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Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229401/a-clinical-approach-to-addressing-diet-with-migraine-patients
#1
REVIEW
Margaret Slavin, Jessica Ailani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migraine is a common disorder causing attacks of neurological dysfunction and pain. Treatment ranges from pharmacological to lifestyle changes to improve both frequency and severity of attacks. Focus on lifestyle changes, especially diet, is often discussed during clinical visits in the care of migraine patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Diet may play a role in triggering migraine, but available evidence on migraine and diet is limited. When advising patients on dietary changes to improve migraine, it is important to acknowledge the limits in evidence and the larger role that diet may play in lifestyle changes...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229400/trans-synaptic-retrograde-degeneration-in-the-human-visual-system-slow-silent-and-real
#2
REVIEW
Marc Dinkin
Degeneration of neuron and axons following injury to cells with which they synapse is termed trans-synaptic degeneration. This phenomenon may be seen in postsynaptic neurons (anterograde) or in presynaptic neurons (retrograde). Retrograde trans-synaptic degeneration (RTSD) of the retinal ganglion cells and retinal nerve fiber layer following injury to the occipital lobe has been well documented histologically in animal studies, but its occurrence in the human retina was, for many years, felt to be limited to cases of neonatal injury during a critical period of neuronal development...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229399/neurological-complications-of-the-leukemias-across-the-ages
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie Berg, Sucha Nand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute and chronic leukemias are heterogeneous diseases and can affect any part of the body upon initial discovery. Understanding the sequela of systemic involvement is key for proper diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the decades, new research has emerged regarding neurological complications of the myeloid or lymphoid leukemias. Central nervous system involvement usually confers a poor prognosis and requires emergent treatment. Standard of care still involves systemic therapy, intrathecal administration of chemotherapeutic agents, and cranial radiation...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229398/stroke-chameleons-and-stroke-mimics-in-the-emergency-department
#4
REVIEW
Ava L Liberman, Shyam Prabhakaran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We discuss the frequency of stroke misdiagnosis in the emergency department (ED), identify common diagnostic pitfalls, describe strategies to reduce diagnostic error, and detail ongoing research. RECENT FINDINGS: The National Academy of Medicine has re-defined and highlighted the importance of diagnostic errors for patient safety. Recent rates of stroke under-diagnosis (false-negative cases, "stroke chameleons") range from 2-26% and 30-43% for stroke over-diagnosis (false-positive cases, "stroke mimics")...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229397/emerging-causes-of-arbovirus-encephalitis-in-north-america-powassan-chikungunya-and-zika-viruses
#5
REVIEW
Christopher T Doughty, Sigal Yawetz, Jennifer Lyons
Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods. Arboviruses are a common and an increasing cause of human illness in North America. Powassan virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus are arboviruses that have all recently emerged as increasing causes of neurologic illness. Powassan virus almost exclusively causes encephalitis, but cases are rare, sporadic, and restricted to portions of North America and Russia. Chikungunya virus has spread widely across the world, causing millions of infections...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229396/statistical-approaches-to-longitudinal-data-analysis-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-huntington-s-disease-as-a-model
#6
REVIEW
Tanya P Garcia, Karen Marder
Understanding the overall progression of neurodegenerative diseases is critical to the timing of therapeutic interventions and design of effective clinical trials. Disease progression can be assessed with longitudinal study designs in which outcomes are measured repeatedly over time and are assessed with respect to risk factors, either measured repeatedly or at baseline. Longitudinal data allows researchers to assess temporal disease aspects, but the analysis is complicated by complex correlation structures, irregularly spaced visits, missing data, and mixtures of time-varying and static covariate effects...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229394/epileptic-encephalopathies-clinical-syndromes-and-pathophysiological-concepts
#8
REVIEW
Markus von Deimling, Ingo Helbig, Eric D Marsh
Epileptic encephalopathies account for a large proportion of the intractable early-onset epilepsies and are characterized by frequent seizures and poor developmental outcome. The epileptic encephalopathies can be loosely divided into two related groups of named syndromes. The first comprises epilepsies where continuous EEG changes directly result in cognitive and developmental dysfunction. The second includes patients where cognitive impairment is present at seizure onset and is due to the underlying etiology but the epileptic activity may then worsen the cognitive abilities over time...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188542/systemic-complications-of-spinal-cord-injury
#9
REVIEW
Rochelle Sweis, José Biller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the acute and chronic systemic complications of spinal cord injury and discuss treatment recommendations. RECENT FINDINGS: The psychological, social, economic, and permanent neurologic effects associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) have universally persisted over time. Treating acute complications and preventing secondary injury can influence outcome, highlighting the importance of proper management of this patient population. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is due to traumatic or non-traumatic causes...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210978/future-directions-in-imaging-neurodegeneration
#10
REVIEW
Joseph C Masdeu
Neuroimaging comprises a powerful set of instruments to diagnose various neurodegenerative disorders, clarifies their neurobiology, and monitors their treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging depicts volume changes, as well as abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the quantification of regional cerebral metabolism, characteristically altered in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diffuse Lewy-body disease, and the frontotemporal dementias...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168537/hyperkinetic-movement-disorder-emergencies
#11
REVIEW
Giovanni Cossu, Carlo Colosimo
A movement disorder emergency has been defined by Fahn and Frucht as "any neurological disorder evolving acutely or subacutely, in which the clinical presentation is dominated by a primary movement disorder, and in which failure to accurately diagnose and manage the patient may result in significant morbidity or even mortality." In this review, we discuss the most common situations in which hyperkinetic movement disorders, including chorea, ballism, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, as well as psychogenic disorders, can present as emergencies...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168536/systemic-complications-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#12
