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International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050930/the-effects-of-crushed-ice-ingestion-prior-to-steady-state-exercise-in-the-heat
#1
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen E Wallman, Jacinta Saldaris
This study examined the physiological effects of crushed ice ingestion prior to steady state exercise in the heat. Ten healthy males with age (23±3 y), height (176.9±8.7 cm), body-mass (73.5±8.0 kg), V̇O2peak (48.5±3.6 mL·kg·min(-1)) participated in the study. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 55% of their V̇O2peak preceded by 30 min of pre-cooling whereby 7 g·kg(-1) of thermoneutral water (CON) or crushed ice (ICE) was ingested. The reduction in Tc at the conclusion of pre-cooling was greater in ICE (-0...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050927/energy-intake-and-expenditure-of-professional-soccer-players-of-the-english-premier-league-evidence-of-carbohydrate-periodization
#2
Liam Anderson, Patrick Orme, Robert J Naughton, Graeme L Close, Jordan Milsom, David Rydings, Andy O'Boyle, Rocco Di Michele, Julien Louis, Catherine Hambley, John Roger Speakman, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust, James P Morton
In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n=6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (P>0...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050921/influence-of-dietary-acid-load-on-exercise-performance
#3
Catherine Applegate, Mackenzie Mueller, Krystle E Zuniga
Diet composition can affect systemic pH and acid-base regulation, which may in turn influence exercise performance. An acidic environment in the muscle impairs performance and contributes to fatigue; therefore, current trends in sports nutrition place importance on maximizing the alkalinity of the body with ergogenic aids and dietary strategies. This review examines the evidence on the effects of dietary manipulations on acid load and exercise performance. Ten studies that investigated the effect of high versus low dietary acid loads on athletic performance generally identified that low dietary acid loads increased plasma pH, but did not consistently improve exercise performance at maximal or submaximal exercise intensities...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997264/decrease-in-ionized-and-total-magnesium-blood-concentrations-in-endurance-athletes-following-an-exercise-bout-restores-within-hours-potential-consequences-for-monitoring-and-supplementation
#4
Rieneke Terink, Michael G J Balvers, Maria T Hopman, Renger F Witkamp, Marco Mensink, Jacqueline M T Klein Gunnewiek
Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO2max, 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997263/dietary-nitrate-fails-to-improve-1-and-4km-cycling-performance-in-highly-trained-cyclists
#5
Joseph A McQuillan, Deborah K Dulson, Paul B Laursen, Andrew E Kilding
We aimed to compare the effects of two different dosing durations of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on 1- and 4km cycling time-trial performance in highly-trained cyclists. In a double-blind crossover-design, nine highly-trained cyclists ingested 140ml of NO3--rich beetroot juice containing ~8.0mmol [NO3-], or placebo, for seven days. Participants completed a range of laboratory-based trials to quantify physiological and perceptual responses and cycling performance: time-trials on day 3 and 6 (4km) and on day 4 and 7 (1km) of the supplementation period...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997261/effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-neurotrophic-factors-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-induced-by-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-in-male-college-students
#6
Hee-Tae Roh, Su-Youn Cho, Hyung-Gi Yoon, Wi-Young So
We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise intensity on oxidative-nitrosative stress, neurotrophic factor expression, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Fifteen healthy men performed treadmill running under low-intensity (LI), moderate-intensity (MI), and high-intensity (HI) conditions. Blood samples were collected immediately before exercise (IBE), immediately after exercise (IAE), and 60 minutes after exercise (60MAE) to examine oxidative-nitrosative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]; nitric oxide [NO]), neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]; nerve growth factor [NGF]), and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (S-100β; neuron-specific enolase)...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997257/solid-gel-and-liquid-carbohydrate-format-effects-on-gut-comfort-and-performance
#7
Mathilde Guillochon, David S Rowlands
Carbohydrate sports drinks produce worthwhile benefits to endurance performance compared with non-caloric controls. However, athletes now consume carbohydrate in a range of formats, including gels and bars, but the comparable performance outcomes are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relative effects of drink, gel, bar, and mixed carbohydrate formats on intense cycling performance. In a treatment-apparent randomised crossover design, 12 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials comprising a 140-min race simulation, followed by a double-blind slow-ramp to exhaustion (0...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834492/single-and-combined-effects-of-beetroot-crystals-and-sodium-bicarbonate-on-4-km-cycling-time-trial-performance
#8
Marcus J Callahan, Evelyn B Parr, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
When ingested alone, beetroot juice and sodium bicarbonate are ergogenic for high-intensity exercise performance. This study sought to determine the independent and combined effects of these supplements. Eight endurance trained (V̇O2max 65 mL·kg·min(-1)) male cyclists completed four x 4-km time trials (TT) in a double-blind Latin square design supplementing with beetroot crystals (BC) for 3 days (15 g.day(-1) + 15 g 1 h prior to TT, containing 300 mg nitrate per 15 g), bicarbonate (Bi 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass [BM] in 5 doses every 15 min from 2...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768517/mild-dehydration-does-not-influence-performance-or-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-during-simulated-ice-hockey-exercise-in-men
#9
Matthew S Palmer, George Jf Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 x 45-second cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 seconds of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768510/habitual-dietary-nitrate-intake-in-highly-trained-athletes
