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Gildas Bourdais, Deirdre H McLachlan, Lydia M Rickett, Ji Zhou, Agnieszka Siwoszek, Heidrun Häweker, Matthew Hartley, Hannah Kuhn, Richard J Morris, Dan MacLean, Silke Robatzek
Expansion of gene families facilitates robustness and evolvability of biological processes but impedes functional genetic dissection of signalling pathways. To address this, quantitative analysis of single cell responses can help characterise the redundancy within gene families. We developed high-throughput quantitative imaging of stomatal closure, a response of plant guard cells, and performed a reverse genetic screen in a group of Arabidopsis mutants to five stimuli. Focussing on the intersection between guard cell signalling and the endomembrane system, we identified eight clusters based on the mutant stomatal responses...
November 16, 2018: Traffic
Elodie Prince, Benjamin Kroeger, Dragan Gligorov, Clive Wilson, Suzanne Eaton, François Karch, Marko Brankatschk, Robert K Maeda
The male seminal fluid contains factors that affect female post-mating behavior and physiology. In Drosophila, most of these factors are secreted by the two epithelial cell types that make up the male accessory gland: the main and secondary cells. Although secondary cells represent only ~4% of the cells of the accessory gland, their contribution to the male seminal fluid is essential for sustaining the female post-mating response. To better understand the function of the secondary cells, we investigated their molecular organization, particularly with respect to the intracellular membrane transport machinery...
November 14, 2018: Traffic
Yuna Kurokawa, Akane Yoshida, Emi Fujii, Kanna Tomioku, Hiroki Hayashi, Kenji Tanabe, Akikazu Fujita
Phosphatidylinositol 4-phophate (PtdIns(4)P) is an essential signaling molecule in the Golgi body, endosomal system, and plasma membrane and functions in the regulation of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, lipid metabolism, and signal transduction pathways, all mediated by direct interaction with PtdIns(4)P-binding proteins. PtdIns(4)P was recently reported to have functional roles in autophagosome biogenesis. LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies and a small GTP-binding protein, Rab7, are localized on autophagosomal membranes and participate at each stage of autophagosome formation and maturation...
November 13, 2018: Traffic
Maoxiang Zhang, Guangyu Wu
Anterograde cell surface transport of nascent G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) en route from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Golgi apparatus represents a crucial checkpoint to control the amount of the receptors at the functional destination and the strength of receptor activation-elicited cellular responses. However, as compared with extensively studied internalization and recycling processes, the molecular mechanisms of cell surface trafficking of GPCRs are relatively less defined. Here, we will review the current advances in understanding the ER-Golgi-cell surface transport of GPCRs and use angiotensin II type 1 receptor as a representative GPCR to discuss emerging roles of receptor-interacting proteins and specific motifs embedded within the receptors in controlling the forward traffic of GPCRs along the biosynthetic pathway...
November 13, 2018: Traffic
Zhangji Dong, Shuwen Wu, Chenwen Zhu, Xueting Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Xu Chen, Dong Liu, Liang Qiang, Peter W Baas, Mei Liu
KIF15, the vertebrate kinesin-12, is best known as a mitotic motor protein, but continues to be expressed in neurons. Like KIF11 (the vertebrate kinesin-5), KIF15 interacts with microtubules in the axon to limit their sliding relative to one another. Unlike KIF11, KIF15 also regulates interactions between microtubules and actin filaments at sites of axonal branch formation and in growth cones. Our original work on these motors was done on cultured rat neurons, but we are now using zebrafish to extent these studies to an in vivo model...
November 8, 2018: Traffic
Xue Chun Yao, Xue Xue, Hao Tian Zhang, Ming Ming Zhu, Xiao Wei Yang, Chun Fu Wu, Jing Yu Yang
Amyloid accumulation in the brain is the major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid beta (Aβ) is cleared by the endosomal-autophagy-lysosomal system, which is impaired in AD pathogenesis by an unknown mechanism. Pseudoginsenoside-F11 (PF11), an ocotillol-type ginsenoside, has been demonstrated to decrease the level of Aβ in APP/PS1 mouse brain and to protect neurons by inhibiting the activation of microglia in vitro. The present study showed that PF11 was capable of increasing the uptake and degradation of oligomeric Aβ in cultured microglia...
