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International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989466/nutritional-intake-in-elite-cross-country-skiers-during-two-days-of-training-and-competition
#1
Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P Andersson, Oliver M Shannon, Stig Mattsson, Anna Melin
This study investigated the energy, macronutrient, and fluid intakes, as well as hydration status (urine specific gravity), in elite cross-country skiers during a typical day of training (Day 1) and a sprint skiing competition the following day (Day 2). A total of 31 (18 males and 13 females) national team skiers recorded their food and fluid intakes and urine specific gravity was measured on Days 1 and 2. In addition, the females completed the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire to assess their risk of long-term energy deficiency...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989465/gut-microbiota-composition-is-related-to-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-healthy-young-adults
#2
Ryan P Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J Grosicki, Nicole D Bolter, C Matthew Lee, James R Bagley
Bacteria residing in the human gastrointestinal tract has a symbiotic relationship with its host. Animal models have demonstrated a relationship between exercise and gut microbiota composition. This was the first study to explore the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2 max) and relative gut microbiota composition (Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio [F/B]) in healthy young adults in a free-living environment. Twenty males and 17 females (25.7 ± 2.2 years), who did not take antibiotics in the last 6 months, volunteered for this study...
October 28, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722584/no-difference-between-the-effects-of-supplementing-with-soy-protein-versus-animal-protein-on-gains-in-muscle-mass-and-strength-in-response-to-resistance-exercise
#3
Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M Dickinson, Katharine E Reed
Much attention has been given to determining the influence of total protein intake and protein source on gains in lean body mass (LBM) and strength in response to resistance exercise training (RET). Acute studies indicate that whey protein, likely related to its higher leucine content, stimulates muscle protein synthesis to a greater extent than proteins such as soy and casein. Less clear is the extent to which the type of protein supplemented impacts strength and LBM in long-term studies (≥6 weeks). Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effect of supplementation with soy protein to animal protein supplementation on strength and LBM in response to RET...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989475/comparison-of-body-composition-assessment-methods-in-professional-urban-firefighters
#4
Disa J Smee, Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Julie A Cooke, Ben G Serpell, Kate L Pumpa
Given the importance of body composition in maintaining optimal physical and functional capacities, the use of appropriate, field-based assessment tools should be a priority to assist in maintaining the occupational safety of firefighters and the community. For ease, body mass index has often been used to assess these changes. However, it is limited in its accuracy. The purposes of this study were twofold: (a) to compare the validity of different measures of body composition against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in urban firefighters and (b) to assess these measures in their ability to provide meaningful interpretation of criteria-driven categories of adiposity...
October 25, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299200/the-magnitude-of-rapid-weight-loss-and-rapid-weight-gain-in-combat-sport-athletes-preparing-for-competition-a-systematic-review
#5
Joseph J Matthews, Edward N Stanhope, Mark S Godwin, Matthew E J Holmes, Guilherme G Artioli
Combat sport athletes typically engage in a process called making-weight, characterised by rapid weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding competition. These practices differ across each sport, but no systematic comparison of the size of the changes in body mass exists. The aim was to determine the magnitude of RWL and RWG in combat sport athletes preparing for competition. The review protocol was preregistered with PROSPERO [CRD42017055279]. In eligible studies, athletes prepared habitually with a RWL period ≤7 days preceding competition...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299199/stress-relaxation-and-targeted-nutrition-to-treat-patellar-tendinopathy
#6
Keith Baar
Patellar tendinopathy is one of the most common afflictions in jumping sports. This case study outlines the rehabilitation of a professional basketball player diagnosed by MRI with a central core patellar tendinopathy within the proximal enthesis. The player undertook a nutrition and strength based rehabilitation program combining gelatin ingestion and heavy isometric loading of the patella designed to produce significant stress relaxation as part of their competition schedule and a whole body training plan...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299195/what-s-in-your-beet-juice-nitrate-and-nitrite-content-of-beet-juice-products-marketed-to-athletes
#7
Edgar J Gallardo, Andrew R Coggan
Consumption of beetroot juice (BRJ) supplements has become popular among athletes, because beets tend to be rich in nitrate (NO3 - ), which can enhance exercise performance by increasing nitric oxide production. The NO3 - content of beets can vary significantly, however, making it difficult to know how much NO3 - any product actually contains. Samples from 45 different lots of 24 different BRJ products from 21 different companies were therefore analyzed for NO3 - (and nitrite; NO2 - ) concentration using high performance liquid chromatography...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299192/sports-foods-and-dietary-supplements-for-optimal-function-and-performance-enhancement-in-track-and-field-athletes
