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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067430/editorial-process-file-includedexogenous-lysophospholipids-with-large-head-groups-perturb-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#1
Ieva Ailte, Anne Berit Dyve Lingelem, Audun Sverre Kvalvaag, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Andreas Brech, Gerbrand Koster, Paul Gunnar Dommersnes, Jonas Bergan, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig
In this study, we have investigated how clathrin-dependent endocytosis is affected by exogenously added lysophospholipids (LPLs). Addition of LPLs with large head groups strongly inhibits transferrin (Tf) endocytosis in various cell lines, while LPLs with small head groups do not. Electron and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (EM and TIRF) reveal that treatment with lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) with the fatty acyl group C18:0 leads to reduced numbers of invaginated clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the plasma membrane, fewer endocytic events per membrane area and increased lifetime of CCPs...
January 9, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035714/gfp-tagged-apolipoprotein-e-a-useful-marker-for-the-study-of-hepatic-lipoprotein-egress
#2
Constantin N Takacs, Ursula Andreo, Rachel L Belote, Joan Pulupa, Margaret A Scull, Caroline E Gleason, Charles M Rice, Sanford M Simon
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a component of very-low-density and high-density lipoproteins, participates in many aspects of lipid transport in the bloodstream. Underscoring its important functions, ApoE isoforms have been associated with metabolic and circulatory disease. ApoE is also incorporated into hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles, and promotes their production and infectivity. Live cell imaging analysis of ApoE behavior during secretion from producing cells thus has the potential to reveal important details regarding lipoprotein and HCV particle biogenesis and secretion from cells...
December 30, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026081/distinct-complexes-of-yeast-snx4-family-snx-bars-mediate-retrograde-trafficking-of-snc1-and-atg27
#3
Mengxiao Ma, Christopher G Burd, Richard J Chi
The yeast SNX4 sub-family of sorting nexin containing a Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs domain (SNX-BAR) proteins, Snx4/Atg24, Snx41 and Atg20/Snx42, are required for endocytic recycling and selective autophagy. Here, we show that Snx4 forms 2 functionally distinct heterodimers: Snx4-Atg20 and Snx4-Snx41. Each heterodimer coats an endosome-derived tubule that mediates retrograde sorting of distinct cargo; the v-SNARE, Snc1, is a cargo of the Snx4-Atg20 pathway, and Snx4-Snx41 mediates retrograde sorting of Atg27, an integral membrane protein implicated in selective autophagy...
December 27, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019081/dna-based-probes-for-flow-cytometry-analysis-of-endocytosis-and-recycling
#4
Claire Dumont, Ewa Czuba, Moore Chen, Jose A Villadangos, Angus P R Johnston, Justine D Mintern
The internalization of proteins plays a key role in cell development, cell signaling and immunity. We have previously developed a specific hybridization internalization probe (SHIP) to quantitate the internalization of proteins and particles into cells. Herein, we extend the utility of SHIP to examine both the endocytosis and recycling of surface receptors using flow cytometry. SHIP was used to monitor endocytosis of membrane-bound transferrin receptor and its soluble ligand transferrin. SHIP enabled measurements of the proportion of surface molecules internalized, the internalization kinetics and the proportion and rate of internalized molecules that recycle to the cell surface with time...
December 26, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000370/amyloid-precursor-protein-traffics-from-the-golgi-directly-to-early-endosomes-in-an-arl5b-and-ap4-dependent-pathway
#5
Wei Hong Toh, Jing Zhi A Tan, Khalisah L Zulkefli, Fiona J Houghton, Paul A Gleeson
The intracellular trafficking and proteolytic processing of the membrane-bound amyloid precursor protein (APP) are co-ordinated events leading to the generation of pathogenic amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. The membrane transport of newly synthesised APP from the Golgi to the endolysosomal system is not well defined, yet is likely to be critical for regulating its processing by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Here we show that the majority of newly synthesised APP is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) directly to early endosomes and then subsequently to the late endosomes/lysosomes with very little transported to the cell surface...
December 20, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991712/targeting-of-tail-anchored-membrane-proteins-to-subcellular-organelles-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#6
Leah R Padgett, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, William J Sullivan
Proper protein localization is essential for critical cellular processes, including vesicle-mediated transport and protein translocation. Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are integrated into organellar membranes via the C-terminus, orienting the N-terminus towards the cytosol. Localization of TA proteins occurs post-translationally and is governed by the C-terminus, which contains the integral transmembrane domain (TMD) and targeting sequence. Targeting of TA proteins is dependent on the hydrophobicity of the TMD as well as the length and composition of flanking amino acid sequences...
