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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224728/%C3%AE-2-dependent-endocytosis-of-n-cadherin-is-regulated-by-%C3%AE-catenin-to-facilitate-neurite-outgrowth
#1
Yi-Ting Chen, Chin-Yin Tai
Circuit formation in the brain requires neurite outgrowth throughout development to establish synaptic contacts with target cells. Active endocytosis of several adhesion molecules facilitates the dynamic exchange of these molecules at the surface and promotes neurite outgrowth in developing neurons. The endocytosis of N-cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule, has been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we identified that a fraction of N-cadherin internalizes through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)...
February 22, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220989/global-and-local-mechanisms-sustain-axonal-proteostasis-of-transmembrane-proteins
#2
REVIEW
Víctor Hugo Cornejo, Alejandro Luarte, Andrés Couve
The control of neuronal protein homeostasis or proteostasis is tightly regulated both spatially and temporally, assuring accurate and integrated responses to external or intrinsic stimuli. Local or autonomous responses in dendritic and axonal compartments are crucial to sustain function during development, physiology and in response to damage or disease. Axons are responsible for generating and propagating electrical impulses in neurons, and the establishment and maintenance of their molecular composition are subject to extreme constraints exerted by length and size...
February 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191915/routes-and-mechanisms-of-post-endosomal-cholesterol-trafficking-a-story-that-never-ends
#3
REVIEW
Jie Luo, Luyi Jiang, Hongyuan Yang, Bao-Liang Song
Mammalian cells acquire most exogenous cholesterol through receptor-mediated endocytosis of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). After internalization, LDL cholesteryl esters are hydrolyzed to release free cholesterol, which then translocates to late endosomes (LEs)/lysosomes (LYs) and incorporates into the membranes by coordinated actions of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) 1 and NPC2 proteins. However, how cholesterol exits LEs/LYs and moves to other organelles remain largely unclear. Growing evidence has suggested that nonvesicular transport is critically involved in the post-endosomal cholesterol trafficking...
February 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156030/er-to-golgi-blockade-of-nascent-desmosomal-cadherins-in-serca2-inhibited-keratinocytes-implications-for-darier-s-disease
#4
Ning Li, Moonhee Park, Shengxiang Xiao, Zhi Liu, Luis A Diaz
Darier's disease (DD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder caused by mutations in SERCA2, a Ca(2+) pump that transports Ca(2+) from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Loss of desmosomes and keratinocyte cohesion is a characteristic feature of DD. Desmosomal cadherins (DC) are Ca(2+) -dependent transmembrane adhesion proteins of desmosomes, which are mislocalized in the lesional but not perilesional skin of DD. We show here that inhibition of SERCA2 by two distinct inhibitors results in accumulation of DC precursors in keratinocytes, indicating ER-to-Golgi transport of nascent DC is blocked...
February 3, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128492/beyond-attachment-roles-of-dc-sign-in-dengue-virus-infection
#5
Ping Liu, Marc Ridilla, Pratik Patel, Laurie Betts, Emily Gallichotte, Lidea Shahidi, Nancy L Thompson, Ken Jacobson
DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed on the plasma membrane by human immature dendritic cells, is a receptor for numerous viruses including Ebola, SARS, and dengue. A controversial question has been whether DC-SIGN functions as a complete receptor for both binding and internalization of dengue virus (DENV) or whether it is solely a cell surface attachment factor, requiring either hand-off to another receptor or a co-receptor for internalization. To examine this question, we used four cell types: human immature dendritic cells and NIH3T3 cells expressing either wild type DC-SIGN or two internalization-deficient DC-SIGN mutants, in which either the three cytoplasmic internalization motifs are silenced by alanine substitutions or the cytoplasmic region is truncated...
January 27, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019081/dna-based-probes-for-flow-cytometry-analysis-of-endocytosis-and-recycling
#6
Claire Dumont, Ewa Czuba, Moore Chen, Jose A Villadangos, Angus P R Johnston, Justine D Mintern
The internalization of proteins plays a key role in cell development, cell signaling and immunity. We have previously developed a specific hybridization internalization probe (SHIP) to quantitate the internalization of proteins and particles into cells. Herein, we extend the utility of SHIP to examine both the endocytosis and recycling of surface receptors using flow cytometry. SHIP was used to monitor endocytosis of membrane-bound transferrin receptor and its soluble ligand transferrin. SHIP enabled measurements of the proportion of surface molecules internalized, the internalization kinetics and the proportion and rate of internalized molecules that recycle to the cell surface with time...
