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Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine

Laura Bianchi, Assunta Gagliardi, Claudia Landi, Riccardo Focarelli, Vincenzo De Leo, Alice Luddi, Luca Bini, Paola Piomboni
The human follicular fluid (HFF) contains molecules and proteins that may affect follicle growth, oocyte maturation and competence acquiring. Despite the numerous studies, an integrated broad overview on biomolecular and patho/physiological processes that are proved or supposed to take place in HFF during folliculogenesis and oocyte development is still missing. In this review we report, for the first time, all the proteins unambiguously detected in HFF and, applying DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) and MetaCore bioinformatic resources, we shed new lights on their functional correlation, delineating protein patterns and pathways with reasonable potentialities for oocyte quality estimation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) programs...
May 6, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Paula Saá, David A Harris, Larisa Cervenakova
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterised by long incubation period, short clinical duration, and transmissibility to susceptible species. Neuronal loss, spongiform changes, gliosis and the accumulation in the brain of the misfolded version of a membrane-bound cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), termed PrP(TSE), are diagnostic markers of these diseases. Compelling evidence links protein misfolding and its accumulation with neurodegenerative changes...
April 8, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Zhilu Xu, Xiang Zhang, Jennie Lau, Jun Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more severe form of NAFLD and causes subsequent pathological changes including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Inflammation is the key pathological change in NASH and involves a series of cytokines and chemokines. The C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), which is known as a pro-inflammation chemokine, was recently proven to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of NASH...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Valerie Sloane Jones, Jian Wu, Si-Wei Zhu, Ruo-Pan Huang
Eye-derived fluids, including tears, aqueous humour and vitreous humour often contain molecular signatures of ocular disease states. These signatures can be composed of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and soluble receptors. However, the small quantities (<10 µl) of these fluids severely limit the detection of these proteins by traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot. To maximise the amount of information generated from the analysis of these specimens, many researchers have employed multiplex immunoassay technologies for profiling the expression or modification of multiple proteins from minute sample volumes...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Kewei Wang
UNLABELLED: Steatosis is an early characteristic in the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease (FLD). Mechanisms of hepatic steatosis are aetiology-dependent. Activation of autophagy in liver ameliorates hepatic steatosis. A modulation of hepatic autophagy affects the degree of hepatocyte steatosis and the progression of FLD as demonstrated by pre-clinical models and clinical trials. This review summarises recent advances on pathophysiological roles of autophagy in hepatic lipid metabolism...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra Villegas
Current therapies to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) are focused on ameliorating symptoms instead of treating the underlying causes of AD. The accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers, whether by an increase in production or by a decrease in clearance, has been described as the seed that initiates the pathological cascade in AD. Developing therapies to target these species is a vital step in improving AD treatment. Aβ-immunotherapy, especially passive immunotherapy, is a promising approach to reduce the Aβ burden...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Steven X Cho, Philip J Berger, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Marcel F Nold
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is an uncommon, but devastating intestinal inflammatory disease that predominantly affects preterm infants. NEC is sometimes dubbed the spectre of neonatal intensive care units, as its onset is insidiously non-specific, and once the disease manifests, the damage inflicted on the baby's intestine is already disastrous. Subsequent sepsis and multi-organ failure entail a mortality of up to 65%. Development of effective treatments for NEC has stagnated, largely because of our lack of understanding of NEC pathogenesis...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Sonia Moreno-Grau, Agustín Ruiz
Genetic characterization of individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), i.e. people having amyloid deposits in the brain without symptoms, people suffering from subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), has spurred the interests of researchers. However, their pre-dementia genetic profile remains mostly unexplored. In this study, we reviewed the loci related to phenotypes of AD, MCI and SCD from literature and performed the first meta-analyses evaluating the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) in the risk of conversion from a healthy status to MCI and SCD...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Julian E Sale, Timothy M Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a tertiary amine with a characteristic fishy odour. It is synthesised from dietary constituents, including choline, L-carnitine, betaine and lecithin by the action of microbial enzymes during both healthy and diseased conditions in humans. Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a disease typified by its association with the characteristic fishy odour because of decreased TMA metabolism and excessive TMA excretion. Besides TMAU, a number of other diseases are associated with abnormal levels of TMA, including renal disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Irene Cuadrado, Marta Saura, Borja Castejón, Ana María Martin, Irene Herruzo, Nikolaos Balatsos, Jose Luis Zamorano, Carlos Zaragoza
