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Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine

Barnabas James Walker, Guy-Bart V Stan, Karen Marie Polizzi
Biologics are a promising new class of drugs based on complex macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. However, delivery of these macromolecules into the cytoplasm of target cells remains a significant challenge. Here we present one potential solution: bacterial nanomachines that have evolved over millions of years to efficiently deliver proteins and nucleic acids across cell membranes and between cells. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the different bacterial systems capable of direct delivery into the eukaryotic cytoplasm and the medical applications for which they are being investigated, along with a perspective on the future directions of this exciting field...
April 6, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Sasan Andalib, Afshin A Divani, Tanja M Michel, Poul F Høilund-Carlsen, Manouchehr S Vafaee, Albert Gjedde
Ischaemic heart disease and stroke are vascular events with serious health consequences worldwide. Recent genetic and epigenetic techniques have revealed many genetic determinants of these vascular events and simplified the approaches to research focused on ischaemic heart disease and stroke. The pathogenetic mechanisms of ischaemic heart disease and stroke are complex, with mitochondrial involvement (partially or entirely) recently gaining substantial support. Not only can mitochondrial reactive oxygen species give rise to ischaemic heart disease and stroke by production of oxidised low-density lipoprotein and induction of apoptosis, but the impact on pericytes contributes directly to the pathogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Yoshio Yamaoka, David Y Graham
Gastric cancer is an inflammation-associated malignancy aetiologically related to infection with the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, which is considered a necessary but insufficient cause. Unless treated, H. pylori causes life-long acute and chronic gastric inflammation resulting in progressive gastric mucosal damage that may result in gastric cancer. The rate of progression from superficial gastritis, to an atrophic metaplastic mucosa, and ultimately to cancer relates to the virulence of the infecting H. pylori as well as host and environmental factors...
March 21, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Minal Garg
Cancer metastasis occurs through local invasion of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), intravasation, transportation to distant sites, and their extravasation followed by colonisation at secondary sites. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a normal developmental phenomenon, but its aberrant activation confers tumour cells with enhanced cell motility, metastatic properties, resistant to therapies and cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in epithelium-derived carcinoma. Experimental studies from various research papers have been reviewed to determine the factors, which interlink cancer stemness and cellular plasticity with EMT...
March 21, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Oihane Jaka, Leire Casas-Fraile, Margarita Azpitarte, Ana Aiastui, Adolfo López de Munain, Amets Sáenz
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is characterised by muscle wasting and progressive degeneration of proximal muscles because of mutations in the CAPN3 gene. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of muscle degeneration are still not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the relevance of genes with differential expression in the muscle of LGMD2A patients. For this purpose, we analysed their in vitro expression in primary cultures of human myoblasts and myotubes...
March 16, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
D Tsakogiannis, C Gartzonika, S Levidiotou-Stefanou, P Markoulatos
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is the leading cause of cervical cancer development. To this end several studies have focused on designing molecular assays for HPV genotyping, which are considered as the gold standard for the early diagnosis of HPV infection. Moreover, the tendency of HPV DNA to be integrated into the host chromosome is a determining event for cervical oncogenesis. Thus, the establishment of molecular techniques was promoted in order to investigate the physical status of the HPV DNA and the locus of viral insertion into the host chromosome...
February 6, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Jyoti Chhibber Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Cornelia Braicu, Roxana Chiorean, Alexandru Irimie, Sergiu Chira, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Emilian Neagoe, Angelo Paradiso, Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu, Vladimir Lazar, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous group of tumours characterised by lack of expression of oestrogen-, progesterone- and human epidermal growth factor receptors. TNBC, which represents approximately 15% of all mammary tumours, has a poor prognosis because of an aggressive behaviour and the lack of specific treatment. Accordingly, TNBC has become a major focus of research into breast cancer and is now classified into several molecular subtypes, each with a different prognosis. Pathological angiogenesis occurs at a late stage in the proliferation of TNBC and is associated with invasion and metastasis; there is an association with metabolic syndrome...
November 7, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Antonio Fontanellas, Matías A Ávila, Pedro Berraondo
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disease caused by hepatic deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), the third enzyme of the heme synthesis pathway. The dominant clinical feature is acute neurovisceral attack associated with high production of potentially neurotoxic porphyrin precursors due to increased hepatic heme consumption. Current Standard of Care is based on a down-regulation of hepatic heme synthesis using heme therapy. Recurrent hyper-activation of the hepatic heme synthesis pathway affects about 5% of patients and can be associated with neurological and metabolic manifestations and long-term complications including chronic kidney disease and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Valerie Sloane Jones, Jian Wu, Si-Wei Zhu, Ruo-Pan Huang
Eye-derived fluids, including tears, aqueous humour and vitreous humour often contain molecular signatures of ocular disease states. These signatures can be composed of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and soluble receptors. However, the small quantities (<10 µl) of these fluids severely limit the detection of these proteins by traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot. To maximise the amount of information generated from the analysis of these specimens, many researchers have employed multiplex immunoassay technologies for profiling the expression or modification of multiple proteins from minute sample volumes...