December 26, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067430/exogenous-lysophospholipids-with-large-head-groups-perturb-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#7
Ieva Ailte, Anne Berit D Lingelem, Audun S Kvalvaag, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Andreas Brech, Gerbrand Koster, Paul G Dommersnes, Jonas Bergan, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig
In this study, we have investigated how clathrin-dependent endocytosis is affected by exogenously added lysophospholipids (LPLs). Addition of LPLs with large head groups strongly inhibits transferrin (Tf) endocytosis in various cell lines, while LPLs with small head groups do not. Electron and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (EM and TIRF) reveal that treatment with lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) with the fatty acyl group C18:0 leads to reduced numbers of invaginated clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the plasma membrane, fewer endocytic events per membrane area and increased lifetime of CCPs...
March 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035714/green-fluorescent-protein-tagged-apolipoprotein-e-a-useful-marker-for-the-study-of-hepatic-lipoprotein-egress
#8
Constantin N Takacs, Ursula Andreo, Rachel L Belote, Joan Pulupa, Margaret A Scull, Caroline E Gleason, Charles M Rice, Sanford M Simon
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a component of very-low-density and high-density lipoproteins, participates in many aspects of lipid transport in the bloodstream. Underscoring its important functions, ApoE isoforms have been associated with metabolic and circulatory disease. ApoE is also incorporated into hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles, and promotes their production and infectivity. Live cell imaging analysis of ApoE behavior during secretion from producing cells thus has the potential to reveal important details regarding lipoprotein and HCV particle biogenesis and secretion from cells...
March 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000370/amyloid-precursor-protein-traffics-from-the-golgi-directly-to-early-endosomes-in-an-arl5b-and-ap4-dependent-pathway
#9
Wei Hong Toh, Jing Zhi A Tan, Khalisah L Zulkefli, Fiona J Houghton, Paul A Gleeson
The intracellular trafficking and proteolytic processing of the membrane-bound amyloid precursor protein (APP) are coordinated events leading to the generation of pathogenic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. The membrane transport of newly synthesized APP from the Golgi to the endolysosomal system is not well defined, yet it is likely to be critical for regulating its processing by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Here, we show that the majority of newly synthesized APP is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) directly to early endosomes and then subsequently to the late endosomes/lysosomes with very little transported to the cell surface...
March 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991712/targeting-of-tail-anchored-membrane-proteins-to-subcellular-organelles-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Leah R Padgett, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, William J Sullivan
Proper protein localization is essential for critical cellular processes, including vesicle-mediated transport and protein translocation. Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are integrated into organellar membranes via the C-terminus, orienting the N-terminus towards the cytosol. Localization of TA proteins occurs posttranslationally and is governed by the C-terminus, which contains the integral transmembrane domain (TMD) and targeting sequence. Targeting of TA proteins is dependent on the hydrophobicity of the TMD as well as the length and composition of flanking amino acid sequences...
March 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097732/fundamental-mechanisms-deliver-the-nobel-prize-to-ohsumi
#11
Sharon A Tooze, Lisa A Hannan, Michael S Marks, Tom H Stevens, Trina A Schroer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026081/distinct-complexes-of-yeast-snx4-family-snx-bars-mediate-retrograde-trafficking-of-snc1-and-atg27
#12
Mengxiao Ma, Christopher G Burd, Richard J Chi
The yeast SNX4 sub-family of sorting nexin containing a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs domain (SNX-BAR) proteins, Snx4/Atg24, Snx41 and Atg20/Snx42, are required for endocytic recycling and selective autophagy. Here, we show that Snx4 forms 2 functionally distinct heterodimers: Snx4-Atg20 and Snx4-Snx41. Each heterodimer coats an endosome-derived tubule that mediates retrograde sorting of distinct cargo; the v-SNARE, Snc1, is a cargo of the Snx4-Atg20 pathway, and Snx4-Snx41 mediates retrograde sorting of Atg27, an integral membrane protein implicated in selective autophagy...
February 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976831/the-c-terminal-tails-of-heterotrimeric-kinesin-2-motor-subunits-directly-bind-to-%C3%AE-tubulin1-possible-implications-for-cilia-specific-tubulin-entry
#13
Mukul Girotra, Shalini Srivastava, Anuttama Kulkarni, Ayan Barbora, Kratika Bobra, Debnath Ghosal, Pavithra Devan, Amol Aher, Akanksha Jain, Dulal Panda, Krishanu Ray
The assembly of microtubule-based cytoskeleton propels the cilia and flagella growth. Previous studies have indicated that the kinesin-2 family motors transport tubulin into the cilia through intraflagellar transport. Here, we report a direct interaction between the C-terminal tail fragments of heterotrimeric kinesin-2 and α-tubulin1 isoforms in vitro. Blot overlay screen, affinity purification from tissue extracts, cosedimentation with subtilisin-treated microtubule and LC-ESI-MS/MS characterization of the tail-fragment-associated tubulin identified an association between the tail domains and α-tubulin1A/D isotype...