#8
Peter Peeling, Linda M Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon, Louise M Burke
Athletes are exposed to numerous nutritional products, attractively marketed with claims of optimizing health, function and performance. However, there is limited evidence to support many of these claims, and the efficacy and safety of many products is questionable. The variety of nutritional aids considered for use by track and field athletes includes sports foods, performance supplements and therapeutic nutritional aids. Support for sports foods, and five evidence-based performance supplements (caffeine, creatine, nitrate/beetroot juice, beta-alanine and bicarbonate) varies according to the event, the specific scenario of use and the individual athlete's goals and responsiveness...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299186/total-energy-expenditure-physical-activity-level-and-water-turnover-of-collegiate-dinghy-sailors-in-a-training-camp
#9
Hiroyuki Sagayama, Makiko Toguchi, Jun Yasukata, Kazunari Yonaha, Yasuki Higaki, Hiroaki Tanaka
Prior studies have examined offshore sailing and energy strategies using accurate total energy expenditure (TEE) measurement in free-living conditions. However, no research has studied energy and water requirement during dinghy class sailing such as an Olympic event with concentrated training. This study aimed to investigate the TEE, physical activity level (PAL), and water turnover (rH2 O) of collegiate dinghy sailors in a training camp using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Eleven dinghy sailing collegiate athletes (9 males and 2 females) participated...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299184/contemporary-nutrition-interventions-to-optimize-performance-in-middle-distance-runners
#10
Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield
Middle-distance runners utilize the full continuum of energy systems throughout training, and given the infinite competition tactical scenarios, this event group is highly complex from a performance intervention point of view. However, this complexity results in numerous potential periodized nutrition interventions to optimize middle-distance training adaptation and competition performance. Middle-distance race intensity is extreme, with 800m to 5,000m races being at ~95 to 130% of VO2max . Accordingly, elite middle-distance runners have primarily Type IIa / IIx fiber morphology and rely almost exclusively on carbohydrate (primarily muscle glycogen) metabolic pathways for producing ATP...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757054/preseason-body-composition-adaptations-in-elite-white-and-polynesian-rugby-union-athletes
#11
Adam J Zemski, Shelley E Keating, Elizabeth M Broad, Damian J Marsh, Karen Hind, Gary J Slater
During preseason training, rugby union (RU) athletes endeavor to enhance physical performance characteristics that are aligned with on-field success. Specific physique traits are associated with performance; therefore body composition assessment is routinely undertaken in elite environments. This study aimed to quantify preseason physique changes in elite RU athletes with unique morphology and divergent ethnicity. Twenty-two White and Polynesian professional RU athletes received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessments at the beginning and conclusion of an 11-week preseason...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722590/correcting-vitamin-d-insufficiency-improves-some-but-not-all-aspects-of-physical-performance-during-winter-training-in-taekwondo-athletes
#12
Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung, Jong Kook Song
We investigated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on physical performance during winter training in vitamin D insufficient taekwondo athletes. Thirty-five collegiate male and female taekwondo athletes, aged 19-22 years with low serum 25(OH)D concentration (28.8 ± 1.10 nmol/L), were randomly assigned to a vitamin D group (n = 20) or a placebo group (n = 15). Subjects received either a vitamin D3 capsule (5,000 IU/day) or a placebo during 4 weeks of winter training. Blood samples were collected for analyzing serum 25(OH)D concentration...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893591/variability-of-body-mass-and-urine-specific-gravity-in-elite-male-field-hockey-players-during-a-pre-olympic-training-camp
#13
Jason D Vescovi, Greig Watson
This field-based observational study was designed to examine the intraindividual variation of first morning body mass and urine specific gravity (Usg) in male hockey players (n = 22) during a 10-day training camp. It was also designed to evaluate the prevalence and interrelationship of morning hypohydration and postmatch dehydration using Usg and changes in body mass, respectively. Body mass and Usg were measured upon waking; body mass was also measured before and after matches. Individual means, SD, and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated for morning body mass and Usg using 3, 6, and 8 days...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893587/bone-broth-unlikely-to-provide-reliable-concentrations-of-collagen-precursors-compared-with-supplemental-sources-of-collagen-used-in-collagen-research
#14
Rebekah D Alcock, Gregory C Shaw, Louise M Burke
