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European Journal of Applied Physiology

Myles W O'Brien, Said Mekary, Susan A Robinson, Jarrett A Johns, Derek Stephen Kimmerly
PURPOSE: Aerobic fitness is directly related to favorable vasodilatory (i.e., flow-mediated dilation; FMD) and vasoconstrictor functions (i.e., low-flow-mediated constriction; L-FMC) in young adults. Furthermore, aerobically fit older adults (OA) have larger FMD responses than their less fit peers. However, the relationship between aerobic fitness and vasoconstrictor responsiveness is unknown in OA. We hypothesized that OA who are more aerobically fit will exhibit a greater L-FMC response than their less fit counterparts...
December 10, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Lindsay B Baker, Peter John D De Chavez, Corey T Ungaro, Bridget C Sopeña, Ryan P Nuccio, Adam J Reimel, Kelly A Barnes
PURPOSE: To quantify total sweat electrolyte losses at two relative exercise intensities and determine the effect of workload on the relation between regional (REG) and whole body (WB) sweat electrolyte concentrations. METHODS: Eleven recreational athletes (7 men, 4 women; 71.5 ± 8.4 kg) completed two randomized trials cycling (30 °C, 44% rh) for 90 min at 45% (LOW) and 65% (MOD) of VO2max in a plastic isolation chamber to determine WB sweat [Na+ ] and [Cl- ] using the washdown technique...
December 6, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Christian Helland, Thomas Haugen, Elvir Rakovic, Ola Eriksrud, Olivier Seynnes, Antti A Mero, Gøran Paulsen
PURPOSE: This study explored the agreement between a single-run and a multiple-run method for force-velocity (Fv) profiling of sprinting athletes; we evaluated both absolute values and changes over time caused by sprint training. METHODS: Seventeen female handball players (23 ± 3 years, 177 ± 7 cm, 73 ± 6 kg) performed 30 m un-resisted and resisted sprints (50, 80 and 110 N resistance) before and after an 8-week sprint training intervention. Two approaches were used to calculate theoretical maximal velocity (v0 ), horizontal force (F0 ), power (Pmax ), and the force-velocity slope (SFv ): (1) the single-run method, based on inverse dynamics applied to the centre-of-mass movement, was calculated from anthropometric and sprint split time data; and (2) the multiple-run method, where peak velocity from un-resisted and resisted sprints were plotted against the horizontal resistances...
December 5, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Devin B Phillips, Cameron M Ehnes, Michael K Stickland, Stewart R Petersen
PURPOSE AND METHODS: To compare the effects of thoracic load carriage on the ventilatory and perceptual responses to graded exercise, 14 pairs of height-matched, physically active males and females completed randomly ordered modified Balke treadmill exercise tests with and without a correctly sized and fitted 20.4 kg backpack and work clothing. Subjects walked at 1.56 m.s- 1 while grade was increased by 2% every 2 min until exhaustion. Ventilatory responses were measured with open circuit spirometry and perceptual responses were evaluated using the modified Borg scale...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Maria Pia Francescato, Valentina Cettolo
PURPOSE: Reduction of noise of breath-by-breath gas-exchange data is crucial to improve measurements. A recently described algorithm ("independent breath"), that neglects the contiguity in time of breaths, was tested. METHODS: Oxygen, carbon dioxide fractions, and ventilatory flow were recorded continuously over 26 min in 20 healthy volunteers at rest, during unloaded and moderate intensity cycling and subsequent recovery; oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) was calculated with the "independent breath" algorithm (IND) and, for comparison, with three other "classical" algorithms...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
J Huggins, Mark Rakobowchuk
PURPOSE: Physiological markers that estimate sympathetic activation may be used to infer pain and stress in humans. To date, effective reproducible methods are invasive and pose an undesired risk to participants. Previous work in animal models has used infrared thermography to measure the temperature of the lacrimal caruncle region and may be a promising method for measuring stress and pain non-invasively. The current study aimed to determine whether this method is useful in humans. METHODS: Sixteen young healthy participants (age: 18-35) were recruited and underwent sympathetic activation using a cold pressor test (CPT) and a muscle chemoreflex (MCR), and completed a control trial...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Mark Kramer, Rosa Du Randt, Mark Watson, Robert W Pettitt
PURPOSE: All-out, non-steady state running makes for difficult comparisons regarding linear and shuttle running; yet such differences remain an important distinction for field-based sports. The purpose of the study was to determine whether an energetic approach could be used to differentiate all-out linear from shuttle running. METHODS: Fifteen male field-sport athletes volunteered for the study (means ± SD): age, 21.53 ± 2.23 years; height, 1.78 ± 0...