August 31, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Julian E Sale, Timothy M Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Laura Bianchi, Assunta Gagliardi, Claudia Landi, Riccardo Focarelli, Vincenzo De Leo, Alice Luddi, Luca Bini, Paola Piomboni
The human follicular fluid (HFF) contains molecules and proteins that may affect follicle growth, oocyte maturation and competence acquiring. Despite the numerous studies, an integrated broad overview on biomolecular and patho/physiological processes that are proved or supposed to take place in HFF during folliculogenesis and oocyte development is still missing. In this review we report, for the first time, all the proteins unambiguously detected in HFF and, applying DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) and MetaCore bioinformatic resources, we shed new lights on their functional correlation, delineating protein patterns and pathways with reasonable potentialities for oocyte quality estimation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) programs...
May 6, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
Trimethylamine (TMA) is a tertiary amine with a characteristic fishy odour. It is synthesised from dietary constituents, including choline, L-carnitine, betaine and lecithin by the action of microbial enzymes during both healthy and diseased conditions in humans. Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a disease typified by its association with the characteristic fishy odour because of decreased TMA metabolism and excessive TMA excretion. Besides TMAU, a number of other diseases are associated with abnormal levels of TMA, including renal disorders, cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders...
April 29, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Irene Cuadrado, Marta Saura, Borja Castejón, Ana María Martin, Irene Herruzo, Nikolaos Balatsos, Jose Luis Zamorano, Carlos Zaragoza
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries. The aetiology is currently multifactorial, thus making them very difficult to prevent. Preclinical models of atherothrombotic diseases, including vulnerable plaque-associated complications, are now providing significant insights into pathologies like atherosclerosis, and in combination with the most recent advances in new non-invasive imaging technologies, they have become essential tools to evaluate new therapeutic strategies, with which can forecast and prevent plaque rupture...
April 8, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Ivan Toral-Ojeda, Garazi Aldanondo, Jaione Lasa-Elgarresta, Haizpea Lasa-Fernández, Roberto Fernández-Torrón, Adolfo López de Munain, Ainara Vallejo-Illarramendi
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a form of muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in calpain 3 (CAPN3). Several studies have implicated Ca2+ dysregulation as an underlying event in several muscular dystrophies, including LGMD2A. In this study we used mouse and human myotube cultures, and muscle biopsies in order to determine whether dysfunction of sarco/endoplasmatic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is involved in the pathology of this disease. In CAPN3-deficient myotubes, we found decreased levels of SERCA 1 and 2 proteins, while mRNA levels remained comparable with control myotubes...
April 8, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Paula Saá, David A Harris, Larisa Cervenakova
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterised by long incubation period, short clinical duration, and transmissibility to susceptible species. Neuronal loss, spongiform changes, gliosis and the accumulation in the brain of the misfolded version of a membrane-bound cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), termed PrP(TSE), are diagnostic markers of these diseases. Compelling evidence links protein misfolding and its accumulation with neurodegenerative changes...
April 8, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Wei Wang, Xuefeng Wang, Lang Chen, Yujiao Zhang, Zucai Xu, Jing Liu, Guohui Jiang, Jie Li, Xiaogang Zhang, KeWei Wang, Jinghui Wang, Guojun Chen, Jing Luo
miR-124, a brain-specific microRNA, was originally considered as a key regulator in neuronal differentiation and the development of the nervous system. Here we showed that miR-124 expression was suppressed in patients with epilepsy and rats after drug induced-seizures. Intrahippocampal administration of a miR-124 duplex led to alleviated seizure severity and prolonged onset latency in two rat models (pentylenetetrazole- and pilocarpine-induced seizures), while miR-124 inhibitor led to shortened onset latency in pilocarpine-induced seizure rat models...
March 21, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Marjolein H F M Lentjes, Hanneke E C Niessen, Yoshimitsu Akiyama, Adriaan P de Bruïne, Veerle Melotte, Manon van Engeland
The GATA family of transcription factors consists of six proteins (GATA1-6) which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. GATA1/2/3 are required for differentiation of mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues, including the haematopoietic and central nervous system. GATA4/5/6 are implicated in development and differentiation of endoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues such as induction of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, cardiovascular embryogenesis and guidance of epithelial cell differentiation in the adult...
March 8, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Mahmoud Iranpour, Adel Rezaei Moghadam, Mina Yazdi, Sudharsana R Ande, Javad Alizadeh, Emilia Wiechec, Robbin Lindsay, Michael Drebot, Kevin M Coombs, Saeid Ghavami
Arboviruses are pathogens that widely affect the health of people in different communities around the world. Recently, a few successful approaches toward production of effective vaccines against some of these pathogens have been developed, but treatment and prevention of the resulting diseases remain a major health and research concern. The arbovirus infection and replication processes are complex, and many factors are involved in their regulation. Apoptosis, autophagy and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are three mechanisms that are involved in pathogenesis of many viruses...
January 19, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
Chunwan Lu, Levi Makala, Daqing Wu, Yafei Cai
The translation initiation factor eIF4E mediates a rate-limiting process that drives selective translation of many oncongenic proteins such as cyclin D1, survivin and VEGF, thereby contributing to tumour growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. As an essential regulatory hub in cancer signalling network, many oncogenic signalling pathways appear to converge on eIF4E. Therefore, targeting eIF4E-mediated cap-dependent translation is considered a promising anticancer strategy. This paper reviews the strategies that can be used to target eIF4E, highlighting agents that target eIF4E activity at each distinct level...
January 18, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
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