December 19, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976831/the-c-terminal-tails-of-heterotrimeric-kinesin-2-motor-subunits-directly-bind-to-%C3%AE-tubulin1-possible-implications-for-cilia-specific-tubulin-entry
#7
Mukul Girotra, Shalini Srivastava, Anuttama Kulkarni, Ayan Barbora, Kratika Bobra, Debnath Ghosal, Pavithra Devan, Amol Aher, Akanksha Jain, Dulal Panda, Krishanu Ray
The assembly of microtubule-based cytoskeleton propels the cilia and flagella growth. Previous studies have indicated that the kinesin-2 family motors transport tubulin into the cilia through intraflagellar transport. Here, we report a direct interaction between the C-terminal tail fragments of heterotrimeric kinesin-2 and α-tubulin1 isoforms in vitro. Blot overlay screen, affinity purification from tissue extracts, cosedimentation with subtilisin-treated microtubule and LC-ESI-MS/MS characterization of the tail-fragment-associated tubulin identified an association between the tail domains and α-tubulin1A/D isotype...
December 15, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976830/mitochondrial-protein-import-in-trypanosomes-expect-the-unexpected
#8
REVIEW
Anke Harsman, André Schneider
Mitochondria have many different functions the most important one of which is oxidative phosphorylation. They originated from an endosymbiotic event between a bacterium and an archaeal host cell. It was the evolution of a protein import system that marks the boundary between the endosymbiotic ancestor of the mitochondrion and a true organelle that is under the control of the nucleus. In present day mitochondria more than 95% of all proteins are imported from the cytosol, in a process mediated by hetero-oligomeric protein complexes in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes...
December 15, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883263/cargo-selectivity-of-yeast-sorting-nexins
#9
Björn D M Bean, Michael Davey, Elizabeth Conibear
Sorting nexins are PX domain-containing proteins that bind phospholipids and often act in membrane trafficking where they help to select cargo. However, the functions and cargo specificities of many sorting nexins are unknown. Here, a high-throughput imaging screen was used to identify new sorting nexin cargo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletions of nine different sorting nexins were screened for mislocalization of a set of GFP-tagged membrane proteins found at the plasma membrane, Golgi or endosomes...
November 24, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008716/so-long-tom
#10
EDITORIAL
Lisa A Hannan, Michael S Marks, Trina A Schroer, Sharon A Tooze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813245/cellular-and-viral-peptides-bind-multiple-sites-on-the-n-terminal-domain-of-clathrin
#11
Julia Muenzner, Linton M Traub, Bernard T Kelly, Stephen C Graham
Short peptide motifs in unstructured regions of clathrin-adaptor proteins recruit clathrin to membranes to facilitate post-Golgi membrane transport. Three consensus clathrin-binding peptide sequences have been identified and structural studies show that each binds distinct sites on the clathrin heavy chain N-terminal domain (NTD). A fourth binding site for adaptors on NTD has been functionally identified but not structurally characterised. We have solved high resolution structures of NTD bound to peptide motifs from the cellular clathrin adaptors β2 adaptin and amphiphysin plus a putative viral clathrin adaptor, hepatitis D virus large antigen (HDAg-L)...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770501/kymoanalyzer-a-software-tool-for-the-quantitative-analysis-of-intracellular-transport-in-neurons
#12
Sylvia Neumann, Romain Chassefeyre, George E Campbell, Sandra E Encalada
In axons, proper localization of proteins, vesicles, organelles, and other cargoes is accomplished by the highly regulated coordination of kinesins and dyneins, molecular motors that bind to cargoes and translocate them along microtubule (MT) tracks. Impairment of axonal transport is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. To understand how MT-based cargo motility is regulated and to delineate its role in neurodegeneration, it is critical to analyze the detailed dynamics of moving cargoes inside axons...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743426/14-3-3-proteins-regulate-k2p-5-1-surface-expression-on-t-lymphocytes
#13
Juncal Fernández-Orth, Petra Ehling, Tobias Ruck, Susann Pankratz, Majella-Sophie Hofmann, Peter Landgraf, Daniela C Dieterich, Karl-Heinz Smalla, Thilo Kähne, Guiscard Seebohm, Thomas Budde, Heinz Wiendl, Stefan Bittner, Sven G Meuth
K2P 5.1 channels (also called TASK-2 or Kcnk5) have already been shown to be relevant in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease because they are known to be upregulated on peripheral and central T lymphocytes of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Moreover, overexpression of K2P 5.1 channels in vitro provokes enhanced T-cell effector functions. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating intracellular K2P 5.1 channel trafficking are unknown so far. Thus, the aim of the study is to elucidate the trafficking of K2P 5...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734565/polyglutamine-toxicity-in-yeast-uncovers-phenotypic-variations-between-different-fluorescent-protein-fusions
