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International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834492/single-and-combined-effects-of-beetroot-crystals-and-sodium-bicarbonate-on-4-km-cycling-time-trial-performance
#1
Marcus J Callahan, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
When ingested alone, beetroot juice and sodium bicarbonate are ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performance. This study sought to determine the independent and combined effects of these supplements. Eight endurance trained (V̇O2max 65 mL·kg·min(-1)) male cyclists completed four x 4-km time trials (TT) in a double-blind Latin square design supplementing with beetroot crystals (BC) for 3 days (15 g.day(-1) + 15 g 1 h prior to TT, containing 300 mg nitrate per 15 g), bicarbonate (Bi 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass [BM] in 5 doses every 15 min from 2...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768517/mild-dehydration-does-not-influence-performance-or-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-during-simulated-ice-hockey-exercise-in-men
#2
Matthew S Palmer, George Jf Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 x 45-second cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 seconds of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768510/habitual-dietary-nitrate-intake-in-highly-trained-athletes
#3
Kristin L Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Floris C Wardenaar, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement amongst athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2-4 week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768503/effect-of-alcohol-consumption-on-recovery-from-eccentric-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#4
Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett, Matthew Barnes
This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately post-exercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg pre-damage, 36h-post, and 60h-post damage...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768399/coconut-water-does-not-improve-markers-of-hydration-during-sub-maximal-exercise-and-performance-in-a-subsequent-time-trial-compared-to-water-alone
#5
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768397/creatine-monohydrate-supplementation-does-not-augment-fitness-performance-or-body-composition-adaptations-in-response-to-four-weeks-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-young-females
#6
Scott C Forbes, Nathan Sletten, Cody Durrer, Étienne Myette-Cote, Darren Candow, Jonathan P Little
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. Creatine (Cr) supplementation may augment responses to HIIT, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four weeks of HIIT (three sessions/week) combined with Cr supplementation in recreationally active females. Seventeen females (age = 23 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 23.4 ± 2.4) were randomly assigned to either Cr (Cr; 0...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710165/dietary-intake-body-composition-and-nutrition-knowledge-of-australian-football-and-soccer-players-implications-for-sports-nutrition-professionals-in-practice
#7
Brooke L Devlin, Michael D Leveritt, Michael Kingsley, Regina Belski
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710154/personal-trainer-perceptions-of-providing-nutrition-care-to-clients-a-qualitative-exploration
#8
Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball, Ben Desbrow
Personal trainers are well placed to provide basic nutrition care in line with national dietary guidelines. However, many personal trainers provide nutrition care beyond their scope of practice and this has been identified as a major industry risk due to a perceived lack of competence in nutrition. This paper explores the context in which personal trainers provide nutrition care, by understanding personal trainers' perceptions of nutrition care in relation to their role and scope of practice. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 15 personal trainers working within Australia...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710151/exertional-hyponatremia-and-serum-sodium-change-during-ultraendurance-cycling
#9
Lawrence E Armstrong, Elaine C Lee, Douglas Casa, Evan C Johnson, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon McDermott, Jakob Vingren, Hymn M Oh, Keith H Williamson
Although case reports of exertional hyponatremia (EH) during prolonged exercise implicate retention of excess fluid, athletes with EH experience either loss, gain, or no change of body weight. Thus, the etiology and predisposing factors of EH may not be the same in all athletes. The present field investigation evaluated two unacquainted recreational cyclists (LC, 31y and AM, 39y) who began exercise with normal serum electrolytes but finished a summer 164-km ride (ambient, 34±5°C) with a serum [Na+] of 130 mmol/L...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710150/dietary-protein-intake-and-distribution-patterns-of-well-trained-dutch-athletes
#10
Jenna B Gillen, Jorn Trommelen, Floris C Wardenaar, Naomi Y J Brinkmans, Joline J Versteegen, Kristin L Jonvik, Christoph Kapp, Jeanne de Vries, Joost J G C van den Borne, Martin J Gibala, Luc J C van Loon
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific protein-containing food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various protein-containing food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710149/heightened-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-at-simulated-moderate-level-altitude-vs-sea-level-in-trained-cyclists
#11
Alex J Wadley, Ida S Svendsen, Michael Gleeson
Altitude exposure can exaggerate the transient increase in markers of oxidative stress observed following acute exercise. However, these responses have not been monitored in endurance-trained cyclists at altitudes typically experienced whilst training. Endurance trained males (n=12; mean (±SD) age: 28 ± 4 years, V̇O2max 63.7 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min) undertook two 75-min exercise trials at 70% relative V̇O2max; once in normoxia and once in hypobaric hypoxia, equivalent to 2000m above sea level (hypoxia). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 2 h post-exercise to assess plasma parameters of oxidative stress (protein carbonylation (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase activity (CAT))...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710148/fluid-retention-and-utility-of-practical-hydration-markers-to-detect-3-levels-of-recovery-fluid-intake-in-male-runners
