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Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders

Giacomo Tirabassi, Gianmaria Salvio, Barbara Altieri, Cristina L Ronchi, Silvia Della Casa, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Giancarlo Balercia
An emerging branch of research is examining the linkage between Vitamin D and nonskeletal disorders, including endocrine diseases. In this regard, a still little studied aspect concerns the involvement of vitamin D in adrenal gland disorders. Adrenal gland disorders, which might be theoretically affected by vitamin D unbalance, include adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical tumors and hyperaldosteronism. In this review, we provide an updated document, which tries to collect and discuss the limited evidence to be found in the literature about the relationship between vitamin D and adrenal disorders...
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Georgios Nikolakis, Constantine A Stratakis, Theodora Kanaki, Andrej Slominski, Christos C Zouboulis
The skin is an important extra-gonadal steroidogenic organ, capable of metabolizing various hormones from their precursors, as well as of synthesizing de novo a broad palette of sex steroids and glucocorticoids from cholesterol. In this manuscript, we review the major steroidogenic properties of human skin and we suggest steroidogenesis' impairment as a cardinal factor for various pathological conditions such as acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and androgenic alopecia.
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Christos C Zouboulis, Mauro Picardo, Qiang Ju, Ichiro Kurokawa, Dániel Törőcsik, Tamás Bíró, Marlon R Schneider
The sebaceous gland is most commonly found in association with a hair follicle. Its traditional function is the holocrine production of sebum, a complex mixture of lipids, cell debris, and other rather poorly characterized substances. Due to the gland's central role in acne pathogenesis, early research had focused on its lipogenic activity. Less studied aspects of the sebaceous gland, such as stem cell biology, the regulation of cellular differentiation by transcription factors, the significance of specific lipid fractions, the endocrine and specially the neuroendocrine role of the sebaceous gland, and its contribution to the innate immunity, the detoxification of the skin, and skin aging have only recently attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines...
October 11, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Armando Luis Negri, Juan Carlos Ayus
Hip fractures represent a serious health risk in the elderly, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. There is now a considerable volume of literature suggesting that chronic hyponatremia increases the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for both falls and fractures in the elderly. Hyponatremia appears to contribute to falls and fractures by two mechanisms. First, it produces mild cognitive impairment, resulting in unsteady gait and falls; this is probably due to the loss of glutamate (a neurotransmitter involved in gait function) as an osmolyte during brain adaptation to chronic hyponatremia...
September 24, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Luigi Barrea, Silvia Savastano, Carolina Di Somma, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Francesca Nappi, Lidia Albanese, Francesco Orio, Annamaria Colao
The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the possible associations among the vitamin D status, air pollution and obesity. Sunlight exposure accounts in humans for more than 90 % of the production of vitamin D. Among emerging factors influencing sunlight-induced synthesis of vitamin D, prospective and observational studies proved that air pollution constitutes an independent risk factor in the pathogenesis of vitamin D hypovitaminosis. In addition, environmental pollutants can affect risk of obesity when inhaled, in combination with unhealthy diet and lifestyle...
September 19, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Christoph Langenstein, Diana Schork, Klaus Badenhoop, Eva Herrmann
PROBLEM: Graves' disease (GD) is an important and prevalent thyroid autoimmune disorder. Standard therapy for GD consists of antithyroid drugs (ATD) with treatment periods of around 12 months but relapse is frequent. Since predictors for relapse are difficult to identify the individual decision making for optimal treatment is often arbitrary. METHODS: After reviewing the literature on this topic we summarize important factors involved in GD and with respect to their potential for relapse prediction from markers before and after treatment...
September 16, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Csaba P Kovesdy
Hyperkalemia is a frequent clinical abnormality in patients with chronic kidney disease, and it is associated with higher risk of mortality and malignant arrhythmias. Severe hyperkalemia is a medical emergency, which requires immediate therapies, followed by interventions aimed at preventing its recurrence. Current treatment paradigms for chronic hyperkalemia management are focused on eliminating predisposing factors, such as high potassium intake in diets or supplements, and the use of medications known to raise potassium level...
September 6, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Fatigue and psycho social factors related to the presence of a chronic disease are also contributory factors...
September 1, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina Kogia, Mohamed Badawy Abdel-Naser, George P Chrousos
The human skin is a well-organized organ bearing different types of cells in a well-structured interference to each other including epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, sebocytes, melanocytes, dermal papilla cells and fibroblasts, endothelial cells, sweat gland cells as well as nerves. Several hormones act on different cell types of the skin, while it is also considered an endocrine organ secreting hormones that act at several sites of the organism. GH receptors are found in almost all cell types forming the skin, while IGF-1 receptors' expression is restricted to the epidermal keratinocytes...
