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Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550364/new-light-on-an-old-vitamin-the-role-of-the-sunshine-vitamin-d-in-chronic-disease
#1
EDITORIAL
Giovanna Muscogiuri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516265/the-vitamin-d-deficiency-pandemic-approaches-for-diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention
#2
REVIEW
Michael F Holick
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is a global health issue that afflicts more than one billion children and adults worldwide. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency cannot be under estimated. There has been an association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including preeclampsia, childhood dental caries, periodontitis, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders. This review is to put into perspective the controversy surrounding the definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency as well as providing guidance for how to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency...
May 17, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451877/vitamin-d-concentrations-cardiovascular-risk-and-events-a-review-of-epidemiological-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Martin Robert Grübler, Winfried März, Stefan Pilz, Tanja B Grammer, Christian Trummer, Christian Müllner, Verena Schwetz, Marlene Pandis, Nicolas Verheyen, Andreas Tomaschitz, Antonella Fiordelisi, Daniela Laudisio, Ersilia Cipolletta, Guido Iaccarino
Vitamin D has long been established as an elemental factor of bone physiology. Beyond mineral metabolism, the expression of the vitamin D receptor has been identified throughout the cardiovascular (CV) system. Experimental studies showed beneficial effects of vitamin D on heart and vessels, but vitamin D intoxication in animals also led to hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Our knowledge has been extended by epidemiological studies that showed that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are inversely associated with an increased CV risk itself, but also with established CV risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis...
April 27, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409320/vitamin-d-sub-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-a-window-on-a-potential-role-for-the-interaction-between-bone-and-glucose-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Stefania Giuliana Garbossa, Franco Folli
Vitamin D is a key hormone involved in the regulation of calcium/phosphorous balance and recently it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sub-inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity. The two main forms of vitamin D are cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2): the active form (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) is the result of two hydroxylations that take place in liver, kidney, pancreas and immune cells. Vitamin D increases the production of some anti-inflammatory cytokines and reduces the release of some pro-inflammatory cytokines...
April 13, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551827/new-light-on-an-old-vitamin-the-role-of-the-sunshine-vitamin-d-in-chronic-disease
#5
EDITORIAL
Christian A Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281103/current-evidence-on-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-kidney-transplant-what-s-new
#6
REVIEW
Gerardo Sarno, Riccardo Nappi, Barbara Altieri, Giacomo Tirabassi, Emanuele Muscogiuri, Gianmaria Salvio, Stavroula A Paschou, Aristide Ferrara, Enrico Russo, Daniela Vicedomini, Cerbone Vincenzo, Andromachi Vryonidou, Silvia Della Casa, Giancarlo Balercia, Francesco Orio, Paride De Rosa
Kidney transplant is the treatment of choice for end-stage chronic kidney disease. Kidneys generate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) for circulation in the blood to regulate calcium levels. Transplant patients with low calcidiol levels have an increased risk of metabolic and endocrine problems, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, poor graft survival, bone disorders, cancer, and mortality rate. The recommended calcidiol level after transplant is at least 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L), which could require 1000-3000 IU/d vitamin D3 to achieve...
March 9, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271293/editorial-a-journey-from-brain-to-muscle-across-the-thyroid-continent
#7
EDITORIAL
Christian A Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258534/a-journey-from-brain-to-muscle-across-the-thyroid-continent
#8
EDITORIAL
Salvatore Benvenga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378123/secondary-hyperparthyroidism-pathogenesis-diagnosis-preventive-and-therapeutic-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Mariano Rodríguez Portillo, María E Rodríguez-Ortiz
Uremic secondary hyperparathyroidism is a multifactorial and complex disease often present in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease. The accumulation of phosphate, the increased FGF23 levels, the reduction in active vitamin D production, and the tendency to hypocalcemia are persistent stimuli for the development and progression of parathyroid hyperplasia with increased secretion of PTH. Parathyroid proliferation may become nodular mainly in cases of advanced hyperparathyroidism. The alterations in the regulation of mineral metabolism, the development of bone disease and extraosseous calcifications are essential components of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder and have been associated with negative outcomes...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337588/nephroendocrinology-when-endocrinology-meets-nephrology
#10
EDITORIAL
Edgar V Lerma, Christian A Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303369/clinical-aspects-of-changes-in-water-and-sodium-homeostasis-in-the-elderly
#11
REVIEW
Christian A Koch, Tibor Fulop
The population of elderly individuals is increasing worldwide. With aging, various hormonal and kidney changes occur, both affecting water homeostasis. Aging is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many features of CKD are reproduced in the aging kidney. Dehydration and hyperosmolarity can be triggered by diminished thirst perception in this population. Elderly with dementia are especially susceptible to abnormalities of their electrolyte and body water homeostasis and should be (re-)assessed for polypharmacy...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289965/novel-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-and-clinical-aspects-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#12