REVIEW
Ravi Garg, Barak Bar
Many systemic complications follow aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and are primarily due to sympathetic nervous system activation. These complications play an important role in the overall outcome of patients. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of systemic complications specifically associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Special focus has been made on systemic complications that occur more frequently in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage compared to other stroke subtypes and in the neurocritical care patient population...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138871/clinical-relevance-of-steroid-use-in-neuro-oncology
#13
REVIEW
K Ina Ly, Patrick Y Wen
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are commonly used in the management of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors and CNS metastases to treat cancer- and treatment-related cerebral edema and improve neurologic function. However, they are also associated with significant morbidity and mortality, given their wide range of adverse effects. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the mechanism of action, pharmacology, and toxicity profile of corticosteroids and to critically appraise the evidence that supports their use in neuro-oncologic practice based on the latest scientific and clinical data...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120141/autoimmune-movement-disorders-a-clinical-and-laboratory-approach
#14
REVIEW
Josephe Archie Honorat, Andrew McKeon
Autoimmune movement disorders are caused by an aberrant immune response to neural self-antigens. These disorders may be paraneoplastic, parainfectious, or (most commonly) idiopathic. The neurological presentations are diverse, and sometimes multifocal. Movement disorders can occur as part of the spectrum with phenotypes including chorea, myoclonus, ataxia, CNS hyperexcitability (including stiff-person syndrome), dystonia, and parkinsonism. Symptoms are subacute in onset and may have a fluctuating course. The best characterized disorders are unified by neural autoantibodies identified in serum or cerebrospinal fluid...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102483/integrating-patient-concerns-into-parkinson-s-disease-management
#15
REVIEW
Shen-Yang Lim, Ai Huey Tan, Susan H Fox, Andrew H Evans, Soon Chai Low
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex motor and non-motor disorder and management is often challenging. In this review, we explore emerging approaches to improve the care of patients, drawing from the literature regarding patient-centred care, patient and caregiver perspectives and priorities, gaps in knowledge among patients and caregivers and the need for accurate information, individual variability in disease manifestations, prognostication of disease course, new developments in health technologies and personalized medicine, specialty care, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, financial burden, lifestyle and work-related issues, support groups and palliative care...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097511/brain-calcification-and-movement-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Vladimir S Kostić, Igor N Petrović
Brain calcifications may be an incidental finding on neuroimaging in normal, particularly older individuals, but can also indicate numerous hereditary and nonhereditary syndromes, and metabolic, environmental, infectious, autoimmune, mitochondrial, traumatic, or toxic disorders. Bilateral calcifications most commonly affecting the basal ganglia may often be found in idiopathic cases, and a new term, primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), has been proposed that recognizes the genetic causes of the disorder and that calcifications occurred well beyond the basal ganglia...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097510/when-headache-warns-of-homeostatic-threat-the-metabolic-headaches
#17
REVIEW
Parneet Grewal, Jonathan H Smith
Headache attributable to disorders of homeostasis represents a diverse diagnostic category in which external (i.e., high-altitude) or internal (i.e., fasting) demands exceed homeostatic capacity, resulting in symptomatic headaches. Metabolic headaches, especially fasting headache, have been observed to be common in the general population. In many cases, a history of migraine is a risk factor, consistent with the hypothesis of an adaptive, evolutionary role of headache to warn against environmental and physiological threats...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878525/genetics-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Diana A Olszewska, Roisin Lonergan, Emer M Fallon, Tim Lynch
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD). Between 20 and 50% of cases are familial. Mutations in MAPT, GRN and C9orf72 are found in 60% of familial FTD cases. C9orf72 mutations are the most common and account for 25%. Rarer mutations (<5%) occur in other genes such as VPC, CHMP2B, TARDP, FUS, ITM2B, TBK1 and TBP. The diagnosis is often challenging due to symptom overlap with AD and other conditions. We review the genetics, clinical presentations, neuroimaging, neuropathology, animal studies and therapeutic trials in FTD...
December 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848174/mental-health-comorbidity-in-ms-depression-anxiety-and-bipolar-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Aaron P Turner, Kevin N Alschuler, Abbey J Hughes, Meghan Beier, Jodie K Haselkorn, Alicia P Sloan, Dawn M Ehde
Among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), mental health comorbidities play a significant role in contributing to secondary disability and detracting from quality of life. This review examines current evidence surrounding three mental health issues of particular relevance to MS: depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. We review what is known of the prevalence, correlates, screening mechanisms, and current treatment of each issue and provide recommendations for future areas of research.
December 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844341/does-the-type-of-multisystem-atrophy-parkinsonism-or-cerebellar-ataxia-impact-on-the-nature-of-sleep-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Sara Marelli, Romina Combi
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a combination of autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and/or cerebellar ataxia. The cause of MSA is unknown, but neuropathologically the disease is characterized by widespread α-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions and striatonigral and/or olivopontocerebellar neurodegeneration. Two motor phenotypes have been clinically identified: parkinsonian (MSA-P) and cerebellar (MSA-C). In order to elucidate if in addition to the motor abnormalities there are other significant differences between these two phenotypes, we performed a review of the studies on sleep disorders in the two MSA subtypes...
December 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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