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International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632440/does-a-novice-technician-produce-results-similar-to-that-of-an-experienced-dxa-technician-when-assessing-body-composition-and-bone-mineral-density
#1
Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein, James Furness
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is a commonly used clinical assessment tool for body composition and bone mineral density, which is gaining popularity in athletic cohorts. Results from body composition scans are useful for athletic populations to track training and nutritional interventions, whilst bone mineral density scans are valuable for athletes at risk of developing stress fractures due to low bone mineral density. However, no research has ascertained if a novice technician (accredited but not experienced) could produce similar results to an experienced technician...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632439/a-framework-for-periodized-nutrition-for-athletics
#2
Trent Stellingwerff, James P Morton, Louise M Burke
Over the last decade, in support of training periodization there has been an emergence around the concept of nutritional periodization. Within athletics (track and field), the science and art of periodization is a cornerstone concept with recent commentaries emphasizing the underappreciated complexity associated with predictable performance on demand. Nevertheless, there are numerous training, with varying levels of evidence, that feature sport and event specific purposeful sequencing of different training units [long (macro-cycle; months), medium (meso-cycle; weeks) and short (micro-cycle; days and within-day duration] training cycles and sessions...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632437/dietary-practices-adopted-by-track-and-field-athletes-gluten-free-low-fodmap-vegetarian-and-fasting
#3
Dana M Lis, Daniel Kings, Enette Larson-Meyer
Some track and field athletes implement special diets aiming to improve health and/or performance. An evidence-based approach to any diet is recommended to minimize the risks associated with unnecessary dietary restriction, which may potentially do more harm than good. Four prevalent diets are reviewed in the following manuscript: (1) gluten-free (GFD) and (2) low FODMAP (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) (3) vegetarian, and; (4) fasting diets. Recently, GFDs and low FODMAP diets have emerged as novel regimes thought to improve gastrointestinal health and reduce the risk of exercise associated gastrointestinal symptoms...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632425/the-effect-of-1-3-butanediol-on-cycling-time-trial-performance
#4
David M Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen, Deborah K Dulson
This study investigated the effect of the racemic β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) precursor, R,S-1,3-butanediol (BD), on time-trial (TT) performance and tolerability. A repeated-measures, randomised, crossover study was conducted in nine trained male cyclists (age, 26.7 ± 5.2 y; body mass, 69.6 ± 8.4 kg; height, 1.82 ± 0.09 m; BMI, 21.2 ± 1.5 kg·m-2 ; VO2peak , 63.9 ± 2.5 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ; Wmax , 389.3 ± 50.4 W). Participants ingested 0.35g·kg-1 of BD or placebo 30 min before and 60 min during 85 min of steady-state exercise, which preceded a ~25 - 35 min TT (i...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632423/nutrition-for-special-populations-young-female-and-masters-athletes
#5
Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R Moore, Kirsty J Elliott-Sale
Adolescent, female and Masters athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the specific demands of age and gender-related physiological changes. Dietary education and recommendations for these special population athletes require a focus on eating for long-term health, with special consideration given to "at risk" dietary patterns and nutrients (e.g. sustained restricted eating, low calcium, Vitamin D and/or iron intakes relative to requirements)...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632422/energy-availability-in-athletics-health-performance-and-physique
#6
Anna K Melin, Ida A Heikura, Adam Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy
The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18-58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump-events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Health concerns with FHA includes impaired bone health, elevated risk for bone stress injury, and cardiovascular disease...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632419/association-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-with-glucose-profiles-in-male-collegiate-football-athletes
#7
Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi
Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are associated with high risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults. However, it is unknown whether this is the case in American collegiate football and rugby athletes. This study investigated the associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and glucose profiles in male collegiate football athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (13 American football players and 21 collegiate rugby football players) aged 21 years were recruited...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632417/test-re-test-reliability-of-a-modified-visual-analogue-scale-assessment-tool-for-determining-incidence-and-severity-of-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-response-to-exercise-stress
