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Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747718/what-has-traditional-chinese-medicine-delivered-for-modern-medicine
#1
Jigang Wang, Yin-Kwan Wong, Fulong Liao
The field of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) represents a vast and largely untapped resource for modern medicine. Exemplified by the success of the antimalarial artemisinin, the recent years have seen a rapid increase in the understanding and application of TCM-derived herbs and formulations for evidence-based therapy. In this review, we summarise and discuss the developmental history, clinical background and molecular basis of an action for several representative TCM-derived medicines, including artemisinin, arsenic trioxide, berberine and Salvia miltiorrhiza or Danshen...
May 11, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661262/the-genetics-and-molecular-biology-of-fever-associated-seizures-or-epilepsy
#2
Hao Deng, Wen Zheng, Zhi Song
Fever-associated seizures or epilepsy (FASE) is primarily characterised by the occurrence of a seizure or epilepsy usually accompanied by a fever. It is common in infants and children, and generally includes febrile seizures (FS), febrile seizures plus (FS+), Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFSP). The aetiology of FASE is unclear. Genetic factors may play crucial roles in FASE. Mutations in certain genes may cause a wide spectrum of phenotypical overlap ranging from isolated FS, FS+ and GEFSP to DS...
April 17, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514724/oestrogen-progesterone-and-stem-cells-the-discordant-trio-in-endometriosis
#3
Chithra Janardhanan Susheelamma, Sathy M Pillai, Sivakumari Asha Nair
Oestrogen-progesterone signalling is highly versatile and critical for the maintenance of healthy endometrium in humans. The genomic and nongenomic signalling cascades initiated by these hormones in differentiated cells of endometrium have been the primary focus of research since 1920s. However, last decade of research has shown a significant role of stem cells in the maintenance of a healthy endometrium and the modulatory effects of hormones on these cells. Endometriosis, the growth of endometrium outside the uterus, is very common in infertile patients and the elusiveness in understanding of disease pathology causes hindrance in selection of treatment approaches to enhance fertility...
March 8, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343314/cell-free-dna-the-role-in-pathophysiology-and-as-a-biomarker-in-kidney-diseases
#4
Peter Celec, Barbora Vlková, Lucia Lauková, Janka Bábíčková, Peter Boor
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is present in various body fluids and originates mostly from blood cells. In specific conditions, circulating cfDNA might be derived from tumours, donor organs after transplantation or from the foetus during pregnancy. The analysis of cfDNA is mainly used for genetic analyses of the source tissue -tumour, foetus or for the early detection of graft rejection. It might serve also as a nonspecific biomarker of tissue damage in critical care medicine. In kidney diseases, cfDNA increases during haemodialysis and indicates cell damage...
January 18, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724458/clinical-and-therapeutic-potential-of-protein-kinase-pkr-in-cancer-and-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
M B Garcia-Ortega, G J Lopez, G Jimenez, J A Garcia-Garcia, V Conde, H Boulaiz, E Carrillo, M Perán, J A Marchal, M A Garcia
The protein kinase R (PKR, also called EIF2AK2) is an interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA protein kinase with multiple effects on cells that plays an active part in the cellular response to numerous types of stress. PKR has been extensively studied and documented for its relevance as an antiviral agent and a cell growth regulator. Recently, the role of PKR related to metabolism, inflammatory processes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases has gained interest. In this review, we summarise and discuss the involvement of PKR in several cancer signalling pathways and the dual role that this kinase plays in cancer disease...
July 20, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720156/fmr1-cgg-repeat-expansion-mutation-detection-and-linked-haplotype-analysis-for-reliable-and-accurate-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Indhu-Shree Rajan-Babu, Mulias Lian, Felicia S H Cheah, Min Chen, Arnold S C Tan, Ethiraj B Prasath, Seong Feei Loh, Samuel S Chong
Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) full-mutation expansion causes fragile X syndrome. Trans-generational fragile X syndrome transmission can be avoided by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). We describe a robust PGD strategy that can be applied to virtually any couple at risk of transmitting fragile X syndrome. This novel strategy utilises whole-genome amplification, followed by triplet-primed polymerase chain reaction (TP-PCR) for robust detection of expanded FMR1 alleles, in parallel with linked multi-marker haplotype analysis of 13 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers located within 1 Mb of the FMR1 CGG repeat, and the AMELX/Y dimorphism for gender identification...
