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Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303369/clinical-aspects-of-changes-in-water-and-sodium-homeostasis-in-the-elderly
#1
REVIEW
Christian A Koch, Tibor Fulop
The population of elderly individuals is increasing worldwide. With aging, various hormonal and kidney changes occur, both affecting water homeostasis. Aging is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many features of CKD are reproduced in the aging kidney. Dehydration and hyperosmolarity can be triggered by diminished thirst perception in this population. Elderly with dementia are especially susceptible to abnormalities of their electrolyte and body water homeostasis and should be (re-)assessed for polypharmacy...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289965/novel-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-and-clinical-aspects-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#2
REVIEW
Zubair Ilyas, Joumana T Chaiban, Armand Krikorian
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a well-described complication of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Although increased albuminuria has been the gold standard for screening, data suggests that renal damage starts long before the onset of clinically apparent increases in macro and even micro-albuminuria. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention of DN have been traditionally focused on the control of serum glucose, blood pressure and dyslipidemia, with some focus on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) as a main target for successful therapy...
March 13, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281103/current-evidence-on-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-kidney-transplant-what-s-new
#3
REVIEW
Gerardo Sarno, Riccardo Nappi, Barbara Altieri, Giacomo Tirabassi, Emanuele Muscogiuri, Gianmaria Salvio, Stavroula A Paschou, Aristide Ferrara, Enrico Russo, Daniela Vicedomini, Cerbone Vincenzo, Andromachi Vryonidou, Silvia Della Casa, Giancarlo Balercia, Francesco Orio, Paride De Rosa
Kidney transplant is the treatment of choice for end-stage chronic kidney disease. Kidneys generate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) for circulation in the blood to regulate calcium levels. Transplant patients with low calcidiol levels have an increased risk of metabolic and endocrine problems, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, poor graft survival, bone disorders, cancer, and mortality rate. The recommended calcidiol level after transplant is at least 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L), which could require 1000-3000 IU/d vitamin D3 to achieve...
March 9, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271293/editorial-a-journey-from-brain-to-muscle-across-the-thyroid-continent
#4
EDITORIAL
Christian A Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258534/a-journey-from-brain-to-muscle-across-the-thyroid-continent
#5
EDITORIAL
Salvatore Benvenga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258533/current-therapeutic-approaches-in-the-management-of-hyperglycemia-in-chronic-renal-disease
#6
REVIEW
Vishnu Garla, Licy Yanes-Cardozo, Lillian F Lien
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are intricately intertwined. DM is the most common cause of CKD. Adequate control of DM is necessary for prevention of progression of CKD, while careful management of the metabolic abnormalities in CKD will assist in achieving better control of DM. Two of the key organs involved in glucose production are the kidney and the liver. Furthermore, the kidney also plays a role in glucose filtration and reabsorption. In CKD, monitoring of glycemic control using traditional methods such as Hemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) must be done with caution secondary to associated hematological abnormalities in CKD...
March 3, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229265/low-vitamin-d-status-and-obesity-role-of-nutritionist
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Savastano, Luigi Barrea, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Francesca Nappi, Carolina Di Somma, Francesco Orio, Annamaria Colao
Low vitamin D status and obesity have concomitantly reached epidemic levels worldwide. Up to now the direction of the association between low vitamin D status and obesity, the exact mechanisms responsible for this association and the clinical usefulness to increase vitamin D status for reducing adiposity still warrant further evaluation. The aim of the present review was to examine the current evidence linking low vitamin D status and obesity in relation to the role of the nutritionist. On the one side, considering obesity as a causal factor, low sun exposure in obese individuals due to their sedentary lifestyle and less outdoor activity, vitamin D sequestration in adipose tissue, and volumetric dilution of ingested or cutaneously synthesized vitamin D3 in the large fat mass of obese patients, might represent some of the factors playing a major role in the pathogenesis of the low vitamin D status...
February 23, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217829/vitamin-d-and-autism-what-s-new
#8
REVIEW
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity...
February 20, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214921/vitamin-d-administration-during-pregnancy-as-prevention-for-pregnancy-neonatal-and-postnatal-complications
#9
REVIEW
Carol L Wagner, Bruce W Hollis, Kalliopi Kotsa, Hana Fakhoury, Spyridon N Karras
Pregnancy represents a time of rapid bodily change, which includes physical proportions, physiology and responsibility. At this context, maternal vitamin D stores have been the objective of extensive scientific research during the last decades, focusing on their potential effects on maternal an neonatal health. A growing body of observational studies indicated that maternal hypovitaminosis D (as defined by maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels <20 ng/ml or <50 nmol/l) is a significant risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes including asthma, multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders...
February 18, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213657/the-roles-of-uvb-and-vitamin-d-in-reducing-risk-of-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-a-review-of-the-epidemiology-clinical-trials-and-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Meis Moukayed, William B Grant
Global cancer incidence and mortality rates are high and increasing. Thus, it is imperative to find novel solutions to preventing cancer incidence and treating it at an affordable yet efficacious manner. The solar UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis was first proposed in 1980 based on a geographical ecological study. Since then, numerous ecological and observational studies as well as studies of mechanisms have provided support for the hypothesis. However, observational studies have not provided consistent support, in part due to using a single blood draw from any season to use for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in prospective studies with long follow-up times...
February 17, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176237/vitamin-d-and-its-role-in-psoriasis-an-overview-of-the-dermatologist-and-nutritionist
#11
REVIEW
Luigi Barrea, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Carolina Di Somma, Maddalena Napolitano, Matteo Megna, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. Psoriasis lesions are characterized by hyper-proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes associated with inflammatory cellular infiltrate in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis is the natural source of vitamin D synthesis by sunlight action. Recently, a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of different skin diseases, including psoriasis, has been reported. Indeed, significant associations between low vitamin D status and psoriasis have been systematically observed...
