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European Journal of Applied Physiology

Bruno Mendes, Telmo Firmino, Raúl Oliveira, Tiago Neto, Jorge Infante, João R Vaz, Sandro R Freitas
PURPOSE: To assess the stiffness of hamstring muscles during isometric contractions in healthy individuals, using ultrasound-based shear wave elastography to (1) determine the intra- and inter-day assessment repeatability, (2) characterize the stiffness of semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris long head (BFlh) along the contraction intensity, and (3) characterize stiffness distribution among the hamstring muscles and inter-limb symmetry. METHODS: Two experiments were conducted...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gertjan Ettema, Magne Øksnes, Espen Kveli, Øyvind Sandbakk
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on technique preference and the accompanying physiological response during classic skiing at constant workload, but with varying incline-speed combinations. METHODS: Seven male competitive cross-country skiers performed four tests, each lasting 23 min, at constant 200 W workload roller skiing on a treadmill using classic style, three in unfatigued state, and one after exhaustion...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Eero A Haapala, Jari A Laukkanen, Tim Takken, Urho M Kujala, Taija Finni
PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] at ventilatory threshold ([Formula: see text] at VT) with arterial stiffness in adolescents. METHODS: The participants were 55 adolescents (36 girls, 19 boys) aged 16-19 years. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao) and augmentation index (AIx%) were measured by non-invasive oscillometric device from right brachial artery level. [Formula: see text] was directly measured during a maximal ramp test on a cycle ergometer...
August 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Justin J Merrigan, Jason B White, Y Eliot Hu, Jason D Stone, Jonathan M Oliver, Margaret T Jones
PURPOSE: Muscular strength is suggested to be dependent upon muscle characteristics. Yet, sex-specific relationships of muscle characteristics to strength in the resistance-trained require investigation. Therefore, the purpose was to evaluate sex differences in muscle characteristics and isometric strength in the elbow extensors, as well as their respective associations. METHODS: Resistance-trained men (n = 15, mean ± SD 22 ± 4 years, 87.5 ± 12...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Oscar F Araneda, Felipe Contreras-Briceño, Gabriel Cavada, Ginés Viscor
PURPOSE: The respiratory redox-state of swimmers can be affected by chronic exposures to chlorinated pools, and the effects of different exercises on it are unknown. Our aim was to compare two exercises performed at high-intensity and under habitual environmental conditions (swimming indoor vs. running outdoor) on the production of pro-oxidants (hydrogen peroxide and nitrite) and pH in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and spirometry parameters in competitive swimmers chronically exposed to chlorinated pools...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Nathan Caron, Nicolas Peyrot, Teddy Caderby, Chantal Verkindt, Georges Dalleau
PURPOSE: Although walking is the most commonly recommended activity for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), these patients walk daily less than their healthy peers and adopt a lower self-selected speed. It has been suggested that gait alterations observed in this population could be responsible for a higher metabolic rate (MR) during walking. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare relationship between MR, the energy cost of walking per unit of distance (Cw) and self-selected walking speed in T2D patients and healthy individuals...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
D Holzer, G Epro, C McCrum, J Doerner, J A Luetkens, L Scheef, G M Kukuk, H Boecker, A Mierau, G-P Brüggemann, C N Maganaris, K Karamanidis
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine: (1) the relationship between ankle plantarflexor muscle strength and Achilles tendon (AT) biomechanical properties in older female adults, and (2) whether muscle strength asymmetries between the individually dominant and non-dominant legs in the above subject group were accompanied by inter-limb AT size differences. METHODS: The maximal generated AT force, AT stiffness, AT Young's modulus, and AT cross-sectional area (CSA) along its length were determined for both legs in 30 women (65 ± 7 years) using dynamometry, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging...
August 7, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Anna Oue, Chie Asashima, Risa Oizumi, Tomoko Ichinose-Kuwahara, Narihiko Kondo, Yoshimitsu Inoue
PURPOSE: Little is known about why the attenuation of heat loss responses with aging begins in the lower limbs. This study sought to determine whether passive heating causes the age-related decrease and limb-specific difference of blood flow (BF) responses between conduit brachial and femoral arteries, which are related to differences of cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) between the upper and lower limbs. METHOD: In 15 older and 12 younger males, BF in the brachial and femoral arteries was ultrasonically measured and CVC in the forearm and thigh was assessed during lower leg immersion in hot water at 42 °C (ambient temperature: 30 °C, relative humidity: 45%) for 40 min...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kathryn Holloway, Denise Roche, Peter Angell
PURPOSE: High-intensity training is recognised as a time-efficient way of improving aerobic fitness. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the temporal nature of adaptation response and which peripheral and cardiac changes occur using the same exercise stimulus and protocol. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the progression of vascular and cardiac changes over a 6-week training period. METHODS: Twelve healthy males (age 21 ± 2 years; 42.5 ± 8...
August 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Aaron R Caldwell, Kaitlin M Gallagher, Benjamin T Harris, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Marcus Payne, Bryce Daniels, Matthew S Ganio
PURPOSE: Standing workstations have recently been promoted as a healthy alternative to sitting. However, it is unknown how prolonged standing affects arterial stiffness, a prognostic indicator of cardiovascular health. The purpose of this study was twofold: to observe changes in arterial stiffness, as assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), with a 2-h bout of standing, and to determine if short, intermittent walking bouts provide a comparative advantage to standing alone. METHODS: Nineteen adults had arterial stiffness assessed by pulse wave velocity...