December 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Yo Joon Pak, Akira Koike, Hiroki Watanabe, Tomoko Terai, Hiroshi Kubota, Masahumi Takahashi, Hirotomo Konno, Jo Kato, Isao Nishi, Akira Sato, Hiroaki Kawamoto, Kazutaka Aonuma, Masaki Ieda, Yoshiyuki Sankai
BACKGROUND: The hybrid assistive limb (HAL) is the world's first cyborg-type robot suit that provides motion assistance to physically challenged patients. HAL is expected to expand the possibilities of exercise therapy for severe cardiac patients who have difficulty in moving on their own legs. As a first step, we examined whether or not the motion assistance provided by HAL during exercise could effectively reduce the cardiopulmonary burden in healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of ten healthy male adults (35 ± 12 years) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) on a cycle ergometer with or without assistance from HAL...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jan-Frieder Harmsen, Alexander Franz, Constantin Mayer, Christoph Zilkens, Bettina Alexandra Buhren, Holger Schrumpf, Rüdiger Krauspe, Michael Behringer
PURPOSE: The tensiomyography (TMG) technique is increasingly used to determine muscle contractile properties in exercise and injury management. The present study investigated the informative value of TMG parameters in correlation with commonly used (creatine kinase, CK; myoglobin, Mb) and novel candidate biomarkers of muscle damage (heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, h-FABP; high-mobility group box 1, HMGB1). METHODS: Ten untrained men performed 6 × 10 eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors at 110% of the concentric one repetition maximum...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Saartje Straetemans, D A Schott, Guy Plasqui, Hilde Dotremont, Angèle J G M Gerver-Jansen, An Verrijken, Klaas Westerterp, Luc J I Zimmermann, Willem-Jan M Gerver
PURPOSE: The effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on linear growth and body composition have been studied extensively. Little is known about the GH effect on energy expenditure (EE). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GH treatment on EE in children, and to study whether the changes in EE can predict the height gain after 1 year. METHODS: Total EE (TEE), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and physical activity level (PAL) measurements before and after 6 weeks of GH treatment were performed in 18 prepubertal children (5 girls, 13 boys) born small for gestational age (n = 14) or with growth hormone deficiency (n = 4) who were eligible for GH treatment...
November 26, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Therese Hornstrup, F T Løwenstein, M A Larsen, E W Helge, S Póvoas, J W Helge, J J Nielsen, B Fristrup, J L Andersen, L Gliemann, L Nybo, P Krustrup
PURPOSE: The prevalence of lifestyle diseases has escalated, and effective exercise training programmes are warranted. This study tested the hypothesis that regular participation in small-sided team handball training could provide beneficial health effects on cardiovascular, skeletal, and muscular parameters in young adult untrained men. METHOD: Twenty-six untrained 20-30-year-old men were randomly allocated to either a team handball training group (HG; n = 14), which completed 1...
November 24, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Christian Greve, Tibor Hortobágyi, Raoul M Bongers
PURPOSE: We examined the possibility that old adults use flexibility in joint coordination as a compensatory mechanism for the age-related decline in muscle strength when performing the sit-to-stand (STS) task repeatedly under high force and balance demands. METHOD: Young (n = 14, 22.4 ± 2.1) and old (n = 12, 70 ± 3.2) healthy adults performed repeated STSs under high and low force and balance demands. The balance demand was manipulated by reducing the base of support and the force demand by increasing body weight with a weight vest...
November 24, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Nicolas Flores, Nicolas Delattre, Eric Berton, Guillaume Rao
PURPOSE: This study focused on the effects of shoe energy return and shoe longitudinal bending stiffness on the energetic cost and biomechanics of running. METHODS: The energetic cost of running and biomechanical variables altering running economy (ground contact times, stride frequency, vertical and leg stiffness, ground reaction force impulses, alignment between the resultant ground reaction force and the leg) were measured for nineteen male recreational runners...