February 7, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130634/x-linked-hypophosphatemia-and-growth
#12
REVIEW
R Fuente, H Gil-Peña, D Claramunt-Taberner, O Hernández, A Fernández-Iglesias, L Alonso-Durán, E Rodríguez-Rubio, F Santos
X-Linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common form of hereditary rickets caused by loss-of function mutations in the PHEX gene. XLH is characterized by hypophosphatemia secondary to renal phosphate wasting, inappropriately low concentrations of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and high circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Short stature and rachitic osseous lesions are characteristic phenotypic findings of XLH although the severity of these manifestations is highly variable among patients. The degree of growth impairment is not dependent on the magnitude of hypophosphatemia or the extent of legs´ bowing and height is not normalized by chronic administration of phosphate supplements and 1α hydroxyvitamin D derivatives...
January 27, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102491/shedding-new-light-on-female-fertility-the-role-of-vitamin-d
#13
REVIEW
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Barbara Altieri, Cristina de Angelis, Stefano Palomba, Rosario Pivonello, Annamaria Colao, Francesco Orio
In the last decades several studies suggested that vitamin D is involved in the modulation of the reproductive process in women due to the expression of VDR and 1α-hydroxylase in reproductive tissues such as ovary, uterus, placenta, pituitary and hypothalamus. Vitamin D has also a role in the regulation of sex hormone steroidogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D might have a regulatory role in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-associated symptoms, including ovulatory dysfunction, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism...
January 19, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092021/sunshine-vitamin-and-thyroid
#14
REVIEW
Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Luigi Albano, Paola Ungaro, Annamaria Colao, Paolo Emidio Macchia
Vitamin D exerts its canonical roles on the musculoskeletal system and in the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. In the last years, increasing evidences suggested several extra-skeletal actions of this hormone, indicating that vitamin D may produce effects in almost all the body tissues. These are mediated by the presence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and thanks to the presence of the 1-α-hydroxylase, the protein that converts the 25-hydroxyvitamin (calcidiol) to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (calcitriol)...
January 14, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070798/does-vitamin-d-play-a-role-in-autoimmune-endocrine-disorders-a-proof-of-concept
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Altieri, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Chantal Mathieu, Carla V Vallone, Luca Mascitelli, Giorgia Bizzaro, Vincenzo M Altieri, Giacomo Tirabassi, Giancarlo Balercia, Silvia Savastano, Nicola Bizzaro, Cristina L Ronchi, Annamaria Colao, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Silvia Della Casa
In the last few years, more attention has been given to the "non-calcemic" effect of vitamin D. Several observational studies and meta-analyses demonstrated an association between circulating levels of vitamin D and outcome of many common diseases, including endocrine diseases, chronic diseases, cancer progression, and autoimmune diseases. In particular, cells of the immune system (B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells), due to the expression of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), are able to synthesize the active metabolite of vitamin D, which shows immunomodulatory properties...
January 9, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062940/vitamin-d-and-diabetes-mellitus-causal-or-casual-association
#16
REVIEW
M Grammatiki, E Rapti, S Karras, R A Ajjan, Kalliopi Kotsa
The incidence of both type 2 and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency, or the awareness of its prevalence, has also been increasing. Vitamin D may have a role in the pathogenic mechanisms predisposing to type 2 diabetes by modulating insulin resistance and/or pancreatic β-cell function. Vitamin D status or elements involved in its activation or transport may also be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus through immunomodulatory role . Based on these observations a potential association between vitamin D and diabetes has been hypothesized...
January 7, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032296/vitamin-d-musculoskeletal-health
#17
REVIEW
Harjit Pal Bhattoa, Jerzy Konstantynowicz, Natalia Laszcz, Marek Wojcik, Pawel Pludowski
Perhaps the role of Vitamin D supplementation has been most exhaustively studied in calcium absorption, skeletal wellbeing, muscular potency, balance and risk of falling. Nonetheless, new data has emerged and the recent research on sarcopenia makes the topic increasingly interesting. Given the socioeconomic burden of the musculoskeletal consequences of hypovitaminosis D it is vital to keep abreast with the latest literature in the field. The recommended Vitamin D supplementation dose should suffice to increase the serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D level to 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/L) and this level should be optimally maintained with a maintenance dose, particularly for those diagnosed with osteoporosis...
December 29, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000009/dyslipidemia-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Matthew R Hager, Archana D Narla, Lisa R Tannock
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This association is multifactorial, but CKD is often associated with dyslipidemia, which likely contributes. Patients with CKD have dyslipidemia even at early stages of renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia tends to progress with deterioration of kidney function. The dyslipidemia in CKD is largely due to increased triglyceride levels, decreased HDL-C and varying levels of LDL-C. Current management of CKD may also affect lipid levels...
December 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515033/advances-in-trh-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Lorraine Jaimes-Hoy, Jean-Louis Charli
The activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is coordinated by hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons act as energy sensors. TRH controls the synthesis and release of thyrotropin, which activates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones; in target tissues, transporters and deiodinases control their local availability. Thyroid hormones regulate many functions, including energy homeostasis...
December 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315814/inositol-s-in-thyroid-function-growth-and-autoimmunity
#20
REVIEW
Salvatore Benvenga, Alessandro Antonelli
Myo-inositol and phosphatidylinositol(s) play a pivotal function in many metabolic pathways that, if impaired, impact unfavorably on human health. This review analyzes several experimental and clinical investigations regarding the involvement of this class of molecules in physiological and pathological situations, with a major focus on thyroid. Central issues are the relationship between phosphatidylinositol and thyrotropin (TSH) signaling on one hand, and phosphatydylinositol and autoimmunity on the other hand...
December 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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