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ALTEX

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697852/a-standardized-method-based-on-pigmented-epidermal-models-evaluates-sensitivity-against-uv-irradiation
#1
Freia F Schmid, Florian Groeber-Becker, Stefanie Schwab, Sibylle Thude, Heike Walles, Jan Hansmann
To protect the human skin from extensive solar radiation, melanocytes produce melanin and disperse it via melanosomes to keratinocytes in the basal and suprabasal layers of the human epidermis. Moreover, melanocytes are associated with pathological skin conditions such as vitiligo and psoriasis. Thus, an in vitro skin model that comprises a defined cutaneous pigmentation system is highly relevant in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and medical research. Here, we describe how the epidermal-melanin-unit can be established in vitro...
April 13, 2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697851/advanced-good-cell-culture-practice-for-human-primary-stem-cell-derived-and-organoid-models-as-well-as-microphysiological-systems
#2
David Pamies, Anna Bal-Price, Christophe Chesné, Sandra Coecke, Andras Dinnyes, Chantra Eskes, Regina Grillari, Gerhard Gstraunthaler, Thomas Hartung, Paul Jennings, Marcel Leist, Ulrich Martin, Robert Passier, Jens C Schwamborn, Glyn N Stacey, Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Mardas Daneshian
A major reason for the current reproducibility crisis in the life sciences is the poor implementation of quality control measures and reporting standards. Improvement is needed, especially regarding increasingly complex in vitro methods. Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) was an effort from 1996 to 2005 to develop such minimum quality standards also applicable in academia. This paper summarizes recent key developments in in vitro cell culture and addresses the issues resulting for GCCP, e.g. the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and gene-edited cells...
April 13, 2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536108/investigation-of-ruminant-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-a-modified-rumen-simulation-system-rusitec
#3
Barbara Birk, Alexander Stähle, Mathias Meier, Markus Palm, Dorothee Funk-Weyer, Gerhard Breves, Harald Seulberger
The approving agencies for plant protection agents request xenobiotic metabolism and residue studies in rats, farm animals and plants (e.g. EU regulation 1107/2009) according to OECD guidelines. The specific intestinal physiology of ruminants might lead to specific residues, which should be investigated very carefully. Specific aspects of xenobiotic metabolism in ruminants may arise, which are investigated by performing additional in vivo studies. The aim of the present work is to asses a modified rumen simulation system (RUSITEC) for such studies in vitro...
March 12, 2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534246/testing-vaginal-irritation-with-the-hen-s-egg-test-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay
#4
Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita Monteiro Machado, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
The HET-CAM (Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane) assay is an in vitro alternative to the in vivo Draize Rabbit Eye test that mimics vascular changes in the chorioallantoic membrane. This qualitative method assesses the irritancy potential of chemicals. The CAM responds to injury with an inflammatory process similar to that in the rabbit eye's conjunctival tissue. Regarding topical toxicity assessment of medical devices, ISO 10993-10 states that any skin or eye irritant material shall be directly labelled as a potential vaginal irritant without animal testing, suggesting that the irritation potential for the eye and the vaginal epithelia is similar...
March 11, 2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485663/recommendation-on-test-readiness-criteria-for-new-approach-methods-in-toxicology-exemplified-for-developmental-neurotoxicity
#5
Anna Bal-Price, Helena T Hogberg, Kevin M Crofton, Mardas Daneshian, Rex E FitzGerald, Ellen Fritsche, Tuula Heinonen, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou, Stefanie Klima, Aldert H Piersma, Magdalini Sachana, Timothy J Shafer, Andrea Terron, Florianne Monnet-Tschudi, Barbara Viviani, Tanja Waldmann, Remco H S Westerink, Martin F Wilks, Hilda Witters, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich, Marcel Leist
Multiple non-animal-based test methods have never been formally validated. In order to use such new approach methods (NAMs) in a regulatory context, criteria to define their readiness are necessary. The field of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing is used to exemplify the application of readiness criteria. The costs and number of untested chemicals are overwhelming for in vivo DNT testing. Thus, there is a need for inexpensive, high-throughput NAMs, to obtain initial information on potential hazards, and to allow prioritization for further testing...
