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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627726/the-arl3-and-arl1-gtpase-cooperates-with-cog8-to-regulate-selective-autophagy-via-atg9-trafficking
#1
I-Hao Wang, Yi-Jie Chen, Jia-Wei Hsu, Fang-Jen S Lee
The Arl3-Arl1 GTPase cascade plays important roles in vesicle trafficking at the late Golgi and endosomes. Subunits of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, a tethering factor, are important for endosome-to-Golgi transport and contribute to the efficient functioning of the cytoplasm-to-vacuole (Cvt) pathway, a well-known selective autophagy pathway. According to our findings, the Arl3-Arl1 GTPase cascade cooperates with Cog8 to regulate the Cvt pathway via Atg9 trafficking. arl3cog8Δ and arl1cog8Δ exhibit profound defects in aminopeptidase I maturation in rich medium...
June 19, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574194/the-big-and-intricate-dreams-of-little-organselles-embracing-complexity-in-the-study-of-membrane-traffic
#2
REVIEW
Allen P Liu, Roberto J Botelho, Costin N Antonescu
Compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells into dynamic organelles that exchange material through regulated membrane traffic governs virtually every aspect of cellular physiology including signal transduction, metabolism and transcription. Much has been revealed about the molecular mechanisms that control organelle dynamics and membrane traffic and how these processes are regulated by metabolic, physical, and chemical cues. From this emerges the understanding of the integration of specific organellar phenomena within complex, multiscale, and non-linear regulatory networks...
June 2, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504462/endocytic-activity-of-hiv-1-vpu-phosphoserine-dependent-interactions-with-clathrin-adaptors
#3
Charlotte A Stoneham, Rajendra Singh, Xiaofei Jia, Yong Xiong, John Guatelli
HIV-1 Vpu modulates cellular transmembrane proteins to optimize viral replication and provide immune-evasion, triggering ubiquitin-mediated degradation of some targets but also modulating endosomal trafficking to deplete them from the plasma membrane. Interactions between Vpu and the heterotetrameric clathrin adaptors AP-1 and AP-2 have been described, yet the molecular basis and functional roles of such interactions are incompletely defined. To investigate the trafficking signals encoded by Vpu, we fused the cytoplasmic domain (CD) of Vpu to the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the CD8 α-chain...
May 14, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485883/cell-survival-and-protein-secretion-associated-with-golgi-integrity-in-response-to-golgi-stress-inducing-agents
#4
Tatiana I Ignashkova, Mathieu Gendarme, Katrin Peschk, Hans-Michael Eggenweiler, Ralph K Lindemann, Jan H Reiling
The Golgi apparatus is part of the secretory pathway and of central importance for modification, transport and sorting of proteins and lipids. ADP-ribosylation factors, whose activation can be blocked by brefeldin A, play a major role in functioning of the Golgi network and regulation of membrane traffic and are also involved in proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Due to high cytotoxicity and poor bioavailability brefeldin A has not passed the pre-clinical stage of drug development. Recently, AMF-26 and golgicide A have been described as novel inhibitors of the Golgi system with anti-tumor or bactericidal properties...
May 9, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485852/vaccinia-virus-proteins-a36-and-f12-e2-show-strong-preferences-for-different-klc-isoforms
#5
William N D Gao, David C J Carpentier, Helen A Ewles, Stacey-Ann Lee, Geoffrey L Smith
Vaccinia virus (VACV) utilises microtubule-mediated trafficking at several stages of its life cycle, of which virus egress is the most intensely studied. During egress VACV proteins A36, F12 and E2 are involved in kinesin-1 interactions, however the roles of these proteins remain poorly understood. A36 forms a direct link between virions and kinesin-1, yet in its absence VACV egress still occurs on microtubules. During a co-immunoprecipitation screen to seek an alternative link between virions and kinesin, A36 was found to bind isoform KLC1 rather than KLC2...
May 9, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477369/snx27-interactome-in-t-lymphocytes-identifies-zo-2-dynamic-redistribution-at-the-immune-synapse
#6
María Tello-Lafoz, Gonzalo Martínez-Martínez, Cristina Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Juan Pablo Albar, Morgan Huse, Severine Gharbi, Isabel Merida
T lymphocyte recognition of antigens leads to the formation of a highly organized structure termed immune synapse (IS) by analogy with the nervous synapse. Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) controls the endosomal traffic of PDZ domain-interacting proteins, and its alteration is associated with impaired synaptic function and neurological diseases. In T lymphocytes SNX27-positive vesicles polarize to the IS, the identity of SNX27 interactors in these conditions nonetheless remains unknown. Here we used proteomics to analyze the SNX27 interactome purified from IS-forming T cells, and confirmed the conserved nature of the SNX27/WASH/retromer association in hematopoietic cells...
