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Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639238/multiple-sclerosis-in-latin-americans-genetic-aspects
#1
REVIEW
Victor M Rivera
Latin Americans (LA) are a heterogeneous, multiethnic group of individuals who inhabit the continental countries in Latin America (LATAM), Caribbean islands and constitute the largest ethnic minority in the USA. Commonly used terminology and ethno racial classifications to define these groups may not be accurate. Risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) among LA is generally low to medium but frequencies are increasing in the American hemisphere. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in LA show diverse variants and genetic proportions among Mestizos, the most representative ethnic population, who themselves are the product of centuries of interracial mixing between Native Americans (or Amerindians), White Caucasian Europeans, and Black Africans...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631194/the-use-of-cannabinoids-in-treating-dementia
#2
REVIEW
Megan Weier, Wayne Hall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and summarise the current evidence on the safety and efficacy of using cannabinoids to treat behavioural and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: Two randomised controlled trials testing a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol have shown that while well tolerated, there was no significant therapeutic effect, based on changes to scores on the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). Case reports and open label trials have indicated that there may be some therapeutic benefit of adding synthetic cannabinoids as an adjunctive therapy to reduce agitation, aberrant motor behaviour and nighttime behaviour...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631193/current-concepts-of-memory-disorder-in-epilepsy-edging-towards-a-network-account
#3
REVIEW
Genevieve Rayner, Chris Tailby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A paradigm shift in contemporary epileptology has been the reframing of both epilepsy and its comorbid memory disorders as the product of diseased brain networks. The current review discusses some of the clinical and theoretical implications that stem from this shift. RECENT FINDINGS: Some implications of a network conceptualisation of epilepsy include a need for more widespread cognitive phenotyping in epilepsy; recognition that memory disorders in epilepsy can be multi-determined, including by non-structural factors; deeper consideration given to the neurodevelopmental context in which memory problems emerge; the utility of new methods to characterise memory impairments in epilepsy; and a call for greater recognition of the close interrelationships between memory comorbidities and psychiatric symptoms in epilepsy...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623489/comparing-the-intracarotid-amobarbital-test-and-functional-mri-for-the-presurgical-evaluation-of-language-in-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Andreu Massot-Tarrús, Seyed Reza Mousavi, Seyed M Mirsattari
Surgery is the treatment of choice for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, such surgery frequently causes deficits in language function, especially if performed on the dominant hemisphere. In recent years, the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) has been gradually replaced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the preoperative identification of language areas to estimate the risk of postoperative language decline. In this paper, we review the neural substrates for language processing, how language impairment can result both from TLE itself and from surgical attempts to treat it...
July 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516376/an-update-on-the-approach-to-the-imaging-of-brain-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Katherine M Mullen, Raymond Y Huang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimaging plays a critical role in diagnosis of brain tumors and in assessment of response to therapy. However, challenges remain, including accurately and reproducibly assessing response to therapy, defining endpoints for neuro-oncology trials, providing prognostic information, and differentiating progressive disease from post-therapeutic changes particularly in the setting of antiangiogenic and other novel therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in the imaging of brain tumors include application of advanced MRI imaging techniques to assess tumor response to therapy and analysis of imaging features correlating to molecular markers, grade, and prognosis...
July 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500417/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-memory-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
Rosalia Paterno, Kaitlin A Folweiler, Akiva S Cohen
Memory is fundamental to everyday life, and cognitive impairments resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have devastating effects on TBI survivors. A contributing component to memory impairments caused by TBI is alteration in the neural circuits associated with memory function. In this review, we aim to bring together experimental findings that characterize behavioral memory deficits and the underlying pathophysiology of memory-involved circuits after TBI. While there is little doubt that TBI causes memory and cognitive dysfunction, it is difficult to conclude which memory phase, i...
