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Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740726/minimally-invasive-surgery-for-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#1
REVIEW
Eliza H Hersh, Yakov Gologorsky, Alex G Chartrain, J Mocco, Christopher P Kellner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent success in preliminary clinical studies evaluating various forms of minimally invasive surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has renewed interest in the surgical treatment of this disease process. RECENT FINDINGS: In December of 2016, phase 2 of the Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus Rt-PA for ICH Evacuation (MISTIE) study demonstrated that this form of stereotactic thrombolysis safely reduces clot burden and may improve functional outcome 6 months after injury...
May 9, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721718/an-up-to-date-review-of-pseudotumor-cerebri-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
John Glenn Burkett, Jessica Ailani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), and benign intracranial hypertension are all terms that have been used for a neurologic syndrome consisting of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), headache and vision loss without mass lesion or underlying infection or malignancy. In this review article, categorization, diagnostic criteria, symptom management strategies, and disease treatment options for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome will be discussed...
May 2, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679162/circulating-troponin-i-level-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#3
REVIEW
Jacob VanHouten, Gregory Fricker, Bridget Collins, Ritwik Bhatia, Christopher Ellis, Matthew Schrag
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac troponin levels in the blood are an important biomarker of acute coronary events, but may also be elevated in the context of acute ischemic stroke without an obvious concurrent myocardial insult. The objective of this study and systematic review is to determine how high the circulating troponin I level can rise due to ischemic stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Anonymized medical records from Vanderbilt University Medical Center were reviewed identifying 151,972 unique acute ischemic stroke events, of which 1226 met criteria for inclusion in this study...
April 20, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679161/present-and-future-of-ultra-high-field-mri-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Graziella Donatelli, Roberto Ceravolo, Daniela Frosini, Michela Tosetti, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Mirco Cosottini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With a high signal-to-noise ratio, unparalleled spatial resolution, and improved contrasts, ultra-high field MR (≥ 7 T) has great potential in depicting the normal radiological anatomy of smaller structures in the brain and can also provide more information about morphological, quantitative, and metabolic changes associated with a wide range of brain disorders. By focusing attention on specific brain regions believed to be associated with early pathological change, or by more closely inspecting recognized foci of brain pathology, ultra-high field MR can improve the accuracy and sensitivity of neuroimaging...
April 20, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675810/neurostimulation-for-memory-enhancement-in-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Stephen Meisenhelter, Barbara C Jobst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Memory is one of the top concerns of epilepsy patients, but there are no known treatments to directly alleviate the memory deficits associated with epilepsy. Neurostimulation may provide new therapeutic tools to enhance memory in epilepsy patients. Here, we critically review recent investigations of memory enhancement using transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), chronic intracranial stimulation, and acute intracranial stimulation...
April 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675716/disturbances-of-sleep-and-alertness-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Aleksandar Videnovic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Sleep dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor manifestations of PD that has gained significant interest over the past two decades due to its impact on the daily lives of PD patients, poorly understood mechanisms, and limited treatment options. In this review, we discuss the most common sleep disorders in PD and present recent investigations that have broadened our understanding of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of disturbed sleep and alertness in PD...
April 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675548/exercise-headache-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Claire H Sandoe, William Kingston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exercise headache refers to headache that is triggered by exercise or exertion. Although secondary causes must be excluded, most cases of exercise headache are benign, idiopathic, and self-limited. This article reviews the revised diagnostic criteria for primary exercise headache (PEH) and discusses recent research into the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, suggested workup, and treatment of this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies estimate that PEH affects from 1 to 26% of the adult population...
April 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671077/infantile-spasms-have-we-made-progress
#8
REVIEW
Sarah Aminoff Kelley, Kelly G Knupp
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The care of children with infantile spasms is full of areas of ambiguity, despite practice parameters and randomized trials. This review is to update the current care of children with infantile spasms. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have generated new data to guide management including a randomized trial supporting combination therapy of hormone treatment and vigabatrin as an initial treatment for infantile spasms. Studies have suggested that we are not consistent in our recognition of hypsarrhythmia, while additional studies suggest that the presence or absence of this pattern may not have any predictive value...
April 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29654523/the-promise-of-telemedicine-for-movement-disorders-an-interdisciplinary-approach
#9
REVIEW
H Ben-Pazi, P Browne, P Chan, E Cubo, M Guttman, A Hassan, J Hatcher-Martin, Z Mari, E Moukheiber, N U Okubadejo, A Shalash
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in technology have expanded telemedicine opportunities covering medical practice, research, and education. This is of particular importance in movement disorders (MDs), where the combination of disease progression, mobility limitations, and the sparse distribution of MD specialists increase the difficulty to access. In this review, we discuss the prospects, challenges, and strategies for telemedicine in MDs. RECENT FINDINGS: Telemedicine for MDs has been mainly evaluated in Parkinson's disease (PD) and compared to in-office care is cost-effective with similar clinical care, despite the barriers to engagement...
April 13, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651628/intracranial-and-intraocular-pressure-at-the-lamina-cribrosa-gradient-effects
#10
REVIEW
Gauti Jóhannesson, Anders Eklund, Christina Lindén
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A pressure difference between the intraocular and intracranial compartments at the site of the lamina cribrosa has been hypothesized to have a pathophysiological role in several optic nerve head diseases. This paper reviews the current literature on the translamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD), the associated pressure gradient, and its potential pathophysiological role, as well as the methodology to assess TLCPD. RECENT FINDINGS: For normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), initial studies indicated low intracranial pressure (ICP) while recent findings indicate that a reduced ICP is not mandatory...