February 23, 2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423527/a-high-throughput-approach-to-identify-specific-neurotoxicants-developmental-toxicants-in-human-neuronal-cell-function-assays
#6
Johannes Delp, Simon Gutbier, Stefanie Klima, Lisa Hoelting, Kevin Pinto-Gil, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Michael Aichem, Karsten Klein, Falk Schreiber, Raymond R Tice, Manuel Pastor, Mamta Behl, Marcel Leist
The (developmental) neurotoxicity hazard is still unknown for most chemicals. Establishing a test battery covering most of the relevant adverse outcome pathways may close this gap, without requiring a huge animal experimentation program. Ideally, each of the assays would cover multiple mechanisms of toxicity. One candidate test is the human LUHMES cell-based NeuriTox test. To evaluate its readiness for larger-scale testing, a proof of concept library assembled by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) was screened...
January 21, 2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677698/air-water-and-soil-which-alternatives-alternative-models-in-environmental-toxicology
#7
Yula Sambuy, Susanna Alloisio, Giorgio Bertanza, Donatella Ferretti, Silvia Letasiova, Giovanna Mazzoleni, Roberta Pedrazzani, Francesca Caloni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677697/giving-meaning-to-alternative-methods-to-animal-testing
#8
Chiara Scanarotti, Costanza Rovida, Susanna Penco, Stefania Vernazza, Sara Tirendi, Ilaria Baldelli, Rosagemma Ciliberti, Anna Maria Bassi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677696/first-national-congress-on-alternatives-to-animal-testing-and-post-congress-workshops-in-india
#9
Mohammad A Akbarsha, Benedict Mascarenhas, Christian Pellevoisin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677695/inauguration-of-the-centro-3r-for-the-promotion-of-3rs-principles-in-teaching-and-research
#10
Arti Ahluwalia, Anna Maria Bassi, Paolo Milazzo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677694/3s-systematic-systemic-and-systems-biology-and-toxicology
#11
Lena Smirnova, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Raffaella Corvi, Andre Levchenko, Suzanne C Fitzpatrick, Thomas Hartung
A biological system is more than the sum of its parts - it accomplishes many functions via synergy. Deconstructing the system down to the molecular mechanism level necessitates the complement of reconstructing functions on all levels, i.e., in our conceptualization of biology and its perturbations, our experimental models and computer modelling. Toxicology contains the somewhat arbitrary subclass "systemic toxicities"; however, there is no relevant toxic insult or general disease that is not systemic...
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529324/the-us-federal-tox21-program-a-strategic-and-operational-plan-for-continued-leadership
#12
Russell S Thomas, Richard S Paules, Anton Simeonov, Suzanne C Fitzpatrick, Kevin M Crofton, Warren M Casey, Donna L Mendrick
The traditional approaches to toxicity testing have posed multiple challenges for evaluating the safety of commercial chemicals, pesticides, food additives/contaminants, and medical products.The challenges include number of chemicals that need to be tested, time and resource intensive nature of traditional toxicity tests, and unexpected adverse effects that occur in pharmaceutical clinical trials despite the extensive toxicological testing.Over a decade ago, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) formed a federal consortium for "Toxicology in the 21st Century" (Tox21) with a focus on developing and evaluating in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) methods for hazard identification and providing mechanistic insights...