May 6, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471062/pharmacologically-increasing-microtubule-acetylation-corrects-stress-exacerbated-effects-of-organophosphates-on-neurons
#7
Anand N Rao, Ankita Patil, Zachary D Brodnik, Liang Qiang, Rodrigo A España, Kimberly A Sullivan, Mark M Black, Peter W Baas
Many veterans of the 1990-1991 Gulf War contracted Gulf War Illness (GWI), a multisymptom disease that primarily affects the nervous system. Here, we treated cultures of human or rat neurons with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), an analog of sarin, one of the organophosphate (OP) toxicants to which the military veterans were exposed. All observed cellular defects produced by DFP were exacerbated by pretreatment with corticosterone or cortisol, which, in rat and human neurons, respectively, serves in our experiments to mimic the physical stress endured by soldiers during the war...
May 4, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471037/oxysterol-binding-protein-recruitment-and-activity-at-the-er-golgi-interface-are-independent-of-sac1
#8
Mark Charman, Asako Goto, Neale D Ridgway
Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) localizes to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi contact sites where it transports cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P), and activates lipid transport and biosynthetic activities. The PI-4P phosphatase Sac1 cycles between the ER and Golgi apparatus where it potentially regulates OSBP activity. Here we examined whether the ER-Golgi distribution of endogenous or ectopically- expressed Sac1 influences OSBP activity. OSBP and Sac1 co-localized at apparent ER-Golgi contact sites in response to 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OH), cholesterol-depletion and p38 MAPK inhibitors...
May 4, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471021/syntaxin-4-mediates-endosome-recycling-for-lytic-granule-exocytosis-in-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes
#9
Waldo A Spessott, Maria L Sanmillan, Vineet V Kulkarni, Margaret E McCormick, Claudio G Giraudo
Adaptive and innate immunity utilize the perforin-killing pathway to eliminate virus-infected or cancer cells. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells mediate this process by releasing toxic proteins at the contact area with target cells known as immunological synapse (IS). Formation of a stable IS and exocytosis of toxic proteins requires persistent fusion of Rab11a recycling endosomes with the plasma membrane (PM) that may assure the delivery of key effector proteins. Despite the importance of the recycling endosomal compartment, the membrane fusion proteins that control this process at the IS remain elusive...
May 4, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421662/the-outer-membrane-vesicles-secretion-system-type-zero
#10
REVIEW
Andrea Guerrero-Mandujano, Cecilia Hernández-Cortez, Jose Antonio Ibarra, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli
Gram-negative bacteria have mechanisms through which they can colonize and survive in different environments, such as the secretion systems types (1-6) that have been widely studied and characterized. Nowadays, some authors have proposed extracellular structures, such as the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), to be considered as an additional and independent secretion system. The OMVs are spherical particles of 50-250 nm in diameter; they originate in the outer membrane, and therefore they have a very similar composition to the latter...
April 19, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407399/abnormal-rab11-rab8-vesicles-cluster-in-enterocytes-of-patients-with-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#11
Georg F Vogel, Andreas R Janecke, Iris M Krainer, Karin Gutleben, Barbara Witting, Sally G Mitton, Sahar Mansour, Antje Ballauff, Joseph T Roland, Amy C Engevik, Ernest Cutz, Thomas Müller, James R Goldenring, Lukas A Huber, Michael W Hess
Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a congenital enteropathy characterized by accumulation of vesiculo-tubular endomembranes in the subapical cytoplasm of enterocytes, historically termed "secretory granules." However, neither their identity nor pathophysiological significance is well defined. Using immunoelectron microscopy and tomography, we studied biopsies from MVID patients (3× Myosin 5b mutations and 1× Syntaxin3 mutation) and compared them to controls and genome-edited CaCo2 cell models, harboring relevant mutations...
April 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393448/spatial-specific-functions-in-retrograde-neuronal-signalling
#12
REVIEW
Eitan Erez Zahavi, Roy Maimon, Eran Perlson
Neurons are highly polarized cells, possessing long axons that can extend to more than 1-m long in adult humans. In order to survive and maintain proper functions, neurons have to respond accurately in both space and time to intracellular or intercellular cues. The regulation of these comprehensive responses involves ligand-receptor interactions, trafficking and local protein synthesis. Alterations in these mechanisms can lead to cellular dysfunction and disease. Although studies on the transport and localization of signalling endosomes along the axon have shed light on some central pathways of neuronal survival and growth as well as synapse function, little is known about the spatiotemporal mechanisms that allow the same molecule to signal differently at diverse subcellular locations and in specific neuronal populations...
