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European Journal of Applied Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913925/changes-in-stiffness-of-the-dorsal-scapular-muscles-before-and-after-computer-work-a-comparison-between-individuals-with-and-without-neck-and-shoulder-complaints
#1
Hiroaki Ishikawa, Takayuki Muraki, Shuhei Morise, Yusuke Sekiguchi, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Eiji Itoi, Shin-Ichi Izumi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the stiffness of the dorsal scapular muscles before and after computer work between individuals with and without neck and shoulder complaints. METHODS: Thirty subjects were divided into patient (n = 18) and control (n = 12) groups. The stiffness of the upper trapezius, levator scapulae, and rhomboid major was measured using ultrasound elastography before and after a 30-min typing task. The strain ratio of the muscle to an acoustic coupler was calculated (a lower strain ratio value indicates greater muscle stiffness)...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913924/shear-wave-elastography-reveals-different-degrees-of-passive-and-active-stiffness-of-the-neck-extensor-muscles
#2
Angela V Dieterich, Ricardo J Andrade, Guillaume Le Sant, Deborah Falla, Frank Petzke, François Hug, Antoine Nordez
PURPOSE: The neck extensor muscles contribute to spinal support and posture while performing head and neck motion. Muscle stiffness relates to passive elasticity (support) and active tensioning (posture and movement) of muscle. It was hypothesized that support and motion requirements are reflected in the distribution of stiffness between superficial and deep neck extensor muscles. METHODS: In ten healthy participants, shear modulus (stiffness) of five neck extensor muscles was determined in prone at rest and during isometric head lift at three intensities using shear wave elastography...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913923/actn3-x-allele-carriers-had-greater-levels-of-muscle-damage-during-a-half-ironman
#3
Juan Del Coso, Juan José Salinero, Beatriz Lara, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces, Carlos Puente, David Herrero
PURPOSE: Alpha-actinin-3, encoded by the ACTN3 gene, is an actin-binding protein with an important role in myofibril contraction and muscle force output. In humans, there is a relatively common deficiency of the α-actinin-3 due to homozygosity in a polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene (R577X, rs1815739), that has been related to decreased resistance to strain during voluntary muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the ACTN3 genotype on the level of exercise-induced muscle damage attained by 23 experienced triathletes during an official half-ironman competition...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873019/arterial-stiffness-in-young-adult-swimmers
#4
Masato Nishiwaki, Keisuke Takahara, Naoyuki Matsumoto
PURPOSE: Habitual Aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness, but effects of habitual swimming on arterial stiffness are not yet fully understood. Swimming can also increase systolic blood pressure (BP) in normotensive individuals. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate arterial stiffness in young adult swimmers after considering the influence of BP. METHODS: Participants comprised 41 men (18-21 years), including 15 untrained controls (C), 11 competitive cyclists (aerobic-trained athletes; A), and 15 competitive swimmers (S)...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864638/effects-of-caffeine-on-neuromuscular-fatigue-and-performance-during-high-intensity-cycling%C3%A2-exercise-in-moderate-hypoxia
#5
Bruno P C Smirmaul, Antonio Carlos de Moraes, Luca Angius, Samuele M Marcora
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of caffeine on performance, neuromuscular fatigue and perception of effort during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia. METHODS: Seven adult male participants firstly underwent an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer in conditions of acute normobaric hypoxia (fraction inspired oxygen = 0.15) to establish peak power output (PPO). In the following two visits, they performed a time to exhaustion test (78 ± 3% PPO) in the same hypoxic conditions after caffeine ingestion (4 mg kg(-1)) and one after placebo ingestion in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864637/separate-and-combined-effects-of-exposure-to-heat-stress-and-mental-fatigue-on-endurance-exercise-capacity-in-the-heat
#6
Hidenori Otani, Mitsuharu Kaya, Akira Tamaki, Phillip Watson
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of exposure to pre-exercise heat stress and mental fatigue on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment. METHODS: Eight volunteers completed four cycle exercise trials at 80% maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. The four trials required them to complete a 90 min pre-exercise routine of either a seated rest (CON), a prolonged demanding cognitive task to induce mental fatigue (MF), warm water immersion at 40 °C during the last 30 min to induce increasing core temperature (WI), or a prolonged demanding cognitive task and warm water immersion at 40 °C during the last 30 min (MF + WI)...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858153/changes-in-the-electromechanical-delay-components-during-a-fatiguing-stimulation-in-human-skeletal-muscle-an-emg-mmg-and-force-combined-approach