Intake of dietary sources of collagen may support the synthesis of collagen in varying tissues, with the availability of key amino acids being a likely contributor to its effectiveness. This study analyzed commonly consumed preparations of bone broth (BB) to assess the amount and consistency of its amino acid content. Commercial and laboratory-prepared samples, made with standardized and variable (nonstandardized) protocols, were analyzed for key amino acids (glycine, lysine, proline, leucine, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine)...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722576/is-bypassing-the-stomach-a-means-to-optimize-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-a-case-study-with-a-postbariatric-surgery-individual
#15
Luana Farias de Oliveira, Bryan Saunders, Guilherme Giannini Artioli
Sodium bicarbonate (SB) is an ergogenic supplement shown to improve high-intensity exercise via increased blood bicarbonate buffering. Substantial amounts of the ingested bicarbonate are neutralized in the stomach. Bariatric surgery results in a small gastric pouch which dramatically reduces exposure time of any ingested food in the stomach. The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of orally ingested SB in a postgastric bypass individual to determine the magnitude of changes in blood bicarbonate and associated side effects...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893592/short-term-d-aspartic-acid-supplementation-does-not-affect-serum-biomarkers-associated-with-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-male-climbers
#16
Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Piotr Zmijewski, Zbigniew Obmiński
D-aspartic acid (DAA) is promoted as a testosterone (T) enhancing supplement by mechanisms involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Here, we investigated the short-term effects of DAA on serum biomarkers of the HPG-axis in male climbers. Using a single-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 16 climbers were randomly assigned to either a DAA (3 g/day) or placebo (3 g/day) supplement for 2 weeks. The reverse treatment commenced after a 2-week washout, with all conditions administered in a balanced manner...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485323/the-effect-of-1-week-of-a-multi-ingredient-dietary-preworkout-supplement-on-resting-and-postacute-resistance-exercise-vascular-function
#17
Austin T Robinson, Adriana Mazzuco, Ahmad S Sabbahi, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Shane A Phillips
Dietary preworkout supplements are popular among recreational exercisers and athletes. However, the effects of these supplements on the vasculature, both at rest and during exercise, are not well studied. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 1 week of supplementation with a multi-ingredient dietary preworkout supplement on measures of vascular function at rest and immediately following acute resistance exercise in young, recreationally active adults. Twelve participants (9 males and 3 females; mean ± SD: age = 24...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893586/case-study-fatal-exertional-rhabdomyolysis-possibly-related-to-drastic-weight-cutting
#18
Kadhiresan R Murugappan, Michael N Cocchi, Somnath Bose, Sara E Neves, Charles H Cook, Todd Sarge, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz
Rapid weight loss or "weight cutting" is a dangerous practice that is ubiquitous in modern combat sports yet underrepresented in the medical literature. We present a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a mixed martial artist with sickle cell trait to illustrate the hazards of weight cutting and ensuing critical illness. Sickle cell trait is known to predispose patients to exertional rhabdomyolysis, and multiple fatal cases have been reported in the setting of strenuous exercise. Dehydration and consequent electrolyte abnormalities make combat sport athletes with sickle cell trait particularly vulnerable to this entity...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485324/protein-supplementation-during-a-6-month-concurrent-training-program-effect-on-body-composition-and-muscular-strength-in-sedentary-individuals
#19
Michael J Ormsbee, Brandon D Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L Binkley, Bonny L Specker, Matthew D Vukovich
We examined the effect of a protein supplement on muscular strength and body composition during 6 months of a 5 days/week concurrent strength and endurance training program. Sedentary males (n = 26) and females (n = 25), 18-25 years, were randomly assigned to receive a protein (PRO, 42 g/serving) or carbohydrate (CON) supplement twice daily. Strength and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed at baseline, 3 (3M), and 6 (6M) months. Protein intake was higher in PRO (PRO: 2...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722586/australian-football-athletes-lack-awareness-of-current-sport-nutrition-guidelines
#20
Gina L Trakman, Adrienne Forsyth, Kane Middleton, Russell Hoye, Sarah Jenner, Stephen Keenan, Regina Belski
Sports nutrition is an evolving field, but there is a lack of data on Australian athletes' knowledge of current sports nutrition guidelines. Additionally, several tools used to assess nutrition knowledge (NK) have not undergone adequate validation. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the sports NK of elite and nonelite Australian football (AF) athletes using a newly validated questionnaire-The Nutrition for Sport Knowledge Questionnaire. Elite AF players (n = 46) were recruited directly from their club dietitian and nonelite AF players (n = 53) were invited to participate via e-mail from their club president or secretary...
September 9, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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