietary protein and resistance exercise (RE) are both potent stimuli of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Sestrins1, 2, 3 are multifunctional proteins that regulate mTORC1, stimulate autophagy and alleviate oxidative stress. Of this family, Sestrin2 is a putative leucine sensor implicated in mTORC1 and AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) regulation. There is currently no data examining the responsiveness of Sestrin2 to dietary protein ingestion, with or without RE...
March 24, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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