#14
Yuwei Jiang, Sonja E Di Gregorio, Martin L Duennwald, Patrick Lajoie
The palette of fluorescent proteins (FPs) available for live-cell imaging contains proteins that strongly differ in their biophysical properties. FPs cannot be assumed to be equivalent and in certain cases could significantly perturb the behavior of fluorescent reporters. We employed Saccharomyces cerevisiae to comprehensively study the impact of FPs on the toxicity of polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion proteins associated with Huntington's disease. The toxicity of polyQ fusion constructs is highly dependent on the sequences flanking the polyQ repeats...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731905/microbe-inducible-trafficking-pathways-that-control-toll-like-receptor-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Yunhao Tan, Jonathan C Kagan
The receptors of the mammalian innate immune system are designed for rapid microbial detection, and are located in organelles that are conducive to serve these needs. However, emerging evidence indicates that the sites of microbial detection are not the sites of innate immune signal transduction. Rather, microbial detection triggers the movement of receptors to regions of the cell where factors called sorting adaptors detect active receptors and promote downstream inflammatory responses. These findings highlight the critical role that membrane trafficking pathways play in the initiation of innate immunity to infection...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696651/an-evolutionary-balance-conservation-vs-innovation-in-ciliate-membrane-trafficking
#16
REVIEW
Sabrice Guerrier, Helmut Plattner, Elisabeth Richardson, Joel B Dacks, Aaron P Turkewitz
As most of eukaryotic diversity lies in single-celled protists, they represent unique opportunities to ask questions about the balance of conservation and innovation in cell biological features. Among free-living protists the ciliates offer ease of culturing, a rich array of experimental approaches, and versatile molecular tools, particularly in Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. These attributes have been exploited by researchers to analyze a wealth of cellular structures in these large and complex cells...
January 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885792/editorial-overview-membrane-traffic-and-cell-polarity
#17
EDITORIAL
David M Bryant, Alpha S Yap
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717241/characterization-of-a-caveolin-1-mutation-associated-with-both-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-congenital-generalized-lipodystrophy
#18
Bing Han, Courtney A Copeland, Yumeko Kawano, Erika Berman Rosenzweig, Eric D Austin, Layla Shahmirzadi, Sha Tang, Krishnan Raghunathan, Wendy K Chung, Anne K Kenworthy
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have recently been associated with mutations in the caveolin-1 ( CAV1 ) gene, which encodes the primary structural protein of caveolae. However, little is currently known about how these CAV1 mutations impact caveolae formation or contribute to the development of disease. Here, we identify a heterozygous F160X CAV1 mutation predicted to generate a C-terminally truncated mutant protein in a patient with both PAH and CGL using whole exome sequencing, and characterize the properties of CAV1 , caveolae-associated proteins and caveolae in skin fibroblasts isolated from the patient...
December 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649479/newly-synthesized-and-recycling-pools-of-the-apical-protein-gp135-do-not-occupy-the-same-compartments
#19
Emily H Stoops, Michael Hull, Michael J Caplan
Polarized epithelial cells sort newly synthesized and recycling plasma membrane proteins into distinct trafficking pathways directed to either the apical or basolateral membrane domains. While the trans-Golgi network is a well-established site of protein sorting, increasing evidence indicates a key role for endosomes in the initial trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. Both basolateral and apical proteins have been shown to traverse endosomes en route to the plasma membrane. In particular, apical proteins traffic through either subapical early or recycling endosomes...
December 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484852/kif1a-mediates-axonal-transport-of-bace1-and-identification-of-independently-moving-cargoes-in-living-scg-neurons
#20
Christy O Y Hung, Michael P Coleman
Neurons rely heavily on axonal transport to deliver materials from the sites of synthesis to the axon terminals over distances that can be many centimetres long. KIF1A is the neuron-specific kinesin with the fastest reported anterograde motor activity. Previous studies have shown that KIF1A transports a subset of synaptic proteins, neurofilaments and dense-core vesicles. Using two-colour live imaging, we showed that beta-secretase 1 (BACE1)-mCherry moves together with KIF1A-GFP in both the anterograde and retrograde directions in superior cervical ganglions (SCG) neurons...
November 2016: Traffic
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