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Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

Nadia Nielsen Aalling, Maiken Nedergaard, Mauro DiNuzzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of the present paper is to review current literature supporting the occurrence of fundamental changes in brain energy metabolism during the transition from wakefulness to sleep. RECENT FINDINGS: Latest research in the field indicates that glucose utilization and the concentrations of several brain metabolites consistently change across the sleep-wake cycle. Lactate, a product of glycolysis that is involved in synaptic plasticity, has emerged as a good biomarker of brain state...
July 16, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Megan L Callahan, Miranda M Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review investigates the relationship between sensory sensitivity and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the role sensory sensitivity plays in chronic disability. RECENT FINDINGS: TBI is a significant cause of disability with a range of physical, cognitive, and mental health consequences. Sensory sensitivities (e.g., noise and light) are among the most frequently reported, yet least outwardly recognizable symptoms following TBI. Clinicians and scientists alike have yet to identify consistent nomenclature for defining noise and light sensitivity, making it difficult to accurately and reliably assess their influence...
July 14, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
D P Devanand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Viruses, particularly herpes simplex virus (HSV), may be a cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The evidence supporting the viral hypothesis suggests that antiviral treatment trials, which have not been conducted, are warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: HSV1 (oral herpes) and HSV2 (genital herpes) can trigger amyloid aggregation, and their DNA is common in amyloid plaques. HSV1 reactivation is associated with tau hyperphosphorylation and possibly tau propagation...
July 14, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Jure Tornic, Jalesh N Panicker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. As a consequence, health-related quality of life is often impaired and the upper urinary tract might be at risk for damage. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current treatment options for LUT dysfunction in patients with MS. RECENT FINDINGS: The treatment is tailored to the type of dysfunction-storage or voiding dysfunction-beginning with conservative treatment options and ending with invasive therapies and surgery...
June 28, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Antonio Culebras, Sanam Anwar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review the cerebrovascular complications of sleep apnea (SA). SA is the major sleep disorder associated with stroke and vascular dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep apnea syndrome of moderate to severe intensity affects 17% of 50-70-year-old men and 9% of 50-70-year-old women, making SA a notorious and prevalent disorder. SA increases the risk of hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and atrial fibrillation (AF) and is closely linked to vascular dementia...
June 25, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Stasia Rouse, Matthew Wodziak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hiccups are a common problem that crosses multiple disciplines including neurology, gastroenterology and pulmonology, and primary care. There are no formal guidelines to the treatment of intractable hiccups and treatment is based on experience and anecdotal evidence often relying on older medications. We have reviewed the relevant literature with an emphasis on the last five years or so in management of intractable hiccups. RECENT FINDINGS: The production of hiccups is a complex mechanism which involves multiple neurotransmitters and anatomical structure within the central and peripheral nervous system...
June 22, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Abby I Metzler, Carrie E Robertson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review illustrative case descriptions of both primary and secondary visual snow from our clinic. We discuss recently proposed criteria for visual snow syndrome and offer a slight modification of these criteria. We also discuss the theories on the pathophysiological mechanisms of visual snow, as well as the current approach to treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual snow is a condition where patients see constant, innumerable flickering dots throughout the visual field, similar to "TV static...
June 22, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Elizabeth Silbermann, Lindsey Wooliscroft, Dennis Bourdette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical trials using agents directed at neuroprotection and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) are needed. As optic neuritis (ON) is common in people with MS and the pathology of ON is similar to other MS lesions in the brain, measurements of the anterior visual system are frequently utilized in neuroprotection and remyelination trials. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the measurements is vital when interpreting the results of this research. RECENT FINDINGS: Techniques such as visual evoked potentials (VEP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are well established in MS and are thought to measure axonal integrity and myelination...
June 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Jessica Rice, Michelle Cameron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis and cannabinoids have been used medically and recreationally for thousands of years and recently there has been a growing body of research in this area. With increased access now that medical marijuana is available in many jurisdictions, patients and providers want to know more about the evidence for benefits and risks of cannabinoid use. This paper provides an overview of the available cannabinoid-based formulations, a summary of the highest quality evidence for the use of cannabinoids for treating spasticity and pain associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and a discussion of possible dosing regimens based on information from these studies...
June 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Margie A Ream, Lenora Lehwald
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death worldwide in children < 5 years of age; however, technology and advances in medical knowledge are increasing the survival of children born even at the fringes of viability. With increased survival comes increased risk of long-term neurologic impairments. This paper aims to review recent findings related to changes in brain development associated with prematurity and its impact on neurodevelopmental disabilities. RECENT FINDINGS: Advanced imaging techniques, longitudinal follow-up of individuals born extremely preterm into adulthood and improved understanding of risk factors associated with neurologic impairment contribute to recent discoveries...