REVIEW
Zubair Ilyas, Joumana T Chaiban, Armand Krikorian
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a well-described complication of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although increased albuminuria has been the gold standard for screening, data suggests that renal damage starts long before the onset of clinically apparent increases in macro and even micro-albuminuria. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention of DN have been traditionally focused on the control of serum glucose, blood pressure and dyslipidemia, with some focus on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) as a main target for successful therapy...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258533/current-therapeutic-approaches-in-the-management-of-hyperglycemia-in-chronic-renal-disease
#13
REVIEW
Vishnu Garla, Licy Yanes-Cardozo, Lillian F Lien
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are intricately intertwined. DM is the most common cause of CKD. Adequate control of DM is necessary for prevention of progression of CKD, while careful management of the metabolic abnormalities in CKD will assist in achieving better control of DM. Two of the key organs involved in glucose production are the kidney and the liver. Furthermore, the kidney also plays a role in glucose filtration and reabsorption. In CKD, monitoring of glycemic control using traditional methods such as Hemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) must be done with caution secondary to associated hematological abnormalities in CKD...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130634/x-linked-hypophosphatemia-and-growth
#14
REVIEW
R Fuente, H Gil-Peña, D Claramunt-Taberner, O Hernández, A Fernández-Iglesias, L Alonso-Durán, E Rodríguez-Rubio, F Santos
X-Linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common form of hereditary rickets caused by loss-of function mutations in the PHEX gene. XLH is characterized by hypophosphatemia secondary to renal phosphate wasting, inappropriately low concentrations of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and high circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Short stature and rachitic osseous lesions are characteristic phenotypic findings of XLH although the severity of these manifestations is highly variable among patients. The degree of growth impairment is not dependent on the magnitude of hypophosphatemia or the extent of legs´ bowing and height is not normalized by chronic administration of phosphate supplements and 1α hydroxyvitamin D derivatives...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000009/dyslipidemia-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Matthew R Hager, Archana D Narla, Lisa R Tannock
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This association is multifactorial, but CKD is often associated with dyslipidemia, which likely contributes. Patients with CKD have dyslipidemia even at early stages of renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia tends to progress with deterioration of kidney function. The dyslipidemia in CKD is largely due to increased triglyceride levels, decreased HDL-C and varying levels of LDL-C. Current management of CKD may also affect lipid levels...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866309/osteoporosis-in-patients-with-diabetes-after-kidney-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Elvira O Gosmanova, Aidar R Gosmanov
Preexisting diabetes increases risk of fractures after kidney transplantation (KT). However, little is known about mechanisms and prevention of increased fragility in these patients. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis after KT is complex and characterized by high prevalence of adynamic bone disease. Despite high prevalence of preexisting diabetes in KT recipients, diabetes patients were underrepresented in the studies that explored mechanisms and treatments of osteoporosis after KT. Therefore, caution should be exercised before considering conventional fracture prevention strategies in this unique group of patients...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864708/thyroid-dysfunction-and-kidney-disease-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Pedro Iglesias, María Auxiliadora Bajo, Rafael Selgas, Juan José Díez
Thyroid hormones influence renal development, kidney hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate and sodium and water homeostasis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism affect renal function by direct renal effects as well as systemic hemodynamic, metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased serum creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate. The reverse effects have been reported in thyrotoxicosis. Most of renal manifestations of thyroid dysfunction are reversible with treatment...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664044/hyponatremia-and-bone-disease
#18
REVIEW
Armando Luis Negri, Juan Carlos Ayus
Hip fractures represent a serious health risk in the elderly, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. There is now a considerable volume of literature suggesting that chronic hyponatremia increases the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for both falls and fractures in the elderly. Hyponatremia appears to contribute to falls and fractures by two mechanisms. First, it produces mild cognitive impairment, resulting in unsteady gait and falls; this is probably due to the loss of glutamate (a neurotransmitter involved in gait function) as an osmolyte during brain adaptation to chronic hyponatremia...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600582/updates-in-hyperkalemia-outcomes-and-therapeutic-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Csaba P Kovesdy
Hyperkalemia is a frequent clinical abnormality in patients with chronic kidney disease, and it is associated with higher risk of mortality and malignant arrhythmias. Severe hyperkalemia is a medical emergency, which requires immediate therapies, followed by interventions aimed at preventing its recurrence. Current treatment paradigms for chronic hyperkalemia management are focused on eliminating predisposing factors, such as high potassium intake in diets or supplements, and the use of medications known to raise potassium level...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586847/gonadal-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Fatigue and psycho social factors related to the presence of a chronic disease are also contributory factors...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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