November 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Sofia Cunha Teixeira, João Brandão Madureira, Elsa Irene Azevedo, Pedro Miguel Castro, Ana Sofia Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Arterial baroreflex (BR) and cerebral autoregulation (CA) are two major regulatory mechanisms that maintain constant cerebral perfusion. Little is known about the interplay between these mechanisms, particularly when considering the effects of ageing or sex. PURPOSE: We studied the relationship between dynamic CA and BR sensitivity (BRS) in healthy subjects by sex and in different age strata. METHODS: 95 healthy adults (52% female), 20-80 years-old, were recruited...
November 22, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Nicholas B Tiller, Louise A Turner, Bryan J Taylor
PURPOSE: Marathon and ultramarathon provoke respiratory muscle fatigue and pulmonary dysfunction; nevertheless, it is unknown how the respiratory system responds to multiple, consecutive days of endurance exercise. METHODS: Nine trained individuals (six male) contested 10 marathons in 10 consecutive days. Respiratory muscle strength (maximum static inspiratory and expiratory mouth-pressures), pulmonary function (spirometry), perceptual ratings of respiratory muscle soreness (Visual Analogue Scale), breathlessness (dyspnea, modified Borg CR10 scale), and symptoms of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI), were assessed before and after marathons on days 1, 4, 7, and 10...
November 22, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Bahareh Fouladi, Hitesh Joshi, Heather Edgell
PURPOSE: Women display an attenuated mechanoreflex during leg movement; however, sex differences in the response to arm movement are unknown. METHODS: Men (n = 12) and women (n = 10) performed passive arm or leg movement where either the right elbow or right knee was passively flexed/extended for 3 min at 30 times/min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output index (Qi), and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured and 1-min averages along with peak values were obtained...
November 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ida E Clark, Richie P Goulding, Fred J DiMenna, Stephen J Bailey, Martin I Jones, Jonathan Fulford, Sinead T J McDonagh, Andrew M Jones, Anni Vanhatalo
It has been reported that mental fatigue decreases exercise performance during high-intensity constant-work-rate exercise (CWR) and self-paced time trials (TT) in recreationally-trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance is impaired following a prolonged cognitive task in individuals trained for competitive sport. Ten trained competitive athletes (ATH) and ten untrained healthy men (UNT) completed a 6-min severe-intensity CWR followed by a 6-min cycling TT immediately following cognitive tasks designed to either perturb (Stroop colour-word task and N-back task; PCT) or maintain a neutral (documentary watching; CON) mental state...
November 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Dmitry Domkin, Mikael Forsman, Hans O Richter
The present study aimed to identify whether or not an increase in ciliary-muscle contraction force, when the eye-lens is adjusted for viewing at a near distance, results in an increase in trapezius muscle activity, while performing a natural work task. Twelve participants, ranging in age from 21 to 32 years, performed a computer-mouse work task during free gaze conditions. A moving visual target was tracked with a computer mouse on a screen placed at two different distances from the eyes, 25 cm and 50 cm...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Yoshiki Motomura, Hiroshige Tateuchi, Sayaka Nakao, Itsuroh Shimizu, Takehiro Kato, Yuta Kondo, Noriaki Ichihashi
PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of different knee flexion angles with a constant hip and knee torque on the muscle force and neuromuscular activity of the hamstrings and gluteus maximus. METHODS: Twenty healthy males lay in prone position and held their lower limb with hip flexion at 45° and knee flexion at either 10° or 80°. At these angles, the hip and knee torques are identical. Under three load conditions: passive (referred to as Unloaded), active (Loaded), and active with 3-kg weight added to the shank (Loaded + 3 kg), the muscle stiffness (i...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Achraf Abdelmoula, Stéphane Baudry, Jacques Duchateau
PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the briefer time to failure of a submaximal contraction (C2) when performed 60 min after a similar contraction (C1), and the influence of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) applied over the motor cortex on these mechanisms. METHODS: In two sessions, ten adults sustained two isometric contractions (35% of maximum) to failure with the abductor pollicis brevis (APB)...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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