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Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206709/graded-combined-aerobic-resistance-exercise-care-to-prevent-or-treat-the-persistent-post-concussion-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Karen A Sullivan, Andrew P Hills, Grant L Iverson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the growing body of indirect and direct evidence that suggests that exercise can be helpful for children, adolescents, and adults with persistent symptoms following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). RECENT FINDINGS: The direct evidence shows that graded exercise assessments are safe, and that aerobic exercise interventions are associated with improvement of multiple symptoms and other benefits, including earlier return-to-sport. The indirect evidence supports this approach via studies that reveal the potential mechanisms, and show benefits for related presentations and individual symptoms, including headaches, neck pain, vestibular problems, sleep, stress, anxiety, and depression...
September 12, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30206730/fluid-management-in-acute-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Sandra Rossi, Edoardo Picetti, Tommaso Zoerle, Marco Carbonara, Elisa R Zanier, Nino Stocchetti
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The aims of fluid management in acute brain injury are to preserve or restore physiology and guarantee appropriate tissue perfusion, avoiding potential iatrogenic effects. We reviewed the literature, focusing on the clinical implications of the selected papers. Our purposes were to summarize the principles regulating the distribution of water between the intracellular, interstitial, and plasma compartments in the normal and the injured brain, and to clarify how these principles could guide fluid administration, with special reference to intracranial pressure control...
September 11, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194563/cannabis-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Tyler E Gaston, Jerzy P Szaflarski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For millennia, there has been interest in the use of cannabis for the treatment of epilepsy. However, it is only recently that appropriately powered controlled studies have been completed. In this review, we present an update on the research investigating the use of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis, in the treatment of epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: While the anticonvulsant mechanism of action of CBD has not been entirely elucidated, we discuss the most recent data available including its low affinity for the endocannabinoid receptors and possible indirect modulation of these receptors via blocking the breakdown of anandamide...
September 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194550/sleep-wake-disorders-in-stroke-increased-stroke-risk-and-deteriorated-recovery-an-evaluation-on-the-necessity-for-prevention-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Simone B Duss, Anne-Kathrin Brill, Panagiotis Bargiotas, Laura Facchin, Filip Alexiev, Mauro Manconi, Claudio L Bassetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders (SWD) are common not only in the general population but also in stroke patients, in whom SWD may be pre-existent or appear "de novo" as a consequence of brain damage. Despite increasing evidence of a negative impact of SWD on cardiocerebrovascular risk, cognitive functions, and quality of life, SWD are insufficiently considered in the prevention and management of patients with stroke. This narrative review aims at summarizing the current data on the bidirectional link between SWD and stroke...
September 7, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128604/impact-of-recent-studies-for-the-treatment-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#5
REVIEW
Jochen A Sembill, Hagen B Huttner, Joji B Kuramatsu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review will cover most recent and important studies on acute treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). RECENT FINDINGS: Overly pessimistic prognostication in ICH may deny meaningful recovery achieved by specialized neurocritical care. Hematoma enlargement represents the most important target of acute ICH care, which is reduced by aggressive blood pressure management (targeting a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg) and appropriate hemostatic treatment especially in anticoagulation-associated ICH (INR reversal using prothrombin complex concentrates, eventually idarucizumab, andexanet, or tranexamic acid)...
August 20, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121715/management-of-brain-metastases-in-the-new-era-of-checkpoint-inhibition
#6
REVIEW
Adam Lauko, Bicky Thapa, Vyshak Alva Venur, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Brain metastasis is a common complication of advanced malignancies, especially, lung cancer, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Traditionally surgery, when indicated, and radiation therapy, either as whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery, constituted the major treatment options for brain metastases. Until recently, most of the systemic chemotherapy agents had limited activity for brain metastases. However, with the advent of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy agents, there has been renewed interest in using these agents in the management of brain metastases...
August 18, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116913/the-neuralgias
#7
REVIEW
Danielle Wilhour, Stephanie J Nahas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuralgias are characterized by pain in the distribution of a cranial or cervical nerve. Typically, they are brief, paroxysmal, painful attacks, although continuous neuropathic pain may occur. The most commonly encountered conditions are trigeminal, postherpetic, and occipital neuralgia. Less common neuralgias include glossopharyngeal, superior laryngeal, auriculotemporal, and nervus intermedius neuralgia, among others. The approach to diagnosis and treatment of this group of disorders is reviewed...
August 16, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099617/sleep-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-impulse-control-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Michela Figorilli, Patrizia Congiu, Rosa Lecca, Gioia Gioi, Roberto Frau, Monica Puligheddu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to explore the relationship between impulse-control disorders (ICDs) and sleep problems in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) among scientific literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Previously published results are controversial and sometimes inconclusive. ICDs and sleep disruption represent important non-motor features of Parkinson's disease, responsible for reducing quality of life and increasing burden of disease. The relationship between sleep problems and ICDs is complex and bidirectional...
August 11, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097731/the-genetics-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-current-understanding-and-future-directions
#9
REVIEW
Tatiana Orme, Rita Guerreiro, Jose Bras
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disease that can be clinically and pathologically similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current understanding of DLB genetics is insufficient and has been limited by sample size and difficulty in diagnosis. The first genome-wide association study (GWAS) in DLB was performed in 2017; a time at which the post-GWAS era has been reached in many diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: DLB shares risk loci with AD, in the APOE E4 allele, and with PD, in variation at GBA and SNCA...
August 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090997/detection-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-cryptogenic-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Karl Georg Haeusler, Serdar Tütüncü, Renate B Schnabel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on the detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with "cryptogenic" stroke, a cohort including about 25% of all ischemic stroke patients and patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). RECENT FINDINGS: A first episode of AF is detected in up to one third of cryptogenic stroke and in up to one fourth of ESUS patients during long-term monitoring. AF prevalence correlates to patient selection, duration, and quality of ECG monitoring...
