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International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008240/endocrine-effects-of-relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport
#1
Kirsty J Elliott-Sale, Adam S Tenforde, Allyson L Parziale, Bryan Holtzman, Kathryn E Ackerman
The term Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport was introduced by the International Olympic Committee in 2014. It refers to the potential health and performance consequences of inadequate energy for sport, emphasizing that there are consequences of low energy availability (EA; typically defined as <30 kcal·kg-1 fat-free mass·day-1 ) beyond the important and well-established female athlete triad, and that low EA affects populations other than women. As the prevalence and consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport become more apparent, it is important to understand the current knowledge of the hormonal changes that occur with decreased EA...
July 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989475/comparison-of-body-composition-assessment-methods-in-professional-urban-firefighters
#2
Disa J Smee, Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Julie A Cooke, Ben G Serpell, Kate L Pumpa
Given the importance of body composition in maintaining optimal physical and functional capacities, the use of appropriate, field-based assessment tools should be a priority to assist in maintaining the occupational safety of firefighters and the community. For ease, body mass index (BMI) has often been used to assess these changes. However, it is limited in its accuracy. The purposes of this study were twofold; 1) to compare the validity of different measures of body composition against dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in urban firefighters and 2) to assess these measures in their ability to provide meaningful interpretation of criteria-driven categories of adiposity...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989466/nutritional-intake-in-elite-cross-country-skiers-during-two-days-of-training-and-competition
#3
Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P Andersson, Oliver M Shannon, Stig Mattsson, Anna K Melin
This study investigated the energy, macronutrient and fluid intakes, as well as hydration status (urine specific gravity; USG), in elite cross-country skiers during a typical day of training (day one) and a sprint skiing competition the following day (day two). Thirty-one (18 male and 13 female) national team skiers recorded their food and fluid intakes and USG was measured on days one and two. In addition, the females completed the Low Energy Availability in Females-Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) to assess their risk of long-term energy deficiency...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989465/gut-microbiota-composition-is-related-to-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-healthy-young-adults
#4
Ryan P Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J Grosicki, Nicole D Bolter, C Matthew Lee, James R Bagley
Bacteria residing in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract has a symbiotic relationship with its host. Animal models have demonstrated a relationship between exercise and gut microbiota composition. This was the first study to explore the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max ) and relative gut microbiota composition [Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B)] in healthy young adults in a free-living environment. Twenty males and 18 females (25.7±2.2 y), who did not take antibiotics in the last 6 months, volunteered for this study...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989458/case-study-extreme-weight-making-causes-relative-energy-deficiency-dehydration-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-male-mixed-martial-arts-athlete
#5
Andreas M Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
The aim of the present case study was to quantify the physiological and metabolic impact of extreme weight cutting by an elite male MMA athlete. Throughout an 8-week period, we obtained regular assessments of body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), VO2peak and blood clinical chemistry to assess endocrine status, lipid profiles, hydration and kidney function. The athlete adhered to a "phased" weight loss plan consisting of 7 weeks of reduced energy (ranging from 1300 - 1900 kcal.d-1 ) intake (phase 1), 5 days of water loading with 8 L per day for 4 days followed by 250 ml on day 5 (phase 2), 20 h fasting and dehydration (phase 3) and 32 h of rehydration and refuelling prior to competition (phase 4)...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972091/relative-energy-deficiency-in-sport-the-tip-of-an-iceberg
#6
Margo L Mountjoy, Louise M Burke, Trent Stellingwerff, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252047/the-effect-of-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-dynamic-apnea-and-intermittent-sprint-performance-in-elite-female-water-polo-players
#7
Kristin L Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M G Senden, Luc J C van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Nitrate-rich beetroot juice is thought to have ergogenic effects, particularly in conditions where oxygen availability is limited. Whether these effects also apply to elite athletes is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of beetroot juice supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo players. In a double-blinded, randomized, crossover manner, the Dutch National female water polo team (N = 14) was subjected to two 6-day supplementation periods (1 and 2), with either 140 ml/day of nitrate-rich (BR; ∼800 mg/day nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (PLA) beetroot juice...
