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Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876109/the-complex-metabolism-of-trimethylamine-in-humans-endogenous-and-exogenous-sources-corrigendum
#1
Jyoti Chhibber Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817751/novel-insight-into-triple-negative-breast-cancers-the-emerging-role-of-angiogenesis-and-antiangiogenic-therapy
#2
Cornelia Braicu, Roxana Chiorean, Alexandru Irimie, Sergiu Chira, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Emilian Neagoe, Angelo Paradiso, Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu, Vladimir Lazar, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous group of tumours characterised by lack of expression of oestrogen-, progesterone- and human epidermal growth factor receptors. TNBC, which represents approximately 15% of all mammary tumours, has a poor prognosis because of an aggressive behaviour and the lack of specific treatment. Accordingly, TNBC has become a major focus of research into breast cancer and is now classified into several molecular subtypes, each with a different prognosis. Pathological angiogenesis occurs at a late stage in the proliferation of TNBC and is associated with invasion and metastasis; there is an association with metabolic syndrome...
November 7, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804912/emerging-therapies-for-acute-intermittent-porphyria
#3
Antonio Fontanellas, Matías A Ávila, Pedro Berraondo
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disease caused by hepatic deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), the third enzyme of the heme synthesis pathway. The dominant clinical feature is acute neurovisceral attack associated with high production of potentially neurotoxic porphyrin precursors due to increased hepatic heme consumption. Current Standard of Care is based on a down-regulation of hepatic heme synthesis using heme therapy. Recurrent hyper-activation of the hepatic heme synthesis pathway affects about 5% of patients and can be associated with neurological and metabolic manifestations and long-term complications including chronic kidney disease and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577534/application-of-multiplex-immunoassay-technology-to-investigations-of-ocular-disease
#4
Valerie Sloane Jones, Jian Wu, Si-Wei Zhu, Ruo-Pan Huang
Eye-derived fluids, including tears, aqueous humour and vitreous humour often contain molecular signatures of ocular disease states. These signatures can be composed of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and soluble receptors. However, the small quantities (<10 µl) of these fluids severely limit the detection of these proteins by traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot. To maximise the amount of information generated from the analysis of these specimens, many researchers have employed multiplex immunoassay technologies for profiling the expression or modification of multiple proteins from minute sample volumes...
August 31, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27149979/protein-pathways-working-in-human-follicular-fluid-the-future-for-tailored-ivf
#5
REVIEW
Laura Bianchi, Assunta Gagliardi, Claudia Landi, Riccardo Focarelli, Vincenzo De Leo, Alice Luddi, Luca Bini, Paola Piomboni
The human follicular fluid (HFF) contains molecules and proteins that may affect follicle growth, oocyte maturation and competence acquiring. Despite the numerous studies, an integrated broad overview on biomolecular and patho/physiological processes that are proved or supposed to take place in HFF during folliculogenesis and oocyte development is still missing. In this review we report, for the first time, all the proteins unambiguously detected in HFF and, applying DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) and MetaCore bioinformatic resources, we shed new lights on their functional correlation, delineating protein patterns and pathways with reasonable potentialities for oocyte quality estimation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) programs...
May 6, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126549/the-complex-metabolism-of-trimethylamine-in-humans-endogenous-and-exogenous-sources
#6
REVIEW
Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a tertiary amine with a characteristic fishy odour. It is synthesised from dietary constituents, including choline, L-carnitine, betaine and lecithin by the action of microbial enzymes during both healthy and diseased conditions in humans. Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a disease typified by its association with the characteristic fishy odour because of decreased TMA metabolism and excessive TMA excretion. Besides TMAU, a number of other diseases are associated with abnormal levels of TMA, including renal disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders...
April 29, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056676/preclinical-models-of-atherosclerosis-the-future-of-hybrid-pet-mr-technology-for-the-early-detection-of-vulnerable-plaque
#7
REVIEW
Irene Cuadrado, Marta Saura, Borja Castejón, Ana María Martin, Irene Herruzo, Nikolaos Balatsos, Jose Luis Zamorano, Carlos Zaragoza
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries. The aetiology is currently multifactorial, thus making them very difficult to prevent. Preclinical models of atherothrombotic diseases, including vulnerable plaque-associated complications, are now providing significant insights into pathologies like atherosclerosis, and in combination with the most recent advances in new non-invasive imaging technologies, they have become essential tools to evaluate new therapeutic strategies, with which can forecast and prevent plaque rupture...
April 8, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055367/mechanisms-of-prion-induced-neurodegeneration
#8
REVIEW
Paula Saá, David A Harris, Larisa Cervenakova
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterised by long incubation period, short clinical duration, and transmissibility to susceptible species. Neuronal loss, spongiform changes, gliosis and the accumulation in the brain of the misfolded version of a membrane-bound cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), termed PrP(TSE), are diagnostic markers of these diseases. Compelling evidence links protein misfolding and its accumulation with neurodegenerative changes...
April 8, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26781343/apoptosis-autophagy-and-unfolded-protein-response-pathways-in-arbovirus-replication-and-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Mahmoud Iranpour, Adel Rezaei Moghadam, Mina Yazdi, Sudharsana R Ande, Javad Alizadeh, Emilia Wiechec, Robbin Lindsay, Michael Drebot, Kevin M Coombs, Saeid Ghavami
Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses...
January 19, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26775675/targeting-translation-eif4e-as-an-emerging-anticancer-drug-target
#10
REVIEW
Chunwan Lu, Levi Makala, Daqing Wu, Yafei Cai
The translation initiation factor eIF4E mediates a rate-limiting process that drives selective translation of many oncongenic proteins such as cyclin D1, survivin and VEGF, thereby contributing to tumour growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. As an essential regulatory hub in cancer signalling network, many oncogenic signalling pathways appear to converge on eIF4E. Therefore, targeting eIF4E-mediated cap-dependent translation is considered a promising anticancer strategy. This paper reviews the strategies that can be used to target eIF4E, highlighting agents that target eIF4E activity at each distinct level...