April 10, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382714/enzyme-reversal-to-explore-the-function-of-yeast-e3-ubiquitin-ligases
#13
Chris MacDonald, Stanley Winistorfer, Robert M Pope, Michael E Wright, Robert C Piper
The covalent attachment of ubiquitin onto proteins can elicit a variety of downstream consequences. Attachment is mediated by a large array of E3 ubiquitin ligases, each thought be subject to regulatory control and to have a specific repertoire of substrates. Assessing the biological roles of ligases, and in particular, identifying their biologically relevant substrates has been a persistent yet challenging question. In this study, we describe tools that may help achieve both of these goals. We describe a strategy whereby the activity of a ubiquitin ligase has been enzymatically reversed, accomplished by fusing it to a catalytic domain of an exogenous deubiquitinating enzyme...
April 6, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597533/erratum
#14
Víctor Hugo Cornejo, Alejandro Luarte, Andrés Couve
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513089/editorial-overview-celebrating-the-advances-in-cell-biology-from-china
#15
EDITORIAL
Sharon A Tooze, Quan Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276191/deleting-the-dag-kinase-dgk1-augments-yeast-vacuole-fusion-through-increased-ypt7-activity-and-altered-membrane-fluidity
#16
Gregory E Miner, Matthew L Starr, Logan R Hurst, Rutilio A Fratti
Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a fusogenic lipid that can be produced through phospholipase C activity on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 ], or through phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase activity. The fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles requires DAG, PA and PI(4,5)P2 , and the production of these lipids is thought to provide temporally specific stoichiometries that are critical for each stage of fusion. Furthermore, DAG and PA can be interconverted by the DAG kinase Dgk1 and the PA phosphatase Pah1...
May 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267259/the-axonal-transport-motor-kinesin-2-navigates-microtubule-obstacles-via-protofilament-switching
#17
Gregory J Hoeprich, Keith J Mickolajczyk, Shane R Nelson, William O Hancock, Christopher L Berger
Axonal transport involves kinesin motors trafficking cargo along microtubules that are rich in microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Much attention has focused on the behavior of kinesin-1 in the presence of MAPs, which has overshadowed understanding the contribution of other kinesins such as kinesin-2 in axonal transport. We have previously shown that, unlike kinesin-1, kinesin-2 in vitro motility is insensitive to the neuronal MAP Tau. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-2 efficiently navigates Tau on the microtubule surface is unknown...
May 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266105/c9orf72-at-the-intersection-of-lysosome-cell-biology-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#18
REVIEW
Joseph Amick, Shawn M Ferguson
The discovery that expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat within a noncoding region of the C9orf72 gene causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia raised questions about C9orf72 protein function and potential disease relevance. The major predicted structural feature of the C9orf72 protein is a DENN (differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic cells) domain. As DENN domains are best characterized for regulation of specific Rab GTPases, it has been proposed that C9orf72 may also act through regulation of a GTPase target...
May 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248449/protein-transport-in-growing-and-steady-state-cilia
#19
REVIEW
Karl F Lechtreck, Julie C Van De Weghe, James Aaron Harris, Peiwei Liu
Cilia and eukaryotic flagella are threadlike cell extensions with motile and sensory functions. Their assembly requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a bidirectional motor-driven transport of protein carriers along the axonemal microtubules. IFT moves ample amounts of structural proteins including tubulin into growing cilia likely explaining its critical role for assembly. IFT continues in non-growing cilia contributing to a variety of processes ranging from axonemal maintenance and the export of non-ciliary proteins to cell locomotion and ciliary signaling...
May 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220989/global-and-local-mechanisms-sustain-axonal-proteostasis-of-transmembrane-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Víctor Hugo Cornejo, Alejandro Luarte, Andrés Couve
The control of neuronal protein homeostasis or proteostasis tightly regulated both spatially and temporally, assuring accurate and integrated responses to external or intrinsic stimuli. Local or autonomous responses in dendritic and axonal compartments are crucial to sustain function during development, physiology and in response to damage or disease. Axons are responsible for generating and propagating electrical impulses in neurons, and the establishment and maintenance of their molecular composition are subject to extreme constraints exerted by length and size...
May 2017: Traffic
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