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Cancer Journal

Daniel S Chen, Herbert Hurwitz
Cancer immunotherapy (CIT) has transformed cancer treatment. In particular, immunotherapies targeting the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed death 1 pathway have demonstrated durable clinical benefit in some patients. However, CIT combinations may create a more favorable environment in which to maximize the potential of the immune system to eliminate cancer. Here we describe 3 key mechanisms related to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated immunosuppression: inhibition of dendritic cell maturation, reduction of T-cell tumor infiltration, and promotion of inhibitory cells in the tumor microenvironment; supporting data are also described...
July 2018: Cancer Journal
Krista S Pfaendler, Marisa C Liu, Krishnansu S Tewari
Over the past 5 years, addition of bevacizumab to combination chemotherapy for advanced, recurrent, and persistent cervical cancer has offered prolonged overall and progression-free survival. Since the original press release announcing the survival benefits of this antiangiogenesis therapy, there has been further study of bevacizumab related to quality of life, combination with other agents, use of imaging to evaluate likelihood of response, and development of biosimilars. This review summarizes publications related to bevacizumab use in advanced, recurrent, and persistent cervical cancer over the past 5 years since initial proof of concept of antiangiogenesis therapy and the initial dissemination of information regarding survival benefits of bevacizumab...
July 2018: Cancer Journal
Michelle M Kim, Yoshie Umemura, Denise Leung
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal intracranial malignancy, with few advances in treatment over the last several decades. Much excitement surrounded the initial approval for bevacizumab for recurrent GBM, given the marked radiographic responses and improvement in progression-free survival observed in early studies. However, phase III studies have failed to demonstrate an overall survival advantage with the use of this agent. An overview of the mechanism of action and activity of bevacizumab in adult gliomas, a timeline of pivotal clinical trials, data on its impact on quality of life and imaging, and its role in managing the sequelae of treatment provide evidence for its current use...
July 2018: Cancer Journal
Xin Gao, David F McDermott
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is characterized by aberrant angiogenic signaling and an immunogenic tumor microenvironment. Systemic therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor and the immune checkpoints programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death protein 1 ligand and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 have advanced to the forefront of the treatment repertoire against advanced or metastatic RCC (mRCC). In preclinical models, inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling promotes antitumor immunity and may enhance the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade...
July 2018: Cancer Journal
Kabir Mody, Candice Baldeo, Tanios Bekaii-Saab
Colorectal carcinoma is the third most common cancer worldwide. Approximately 20% of patients with colorectal cancer will have metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis, and approximately 30% to 50% of patients with primary colon cancer will relapse and die of metastatic cancer. The 5-year survival rate of metastatic colorectal cancer remains disappointing at approximately 10%.Angiogenesis plays a significant role in tumor growth and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma. There are currently 4 US Food and Drug Administration-approved antiangiogenic agents for metastatic colorectal cancer...
July 2018: Cancer Journal
Napoleone Ferrara, Daniel S Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Cancer Journal
Florence Koeppel, Alexandre Bobard, Céline Lefebvre, Marion Pedrero, Marc Deloger, Yannick Boursin, Catherine Richon, Romy Chen-Min-Tao, Guillaume Robert, Guillaume Meurice, Etienne Rouleau, Stefan Michiels, Christophe Massard, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Eric Solary, Jean-Charles Soria, Fabrice André, Ludovic Lacroix
Comprehensive genomic profiling using high-throughput sequencing brings a wealth of information, and its place in the clinical setting has been increasingly prominent. This review emphasizes the utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) and transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) in patient care and clinical research, based on published reports as well as our experience with the MOSCATO-01 (MOlecular Screening for CAncer Treatment Optimization) molecular triage trial at Gustave Roussy Cancer Center. In this trial, all contributive samples of patients with advanced solid tumors were analyzed prospectively with targeted gene sequencing (TGS) and comparative genomic hybridization...
July 2018: Cancer Journal
Kathy Giusti, Anne Quinn Young, Kerri Lehrhaupt
Realizing the promise of precision medicine requires patient engagement at the key decision points throughout the cancer journey. Previous research has shown that patients who make the "right" decisions, such as being treated at a high-volume academic medical center, for example, have better outcomes. An online survey was conducted to understand awareness of and barriers to these decision points among patients with multiple myeloma and pancreatic, lung, prostate, and metastatic breast cancers. Survey respondents were identified by 5 participating foundations (multiple myeloma: n = 86, pancreatic: n = 108, lung: n = 56, prostate: n = 50, metastatic breast: n = 86) and recruited by an e-mail or social media invitation...
May 2018: Cancer Journal
Stephanie B Wheeler, Jennifer Leeman, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Florence K L Tangka, Melinda M Davis, Lisa C Richardson
A robust evidence base supports the effectiveness of timely colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, follow-up of abnormal results, and referral to care in reducing CRC morbidity and mortality. However, only two-thirds of the US population is current with recommended screening, and rates are much lower for those who are vulnerable because of their race/ethnicity, insurance status, or rural location. Multiple, multilevel factors contribute to observed disparities, and these factors vary across different populations and contexts...