August 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083844/does-dexmedetomidine-ameliorate-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-a-brief-review-of-the-recent-literature
#11
REVIEW
Zyad J Carr, Theodore J Cios, Kenneth F Potter, John T Swick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in 20-50% of postsurgical patients with a higher prevalence in elderly patients and patients with vascular disease and heart failure. In addition, POCD has been associated with many negative outcomes, such as increased hospital length of stay, increased rates of institutionalization, and higher patient mortality. This brief review discusses select evidence suggesting an association between neuroinflammation and POCD and whether the use of dexmedetomidine, a short-acting alpha 2 agonist, may ameliorate the incidence of POCD...
August 6, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083814/circadian-rhythm-disturbances-in-the-blind
#12
REVIEW
Sarah Hartley, Yves Dauvilliers, Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep timing, quantity, and quality are controlled by homeostatic and circadian systems. Circadian clock systems are present in all cells and organs and their timing is determined by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop of circadian genes. Individual cellular clocks are synchronized by the central body clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which communicates with them through humoral and neural signals including melatonin. The circadian system controls both the circadian period: (i...
August 6, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078154/neuromuscular-complications-of-programmed-cell-death-1-pd-1-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Justin C Kao, Adipong Brickshawana, Teerin Liewluck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been increasingly used in patients with metastatic cancers with favorable oncological outcomes; however, there have also been increasing number of cancer survivors who have developed immune-related adverse events. Little is known about PD-1 inhibitor-associated neuromuscular complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromuscular disorders are the most common neurological complication reported in PD-1 inhibitor-treated patients...
August 4, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058044/photophobia-when-light-hurts-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Abdul Albilali, Esma Dilli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an updated overview of Photophobia with a particular focus on photophobia related to migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: Melanopsin-containing photoreceptors called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have been identified in the retina and explain the rational for photophobia in individuals who are blind. Photophobia, a sensory disturbance provoked by light, is a common neurological and ophthalmological symptom. Migraine, a common neurological condition, is pathognomonic of photophobia; however, other primary headache conditions, traumatic brain injury, and impairment of the optic pathway can cause photophobia...
July 30, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058035/secondary-headaches-in-children-and-adolescents-what-not-to-miss
#15
REVIEW
Marcy Yonker
INTRODUCTION: Headaches are a common occurrence in childhood and adolescence. Most children presenting with a chief complaint of headache have a self-limited infectious disorder or primary headache syndrome that should not require extensive workup. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Differentiating these conditions from other more serious causes of headache in children can sometimes be difficult. This article aims to provide information regarding "red flags" that should indicate a need for concern for disorders that require more urgent evaluation...
July 30, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046905/regulation-of-ion-channels-by-micrornas-and-the-implication-for-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Christina Gross, Durgesh Tiwari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this focused review is to describe recent studies supporting a critical role of microRNAs in the regulation of ion channels and discuss the resulting implications for the modulation of neuronal excitability in epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNA-induced silencing of ion channels has been shown in several different studies in recent years, and some of these reports suggest a prominent role in epilepsy. The ion channels regulated by microRNAs include ligand- and voltage-gated channels and are not only limited to the central nervous system but have also been found in the peripheral nervous system...
July 25, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033493/thrombectomy-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-recent-insights-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Aravind Ganesh, Mayank Goyal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mechanical thrombectomy has become the standard of care for acute ischemic stroke with proximal large vessel occlusions (LVO). This article reviews recent research relating to thrombectomy. RECENT FINDINGS: Thrombectomy for anterior circulation stroke with proximal LVO was first shown to be highly efficacious within 6 h of stroke onset, but "late-window" trials have further demonstrated efficacy until 24-h postonset in select patients with salvageable tissue...
July 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030664/neuroimaging-in-the-kleine-levin-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Maria Engström, Francesco Latini, Anne-Marie Landtblom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose was to review the most recent literature on neuroimaging in the Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS). We aimed to investigate if frontotemporal and thalamic dysfunction are key KLS signatures, and if recent research indicates other brain networks of interest that elucidate KLS symptomatology and aetiology. RECENT FINDINGS: In a comprehensive literature search, we found 12 original articles published 2013-2018. Most studies report deviations related to cerebral perfusion, glucose metabolism, or blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses in frontotemporal areas and/or the thalamus...
July 21, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014344/cerebral-metabolic-changes-during-sleep
#19
REVIEW
Nadia Nielsen Aalling, Maiken Nedergaard, Mauro DiNuzzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of the present paper is to review current literature supporting the occurrence of fundamental changes in brain energy metabolism during the transition from wakefulness to sleep. RECENT FINDINGS: Latest research in the field indicates that glucose utilization and the concentrations of several brain metabolites consistently change across the sleep-wake cycle. Lactate, a product of glycolysis that is involved in synaptic plasticity, has emerged as a good biomarker of brain state...
July 16, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008147/sensory-sensitivity-in-tbi-implications-for-chronic-disability
#20
REVIEW
Megan L Callahan, Miranda M Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review investigates the relationship between sensory sensitivity and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the role sensory sensitivity plays in chronic disability. RECENT FINDINGS: TBI is a significant cause of disability with a range of physical, cognitive, and mental health consequences. Sensory sensitivities (e.g., noise and light) are among the most frequently reported, yet least outwardly recognizable symptoms following TBI. Clinicians and scientists alike have yet to identify consistent nomenclature for defining noise and light sensitivity, making it difficult to accurately and reliably assess their influence...
July 14, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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