July 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497305/deep-brain-stimulation-emergencies-how-the-new-technologies-could-modify-the-current-scenario
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Cossu, Mariachiara Sensi
After 25 years of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, it has become increasingly recognized that a range of postoperative urgent situations and emergencies may occur. In this review we describe the possible scenarios of DBS-related emergencies: perioperative (intraoperative and early postoperative) and postoperative settings and issues from suboptimal control of motor and nonmotor symptoms in the early programming phase and during long-term follow-up. We also outline potential advantages in the management of these emergencies offered by the newest devices, emerging technologies, and new possibilities in programming...
July 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488122/the-potential-of-cellular-and-viral-based-immunotherapies-for-malignant-glioma-dendritic-cell-vaccines-adoptive-cell-transfer-and-oncolytic-viruses
#8
REVIEW
Russell Maxwell, Andrew S Luksik, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Michael Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma, are the most frequent primary brain tumors and present with many treatment challenges. In this review, we discuss the potential of cellular- and viral-based immunotherapies in the treatment of malignant glioma, specifically focusing on dendritic cell vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, and oncolytic viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: Diverse cellular- and viral-based strategies have been engineered and optimized to generate either a specific or broad antitumor immune response in malignant glioma...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466277/neuroimaging-in-central-nervous-system-infections
#9
REVIEW
Nathaniel C Swinburne, Anmol G Bansal, Amit Aggarwal, Amish H Doshi
Radiologic imaging is often employed to supplement clinical evaluation in cases of suspected central nervous system (CNS) infection. While computed tomography (CT) is superior for evaluating osseous integrity, demineralization, and erosive changes and may be more readily available at many institutions, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has significantly greater sensitivity for evaluating the cerebral parenchyma, cord, and marrow for early changes that have not yet reached the threshold for CT detection. For these reasons, MRI is generally superior to CT for characterizing bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections of the CNS...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425015/the-new-classification-of-seizures-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-2017
#10
REVIEW
Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the newly developed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types. RECENT FINDINGS: The fundamental distinction is between seizures that begin focally in one hemisphere of the brain, generalized onset seizures that apparently originate in both hemispheres, and seizures of unknown onset. Focal seizures optionally can be subclassified according to whether awareness (a surrogate marker for consciousness) is intact or impaired...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421360/update-on-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#11
REVIEW
Comana Cioroiu, Louis H Weimer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this study was to briefly discuss chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and detail the most important and most recent chemotherapeutic agents implicated. This review will examine neuropathy mechanisms, risk factors, and clinical patterns; novel and prospective drugs with similar effects that are less well known to neurologists are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: CIPN is increasingly recognized for its clinical importance and effect on patient quality of life...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417291/reward-prediction-errors-in-drug-addiction-and-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurophysiology-to-neuroimaging
#12
REVIEW
Isabel García-García, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surprises are important sources of learning. Cognitive scientists often refer to surprises as "reward prediction errors," a parameter that captures discrepancies between expectations and actual outcomes. Here, we integrate neurophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results addressing the processing of reward prediction errors and how they might be altered in drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: By increasing phasic dopamine responses, drugs might accentuate prediction error signals, causing increases in fMRI activity in mesolimbic areas in response to drugs...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405954/genetic-testing-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Tristan T Sands, Hyunmi Choi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the emerging landscape of pediatric epilepsy, highlighting genetic contributions, and reviews approaches to genetic evaluation for pediatric epilepsy in this context. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in understanding the genetic basis for epilepsy over the last several years have been due in large part to the identification of de novo genetic variation underlying sporadic severe epilepsy in children; the genetic underpinnings of the more common epilepsies remain largely unknown...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397169/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#14
REVIEW
Antonella LoMauro, Maria Grazia D'Angelo, Andrea Aliverti