May 2018: Cancer Journal
Kirsten B Goldberg, Gideon M Blumenthal, Richard Pazdur
The Food and Drug Administration formally established the Oncology Center of Excellence (OCE) in January 2017, as authorized by the 21st Century Cures Act, to expedite the development and review of certain drugs, biologics, and devices for the treatment of cancer. In its first year, the OCE conducted the clinical reviews for several products, including the first 2 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies approved for the treatment of advanced hematologic malignancies and an in vitro diagnostic next-generation sequencing panel, FoundationOne CDx...
May 2018: Cancer Journal
Robert L Grossman
One of the recommendations of the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report from 2016 was the creation of a national cancer data ecosystem. We review some of the approaches for building cancer data ecosystems and some of the progress that has been made. A data commons is the colocation of data with cloud computing infrastructure and commonly used software services, tools, and applications for managing, integrating, analyzing, and sharing data to create an interoperable resource for the research community. We discuss data commons and their potential role in cancer data ecosystems and, in particular, how multiple data commons can interoperate to form part of the foundation for a cancer data ecosystem...
May 2018: Cancer Journal
Karin D Rodland, Paul Piehowski, Richard D Smith
Breaking down the silos between disciplines to accelerate the pace of cancer research is a key paradigm for the Cancer Moonshot. Molecular analyses of cancer biology have tended to segregate between a focus on nucleic acids-DNA, RNA, and their modifications-and a focus on proteins and protein function. Proteogenomics represents a fusion of those two approaches, leveraging the strengths of each to provide a more integrated vision of the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein and eventually function at the molecular level...
May 2018: Cancer Journal
Asif Dhar, Beth Meagher, Andrew Ryscavage
Inspired by the Cancer Moonshot, a dedicated team of professionals worked with leaders across the cancer ecosystem to look for an opportunity to radically reduce cancer mortality globally by focusing on early cancer detection. After an initial survey of cancer innovation, progress, and pitfalls, the team believed that if new rapid, affordable, and accurate early detection solutions were appropriately brought to market, it would be possible to intervene earlier when cancer is most treatable.An extensive process began, informed by dozens of experts in the cancer ecosystem...
May 2018: Cancer Journal
Lyric A Jorgenson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Cancer Journal
Naveen Ramalingam, Stefanie S Jeffrey
Liquid biopsy provides minimally invasive and readily obtainable access to tumor-associated biological material in blood or other body fluids. These samples provide important insights into cancer biology, such as primary tumor heterogeneity; real-time tumor evolution; response to therapy, including immunotherapy; and mechanisms of cancer metastasis. Initial biological materials studied were circulating tumor cells and circulating nucleic acids, including circulating tumor DNA and microRNAs; more recently, studies have expanded to investigate extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, microvesicles, and large oncosomes; tumor-derived circulating endothelial cells; and tumor-educated platelets...
March 2018: Cancer Journal
Camila D M Campos, Joshua M Jackson, Małgorzata A Witek, Steven A Soper
In the context of oncology, liquid biopsies consist of harvesting cancer biomarkers, such as circulating tumor cells, tumor-derived cell-free DNA, and extracellular vesicles, from bodily fluids. These biomarkers provide a source of clinically actionable molecular information that can enable precision medicine. Herein, we review technologies for the molecular profiling of liquid biopsy markers with special emphasis on the analysis of low abundant markers from mixed populations.
March 2018: Cancer Journal
Jacob M Hope, Joshua D Greenlee, Michael R King
Cancer metastasis is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite its morbidity, metastasis is an inefficient process that few cells can survive. However, cancer cells can overcome these metastatic barriers via cellular responses to microenvironmental cues, such as through mechanotransduction. This review focuses on the mechanosensitive ion channels TRPV4 and P2X7, and their roles in metastasis, as both channels have been shown to significantly affect tumor cell dissemination. Upon activation, these channels help form tumor neovasculature, promote transendothelial migration, and increase cell motility...
March 2018: Cancer Journal
Jonathan R Thompson, Smitha P Menon
Cancer immunotherapy has recently undergone rapid advances and has become an integral part of the treatment armamentarium in various malignancies. However, tissue-based biomarker development in this arena has been slow, and valid biomarker identification to guide immunotherapeutic management is desperately needed. "Liquid" or blood-based biopsies potentially offer more convenient and efficient means to judge the immune milieu of individual patients and identify who will benefit most from immunotherapy...
March 2018: Cancer Journal
Ashutosh Agarwal, Marija Balic, Dorraya El-Ashry, Richard J Cote
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a central role in tumor dissemination and metastases, which are ultimately responsible for most cancer deaths. Technologies that allow for identification and enumeration of rare CTC from cancer patients' blood have already established CTC as an important clinical biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Indeed, current efforts to robustly characterize CTC as well as the associated cells of the tumor microenvironment such as circulating cancer associated fibroblasts (cCAF), are poised to unmask key insights into the metastatic process...
March 2018: Cancer Journal
James Clancy, Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey
Extracellular vesicles refer collectively to a heterogeneous group of membrane-bound vesicles released from cells and loaded with bioactive proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The concept of extracellular vesicles has rapidly evolved from once being viewed as cellular debris to their recognition as packets of cellular information with considerable promise for clinical applications as biomarker platforms and therapeutic vehicles. These shed vesicles have emerged as critical mediators of intercellular communication in both local and distant microenvironments during normal physiological processes, as well as in orchestrating systemic pathophysiological events in disease...
March 2018: Cancer Journal
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