#12
Mary Caitlin Stevenson Wilcoxson, Samantha Louise Johnson, Veronika Pribyslavska, James Mathew Green, Eric Kyle O'Neal
Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200±300 mL of sweat loss (3.1±0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/post-breakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 mL (low; L), 2,065/2,593 mL (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710147/seasonal-variation-in-vitamin-d-status-in-elite-athletes-a-longitudinal-study
#13
Evelien Backx, Cindy van der Avoort, Michael Tieland, Kamiel Maase, Arie Kies, Luc van Loon, Lisette de Groot, Marco Mensink
Studies monitoring vitamin D status in athletes are seldom conducted for a period of 12 months or longer, thereby lacking insight into seasonal fluctuations. The objective of the cur-rent study was to identify seasonal changes in total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concen-tration throughout the year. Fifty-two, mainly Caucasian athletes with a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration (>75 nmol/L) in June were included in this study. Serum 25(OH)D concentra-tion was measured every three months (June, September, December, March, June)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710146/high-prevalence-of-dehydration-and-inadequate-nutritional-knowledge-among-university-and-club-level-athletes
#14
Pamela J Magee, Alison M Gallagher, Jacqueline M McCormack
Although dehydration of ≥2% body weight (BW) loss significantly impairs endurance performance, dehydration remains prevalent among athletes and may be owing to a lack of knowledge in relation to fluid requirements. The aim of this study was to assess the hydration status of university/club level athletes (n=430) from a range of sports/activities (army officer cadet training; bootcamp training; cycling; Gaelic Athletic Association camogie, football and hurling; golf; hockey; netball; rugby; running (sprinting and endurance); Shotokan karate and soccer) immediately before and after training/competition and to assess their nutritional knowledge...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710145/extreme-rapid-weight-loss-and-rapid-weight-gain-observed-in-uk-mixed-martial-arts-athletes-preparing-for-competition
#15
Joseph John Matthews, Ceri Nicholas
There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616745/no-effect-of-acute-and-6-day-nitrate-supplementation-on-vo2-and-time-trial-performance-in-highly-trained-cyclists
#16
Jean Nyakayiru, Kristin L Jonvik, Philippe J M Pinckaers, Joan Senden, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
While the majority of studies reporting ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate have used a multiday supplementation protocol, some studies suggest that a single dose of dietary nitrate prior to exercise can also improve subsequent performance. We aimed to compare the impact of acute and 6-day sodium nitrate supplementation on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double blind, cross-over design, 17 male cyclists (25±4 y, V̇O2peak 65±4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Wmax 411±35 W) were subjected to 3 different trials; 5 days placebo and 1 day sodium nitrate supplementation (1-DAY); 6 days sodium nitrate supplementation (6-DAY); 6 days placebo supplementation (PLA)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616732/no-dose-response-effect-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-on-cycling-time-trial-performance
#17
Ruth M James, Sarah Ritchie, Ian Rollo, Lewis J James
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of mouth rinsing carbohydrate at increasing concentrations on ~1 h cycle time trial performance. Eleven male cyclists completed three experimental trials, following an overnight fast. Cyclists performed a ~1 h time trial on a cycle ergometer, while rinsing their mouth for 5 s with either a 7% maltodextrin solution (CHO), 14% CHO or a taste-matched placebo (PLA) after every 12.5% of the set amount of work. Heart rate was recorded every 12.5% of the time trial, whilst RPE and GI comfort were determined every 25% of the time trial...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616716/the-effect-of-storing-temperature-and-duration-on-urinary-hydration-markers
#18
J D Adams, Stavros A Kavouras, Evan C Johnson, Lisa T Jansen, Catalina Capitan-Jimenez, Joseph I Robillard, Andy Mauromoustakos
The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects of storage temperature, duration, and the urinary sediment on urinary hydration markers. Thirty-six human urine samples were analyzed fresh and then the remaining sample was separated into 24 separate vials, six in each of the following four temperatures: 22°C, 7°C, -20°C, and -80°C. Two of each sample stored in any given temperature, were analyzed after 1, 2, and 7 days either following vortexing or centrifugation. Each urine sample was analyzed for osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615123/nutritional-supplement-use-by-dutch-elite-and-sub-elite-athletes-does-receiving-dietary-counselling-make-a-difference
#19
Floris C Wardenaar, Ingrid Jm Ceelen, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Roland Wj Hangelbroek, Lore Van Roy, Britte Van der Pouw, Jeanne Hm De Vries, Marco Mensink, Renger F Witkamp
The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females) completed a web-based questionnaire about the use of nutritional supplements. Log-binomial regression models were applied to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for the use of individual nutritional supplements in athletes receiving dietary counselling as compared to athletes not receiving dietary counselling...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633998/daily-distribution-of-carbohydrate-protein-and-fat-intake-in-elite-youth-academy-soccer-players-over-a-7-day-training-period
#20
Robert J Naughton, Barry Drust, Andy O'Boyle, Ryland Morgans, Julie Abayomi, Ian G Davies, James P Morton, Elizabeth Mahon
While traditional approaches to dietary analysis in athletes have focused on total daily energy and macronutrient intake, it is now thought that daily distribution of these parameters can also influence training adaptations. Using seven-day food diaries, we quantified the total daily macronutrient intake and distribution in elite youth soccer players from the English Premier League in U18 (n=13), U15/16 (n=25) and U13/14 squads (n=21). Total energy (43.1±10.3, 32.6±7.9, 28.1±6.8 kcal·kg(-1)·day(-1)), CHO (6±1...
August 24, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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