July 19, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716159/bilateral-wilms-tumour-a-review-of-clinical-and-molecular-features
#7
REVIEW
Jocelyn Charlton, Sabine Irtan, Christophe Bergeron, Kathy Pritchard-Jones
Wilms tumour (WT) is the most common paediatric kidney cancer and affects approximately one in 10 000 children. The tumour is associated with undifferentiated embryonic lesions called nephrogenic rests (NRs) or, when diffuse, nephroblastomatosis. WT or NRs can occur in both kidneys, termed bilateral disease, found in only 5-8% of cases. Management of bilateral WT presents a major clinical challenge in terms of maximising survival, preserving renal function and understanding underlying genetic risk. In this review, we compile clinical data from 545 published cases of bilateral WT and discuss recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of bilateral WT and its associated precursor NRs in the context of the latest radiological, surgical and epidemiological features...
July 18, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597807/insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-copper-dyshomeostasis-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Francisco J Gil-Bea, Garazi Aldanondo, Haizpea Lasa-Fernández, Adolfo López de Munain, Ainara Vallejo-Illarramendi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neuromuscular disease characterised by a progressive loss of motor neurons that usually results in paralysis and death within 2 to 5 years after disease onset. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in ALS remain largely unknown and to date there is no effective treatment for this disease. Here, we review clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that dysregulation of copper homeostasis in the central nervous system is a crucial underlying event in motor neuron degeneration and ALS pathophysiology...
June 9, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382885/intracellular-delivery-of-biologic-therapeutics-by-bacterial-secretion-systems
#9
REVIEW
Barnabas James Walker, Guy-Bart V Stan, Karen Marie Polizzi
Biologics are a promising new class of drugs based on complex macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. However, delivery of these macromolecules into the cytoplasm of target cells remains a significant challenge. Here we present one potential solution: bacterial nanomachines that have evolved over millions of years to efficiently deliver proteins and nucleic acids across cell membranes and between cells. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the different bacterial systems capable of direct delivery into the eukaryotic cytoplasm and the medical applications for which they are being investigated, along with a perspective on the future directions of this exciting field...
April 6, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376937/pandora-s-box-mitochondrial-defects-in-ischaemic-heart-disease-and-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Sasan Andalib, Afshin A Divani, Tanja M Michel, Poul F Høilund-Carlsen, Manouchehr S Vafaee, Albert Gjedde
Ischaemic heart disease and stroke are vascular events with serious health consequences worldwide. Recent genetic and epigenetic techniques have revealed many genetic determinants of these vascular events and simplified the approaches to research focused on ischaemic heart disease and stroke. The pathogenetic mechanisms of ischaemic heart disease and stroke are complex, with mitochondrial involvement (partially or entirely) recently gaining substantial support. Not only can mitochondrial reactive oxygen species give rise to ischaemic heart disease and stroke by production of oxidised low-density lipoprotein and induction of apoptosis, but the impact on pericytes contributes directly to the pathogenesis...
April 5, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322182/helicobacter-pylori-as-an-oncogenic-pathogen-revisited
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Yoshio Yamaoka, David Y Graham
Gastric cancer is an inflammation-associated malignancy aetiologically related to infection with the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, which is considered a necessary but insufficient cause. Unless treated, H. pylori causes life-long acute and chronic gastric inflammation resulting in progressive gastric mucosal damage that may result in gastric cancer. The rate of progression from superficial gastritis, to an atrophic metaplastic mucosa, and ultimately to cancer relates to the virulence of the infecting H. pylori as well as host and environmental factors...
March 21, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322181/epithelial-mesenchymal-and-hybrid-epithelial-mesenchymal-phenotypes-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-cancer-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Minal Garg
Cancer metastasis occurs through local invasion of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), intravasation, transportation to distant sites, and their extravasation followed by colonisation at secondary sites. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a normal developmental phenomenon, but its aberrant activation confers tumour cells with enhanced cell motility, metastatic properties, resistant to therapies and cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in epithelium-derived carcinoma. Experimental studies from various research papers have been reviewed to determine the factors, which interlink cancer stemness and cellular plasticity with EMT...
March 21, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300015/frzb-and-melusin-overexpressed-in-lgmd2a-regulate-integrin-%C3%AE-1d-isoform-replacement-altering-myoblast-fusion-and-the-integrin-signalling-pathway
#13
Oihane Jaka, Leire Casas-Fraile, Margarita Azpitarte, Ana Aiastui, Adolfo López de Munain, Amets Sáenz
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is characterised by muscle wasting and progressive degeneration of proximal muscles because of mutations in the CAPN3 gene. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of muscle degeneration are still not well understood. The objective of this study was to assess the relevance of genes with differential expression in the muscle of LGMD2A patients. For this purpose, we analysed their in vitro expression in primary cultures of human myoblasts and myotubes...