#7
Emiliano Cè, Susanna Rampichini, Elena Monti, Massimo Venturelli, Eloisa Limonta, Fabio Esposito
PURPOSE: Peripheral fatigue involves electrochemical and mechanical mechanisms. An electromyographic, mechanomyographic and force combined approach may permit a kinetic evaluation of the changes at the synaptic, skeletal muscle fiber, and muscle-tendon unit level during a fatiguing stimulation. METHODS: Surface electromyogram, mechanomyogram, force and stimulation current were detected from the gastrocnemius medialis muscle in twenty male participants during a fatiguing stimulation (twelve blocks of 35 Hz stimulations, duty cycle 9 s on/1 s off, duration 120 s)...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853886/home-based-isometric-exercise-training-induced-reductions-resting-blood-pressure
#8
Jonathan D Wiles, Natalie Goldring, Damian Coleman
PURPOSE: Isometric exercise training (IET) reduces resting blood pressure (BP). Most previous protocols impose exercise barriers which undermine its effectiveness as a potential physical therapy for altering BP. An inexpensive, home-based programme would promote IET as a valuable tool in the fight against hypertension. The aims of this study were: (a) to investigate whether home-based wall squat training could successfully reduce resting BP and (b) to explore the physiological variables that might mediate a change in resting BP...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853885/an-acute-session-of-roller-massage-prolongs-voluntary-torque-development-and-diminishes-evoked-pain
#9
Mark Tyler Cavanaugh, Alexander Döweling, James Douglas Young, Patrick John Quigley, Daniel David Hodgson, Joseph H D Whitten, Jonathan C Reid, Saied Jalal Aboodarda, David G Behm
INTRODUCTION: Roller massage (RM) has been reported to reduce pain associated with exercise-induced muscle soreness and increase range of motion without force or activation impairments. The objective was to examine RM effects on evoked pain and contractile properties. METHODS: Twelve men received three sets of 30-s RM at a perceived discomfort level of 7/10 on a visual analogue scale on the ipsilateral (IPSI-R) stimulated plantar flexors (PF), contralateral PF (CONTRA-R), Sham (light rolling on stimulated PF), or Control...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848017/effects-of-a-12-week-short-interval-intermittent-low-intensity-slow-jogging-program-on-skeletal-muscle-fat-infiltration-and-fitness-in-older-adults-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Masahiro Ikenaga, Yosuke Yamada, Yujiro Kose, Kazuhiro Morimura, Yasuki Higaki, Akira Kiyonaga, Hiroaki Tanaka
PURPOSE: We developed a short-interval, low-intensity, slow-jogging (SJ) program consisting of sets of 1 min of SJ at walking speed and 1 min of walking. We aimed to examine the effects of an easily performed SJ program on skeletal muscle, fat infiltration, and fitness in older adults. METHODS: A total of 81 community-dwelling, independent, older adults (70.8 ± 4.0 years) were randomly assigned to the SJ or control group. The SJ group participants were encouraged to perform 90 min of SJ at their anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity and 90 min of walking intermittently per week...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838848/ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-not-interchangeable-to-assess-the-achilles-tendon-cross-sectional-area
#11
Annika Kruse, Savvas Stafilidis, Markus Tilp
PURPOSE: The major aim of this study was to compare ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of the Achilles tendon cross-sectional area (CSA). Further aims were to conduct reliability analyses and to assess the influence of transducer pressure on the tendon properties in US measurements. METHODS: The Achilles tendon CSA of 15 participants was assessed at two positions with US and MRI by use of a standardized protocol. Method comparison was performed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t test...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837370/intraocular-pressure-and-cerebral-oxygenation-during-prolonged-headward-acceleration
#12
Ola Eiken, Michail E Keramidas, Nigel A S Taylor, Mikael Grönkvist
PURPOSE: Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830328/diurnal-physiological-and-immunological-responses-to-a-10-km-run-in-highly-trained-athletes-in-an-environmentally-controlled-condition-of-6%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#13
Boukhemis Boukelia, M C Fogarty, R C R Davison, G D Florida-James
PURPOSE: The Clara cell protein CC16, secreted from Clara cells in the lung, is discussed as a potential biomarker for toxic effects on the airways. An increased concentration of CC16 in serum may be caused by increased permeability of the lungs. To investigate the changes in P-CC16 in response to an intense exercise bout performed at different times of day (9 am and 4 pm) of highly trained individuals. METHOD: Using a crossover randomized design, 8 runners (mean VO2max 71 ml kg(-1) min(-1), SD 6) performed a 10-km time trial run, at 9 am and 4 pm, in an environmental chamber set at 6 °C...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826654/physiological-responses-to-interval-endurance-exercise-at-different-levels-of-blood-flow-restriction