October 29, 2018: Traffic
Michael R Dores, JoAnn Trejo
Ubiquitin is covalently attached to substrate proteins in the form of a single ubiquitin moiety or polyubiquitin chains and has been generally linked to protein degradation, however, distinct types of ubiquitin linkages are also used to control other critical cellular processes like cell signaling. Over forty mammalian G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been reported to be ubiquitinated, but despite the diverse and rich complexity of GPCR signaling, ubiquitin has been largely ascribed to receptor degradation...
October 23, 2018: Traffic
Kristina Thamm, Deimantė Šimaitė, Jana Karbanová, Vicente Bermúdez, Doreen Reichert, Anne Morgenstern, Martin Bornhäuser, Wieland B Huttner, Michaela Wilsch-Bräuninger, Denis Corbeil
Prominin-1 is a cell surface biomarker that allows the identification of stem and cancer stem cells from different organs. It is also expressed in several differentiated epithelial and non-epithelial cells. Irrespective of the cell type, prominin-1 is associated with plasma membrane protrusions. Here, we investigate its impact on the architecture of membrane protrusions using microvilli of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as the main model. Our high-resolution analysis revealed that upon the overexpression of prominin-1 the number of microvilli and clusters of them increased...
October 17, 2018: Traffic
Dudley W Lamming, Liron Bar-Peled
For the past five decades the lysosome has been characterized as an unglamorous cellular recycling center. This notion has undergone a radical shift in the last ten years, with new research revealing that this organelle serves as a major hub for metabolic signaling pathways. The discovery that master growth regulators, including the protein kinase mTOR (mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin) make their home at lysosomal surface has generated intense interest in the lysosome's key role in nutrient sensing and cellular homeostasis...
October 10, 2018: Traffic
Michael Sacher, Nassim Shahrzad, Hiba Kamel, Miroslav P Milev
The movement of proteins between cellular compartments requires the orchestrated actions of many factors including Rab family GTPases, Soluble NSF Attachment protein REceptors (SNAREs) and so-called tethering factors. One such tethering factor is called TRAnsport Protein Particle (TRAPP), and in humans, TRAPP proteins are distributed into two related complexes called TRAPP II and III. Although thought to act as a single unit within the complex, in the past few years it has become evident that some TRAPP proteins function independently of the complex...
August 27, 2018: Traffic
Karina Ringer, Jana Riehl, Manuel Müller, Jenny Dewes, Florian Hoff, Ralf Jacob
A highly specific transport and sorting machinery directing secretory cargo to the apical or basolateral plasma membrane maintains the characteristic polarized architecture of epithelial cells. This machinery comprises a defined set of transport carriers, which are crucial for cargo delivery to the correct membrane domain. Each carrier is composed of a distinct set of proteins to verify precise routing and cargo selection. Among these components, the dynamin-related GTPase Mx1 was identified on post-Golgi vesicles destined for the apical membrane of MDCK cells...
December 2018: Traffic
Spencer A Freeman, Sergio Grinstein
Macropinosomes, phagosomes and autolysosomes are comparatively large, quasi-spherical organelles that play essential functions in immunity and homeostasis. These vacuolar organelles are relatively short-lived, promptly fragmenting into smaller structures. Vacuolar resolution is mediated by tubulation and vesiculation, processes orchestrated by protein complexes that are recruited to highly curved membranes. Importantly, the surface-to-volume ratios of the tubules and vesicles generated during the resolution process are considerably larger than that of the parental vacuole...
December 2018: Traffic
Allison L Gilder, Hannah C Chapin, Valeria Padovano, Christina L Hueschen, Vanathy Rajendran, Michael J Caplan
Mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin 2 (PC2) cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. These transmembrane proteins colocalize in the primary cilia of renal epithelial cells, where they may participate in sensory processes. PC1 is also found in the apical membrane when expressed in cultured epithelial cells. PC1 undergoes autocatalytic cleavage, producing an extracellular N-terminal fragment that remains noncovalently attached to the transmembrane C-terminus. Exposing cells to alkaline solutions elutes the N-terminal fragment while the C-terminal fragment is retained in the cell membrane...