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries. The aetiology is currently multifactorial, thus making them very difficult to prevent. Preclinical models of atherothrombotic diseases, including vulnerable plaque-associated complications, are now providing significant insights into pathologies like atherosclerosis, and in combination with the most recent advances in new non-invasive imaging technologies, they have become essential tools to evaluate new therapeutic strategies, with which can forecast and prevent plaque rupture...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Ivan Toral-Ojeda, Garazi Aldanondo, Jaione Lasa-Elgarresta, Haizpea Lasa-Fernández, Roberto Fernández-Torrón, Adolfo López de Munain, Ainara Vallejo-Illarramendi
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a form of muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in calpain 3 (CAPN3). Several studies have implicated Ca2+ dysregulation as an underlying event in several muscular dystrophies, including LGMD2A. In this study we used mouse and human myotube cultures, and muscle biopsies in order to determine whether dysfunction of sarco/endoplasmatic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is involved in the pathology of this disease. In CAPN3-deficient myotubes, we found decreased levels of SERCA 1 and 2 proteins, while mRNA levels remained comparable with control myotubes...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Wei Wang, Xuefeng Wang, Lang Chen, Yujiao Zhang, Zucai Xu, Jing Liu, Guohui Jiang, Jie Li, Xiaogang Zhang, KeWei Wang, Jinghui Wang, Guojun Chen, Jing Luo
miR-124, a brain-specific microRNA, was originally considered as a key regulator in neuronal differentiation and the development of the nervous system. Here we showed that miR-124 expression was suppressed in patients with epilepsy and rats after drug induced-seizures. Intrahippocampal administration of a miR-124 duplex led to alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in two rat models (pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures), while miR-124 inhibitor led to shortened onset latency in pilocarpine-induced seizure rat models...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Marjolein H F M Lentjes, Hanneke E C Niessen, Yoshimitsu Akiyama, Adriaan P de Bruïne, Veerle Melotte, Manon van Engeland
The GATA family of transcription factors consists of six proteins (GATA1-6) which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. GATA1/2/3 are required for differentiation of mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues, including the haematopoietic and central nervous system. GATA4/5/6 are implicated in development and differentiation of endoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues such as induction of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, cardiovascular embryogenesis and guidance of epithelial cell differentiation in the adult...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Mahmoud Iranpour, Adel Rezaei Moghadam, Mina Yazdi, Sudharsana R Ande, Javad Alizadeh, Emilia Wiechec, Robbin Lindsay, Michael Drebot, Kevin M Coombs, Saeid Ghavami
Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Chunwan Lu, Levi Makala, Daqing Wu, Yafei Cai
The translation initiation factor eIF4E mediates a rate-limiting process that drives selective translation of many oncongenic proteins such as cyclin D1, survivin and VEGF, thereby contributing to tumour growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. As an essential regulatory hub in cancer signalling network, many oncogenic signalling pathways appear to converge on eIF4E. Therefore, targeting eIF4E-mediated cap-dependent translation is considered a promising anticancer strategy. This paper reviews the strategies that can be used to target eIF4E, highlighting agents that target eIF4E activity at each distinct level...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Gary Swee-Lim Peh, Shweta Singhal, Bee-Tin Goh, Jodhbir S Mehta
Regenerative medicine using patient's own stem cells (SCs) to repair dysfunctional tissues is an attractive approach to complement surgical and pharmacological treatments for aging and degenerative disorders. Recently, dental SCs have drawn much attention owing to their accessibility, plasticity and applicability for regenerative use not only for dental, but also other body tissues. In ophthalmology, there has been increasing interest to differentiate dental pulp SC and periodontal ligament SC (PDLSC) towards ocular lineage...
2015: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Anne-Christine Field, Waseem Qasim
Alongside advancements in gene therapy for inherited immune disorders, the need for effective alternative therapeutic options for other conditions has resulted in an expansion in the field of research for T cell gene therapy. T cells are easily obtained and can be induced to divide robustly ex vivo, a characteristic that allows them to be highly permissible to viral vector-mediated introduction of transgenes. Pioneering clinical trials targeting cancers and infectious diseases have provided safety and feasibility data and important information about persistence of engineered cells in vivo...
2015: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Hao Deng, Ting Tan, Lamei Yuan
Polydactyly is one of the most common inherited limb abnormalities, characterised by supernumerary fingers or toes. It results from disturbances in the normal programme of the anterior-posterior axis of the developing limb, with diverse aetiology and variable inter- and intra-familial clinical features. Polydactyly can occur as an isolated disorder (non-syndromic polydactyly) or as a part of an anomaly syndrome (syndromic polydactyly). On the basis of the anatomic location of the duplicated digits, non-syndromic polydactyly is divided into three kinds, including preaxial polydactyly, axial polydactyly and postaxial polydactyly...
2015: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Venessa T Chin, Adnan M Nagrial, Angela Chou, Andrew V Biankin, Anthony J Gill, Paul Timpson, Marina Pajic
The Rho/ROCK pathway is involved in numerous pivotal cellular processes that have made it an area of intense study in cancer medicine, however, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitors are yet to make an appearance in the clinical cancer setting. Their performance as an anti-cancer therapy has been varied in pre-clinical studies, however, they have been shown to be effective vasodilators in the treatment of hypertension and post-ischaemic stroke vasospasm. This review addresses the various roles the Rho/ROCK pathway plays in angiogenesis, tumour vascular tone and reciprocal feedback from the tumour microenvironment and explores the potential utility of ROCK inhibitors as effective vascular normalising agents...
2015: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
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