#10
Kristin L Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Floris C Wardenaar, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement amongst athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2-4 week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768503/effect-of-alcohol-consumption-on-recovery-from-eccentric-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#11
Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett, Matthew Barnes
This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately post-exercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg pre-damage, 36h-post, and 60h-post damage...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768399/coconut-water-does-not-improve-markers-of-hydration-during-sub-maximal-exercise-and-performance-in-a-subsequent-time-trial-compared-to-water-alone
#12
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768397/creatine-monohydrate-supplementation-does-not-augment-fitness-performance-or-body-composition-adaptations-in-response-to-four-weeks-of-high-intensity-interval-training-in-young-females
#13
Scott C Forbes, Nathan Sletten, Cody Durrer, Étienne Myette-Cote, Darren Candow, Jonathan P Little
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. Creatine (Cr) supplementation may augment responses to HIIT, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four weeks of HIIT (three sessions/week) combined with Cr supplementation in recreationally active females. Seventeen females (age = 23 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 23.4 ± 2.4) were randomly assigned to either Cr (Cr; 0...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710165/dietary-intake-body-composition-and-nutrition-knowledge-of-australian-football-and-soccer-players-implications-for-sports-nutrition-professionals-in-practice
#14
Brooke L Devlin, Michael D Leveritt, Michael Kingsley, Regina Belski
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hour recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and sub-elite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710154/personal-trainer-perceptions-of-providing-nutrition-care-to-clients-a-qualitative-exploration
#15
Katelyn Barnes, Lauren Ball, Ben Desbrow
Personal trainers are well placed to provide basic nutrition care in line with national dietary guidelines. However, many personal trainers provide nutrition care beyond their scope of practice and this has been identified as a major industry risk due to a perceived lack of competence in nutrition. This paper explores the context in which personal trainers provide nutrition care, by understanding personal trainers' perceptions of nutrition care in relation to their role and scope of practice. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 15 personal trainers working within Australia...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710151/exertional-hyponatremia-and-serum-sodium-change-during-ultraendurance-cycling
#16
Lawrence E Armstrong, Elaine C Lee, Douglas Casa, Evan C Johnson, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon McDermott, Jakob Vingren, Hymn M Oh, Keith H Williamson
Although case reports of exertional hyponatremia (EH) during prolonged exercise implicate retention of excess fluid, athletes with EH experience either loss, gain, or no change of body weight. Thus, the etiology and predisposing factors of EH may not be the same in all athletes. The present field investigation evaluated two unacquainted recreational cyclists (LC, 31y and AM, 39y) who began exercise with normal serum electrolytes but finished a summer 164-km ride (ambient, 34±5°C) with a serum [Na+] of 130 mmol/L...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710150/dietary-protein-intake-and-distribution-patterns-of-well-trained-dutch-athletes
#17
Jenna B Gillen, Jorn Trommelen, Floris C Wardenaar, Naomi Y J Brinkmans, Joline J Versteegen, Kristin L Jonvik, Christoph Kapp, Jeanne de Vries, Joost J G C van den Borne, Martin J Gibala, Luc J C van Loon
Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific protein-containing food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various protein-containing food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710149/heightened-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-at-simulated-moderate-level-altitude-vs-sea-level-in-trained-cyclists
#18
Alex J Wadley, Ida S Svendsen, Michael Gleeson
Altitude exposure can exaggerate the transient increase in markers of oxidative stress observed following acute exercise. However, these responses have not been monitored in endurance-trained cyclists at altitudes typically experienced whilst training. Endurance trained males (n=12; mean (±SD) age: 28 ± 4 years, V̇O2max 63.7 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min) undertook two 75-min exercise trials at 70% relative V̇O2max; once in normoxia and once in hypobaric hypoxia, equivalent to 2000m above sea level (hypoxia). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 2 h post-exercise to assess plasma parameters of oxidative stress (protein carbonylation (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase activity (CAT))...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710148/fluid-retention-and-utility-of-practical-hydration-markers-to-detect-3-levels-of-recovery-fluid-intake-in-male-runners
#19
Mary Caitlin Stevenson Wilcoxson, Samantha Louise Johnson, Veronika Pribyslavska, James Mathew Green, Eric Kyle O'Neal
Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200±300 mL of sweat loss (3.1±0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/post-breakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 mL (low; L), 2,065/2,593 mL (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710147/seasonal-variation-in-vitamin-d-status-in-elite-athletes-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Evelien Backx, Cindy van der Avoort, Michael Tieland, Kamiel Maase, Arie Kies, Luc van Loon, Lisette de Groot, Marco Mensink
Studies monitoring vitamin D status in athletes are seldom conducted for a period of 12 months or longer, thereby lacking insight into seasonal fluctuations. The objective of the cur-rent study was to identify seasonal changes in total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concen-tration throughout the year. Fifty-two, mainly Caucasian athletes with a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration (>75 nmol/L) in June were included in this study. Serum 25(OH)D concentra-tion was measured every three months (June, September, December, March, June)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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