#8
Stephanie K Gaskell, Rhiannon M J Snipe, Ricardo J S Costa
Considering the recent growth of exercise gastroenterology research focusing on exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome mechanisms, response magnitude, prevention and management strategies; the standardised assessment of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) is warranted. The current methodological study aimed to test the reliability of a modified visual analogue scale (mVAS) for assessing GIS during exercise, in response to a variety of exertional-stress scenarios, with and without dietary intervention. Recreational endurance runners (n=31) performed one-of-three exercise protocols, which included: 2h running at 70% V̇O2max in temperate (24...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632413/pre-sleep-protein-supplementation-does-not-improve-recovery-during-consecutive-days-of-intense-endurance-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Mads S Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R Mikkelsen, Mette Hansen
Recent studies demonstrate that protein ingestion immediately before sleep improves muscle recovery during the night following resistance exercise. Whether this feeding strategy benefits recovery from endurance training has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whey protein isolate ingested every night before sleep on subsequent performance and circulatory markers of muscular recovery during a week of intensified endurance training mimicking a training camp. In a parallel design, thirty-two trained runners underwent a one-week intervention with a rigorously controlled diet (g kg-1 d-1 : 7...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507276/sodium-intake-beliefs-information-sources-and-intended-practices-of-endurance-athletes-before-and-during-exercise
#10
Alan J McCubbin, Gregory R Cox, Ricardo J S Costa
There is little information describing how endurance athletes perceive sodium intake in relation to training and competition. Using an online questionnaire, this study assessed the beliefs, information sources and intended practices regarding sodium ingestion for training and competition. Endurance athletes (n= 344) from six English-speaking countries completed the questionnaire and were included for analysis. The most cited information sources were social supports (63%), self-experimentation (56%) and media (48%)...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507268/reliability-and-validity-of-commercially-available-low-cost-bioelectric-impedance-analysis
#11
Kerri L Vasold, Andrew C Parks, Deanna M L Phelan, Matthew B Pontifex, James M Pivarnik
Research comparing portable body composition methods, such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) is limited. We assessed reliability and validity of predicting fat free mass (FFM) by the RJL, Omron, and Tanita BIA machines using ADP via BodPod as a criterion. FFM (kg) was assessed twice in college students (N = 77; 31M, 46F; age = 19.1±1.2 years) using ADP, RJL, Omron, and Tanita BIAs. Reliability was assessed using analysis of variance to obtain an intraclass correlation statistic (Rxx )...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507267/ingesting-a-12-carbohydrate-electrolyte-beverage-before-each-half-of-a-soccer-match-simulation-facilitates-retention-of-passing-performance-and-improves-high-intensity-running-capacity-in-academy-players
#12
Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C Witard, Stuart D R Galloway
This study investigated the influence of ingesting a 12% carbohydrate plus electrolyte (CHO-E) solution providing 60 g of carbohydrate before each half of a 90-min soccer match simulation (SMS) protocol on skill performance, sprint speed and high-intensity running capacity. Eighteen elite academy (age 18±2 y) soccer players ingested two 250 mL doses (pre-exercise and at half-time) of a 12% CHO-E solution or electrolyte placebo administered in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. During an indoor (artificial grass pitch) SMS, dribbling, passing and sprint performance were assessed, and blood was drawn for glucose and lactate analysis...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507260/exercise-induced-illness-and-inflammation-can-immunonutrition-and-iron-help
#13
Lindy M Castell, David C Nieman, Stéphane Bermon, Peter Peeling
The main focus of this review is illness amongst elite athletes, how and why it occurs, and whether any measures can be taken to combat it or to prevent its onset. In particular, there is particular interest in exercise-induced immunodepression which is a result of the immune system regarding exercise (for example, prolonged, exhaustive exercise) as a challenge to its function. This promotes the inflammatory response. There is often a high incidence of illness in athletes after undertaking strenuous exercise, particularly among those competing in endurance events, mainly in terms of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) but also involving gastrointestinal problems...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507259/dietary-protein-for-training-adaptation-and-body-composition-manipulation-in-track-and-field-athletes
#14
Oliver C Witard, Ina Garthe, Stuart M Philips