This review aims to explain the inevitable imbalance between respiratory load, drive, and muscular force that occurs in the natural aging of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that predisposes these patients to sleep disordered breathing (SDB). In DMD, SDB is characterized by oxygen desaturation, apneas, hypercapnia, and hypoventilation during sleep and ultimately develops into respiratory failure during wakefulness. It can be present in all age groups. Young patients risk obstructive apneas because of weight gain, secondary to progressive physical inactivity and prolonged corticosteroid therapy; older patients hypoventilate and desaturate because of respiratory muscle weakness, in particular the diaphragm...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390033/a-novel-way-to-measure-and-predict-development-a-heuristic-approach-to-facilitate-the-early-detection-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Peter B Marschik, Florian B Pokorny, Robert Peharz, Dajie Zhang, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Herbert Roeyers, Sven Bölte, Alicia J Spittle, Berndt Urlesberger, Björn Schuller, Luise Poustka, Sally Ozonoff, Franz Pernkopf, Thomas Pock, Kristiina Tammimies, Christian Enzinger, Magdalena Krieber, Iris Tomantschger, Katrin D Bartl-Pokorny, Jeff Sigafoos, Laura Roche, Gianluca Esposito, Markus Gugatschka, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Christa Einspieler, Walter E Kaufmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Substantial research exists focusing on the various aspects and domains of early human development. However, there is a clear blind spot in early postnatal development when dealing with neurodevelopmental disorders, especially those that manifest themselves clinically only in late infancy or even in childhood. RECENT FINDINGS: This early developmental period may represent an important timeframe to study these disorders but has historically received far less research attention...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382495/cognitive-and-behavioral-interventions-in-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Beth A Leeman-Markowski, Steven C Schachter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive and behavioral treatments for epilepsy offer several advantages, as they are relatively low cost, are non-invasive, lack serious side effects, and facilitate patient participation. Their role in the management of epilepsy, however, is unclear. The following manuscript will critically review the efficacy data regarding psychological treatments for seizure reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Encouraging results have been found for the cognitive behavioral therapy-based Reiter/Andrews approach and mindfulness or arousal-based programs (e...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378233/multiple-system-atrophy-state-of-the-art
#17
REVIEW
Brice Laurens, Sylvain Vergnet, Miguel Cuina Lopez, Alexandra Foubert-Samier, François Tison, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Wassilios G Meissner
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a variable combination of parkinsonism, cerebellar impairment, and autonomic dysfunction. Some symptomatic treatments are available while neuroprotection or disease-modification remain unmet treatment needs. The pathologic hallmark is the accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in oligodendrocytes forming glial cytoplasmic inclusions, which qualifies MSA as synucleinopathy together with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365885/the-spectrum-of-vestibular-and-ocular-motor-abnormalities-in-thiamine-deficiency
#18
REVIEW
Jorge C Kattah
PURPOSE: The first aim of this review is to summarize recent ocular motor signs in pre-encephalopathy patients with nutritional deficiency at risk of thiamine deficiency. Timely recognition of thiamine depletion in these patients, who may have a normal brain MRI, could lead to appropriate management and prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) with full recovery. The second aim is to incorporate recent diagnostic testing on the revised WE diagnostic criteria and the identification of patients who may show slow, partial, or no response to treatment...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353189/reflections-on-ethics-and-humanity-in-pediatric-neurology-the-value-of-recognizing-ethical-issues-in-common-clinical-practice
#19
REVIEW
Gabriel M Ronen, Peter L Rosenbaum
Our goals in this reflection are to (i) identify the ethical dimensions inherent in any clinical encounter and (ii) bring to the forefront of our pediatric neurology practice the myriad of opportunities to explore and learn from these ethical questions. We highlight specifically Beauchamp and Childress's principles of biomedical ethics. We use the terms ethics in common clinical practice and an ethical lens to remind people of the ubiquity of ethical situations and the usefulness of using existing ethical principles to analyze and resolve difficult situations in clinical practice...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343323/post-traumatic-sleep-wake-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Tatyana Mollayeva, Andrea D'Souza, Shirin Mollayeva, Angela Colantonio
All living organisms that face a traumatic life event are susceptible to sleep-wake disturbances. Stress, which can result in trauma, evokes a high level of physiological arousal associated with sympathetic nervous system activation, during both sleep and wakefulness. Heredity, sex hormones, early losses, developmental factors and intra- and interpersonal conflicts, contribute to the level of baseline physiological arousal, producing either subclinical, clinical or complex clinical traits, acutely and at any time after exposure to a traumatic event...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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