August 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Rogério Nogueira Soares, Mitchell A George, David N Proctor, Juan M Murias
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine whether differences in vascular responsiveness associated with training status would be more prominent in the trained limb (leg) than in the untrained limb (arm) microvasculature. METHODS: Thirteen untrained (26 ± 5 year) and twelve trained (29 ± 4 year) healthy men were submitted to a vascular occlusion test (VOT) (2 min baseline, 5 min occlusion, and 8 min re-oxygenation). The oxygen saturation signal (StO2 ) was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) throughout the VOT...
August 2, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gary J Hodges, Antti M Kiviniemi, Matthew M Mallette, Panagiota Klentrou, Bareket Falk, Stephen S Cheung
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of passive heat stress on heart rate variability parameters in healthy children. METHOD: Fifteen children (9.3 ± 1.6 years) of both sexes (eight male) participated in two randomized experimental conditions separated by 5-12 days. Children were seated for 2 h in an environmental chamber for two sessions: neutral (22.4 ± 0.1 °C, 40.4 ± 6.5% RH) and hot (34.9 ± 0.3 °C, 36.6 ± 6...
August 1, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Daniel R Moore, Bryon R McKay, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Gianni Parise
PURPOSE: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates protein synthesis and cell cycle kinetics. Given that aging is associated with anabolic resistance, we sought to determine if the attenuated exercise-induced satellite cell (SC) expression in older muscle is associated with a blunted IGF-1 response. METHODS: SC expression (Pax7+ cells) and protein (Western blot) and mRNA (RT-PCR) expression of IGF-1 splice variants and ubiquitous (IGFBP4) and muscle-specific (IGFBP3 and -5) IGF-1 binding proteins were measured in skeletal muscle of young (Y: 22 ± 2, n = 7) and older (O: 70 ± 2, n = 7) adults up to 48 h after an acute bout of resistance exercise...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
K Nilsen, K Gove, F Thien, T Wilkinson, B R Thompson
Airway closure has proved to be important in a number of respiratory diseases and may be the primary functional defect in asthma. A surrogate measure of closing volume can be identified using the forced oscillation technique (FOT), by performing a deflation maneuver and examining the resultant reactance (Xrs) lung volume relationship. This study aims to determine if a slow vital capacity maneuver can be used instead of this deflation maneuver and compare it to existing more complex techniques. Three subject groups were included in the study; healthy (n = 29), asthmatic (n = 18), and COPD (n = 10) for a total of 57 subjects...
July 30, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Samuel Palmiere, Marcus Wade, Jacob P DeBlois, Wesley K Lefferts, Kevin S Heffernan
INTRODUCTION: While resistance exercise (RE) is known to be beneficial for overall health, one bout of RE acutely increases aortic stiffness and pulse pressure (PP). Increases in aortic stiffness and PP in a setting of aging has been shown to detrimentally impact cognitive function. This study examined whether increased aortic stiffness and PP from an acute bout of RE is associated with cognitive function. METHODS: Thirty-five participants (21 ± 2 years) underwent cognitive testing before and after either an acute bout of RE or a non-exercise time-control condition...
July 28, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alessandro Fornasiero, Aldo Savoldelli, Spyros Skafidas, Federico Stella, Lorenzo Bortolan, Gennaro Boccia, Andrea Zignoli, Federico Schena, Laurent Mourot, Barbara Pellegrini
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of acute hypoxic exposure on post-exercise cardiac autonomic modulation following maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). METHODS: Thirteen healthy men performed CPET and recovery in normoxia (N) and normobaric hypoxia (H) (FiO2  = 13.4%, ≈ 3500 m). Post-exercise cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed during recovery (300 s) through the analysis of fast-phase and slow-phase heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) indices...
July 26, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Akiko Hamasaki, Saburo Arima, Kohji Hirakoba
PURPOSE: This study examined the hypothesis that walking training (WT) could accelerate the slowed time constant (τ) of phase II in pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2 ) on-kinetics in older women. Also, we aimed to demonstrate that O2 delivery and O2 utilization were better matched at the site of gas exchange in exercising muscles when τ[Formula: see text]O2 was shortened. METHODS: 20 recreationally active older women underwent WT sessions of approximately 60 min, 3-4 times a week for 12 weeks...
July 25, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
E K Zadow, M J Adams, S S X Wu, C M Kitic, I Singh, A Kundur, N Bost, A N B Johnston, J Crilly, A C Bulmer, S L Halson, J W Fell
PURPOSE: Compression socks are frequently used in the treatment and prevention of lower-limb pathologies; however, when combined with endurance-based exercise, the impact of compression socks on haemostatic activation remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of wearing compression socks on coagulation and fibrinolysis following a marathon. METHODS: Sixty-seven participants [43 males (mean ± SD: age: 46.7 ± 10.3 year) and 24 females (age: 40...
July 24, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Margherita Raccuglia, Christian Heyde, Alex Lloyd, Simon Hodder, George Havenith
PURPOSE: Moisture accumulation in clothing affects human performance and productivity through its impact on thermal balance and various aspects of discomfort. Building on our laboratory's work on mapping sweat production across the body, this study aimed to obtain detailed spatial and temporal maps showing how this sweat migrates into a single clothing layer (T-shirt) during physical exercise. METHOD: Eight male participants performed running exercise in a warm environment...
July 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Owen N Beck, Eric N Azua, Alena M Grabowski
To improve locomotor performance, coaches and clinicians encourage individuals with unilateral physical impairments to minimize biomechanical asymmetries. Yet, it is unknown if biomechanical asymmetries per se, affect metabolic energy expenditure in individuals with or without unilateral impairments during running. Thus, inter-leg biomechanical asymmetries may or may not influence distance-running performance. PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether running with asymmetric step times affects metabolic rate in unimpaired individuals...
July 19, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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