December 2018: Traffic
Fengjuan Wang, Raquel Gómez-Sintes, Patricia Boya
Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that mediate the intracellular degradation of macromolecules. They play an essential role in calcium regulation and have emerged as key signaling hubs in controlling the nutrient response. Maintaining lysosomal integrity and function is therefore crucial for cellular homeostasis. Different forms of stress can induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), resulting in the translocation to the cytoplasm of intralysosomal components, such as cathepsins, inducing lysosomal-dependent cell death (LDCD)...
December 2018: Traffic
Heiko Lemcke, Robert David
microRNAs (miRNAs) are important epigenetic modulators of gene expression that control cellular physiology as well as tissue homeostasis, and development. In addition to the temporal aspects of miRNA-mediated gene regulation, the intracellular localization of miRNA is crucial for its silencing activity. Recent studies indicated that miRNA is even translocated between cells via gap junctional cell-cell contacts, allowing spatiotemporal modulation of gene expression within multicellular systems. Although non coding RNA remains a focus of intense research, studies regarding the intra-and intercellular mobility of small RNAs are still largely missing...
December 2018: Traffic
Beverley J Wilson, Jennifer L Allen, Patrick T Caswell
Cell migration is a vital process in development and disease, and while the mechanisms that control motility are relatively well understood on two-dimensional surfaces, the control of cell migration in three dimensions (3D) and in vivo has only recently begun to be understood. Vesicle trafficking pathways have emerged as a key regulatory element in migration and invasion, with the endocytosis and recycling of cell surface cargos, including growth factor and chemokine receptors, adhesion receptors and membrane-associated proteases, being of major importance...
December 2018: Traffic
Xiaolong Zhu, Juan Cai, Fan Zhou, Zulin Wu, Dan Li, Youbin Li, Zhiping Xie, Yiting Zhou, Yongheng Liang
Honokiol (HNK), an important medicinal component of Magnolia officinalis, is reported to possess pharmacological activities against a variety of diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of HNK medicinal functions are not fully clear. To systematically study the mechanisms of HNK action, we screened a yeast mutant library based on the conserved nature of its genes among eukaryotes. We identified genes associated with increased resistance or sensitivity to HNK after mutation. After functional classification of these genes, we found that most HNK-resistant strains in the largest functional category were petites with mutations in mitochondrial genes, indicating that mitochondria were related to HNK resistance...
November 2018: Traffic
Xu-Qiao Chen, Fang Fang, Jazmin B Florio, Edward Rockenstein, Eliezer Masliah, William C Mobley, Robert A Rissman, Chengbiao Wu
The cytosolic chaperonin T-complex protein (TCP) 1-ring complex (TRiC) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects on axonal transport through clearance of mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) in Huntington's disease. However, it is presently unknown if TRiC also has any effect on axonal transport in wild-type neurons. Here, we examined how TRiC impacted the retrograde axonal transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We found that expression of a single TRiC subunit significantly enhanced axonal transport of BDNF, leading to an increase in instantaneous velocity with a concomitant decrease in pauses for retrograde BDNF transport...
November 2018: Traffic
Asako Goto, Mark Charman, Neale D Ridgway
Protein kinase D (PKD) controls secretion from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ and proteins that bind and/or transfer phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns-4P), such as oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and ceramide transfer protein. Here, we investigated the consequences of PKD phosphorylation of OSBP at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi membrane contact sites (MCS). Results with OSBP phospho-mutants revealed that PKD phosphorylation did not affect sterol and PtdIns-4P binding, activation of sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis at Golgi-ER MCS or other OSBP phospho-sites...
November 2018: Traffic
Cameron Schlegel, Lynne A Lapierre, Victoria G Weis, Janice A Williams, Izumi Kaji, Carolina Pinzon-Guzman, Nripesh Prasad, Braden Boone, Angela Jones, Hernan Correa, Shawn E Levy, Xianlin Han, Miao Wang, Kelly Thomsen, Sari Acra, James R Goldenring
Deficiency in diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a rare cause of neonatal diarrhea, without a known mechanism or in vitro model. A patient presenting at our institution at 7 weeks of life with failure to thrive and diarrhea was found by whole-exome sequencing to have a homozygous DGAT1 truncation mutation. Duodenal biopsies showed loss of DGAT1 and deficits in apical membrane transporters and junctional proteins in enterocytes. When placed on a very low-fat diet, the patient's diarrhea resolved with normalization of brush border transporter localization in endoscopic biopsies...
November 2018: Traffic
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