Track and field athletes engage in vigorous training that places stress on physiological systems requiring nutritional support for optimal recovery. Of paramount importance when optimising recovery nutrition are rehydration and refuelling which are covered in other papers in this volume. Here, we highlight the benefits for dietary protein intake over and above requirements set out in various countries at ~0.8-1.0 g/kg body mass (BM)/day for training adaptation, manipulating body composition, and optimising performance in track and field athletes...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507257/nutrition-for-travel-from-jetlag-to-catering
#15
Shona L Halson, Louise M Burke, Jeni Pearce
Domestic and international travel represents a regular challenge to high performance track and field athletes, particularly when associated with the pressure of competition or the need to support specialized training (e.g. altitude or heat adaptation). Jetlag is a challenge for transmeridian travelers while fatigue and alterations to gastrointestinal comfort are associated with many types of long haul travel. Planning food and fluid intake that is appropriate to the travel itinerary may help to reduce problems...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507256/hyperhydration-induced-decrease-in-urinary-luteinizing-hormone-concentrations-of-male-athletes-may-be-compensated-by-specific-gravity-adjustment-in-doping-control-analysis
#16
Ioanna Athanasiadou, Sven Christian Voss, Wesal El Saftawy, Hind Al-Jaber, Najib Dbes, Sameera Al-Yazedi, Waseem Samsam, Vidya Mohamed-Ali, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Georgia Valsami, Costas Georgakopoulos
Low urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) values have been discussed as a marker to detect steroid abuse. However, suppressed LH concentrations related to highly diluted urine samples could be a misleading indication of anabolic steroid abuse. One aim of the present study was to examine the effect of hyperhydration on the interpretation of LH findings during doping control analysis and to investigate different possibilities to correct volume related changes in urinary LH concentrations. Seven healthy physically active non-smoking Caucasian males were examined for a 72-hour period using water and a commercial sports drink as hyperhydration agents (20 mL/kg body weight)...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507255/food-provision-at-the-rio-2016-olympic-games-expert-review-and-future-recommendations
#17
Fiona Pelly, Susie Parker-Simmons
Food provision at the Olympic Games has evolved since the advent of a unified menu, but there are challenges in catering for the expanding cultural and sporting diversity. Continuity between events is difficult due to the changes in location, organising committees, caterers, athletes, support staff and volunteers. Independent review of the food provision by sports nutrition experts has been implemented to help establish some consistency between Olympic Games. The aim of this study was to compare an expert desk top and onsite review of the food provided at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, and compare this to a similar review at the London 2012 Olympic Games...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160554/case-study-long-term-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-impairs-performance-and-subjective-well-being-in-a-world-class-vegetarian-long-distance-triathlete
#18
Iñigo Mujika
The aim of this case study was to report on the performance outcomes and subjective assessments of long-term low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet in a world-class long-distance triathlete who had been suffering from gastrointestinal distress in Ironman competition. The lacto-ovo vegetarian athlete (age = 39 years; height = 179 cm; usual racing body mass = 75 kg; sum of seven skinfolds = 36 mm) changed his usual high carbohydrate (CHO) availability diet to an LCHF diet for 32 weeks (∼95% compliance)...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989466/nutritional-intake-in-elite-cross-country-skiers-during-two-days-of-training-and-competition
#19
Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P Andersson, Oliver M Shannon, Stig Mattsson, Anna Melin
This study investigated the energy, macronutrient, and fluid intakes, as well as hydration status (urine specific gravity), in elite cross-country skiers during a typical day of training (Day 1) and a sprint skiing competition the following day (Day 2). A total of 31 (18 males and 13 females) national team skiers recorded their food and fluid intakes and urine specific gravity was measured on Days 1 and 2. In addition, the females completed the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire to assess their risk of long-term energy deficiency...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989465/gut-microbiota-composition-is-related-to-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-healthy-young-adults
#20
Ryan P Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J Grosicki, Nicole D Bolter, C Matthew Lee, James R Bagley
Bacteria residing in the human gastrointestinal tract has a symbiotic relationship with its host. Animal models have demonstrated a relationship between exercise and gut microbiota composition. This was the first study to explore the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2 max) and relative gut microbiota composition (Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio [F/B]) in healthy young adults in a free-living environment. Twenty males and 17 females (25.7 ± 2.2 years), who did not take antibiotics in the last 6 months, volunteered for this study...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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