June 27, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252039/effects-of-whey-protein-supplementation-associated-with-resistance-training-on-muscular-strength-hypertrophy-and-muscle-quality-in-preconditioned-older-women
#8
Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S Ribeiro, Hellen C G Nabuco, Rodrigo R Fernandes, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Paolo M Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S Barbosa, Brad J Schoenfeld, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein (WP) supplementation on muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscular quality in older women preconditioned to resistance training (RT). In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo (PLA)-controlled design, 31 older women (67.4 ± 4.0 years, 62.0 ± 6.9 kg, 155.9 ± 5.7 cm, and 25.5 ± 2.4 kg/m2 ) received either 35 g of WP (n = 15) or 35 g of PLA (n = 16) over a 12-week study period while performing an RT program three times a week...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345213/matcha-green-tea-drinks-enhance-fat-oxidation-during-brisk-walking-in-females
#9
Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin, Matthew David Cook
Intake of the catechin epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation. Matcha green tea powder contains catechins and caffeine and is consumed as a drink. We examined the effect of Matcha green tea drinks on metabolic, physiological, and perceived intensity responses during brisk walking. A total of 13 females (age: 27 ± 8 years, body mass: 65 ± 7 kg, height: 166 ± 6 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Resting metabolic equivalent (1-MET) was measured using Douglas bags (1-MET: 3...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893592/short-term-d-aspartic-acid-supplementation-does-not-affect-serum-biomarkers-associated-with-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-male-climbers
#10
Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Piotr Zmijewski, Zbigniew Obmiński
D-aspartic acid (DAA) is promoted as a testosterone (T) enhancing supplement via mechanisms involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Here we investigated the short-term effects of DAA on serum biomarkers of the HPG-axis in male climbers. Using a single-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 16 climbers were randomly assigned to either a DAA (3 g·d-1 ) or placebo (3 g·d-1 ) supplement for two weeks. The reverse treatment commenced after a two-week washout, with all conditions administered in a balanced manner...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893591/variability-of-body-mass-and-urine-specific-gravity-in-elite-male-field-hockey-players-during-a-pre-olympic-training-camp
#11
Jason D Vescovi, Greig Watson
This field-based observational study was designed to examine the intra-individual variation of first morning body mass and urine specific gravity (Usg) in male hockey players (n=22) during a 10-day training camp. Also, to evaluate the prevalence and interrelationship of morning hypohydration and post-match dehydration using Usg and changes in body mass, respectively. Body mass and Usg were measured upon waking; body mass was also measured before and after matches. Individual means, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were calculated for morning body mass and Usg using 3, 6 and 8 days...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893590/sucrose-and-sodium-but-not-caffeine-content-influence-the-retention-of-beverages-in-humans-under-euhydrated-conditions
#12
Ronald J Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip Aa Cordery, Neil P Walsh, Samuel J Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, Stuart Dr Galloway
This study systematically examined the influence of carbohydrate (sucrose), sodium and caffeine on the fluid retention potential of beverages under euhydrated conditions, using the beverage hydration index (BHI) method. Three cohorts, each of 12 young, healthy, active men, ingested 1L of beverages containing four different concentrations of a single component (sucrose, sodium or caffeine) in a double blind, crossover manner. Urine output was collected for the subsequent 4-h. Cumulative urine output was lower and net fluid balance were higher after 10% and 20% sucrose beverages than 0% and 5% sucrose beverages (P<0...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893587/bone-broth-unlikely-to-provide-reliable-concentrations-of-collagen-precursors-compared-to-supplemental-sources-of-collagen-used-in-collagen-research
#13
Rebekah D Alcock, Gregory C Shaw, Louise M Burke
Intake of dietary sources of collagen may support the synthesis of collagen in varying tissues, with the availability of key amino acids being a likely contributor to its effectiveness. This study analyzed commonly consumed preparations of bone broth (BB) to assess the amount and consistency of its amino acid content. Commercial and laboratory prepared samples, made with standardized and variable (non-standardized) protocols were analyzed for key amino acids (glycine, lysine, proline, leucine, hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine)...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893586/case-study-fatal-exertional-rhabdomyolysis-possibly-related-to-drastic-weight-cutting
#14
Kadhiresan R Murugappan, Michael N Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E Neves, Charles H Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz
Rapid weight loss or "weight cutting" is a dangerous practice that is ubiquitous in modern combat sports yet underrepresented in the medical literature. We present a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a mixed martial artist with sickle cell trait in order to illustrate the hazards of weight cutting and ensuing critical illness. Sickle cell trait is known to predispose patients to exertional rhabdomyolysis and multiple fatal cases have been reported in the setting of strenuous exercise. Dehydration and consequent electrolyte abnormalities make combat sport athletes with sickle cell trait particularly vulnerable to this entity...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405786/the-precompetition-macronutrient-intake-of-elite-gaelic-football-players
#15
Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins, Marcus Shortall
Competition-related dietary intake has not yet been investigated in Gaelic football. The present study examined the precompetition macronutrient intake of elite male Gaelic football players. Forty players from two teams completed a food diary on the 2 days preceding competition (Day 1 and Day 2) and on the match day prior to the match (match day). Carbohydrate intake was significantly greater on Day 2 compared with Day 1, for both absolute (295 ± 98 vs. 318 ± 77 g; p = .048; -23.6 g, 95% confidence interval [-47...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345174/using-contemporary-behavior-change-science-to-design-and-implement-an-effective-nutritional-intervention-within-professional-rugby-league
#16
Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton, Ben Jones
Designing and implementing successful dietary intervention is integral to the role of sport nutrition professionals as they attempt to positively change the dietary behavior of athletes. High-performance sport is a time-pressured environment where immediate results can often supersede pursuit of the most effective evidence-based practice. However, efficacious dietary intervention necessitates comprehensive, systematic, and theoretical behavioral design and implementation, if the habitual dietary behaviors of athletes are to be positively changed...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252058/case-study-physical-capacity-and-nutritional-status-before-and-after-a-single-handed-yacht-race
#17
Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco, Antonio Crisafulli
During solitary sailing, the sailor is exposed to sleep deprivation and difficulties in consuming regular meals. Sailor weight loss is often reported. In the present case study, we describe changes in the physical capacity and nutritional status of an athlete attempting a single-handed yacht race around the globe. An Italian male ocean racer (Gaetano Mura) asked for our help to reach an optimum level of physical and nutritional preparation. We planned his diet after assessing his anthropometric parameters and body composition, as well as his usual energy intake and nutritional expenditure...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252050/low-energy-availability-is-difficult-to-assess-but-outcomes-have-large-impact-on-bone-injury-rates-in-elite-distance-athletes
#18
Ida A Heikura, Arja L T Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A Mero, Louise M Burke
We aimed to (a) report energy availability (EA), metabolic/reproductive function, bone mineral density, and injury/illness rates in national/world-class female and male distance athletes and (b) investigate the robustness of various diagnostic criteria from the Female Athlete Triad (Triad), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire, and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) tools to identify risks associated with low EA. Athletes were distinguished according to benchmarks of reproductive function (amenorrheic [n = 13] vs...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252046/nutrition-knowledge-among-young-finnish-endurance-athletes-and-their-coaches
#19
Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta, Mikael Fogelholm
The nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches is often inadequate. However, athletes need sufficient knowledge of this subject to understand the importance of food choices for their athletic performance, recovery, and overall health. Adequate nutrition knowledge and skills are important for coaches because they are often the most significant source of nutrition knowledge for their athletes. Most previous nutrition knowledge studies have been carried out in team sports and outside Scandinavia. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the nutrition knowledge of Finnish endurance athletes (156 males and 156 females; age = 17...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091471/the-effect-of-a-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-in-the-form-of-a-single-shot-of-beetroot-juice-on-static-and-dynamic-apnea-performance
#20
Matthew J Barlow, Antonis Elia, Oliver M Shannon, Angeliki Zacharogianni, Angelica Lodin-Sundstrom
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of acute nitrate ([Formula: see text])-rich beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), heart rate (HR), and pulmonary gas exchange during submaximal static and dynamic apnea. METHODS: Nine (six males and three females) trained apneists (age: 39.6 ± 8.2 years, stature: 170.4 ± 11.5 cm, and body mass: 72.0 ± 11.5 kg) performed three submaximal static apneas at 60%, 70%, and 80% of the participant's current reported personal best time, followed by three submaximal (∼75% or personal best distance) dynamic apneas following the consumption of either a 70-ml concentrated BRJ (7...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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