March 16, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162121/molecular-approaches-for-hpv-genotyping-and-hpv-dna-physical-status
#14
REVIEW
D Tsakogiannis, C Gartzonika, S Levidiotou-Stefanou, P Markoulatos
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is the leading cause of cervical cancer development. To this end several studies have focused on designing molecular assays for HPV genotyping, which are considered as the gold standard for the early diagnosis of HPV infection. Moreover, the tendency of HPV DNA to be integrated into the host chromosome is a determining event for cervical oncogenesis. Thus, the establishment of molecular techniques was promoted in order to investigate the physical status of the HPV DNA and the locus of viral insertion into the host chromosome...
February 6, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876109/the-complex-metabolism-of-trimethylamine-in-humans-endogenous-and-exogenous-sources-corrigendum
#15
Jyoti Chhibber Goel, Anamika Gaur, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava, Amit Sharma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817751/novel-insight-into-triple-negative-breast-cancers-the-emerging-role-of-angiogenesis-and-antiangiogenic-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Cornelia Braicu, Roxana Chiorean, Alexandru Irimie, Sergiu Chira, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Emilian Neagoe, Angelo Paradiso, Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu, Vladimir Lazar, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous group of tumours characterised by lack of expression of oestrogen-, progesterone- and human epidermal growth factor receptors. TNBC, which represents approximately 15% of all mammary tumours, has a poor prognosis because of an aggressive behaviour and the lack of specific treatment. Accordingly, TNBC has become a major focus of research into breast cancer and is now classified into several molecular subtypes, each with a different prognosis. Pathological angiogenesis occurs at a late stage in the proliferation of TNBC and is associated with invasion and metastasis; there is an association with metabolic syndrome...
November 7, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804912/emerging-therapies-for-acute-intermittent-porphyria
#17
REVIEW
Antonio Fontanellas, Matías A Ávila, Pedro Berraondo
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disease caused by hepatic deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), the third enzyme of the heme synthesis pathway. The dominant clinical feature is acute neurovisceral attack associated with high production of potentially neurotoxic porphyrin precursors due to increased hepatic heme consumption. Current Standard of Care is based on a down-regulation of hepatic heme synthesis using heme therapy. Recurrent hyper-activation of the hepatic heme synthesis pathway affects about 5% of patients and can be associated with neurological and metabolic manifestations and long-term complications including chronic kidney disease and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma...
November 2, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577534/application-of-multiplex-immunoassay-technology-to-investigations-of-ocular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Valerie Sloane Jones, Jian Wu, Si-Wei Zhu, Ruo-Pan Huang
Eye-derived fluids, including tears, aqueous humour and vitreous humour often contain molecular signatures of ocular disease states. These signatures can be composed of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and soluble receptors. However, the small quantities (<10 µl) of these fluids severely limit the detection of these proteins by traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Western blot. To maximise the amount of information generated from the analysis of these specimens, many researchers have employed multiplex immunoassay technologies for profiling the expression or modification of multiple proteins from minute sample volumes...
August 31, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499351/molecular-mechanism-of-hepatic-steatosis-pathophysiological-role-of-autophagy
#19
REVIEW
Kewei Wang
UNLABELLED: Steatosis is an early characteristic in the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease (FLD). Mechanisms of hepatic steatosis are aetiology-dependent. Activation of autophagy in liver ameliorates hepatic steatosis. A modulation of hepatic autophagy affects the degree of hepatocyte steatosis and the progression of FLD as demonstrated by pre-clinical models and clinical trials. This review summarises recent advances on pathophysiological roles of autophagy in hepatic lipid metabolism...
August 8, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357999/a%C3%AE-immunotherapeutic-strategies-a-wide-range-of-approaches-for-alzheimer-s-disease-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra Villegas
Current therapies to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) are focused on ameliorating symptoms instead of treating the underlying causes of AD. The accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers, whether by an increase in production or by a decrease in clearance, has been described as the seed that initiates the pathological cascade in AD. Developing therapies to target these species is a vital step in improving AD treatment. Aβ-immunotherapy, especially passive immunotherapy, is a promising approach to reduce the Aβ burden...
June 30, 2016: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
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