August 30, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Jane Fualal, Joel Ehrenkranz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Kerstin Wolk, Robert Sabat
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease most common in Europe, North America, and Australia. The etiology and pathomechanisms underlying the evolution and persistence of the skin alterations are increasingly being understood and have led to the development of effective anti-psoriatic therapies. Apart from the skin manifestations, psoriasis is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), known to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Research of the last years demonstrated a dysregulated adipokine balance as an important link between inflammation, MetS, and consequential disorders...
August 23, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Guihong Sun, Julia Roediger, Yun-Bo Shi
Organ-specific adult stem cells are essential for organ homeostasis, tissue repair and regeneration. The formation of such stem cells often takes place during postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals when plasma thyroid hormone concentration is high. The life-long self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium has made mammalian intestine a valuable model to study the function and regulation and adult stem cells. On the other hand, much less is known about how the adult intestinal stem cells are formed during vertebrate development...
August 23, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Salvatore Benvenga, Fabrizio Guarneri
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin (TTR), albumin (HSA), plus other plasmatic proteins, which include apolipoproteins, can bind and transport thyroid hormones (TH). In 1994, a 5-residue motif (Y, L/I/M, X, X, V/L/I) conserved in human TBG, TTR, HSA, and human and animal apolipoproteins was identified. Recently, we noticed that a number of residues upstream and downstream that motif are also conserved.We tested in silico the conservation of this larger motif in the many additional animal sequences of TH plasma carriers discovered after 1994...
August 23, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Patricia Joseph-Bravo, Lorraine Jaimes-Hoy, Jean-Louis Charli
The activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is coordinated by hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons present in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons act as energy sensors. TRH controls the synthesis and release of thyrotropin, which activates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones; in target tissues, transporters and deiodinases control their local availability. Thyroid hormones regulate many functions, including energy homeostasis...
August 12, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Jörg Reichrath, Christos C Zouboulis, Thomas Vogt, Michael F Holick
Vitamin D represents one of the major driving factors for the development of life on earth and for human evolution. While up to 10-20 % of the human organism's requirements in vitamin D can be obtained by the diet (under most living conditions in the USA and Europe), approximately 90 % of all needed vitamin D has to be photosynthesized in the skin through the action of the sun (ultraviolet-B (UV-B)). The skin represents a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), being both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites...
July 22, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
E Makrantonaki, D Jiang, A M Hossini, G Nikolakis, M Wlaschek, K Scharffetter-Kochanek, C C Zouboulis
Diabetes is a debilitating, life-threatening disease accounting in 2015 for the death of 5 million people worldwide. According to new estimations, 415 million adults currently suffer from the disease, and this number is expected to rise to 642 million by 2040. High glucose blood levels also affect the skin among systemic organs, and skin disorders can often predict the onset of this metabolic disorder. In this review, we address the pathomechanistic effects of diabetes on the skin and give an overview on the most common skin diseases associated with diabetes...
July 19, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Apostolos Pappas, Aikaterini Liakou, Christos C Zouboulis
Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health...
July 11, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Alex Alexopoulos, George P Chrousos
Emerging research has suggested that the skin is not only a target of organismal distress but also an active participant of the stress response through production of local "HPA axis" components, peripheral nerve endings, and resident skin cells, including keratinocytes, mast cells, and immune/immune accessory cells. There are also bidirectional communication pathways between the brain and the skin, which play significant roles in integrating these interactions. In this review, we summarize the intricate relations between stress and several skin conditions...
July 2, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Qiang Ju, Christos C Zouboulis
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin...
June 30, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
M Badawy Abdel-Naser, Christos C Zouboulis
Male fertility can be affected by a variety of organs diseases, including the skin. Several genodermatoses affect the skin and several other organs including the male reproductive system, commonly in the form of cryptorchidism and hypogonadism. The most relevant syndromes are associated with dyschromias, such as deSanctis-Cacchione, poikiloderma congenital, LEOPARD, and H syndrome; others with ichthyosis, such as Rud, and trichothiodystrophy; or a group of unrelated genodermatoses, such as ablepharon macrostomia, Coffin-Siris, Gorlin-Goltz, and Werner...
June 25, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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