#14
Rogério B Corvino, Harry B Rossiter, Thiago Loch, Jéssica C Martins, Fabrizio Caputo
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify a blood flow restriction (BFR) endurance exercise protocol that would both maximize cardiopulmonary and metabolic strain, and minimize the perception of effort. METHODS: Twelve healthy males (23 ± 2 years, 75 ± 7 kg) performed five different exercise protocols in randomized order: HI, high-intensity exercise starting at 105% of the incremental peak power (P peak); I-BFR30, intermittent BFR at 30% P peak; C-BFR30, continuous BFR at 30% P peak; CON30, control exercise without BFR at 30% P peak; I-BFR0, intermittent BFR during unloaded exercise...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815706/acknowledgement-to-referees
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815705/neural-biomechanical-and-physiological-factors-involved-in-sex-related-differences-in-the-maximal-rate-of-isometric-torque-development
#16
J Greig Inglis, Kyle McIntosh, David A Gabriel
OBJECTIVE: Recent research has reported that lower maximal rate of torque development (dτ/dt max) exhibited by females, relative to males, during knee extension can be accounted for by normalization to a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC); however, this was not seen in the upper limb. PURPOSE: The aim of the current work was to examine the contribution of maximum strength (τmax), twitch contraction time (CT), muscle fiber condition velocity (MFCV), and rate of muscle activation (Q30) to sex-differences in the dτ/dt max during maximal isometric dorsiflexion...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815704/relationships-between-lower-body-strength-and-the-energy-cost-of-treadmill-walking-in-a-cohort-of-healthy-older-adults-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#17
Nicolas Berryman, Louis Bherer, Sylvie Nadeau, Séléna Lauzière, Lora Lehr, Florian Bobeuf, Marie Jeanne Kergoat, Thien Tuong Minh Vu, Laurent Bosquet
PURPOSE: Gait speed is associated with survival in older adults and it was suggested that an elevated energy cost of walking (Cw) is an important determinant of gait speed reduction. Thus far, little is known about the factors that contribute to a lower Cw but it was shown that lower body strength training could reduce the Cw. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between lower body strength and the Cw in a cohort of healthy older adults. METHODS: A total of 48 participants were included in this study (70...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787608/the-constant-work-rate-critical-power-protocol-overestimates-ramp-incremental-exercise-performance
#18
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, James A Kelly, Stephen J Bailey, Anni Vanhatalo
PURPOSE: The parameters of the power-duration relationship (i.e., the critical power, CP, and the curvature constant, W') may theoretically predict maximal performance capability for exercise above the CP. The CP and W' are associated with the parameters of oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2) kinetics, which can be altered by manipulation of the work-rate forcing function. We tested the hypothesis that the CP and W' derived from constant work-rate (CWR) prediction trials would overestimate ramp incremental exercise performance...
October 27, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771800/changes-in-resting-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-following-resistance-exercise-overreaching-and-overtraining
#19
Justin X Nicoll, Andrew C Fry, Andrew J Galpin, Adam J Sterczala, Donald B Thomason, Christopher A Moore, Lawrence W Weiss, Loren Z F Chiu
PURPOSE: Many physiological maladaptations persist after overreaching and overtraining resistance exercise (RE). However, no studies have investigated changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) after overtraining in humans, despite their critical role regulating exercise-induced muscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in total and resting phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK following a period of RE overreaching or overtraining...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771799/salbutamol-effects-on-systemic-potassium-dynamics-during-and-following-intense-continuous-and-intermittent-exercise
#20
Muath M Altarawneh, Aaron Petersen, Robert Smith, David M Rouffet, Francois Billaut, Ben D Perry, Victoria L Wyckelsma, Antony Tobin, Michael J McKenna
PURPOSE: Salbutamol inhalation is permissible by WADA in athletic competition for asthma management and affects potassium regulation, which is vital for muscle function. Salbutamol effects on arterial potassium concentration ([K(+)]a) during and after high-intensity continuous exercise (HIcont) and intermittent exercise comprising repeated, brief sprints (HIint), and on performance during HIint are unknown and were investigated. METHODS: Seven recreationally active men participated in a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design, inhaling 1000 µg salbutamol or placebo...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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