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374440/in-silico-methods-computational-alternatives-to-animal-testing
#13
EDITORIAL
Annemarie Lang, Andrea Volkamer, Laura Behm, Susanna Röblitz, Rainald Ehrig, Marlon Schneider, Liesbet Geris, Joerg Wichard, Frank Buttgereit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374439/1st-inexo-symposium-alternative-models-in-vitro-ex-ovo-and-organisms-from-research-to-applications-in-pathologies-and-aging
#14
EDITORIAL
Philippe Nirdé, Myriam Richaud, Hinda Dabboue, Jean-Pierre Reynier, Simon Galas, Laure-Anaïs Vincent, Jean-Pierre Moles, Gilberte Marti-Mestres, Paul Chambon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374438/reply-to-comment-on-alternative-acute-oral-toxicity-assessment-under-reach-based-on-sub-acute-toxicity-values
#15
LETTER
Andrea Gissi, Kimmo Louekari, Laurence Hoffstadt, Norbert Bornatowicz, Alberto M Aparicio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374437/comment-on-alternative-acute-oral-toxicity-assessment-under-reach-based-on-sub-acute-toxicity-values
#16
LETTER
Roland Buesen, Uwe Oberholz, Ursula G Sauer, Robert Landsiedel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374436/rebooting-the-generally-recognized-as-safe-gras-approach-for-food-additive-safety-in-the-us
#17
Thomas Hartung
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has premarket review authority over food additives, but a food manufacturer may, according to the legislation, intentionally add a substance to human food or animal food without their premarket review or approval if the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, to be safe under the conditions of its intended use. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) implies that the current scientific community agrees on the adequacy of how data is generated. This system has come under public pressure because of doubts as to its efficiency and the FDA's recent GRAS rule is part of the response...
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884783/ex-vivo-model-unravelling-cell-distribution-effect-in-hydrogels-for-cartilage-repair
#18
Vivian H M Mouser, Noël M M Dautzenberg, Riccardo Levato, Mattie H P van Rijen, Wouter J A Dhert, Jos Malda, Debby Gawlitta
The implantation of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels is a promising cartilage repair strategy. Chondrocytes can be spatially positioned in hydrogels and thus in defects, while current clinical cell therapies introduce chondrocytes in the defect depth. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spatial chondrocyte distribution on the reparative process. To reduce animal experiments, an ex vivo osteochondral plug model was used and evaluated. The role of the delivered and endogenous cells in the repair process was investigated...
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817164/prediction-of-acute-inhalation-toxicity-using-in-vitro-lung-surfactant-inhibition
#19
Jorid B Sørli, Yishi Huang, Emilie Da Silva, Jitka S Hansen, Yi Y Zuo, Marie Frederiksen, Asger W Nørgaard, Niels E Ebbehøj, Søren T Larsen, Karin S Hougaard
Private consumers and professionals may experience acute inhalation toxicity after inhaling aerosolized impregnation products. The distinction between toxic and non-toxic products is difficult to make for producers and product users alike, as there is no clearly described relationship between the chemical composition of the products and induction of toxicity. The currently accepted method for determination of acute inhalation toxicity is based on experiments on animals; it is time-consuming, expensive and causes stress for the animals...
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800376/fetal-bovine-serum-fbs-past-present-future
#20
Jan van der Valk, Karen Bieback, Christiane Buta, Brett Cochrane, Wilhelm G Dirks, Jianan Fu, James J Hickman, Christiane Hohensee, Roman Kolar, Manfred Liebsch, Francesca Pistollato, Markus Schulz, Daniel Thieme, Tilo Weber, Joachim Wiest, Stefan Winkler, Gerhard Gstraunthaler
The supplementation of culture medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS, also referred to as "fetal calf serum") is still common practice in cell culture applications. Due to a number of disadvantages in terms of quality and reproducibility of in vitro data, animal welfare concerns, and in light of recent cases of fraudulent marketing, the search for alternatives and the development of serum-free medium formulations has gained global attention. Here, we report on the 3rd Workshop on FBS, Serum Alternatives and Serum-free Media, where regulatory aspects, the serum dilemma, alternatives to FBS, case-studies of serum-free in vitro applications, and the establishment of serum-free databases were discussed...
2018: ALTEX
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