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Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896649/the-micropapillary-hobnail-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-review-of-series-described-in-the-literature-compared-to-a-series-from-one-southern-italy-pathology-institution
#1
REVIEW
Antonio Ieni, Valeria Barresi, Roberta Cardia, Luana Licata, Flavia Di Bari, Salvatore Benvenga, Giovanni Tuccari
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has a good prognosis with a 10-yr survival greater than 90%. Recently, a micro-papillary pattern with hobnail appearance (MPHC) in PTC has been indicated as associated with poor prognosis, but this suggestion is based only on a few cases from geographical areas different from ours. Two-hundred ninety-nine consecutive PTC cases were collected between the years of 1992 and 2014 at our institution. The corresponding histologic sections (at least 6 for each case) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and reviewed independently by two pathologists to reach a consensus on the identification and quantification of the MPHC...
November 28, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873108/flushing-in-neuro-endocrinology
#2
REVIEW
Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Constantine A Stratakis, Christian A Koch
Cutaneous flushing is a common presenting complaint in endocrine disorders. The pathophysiology of flushing involves changes in cutaneous blood flow triggered by multiple intrinsic factors that are either related to physiology or disease. Flushing can be divided into episodic or persistent causes. Episodic flushing is mediated by the release of endogenous vasoactive mediators or medications, while persistent flushing results in a fixed facial erythema with telangiectasia and cyanosis due to slow-flowing deoxygenated blood in large cutaneous blood vessels...
November 21, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866309/osteoporosis-in-patients-with-diabetes-after-kidney-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Elvira O Gosmanova, Aidar R Gosmanov
Preexisting diabetes increases risk of fractures after kidney transplantation (KT). However, little is known about mechanisms and prevention of increased fragility in these patients. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis after KT is complex and characterized by high prevalence of adynamic bone disease. Despite high prevalence of preexisting diabetes in KT recipients, diabetes patients were underrepresented in the studies that explored mechanisms and treatments of osteoporosis after KT. Therefore, caution should be exercised before considering conventional fracture prevention strategies in this unique group of patients...
November 19, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864708/thyroid-dysfunction-and-kidney-disease-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Pedro Iglesias, María Auxiliadora Bajo, Rafael Selgas, Juan José Díez
Thyroid hormones influence renal development, kidney hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate and sodium and water homeostasis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism affect renal function by direct renal effects as well as systemic hemodynamic, metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased serum creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate. The reverse effects have been reported in thyrotoxicosis. Most of renal manifestations of thyroid dysfunction are reversible with treatment...
November 18, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832418/obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-malignant-melanoma-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#5
REVIEW
K Karimi, T H Lindgren, C A Koch, Robert T Brodell
The dramatic increases in incidence of both obesity and many cancers including skin cancer emphasize the need to better understand the pathophysiology of both conditions and their connections. Melanoma is considered the fastest growing cancer and rates of non-melanoma skin cancer have also increased over the last decade. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and skin cancer are not clearly understood but emerging evidence points to changes in the tumor microenvironment including aberrant cell signaling and genomic instability in the chronic inflammatory state many obese individuals experience...
November 10, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830493/biomarkers-of-skin-aging
#6
REVIEW
Theodora Kanaki, Evgenia Makrantonaki, Christos C Zouboulis
Aging is a complex process not only influenced by inherited but also by several environmental factors. It is characterized by a progressive loss of function in multiple tissues, which leads to an increased probability of death. On the other hand, several morphological and histological changes are registered in aged skin that is mostly dependent on the cumulative exposure in environmental aging promoters, such as ultraviolet radiation. Understanding of individual pathogenesis and introduction of preventive measurements require objective assessment, i...
November 9, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761790/adrenal-disorders-is-there-any-role-for-vitamin-d
#7
Giacomo Tirabassi, Gianmaria Salvio, Barbara Altieri, Cristina L Ronchi, Silvia Della Casa, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Giancarlo Balercia
An emerging branch of research is examining the linkage between Vitamin D and nonskeletal disorders, including endocrine diseases. In this regard, a still little studied aspect concerns the involvement of vitamin D in adrenal gland disorders. Adrenal gland disorders, which might be theoretically affected by vitamin D unbalance, include adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical tumors and hyperaldosteronism. In this review, we provide an updated document, which tries to collect and discuss the limited evidence to be found in the literature about the relationship between vitamin D and adrenal disorders...
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761789/skin-steroidogenesis-in-health-and-disease
#8
Georgios Nikolakis, Constantine A Stratakis, Theodora Kanaki, Andrej Slominski, Christos C Zouboulis
The skin is an important extra-gonadal steroidogenic organ, capable of metabolizing various hormones from their precursors, as well as of synthesizing de novo a broad palette of sex steroids and glucocorticoids from cholesterol. In this manuscript, we review the major steroidogenic properties of human skin and we suggest steroidogenesis' impairment as a cardinal factor for various pathological conditions such as acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and androgenic alopecia.
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726049/beyond-acne-current-aspects-of-sebaceous-gland-biology-and-function
#9
Christos C Zouboulis, Mauro Picardo, Qiang Ju, Ichiro Kurokawa, Dániel Törőcsik, Tamás Bíró, Marlon R Schneider
The sebaceous gland is most commonly found in association with a hair follicle. Its traditional function is the holocrine production of sebum, a complex mixture of lipids, cell debris, and other rather poorly characterized substances. Due to the gland's central role in acne pathogenesis, early research had focused on its lipogenic activity. Less studied aspects of the sebaceous gland, such as stem cell biology, the regulation of cellular differentiation by transcription factors, the significance of specific lipid fractions, the endocrine and specially the neuroendocrine role of the sebaceous gland, and its contribution to the innate immunity, the detoxification of the skin, and skin aging have only recently attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines...