April 12, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629495/lewy-body-disease-clinical-and-pathological-overlap-syndrome-between-synucleinopathies-parkinson-disease-and-tauopathies-alzheimer-disease
#11
REVIEW
Clovis Foguem, Patrick Manckoundia
Lewy body disease (LBD) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in dementia. It shares clinical and pathological features with Parkinson disease (PD), the most frequent synucleinopathy, Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), and Alzheimer disease (AD), a tauopathy. Even though the diagnostic criteria for these neurodegenerative diseases are clearly established, and recently revised for LBD, their precise clinical diagnosis is often difficult because LBD, PD, PDD, and AD share epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics...
April 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623455/managing-gait-balance-and-posture-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Bettina Debû, Clecio De Oliveira Godeiro, Jarbas Correa Lino, Elena Moro
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postural instability and gait difficulties inexorably worsen with Parkinson's disease (PD) progression and become treatment resistant, with a severe impact on autonomy and quality of life. We review the main characteristics of balance instability, gait disabilities, and static postural alterations in advanced PD, and the available treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: It remains very difficult to satisfactorily alleviate gait and postural disturbances in advanced PD...
April 6, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616350/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-new-mechanistic-insights-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Jin-Sung Park, Ryan L Davis, Carolyn M Sue
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder, the aetiology of which is still largely unknown. Overwhelming evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a central factor in PD pathophysiology. Here we review recent developments around mitochondrial dysfunction in familial and sporadic PD, with a brief overview of emerging therapies targeting mitochondrial dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: Increasing evidence supports the critical role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of sporadic PD, while the involvement of familial PD-related genes in the regulation of mitochondrial biology has been expanded by the discovery of new mitochondria-associated disease loci and the identification of their novel functions...
April 3, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616343/new-imaging-markers-for-movement-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Christine Ghadery, Antonio P Strafella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For decades, identifying in vivo imaging biomarkers to accurately differentiate between various movement disorders as well as to understand their underlying pathophysiological abnormalities has been the aim of scientific work. Recent advances in multimodal imaging enable the visualization of structural and functional brain changes in these pathological conditions, thus raising the value of imaging techniques as powerful tools to improve sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnoses...
April 3, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569186/takotsubo-syndrome-clinical-features-pathogenesis-treatment-and-relationship-with-cerebrovascular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
M Ranieri, J Finsterer, G Bedini, E A Parati, A Bersano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review paper aims to provide a complete and updated overview on the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), including prognosis, therapy, and the association with cerebrovascular conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: TTS is an increasingly recognized non-ischemic cardiomyopathy characterized by sudden, temporary weakening of the myocardium, of which the pathogenesis is unknown. Although pathogenesis of TTS remains unclear, a complex interaction between catecholamine-mediated stimulation, myocardial stunning, and subsequent stress-related myocardial dysfunction seems to be the main pathophysiological mechanism...
March 22, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536184/coccidioidal-meningitis-a-review-on-diagnosis-treatment-and-management-of-complications
#16
REVIEW
Royce Johnson, Jackie Ho, Pete Fowler, Arash Heidari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the diagnosis and treatment of coccidioidal meningitis (CM) and its complications. An overview of current and prospective pharmacologic treatment options and monitoring parameters is provided. A consensus has not been reached regarding universally accepted therapeutic serum levels for azoles because of insufficient evidence. We describe the preferred therapeutic drug level ranges that our institution uses to monitor azole therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Ho et al...
March 13, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525975/prognostic-value-of-eeg-in-patients-after-cardiac-arrest-an-updated-review
#17
REVIEW
Wolfgang Muhlhofer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to review and summarize the key contributions of EEG to prognostication after cardiac arrest (CA). RECENT FINDINGS: While there are more EEG patterns predicting poor than good outcome, even EEG patterns previously considered to be "very malignant" may result in survival with a meaningful neurological outcome depending on their underlying etiology as well as the continuity and reactivity of the EEG background. Regardless of the potentially confounding factors, EEG patterns are highly specific with a relatively low false-positive rate...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525910/insights-into-the-mechanisms-that-may-clarify-obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-multiple-sclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Marije J D Huitema, Geert J Schenk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The proportion to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still incompletely understood. An interesting association between MS etiology and obesity has recently been shown although the mechanisms underlying this association are still unknown. We propose deregulated gut microbiota and increased leptin levels as possible mechanisms underlying MS etiology in obese individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Alterations in the human gut microbiota and leptin levels have recently been established as immune modulators in both MS patients and obese individuals...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525906/mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-what-is-it
#19
REVIEW
Rimona S Weil, Alyssa A Costantini, Anette E Schrag
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mild cognitive impairment is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest disease stages, but there is variation in the nature and severity of cognitive involvement and in the risk of conversion to Parkinson's disease dementia. This review aims to summarise current understanding of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. We consider the presentation, rate of conversion to dementia, underlying pathophysiology and potential biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525898/transition-of-children-with-neurological-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Ann H Tilton
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The goal of the article is to describe a systematic approach through core principles and steps for the transition of the patient with a neurological disorder to the adult model of care, to provide steps and principles to help receiving providers successfully integrate the patient into their practice, and to discuss cultural, systemic, and discipline-based barriers to transition. RECENT FINDING: The literature has expanded rapidly. The recent publications help define the barriers to the process and are currently exploring the best methods to evaluate readiness, needs, barriers, and develop solutions for best practices...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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