June 16, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
R Ryan Darby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Criminal behavior occurs in previously law-abiding neurological patients, including patients with traumatic brain injury, focal brain lesions, and dementia. Neuroimaging abnormalities in these patients allow one to explore the potential neuroanatomical correlates of criminal behavior. However, this process has been challenging because (1) It is difficult to determine the temporal relationship between criminal behavior and neurological disease onset; (2) Abnormalities in several different brain regions have been associated with criminal behavior; and (3) It is difficult to quantify neuroimaging abnormalities in individual subjects...
June 14, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Andrew G Engel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize features of the currently recognized congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) with emphasis on novel findings identified in the past 6 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the last review of the CMS in this journal in 2012, several novel CMS were identified. The identified disease proteins are SNAP25B, synaptotagmin 2, Munc13-1, synaptobrevin-1, GFPT1, DPAGT1, ALG2, ALG14, Agrin, GMPPB, LRP4, myosin 9A, collagen 13A1, the mitochondrial citrate carrier, PREPL, LAMA5, the vesicular ACh transporter, and the high-affinity presynaptic choline transporter...
June 12, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Daniel Ruivo Marques, Ana Allen Gomes, Gina Caetano, Miguel Castelo-Branco
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insomnia disorder (ID) is a prevalent sleep disorder that significantly compromises the physical and mental health of individuals. This article reviews novel approaches in the study of brain networks and impaired function in ID through the application of modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). RECENT FINDINGS: The default-mode network (DMN) is presumed to be correlated with self-referential information processing, and it appears to be altered or unbalanced in insomnia...
June 9, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Ziv Gan-Or, Christopher Liong, Roy N Alcalay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: GBA mutations are the most common known genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). Its biological pathway may be important in idiopathic PD, since activity of the enzyme encoded by GBA, glucocerebrosidase, is reduced even among PD patients without GBA mutations. This article describes the structure and function of GBA, reviews recent literature on the clinical phenotype of GBA PD, and suggests future directions for research, counseling, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Several longitudinal studies have shown that GBA PD has faster motor and cognitive progression than idiopathic PD and that this effect is dose dependent...
June 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Tomi Sarkanen, Anniina Alakuijala, Ilkka Julkunen, Markku Partinen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: After the connection between AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine Pandemrix and narcolepsy was recognized in 2010, research on narcolepsy has been more intensive than ever before. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with current concepts and recent findings on the Pandemrix-associated narcolepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: After the Pandemrix vaccination campaign in 2009-2010, the risk of narcolepsy was increased 5- to 14-fold in children and adolescents and 2- to 7-fold in adults...
June 1, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Candice Todd, Ana Marissa Lagman-Bartolome, Christine Lay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Migraine is a debilitating disease, that is encountered in countless medical offices every day and since it is highly prevalent in women, it is imperative to have a clear understanding of how to manage migraine. There is a growing body of evidence regarding the patterns we see in women throughout their life cycle and how we approach migraine diagnosis and treatment at those times. RECENT FINDINGS: New guidelines regarding safety of medication during pregnancy and lactation are being utilized to help guide management decisions in female migraineurs...
May 31, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Xiuhe Zhao, Samden D Lhatoo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The unpredictability and apparent randomness of epileptic seizures is one of the most vexing aspects of epilepsy. Methods or devices capable of detecting seizures may help prevent injury or even death and significantly improve quality of life. Here, we summarize and evaluate currently available, unimodal, or polymodal detection systems for epileptic seizures, mainly in the ambulatory setting. RECENT FINDINGS: There are two broad categories of detection devices: EEG-based and non-EEG-based systems...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Carles Gaig, Alex Iranzo, Joan Santamaria, Francesc Graus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical and polysomnographic features of the sleep disorder occurring in the recently described anti-IgLON5 disease. The hallmark of the disease is the presence of antibodies against IgLON5, a neural cell adhesion molecule of unknown function. The disease presents a robust HLA association, and the neuropathological examination shows a novel neuronal tauopathy with predominant hypothalamic and brainstem involvement. RECENT FINDINGS: Most patients (> 80%) present sleep-related vocalizations with movements and behaviors and sleep-disordered breathing...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Uğur Uygunoğlu, Aksel Siva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although Behçet's syndrome (BS) is classified as a rare disease in European countries and the USA, its neurologic involvement "neuro-Behçet's syndrome (NBS)" is commonly included in the differential diagnosis of many inflammatory and vascular central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Clinical and neuroimaging findings support two major forms of NBS: parenchymal NBS (p-NBS) and an extra-parenchymal form that presents with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST)...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Kelsey Rankin, Riley Bove
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caring for women with multiple sclerosis (MS), whose first symptoms typically begin during the childbearing years, requires a comprehensive approach to management across a range of reproductive exposures, and beyond through menopause. RECENT FINDINGS: This article summarizes what is known about the disease course in women with MS, how it differs from men, and the current state of knowledge regarding effects of reproductive exposures (menarche, childbearing, menopause) on MS-related inflammation and neurodegeneration...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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