January 18, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669973/c-x-c-motif-chemokine-10-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-role-as-a-pro-inflammatory-factor-and-clinical-implication
#11
Zhilu Xu, Xiang Zhang, Jennie Lau, Jun Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more severe form of NAFLD and causes subsequent pathological changes including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Inflammation is the key pathological change in NASH and involves a series of cytokines and chemokines. The C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), which is known as a pro-inflammation chemokine, was recently proven to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of NASH...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499351/molecular-mechanism-of-hepatic-steatosis-pathophysiological-role-of-autophagy
#12
Kewei Wang
UNLABELLED: Steatosis is an early characteristic in the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease (FLD). Mechanisms of hepatic steatosis are aetiology-dependent. Activation of autophagy in liver ameliorates hepatic steatosis. A modulation of hepatic autophagy affects the degree of hepatocyte steatosis and the progression of FLD as demonstrated by pre-clinical models and clinical trials. This review summarises recent advances on pathophysiological roles of autophagy in hepatic lipid metabolism...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357999/a%C3%AE-immunotherapeutic-strategies-a-wide-range-of-approaches-for-alzheimer-s-disease-treatment
#13
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra Villegas
Current therapies to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) are focused on ameliorating symptoms instead of treating the underlying causes of AD. The accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers, whether by an increase in production or by a decrease in clearance, has been described as the seed that initiates the pathological cascade in AD. Developing therapies to target these species is a vital step in improving AD treatment. Aβ-immunotherapy, especially passive immunotherapy, is a promising approach to reduce the Aβ burden...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341512/the-immunological-landscape-in-necrotising-enterocolitis
#14
Steven X Cho, Philip J Berger, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Marcel F Nold
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is an uncommon, but devastating intestinal inflammatory disease that predominantly affects preterm infants. NEC is sometimes dubbed the spectre of neonatal intensive care units, as its onset is insidiously non-specific, and once the disease manifests, the damage inflicted on the baby's intestine is already disastrous. Subsequent sepsis and multi-organ failure entail a mortality of up to 65%. Development of effective treatments for NEC has stagnated, largely because of our lack of understanding of NEC pathogenesis...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27237222/genome-research-in-pre-dementia-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Sonia Moreno-Grau, Agustín Ruiz
Genetic characterization of individuals at risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), i.e. people having amyloid deposits in the brain without symptoms, people suffering from subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), has spurred the interests of researchers. However, their pre-dementia genetic profile remains mostly unexplored. In this study, we reviewed the loci related to phenotypes of AD, MCI and SCD from literature and performed the first meta-analyses evaluating the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) in the risk of conversion from a healthy status to MCI and SCD...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160347/editorial
#16
Julian E Sale, Timothy M Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055500/calpain-3-deficiency-affects-serca-expression-and-function-in-the-skeletal-muscle
#17
Ivan Toral-Ojeda, Garazi Aldanondo, Jaione Lasa-Elgarresta, Haizpea Lasa-Fernández, Roberto Fernández-Torrón, Adolfo López de Munain, Ainara Vallejo-Illarramendi
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a form of muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in calpain 3 (CAPN3). Several studies have implicated Ca2+ dysregulation as an underlying event in several muscular dystrophies, including LGMD2A. In this study we used mouse and human myotube cultures, and muscle biopsies in order to determine whether dysfunction of sarco/endoplasmatic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is involved in the pathology of this disease. In CAPN3-deficient myotubes, we found decreased levels of SERCA 1 and 2 proteins, while mRNA levels remained comparable with control myotubes...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996991/the-microrna-mir-124-suppresses-seizure-activity-and-regulates-creb1-activity
#18
Wei Wang, Xuefeng Wang, Lang Chen, Yujiao Zhang, Zucai Xu, Jing Liu, Guohui Jiang, Jie Li, Xiaogang Zhang, KeWei Wang, Jinghui Wang, Guojun Chen, Jing Luo
miR-124, a brain-specific microRNA, was originally considered as a key regulator in neuronal differentiation and the development of the nervous system. Here we showed that miR-124 expression was suppressed in patients with epilepsy and rats after drug induced-seizures. Intrahippocampal administration of a miR-124 duplex led to alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in two rat models (pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures), while miR-124 inhibitor led to shortened onset latency in pilocarpine-induced seizure rat models...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26953528/the-emerging-role-of-gata-transcription-factors-in-development-and-disease
#19
Marjolein H F M Lentjes, Hanneke E C Niessen, Yoshimitsu Akiyama, Adriaan P de Bruïne, Veerle Melotte, Manon van Engeland
The GATA family of transcription factors consists of six proteins (GATA1-6) which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. GATA1/2/3 are required for differentiation of mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues, including the haematopoietic and central nervous system. GATA4/5/6 are implicated in development and differentiation of endoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues such as induction of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, cardiovascular embryogenesis and guidance of epithelial cell differentiation in the adult...
2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26530808/engineered-t-cell-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Anne-Christine Field, Waseem Qasim
Alongside advancements in gene therapy for inherited immune disorders, the need for effective alternative therapeutic options for other conditions has resulted in an expansion in the field of research for T cell gene therapy. T cells are easily obtained and can be induced to divide robustly ex vivo, a characteristic that allows them to be highly permissible to viral vector-mediated introduction of transgenes. Pioneering clinical trials targeting cancers and infectious diseases have provided safety and feasibility data and important information about persistence of engineered cells in vivo...
November 4, 2015: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
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