October 11, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664044/hyponatremia-and-bone-disease
#10
Armando Luis Negri, Juan Carlos Ayus
Hip fractures represent a serious health risk in the elderly, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. There is now a considerable volume of literature suggesting that chronic hyponatremia increases the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for both falls and fractures in the elderly. Hyponatremia appears to contribute to falls and fractures by two mechanisms. First, it produces mild cognitive impairment, resulting in unsteady gait and falls; this is probably due to the loss of glutamate (a neurotransmitter involved in gait function) as an osmolyte during brain adaptation to chronic hyponatremia...
September 24, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645613/low-serum-vitamin-d-status-air-pollution-and-obesity-a-dangerous-liaison
#11
Luigi Barrea, Silvia Savastano, Carolina Di Somma, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Francesca Nappi, Lidia Albanese, Francesco Orio, Annamaria Colao
The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the possible associations among the vitamin D status, air pollution and obesity. Sunlight exposure accounts in humans for more than 90 % of the production of vitamin D. Among emerging factors influencing sunlight-induced synthesis of vitamin D, prospective and observational studies proved that air pollution constitutes an independent risk factor in the pathogenesis of vitamin D hypovitaminosis. In addition, environmental pollutants can affect risk of obesity when inhaled, in combination with unhealthy diet and lifestyle...
September 19, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638651/relapse-prediction-in-graves%C3%A2-disease-towards-mathematical-modeling-of-clinical-immune-and-genetic-markers
#12
Christoph Langenstein, Diana Schork, Klaus Badenhoop, Eva Herrmann
PROBLEM: Graves' disease (GD) is an important and prevalent thyroid autoimmune disorder. Standard therapy for GD consists of antithyroid drugs (ATD) with treatment periods of around 12 months but relapse is frequent. Since predictors for relapse are difficult to identify the individual decision making for optimal treatment is often arbitrary. METHODS: After reviewing the literature on this topic we summarize important factors involved in GD and with respect to their potential for relapse prediction from markers before and after treatment...
September 16, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600582/updates-in-hyperkalemia-outcomes-and-therapeutic-strategies
#13
Csaba P Kovesdy
Hyperkalemia is a frequent clinical abnormality in patients with chronic kidney disease, and it is associated with higher risk of mortality and malignant arrhythmias. Severe hyperkalemia is a medical emergency, which requires immediate therapies, followed by interventions aimed at preventing its recurrence. Current treatment paradigms for chronic hyperkalemia management are focused on eliminating predisposing factors, such as high potassium intake in diets or supplements, and the use of medications known to raise potassium level...
September 6, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586847/gonadal-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Fatigue and psycho social factors related to the presence of a chronic disease are also contributory factors...
September 1, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571787/skin-manifestations-of-growth-hormone-induced-diseases
#15
Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina Kogia, Mohamed Badawy Abdel-Naser, George P Chrousos
The human skin is a well-organized organ bearing different types of cells in a well-structured interference to each other including epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, sebocytes, melanocytes, dermal papilla cells and fibroblasts, endothelial cells, sweat gland cells as well as nerves. Several hormones act on different cell types of the skin, while it is also considered an endocrine organ secreting hormones that act at several sites of the organism. GH receptors are found in almost all cell types forming the skin, while IGF-1 receptors' expression is restricted to the epidermal keratinocytes...
August 30, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565137/access-availability-and-infrastructure-deficiency-the-current-management-of-thyroid-disease-in-the-developing-world
#16
Jane Fualal, Joel Ehrenkranz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554109/adipokines-in-psoriasis-an-important-link-between-skin-inflammation-and-metabolic-alterations
#17
Kerstin Wolk, Robert Sabat
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease most common in Europe, North America, and Australia. The etiology and pathomechanisms underlying the evolution and persistence of the skin alterations are increasingly being understood and have led to the development of effective anti-psoriatic therapies. Apart from the skin manifestations, psoriasis is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), known to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Research of the last years demonstrated a dysregulated adipokine balance as an important link between inflammation, MetS, and consequential disorders...
August 23, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554108/thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-adult-intestinal-stem-cells-implications-on-intestinal-development-and-homeostasis
#18
Guihong Sun, Julia Roediger, Yun-Bo Shi
Organ-specific adult stem cells are essential for organ homeostasis, tissue repair and regeneration. The formation of such stem cells often takes place during postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals when plasma thyroid hormone concentration is high. The life-long self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium has made mammalian intestine a valuable model to study the function and regulation and adult stem cells. On the other hand, much less is known about how the adult intestinal stem cells are formed during vertebrate development...
August 23, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549767/conservation-in-the-phylum-of-the-local-homology-of-apolipoproteins-with-the-thyroid-hormone-plasma-carriers
#19
Salvatore Benvenga, Fabrizio Guarneri
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin (TTR), albumin (HSA), plus other plasmatic proteins, which include apolipoproteins, can bind and transport thyroid hormones (TH). In 1994, a 5-residue motif (Y, L/I/M, X, X, V/L/I) conserved in human TBG, TTR, HSA, and human and animal apolipoproteins was identified. Recently, we noticed that a number of residues upstream and downstream that motif are also conserved.We tested in silico the conservation of this larger motif in the many additional animal sequences of TH plasma carriers discovered after 1994...
August 23, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515033/advances-in-trh-signaling
#20
Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Lorraine Jaimes-Hoy, Jean-Louis Charli
The activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is coordinated by hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons act as energy sensors. TRH controls the synthesis and release of thyrotropin, which activates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones; in target tissues, transporters and deiodinases control their local availability. Thyroid hormones regulate many functions, including energy homeostasis...
August 12, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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