February 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976830/mitochondrial-protein-import-in-trypanosomes-expect-the-unexpected
#14
REVIEW
Anke Harsman, André Schneider
Mitochondria have many different functions, the most important one of which is oxidative phosphorylation. They originated from an endosymbiotic event between a bacterium and an archaeal host cell. It was the evolution of a protein import system that marked the boundary between the endosymbiotic ancestor of the mitochondrion and a true organelle that is under the control of the nucleus. In present day mitochondria more than 95% of all proteins are imported from the cytosol in a proces mediated by hetero-oligomeric protein complexes in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes...
February 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883263/cargo-selectivity-of-yeast-sorting-nexins
#15
Björn D M Bean, Michael Davey, Elizabeth Conibear
Sorting nexins are PX domain-containing proteins that bind phospholipids and often act in membrane trafficking where they help to select cargo. However, the functions and cargo specificities of many sorting nexins are unknown. Here, a high-throughput imaging screen was used to identify new sorting nexin cargo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletions of 9 different sorting nexins were screened for mislocalization of a set of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged membrane proteins found at the plasma membrane, Golgi or endosomes...
February 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008716/so-long-tom
#16
EDITORIAL
Lisa A Hannan, Michael S Marks, Trina A Schroer, Sharon A Tooze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813245/cellular-and-viral-peptides-bind-multiple-sites-on-the-n-terminal-domain-of-clathrin
#17
Julia Muenzner, Linton M Traub, Bernard T Kelly, Stephen C Graham
Short peptide motifs in unstructured regions of clathrin-adaptor proteins recruit clathrin to membranes to facilitate post-Golgi membrane transport. Three consensus clathrin-binding peptide sequences have been identified and structural studies show that each binds distinct sites on the clathrin heavy chain N-terminal domain (NTD). A fourth binding site for adaptors on NTD has been functionally identified but not structurally characterised. We have solved high resolution structures of NTD bound to peptide motifs from the cellular clathrin adaptors β2 adaptin and amphiphysin plus a putative viral clathrin adaptor, hepatitis D virus large antigen (HDAg-L)...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770501/kymoanalyzer-a-software-tool-for-the-quantitative-analysis-of-intracellular-transport-in-neurons
#18
Sylvia Neumann, Romain Chassefeyre, George E Campbell, Sandra E Encalada
In axons, proper localization of proteins, vesicles, organelles, and other cargoes is accomplished by the highly regulated coordination of kinesins and dyneins, molecular motors that bind to cargoes and translocate them along microtubule (MT) tracks. Impairment of axonal transport is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. To understand how MT-based cargo motility is regulated and to delineate its role in neurodegeneration, it is critical to analyze the detailed dynamics of moving cargoes inside axons...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743426/14-3-3-proteins-regulate-k2p-5-1-surface-expression-on-t-lymphocytes
#19
Juncal Fernández-Orth, Petra Ehling, Tobias Ruck, Susann Pankratz, Majella-Sophie Hofmann, Peter Landgraf, Daniela C Dieterich, Karl-Heinz Smalla, Thilo Kähne, Guiscard Seebohm, Thomas Budde, Heinz Wiendl, Stefan Bittner, Sven G Meuth
K2P 5.1 channels (also called TASK-2 or Kcnk5) have already been shown to be relevant in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease because they are known to be upregulated on peripheral and central T lymphocytes of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Moreover, overexpression of K2P 5.1 channels in vitro provokes enhanced T-cell effector functions. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating intracellular K2P 5.1 channel trafficking are unknown so far. Thus, the aim of the study is to elucidate the trafficking of K2P 5...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734565/polyglutamine-toxicity-in-yeast-uncovers-phenotypic-variations-between-different-fluorescent-protein-fusions
#20
Yuwei Jiang, Sonja E Di Gregorio, Martin L Duennwald, Patrick Lajoie
The palette of fluorescent proteins (FPs) available for live-cell imaging contains proteins that strongly differ in their biophysical properties. FPs cannot be assumed to be equivalent and in certain cases could significantly perturb the behavior of fluorescent reporters. We employed Saccharomyces cerevisiae to comprehensively study the impact of FPs on the toxicity of polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion proteins associated with Huntington's disease. The toxicity of polyQ fusion constructs is highly dependent on the sequences flanking the polyQ repeats...
January 2017: Traffic
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