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Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455271/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-an-update
#1
REVIEW
Melissa J Armstrong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a 4R tau neuropathologic entity. While historically defined by the presence of a vertical supranuclear gaze palsy and falls in the first symptomatic year, clinicopathologic studies identify alternate presenting phenotypes. This article reviews the new PSP diagnostic criteria, diagnostic approaches, and treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PSP criteria outline 14 core clinical features and 4 clinical clues that combine to diagnose one of eight PSP phenotypes with probable, possible, or suggestive certainty...
February 17, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445957/treating-immune-related-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Sonal Bhatia, Sarah E Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores different treatment modalities for immune-mediated epilepsy, including epilepsy caused by autoantibodies as well as epilepsy in the context of systemic autoimmune disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Autoimmune epilepsy is an increasingly recognized entity. Conventional treatments for epilepsy, such as antiseizure medications and epilepsy surgery, are less successful in treating epilepsy caused by autoimmune disease. Immunomodulatory therapies such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange are generally more successful in treating immune-mediated epilepsy than conventional epilepsy therapies...
February 14, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445906/the-neuropsychological-consequences-of-armed-conflicts-and-torture
#3
REVIEW
Pedro Weisleder, Caitlin Rublee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: At any point in time, there are hundreds of armed conflicts throughout the world. Neuropsychological disorders are a major cause of morbidity during and after armed conflicts. Conditions such as closed and open head injuries, acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis are prevalent among survivors. Herein, we summarize information on the various forms of torture, the resultant neuropsychological pathology, and treatment strategies to help survivors...
February 14, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445883/neurological-complications-of-acute-and-chronic-otitis-media
#4
REVIEW
Michael J Hutz, Dennis M Moore, Andrew J Hotaling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to discuss the symptoms, diagnosis, and management of the neurologic complications of acute and chronic otitis media. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibiotic therapy has greatly reduced the frequency of complications of otitis media. However, it is of vital importance to remain aware of the possible development of neurologic complications. There is a trend toward less severe presenting symptoms including otorrhea, headache, nausea, and fever, with altered mental status and focal neurologic deficits presenting later...
February 14, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442178/the-use-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-in-treating-symptoms-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#5
REVIEW
Suzanne Nielsen, Rada Germanos, Megan Weier, John Pollard, Louisa Degenhardt, Wayne Hall, Nicholas Buckley, Michael Farrell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pharmaceutical cannabinoids such as nabiximols, nabilone and dronabinol, and plant-based cannabinoids have been investigated for their therapeutic potential in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms. This review of reviews aimed to synthesise findings from high quality systematic reviews that examined the safety and effectiveness of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis. We examined the outcomes of disability and disability progression, pain, spasticity, bladder function, tremor/ataxia, quality of life and adverse effects...
February 13, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417304/systemic-complications-following-status-epilepticus
#6
REVIEW
Maximiliano A Hawkes, Sara E Hocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Status epilepticus (SE) is a multisystem disorder. Initially, complications of a massive catecholamine release followed by the side effects of medical therapies, impact patients' outcomes. The aim of this article is to provide an updated summary of the systemic complications following SE. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the importance of the multifaceted nature of SE and its relationship with clinical outcomes has been increasingly recognized...
February 7, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411147/atrial-fibrillation-for-the-neurologist-preventing-both-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-strokes
#7
REVIEW
Elif Gokcal, Marco Pasi, Marc Fisher, M Edip Gurol
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to help neurologists managing atrial fibrillation (AF) patients who had an ischemic stroke and/or with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) markers, therefore at high embolic/hemorrhagic risks. RECENT FINDINGS: Implantable loop recorders have substantially improved the accuracy of AF detection. Recent research yielded a set of powerful neuroimaging markers that can stratify ICH risk. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are easier to use with a lower ICH risk than warfarin in a general AF population...
February 6, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404826/neurological-complications-of-acute-and-chronic-sinusitis
#8
REVIEW
Andrea Ziegler, Monica Patadia, James Stankiewicz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute and chronic sinusitis can give rise to a wide array of intracranial and orbital complications. These complications include brain abscess, subdural empyema, epidural abscess, meningitis, venous sinus thrombosis, frontal bone osteomyelitis, and orbital cellulitis and abscess. Despite numerous medical advances, these complications carry a risk of mortality and significant morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown improvement in both the mortality and the morbidity associated with the neurologic complications of acute and chronic sinusitis...
February 5, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396598/genomic-alterations-in-sporadic-pituitary-tumors
#9
REVIEW
Wenya Linda Bi, Alexandra Giantini Larsen, Ian F Dunn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pituitary tumors are undergoing a transformation in histopathologic and molecular classification, coincident with the continued refinement of increasingly powerful methods of genomic annotation and discovery. We highlight novel genomic alterations identified in pituitary adenomas and craniopharyngiomas and discuss their clinical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Sporadic pituitary adenomas are associated with relatively few recurrent somatic mutations...
February 2, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392441/neurological-adverse-events-associated-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-diagnosis-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Christophoros Astaras, Rita de Micheli, Bianca Moura, Thomas Hundsberger, Andreas F Hottinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent a major step forward in the field of oncologic immunotherapy these last years and have significantly increased survival of cancer patients in an ever-growing number of indications. These agents block specific immune checkpoint molecules (programmed cell death protein 1 and its ligand as well as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4) that normally downregulate the immune response. These new agents show a specific range of adverse effects induced by abnormal immunologic activation...
February 1, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380072/sleep-disturbance-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Abbey J Hughes, Katherine M Dunn, Trisha Chaffee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes recent research on the association between sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction in MS. Assessment methodology, domain-specific associations between sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction, and implications for future research and treatment are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: All 12 studies included in this review found significant associations between sleep disturbance and cognitive dysfunction; however, results varied considerably depending on the assessment method used and the cognitive domain assessed...
January 29, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372464/the-potential-of-stem-cells-in-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
REVIEW
Nicole M Weston, Dong Sun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health concern, with limited treatment options available. Despite improving survival rate after TBI, treatment is lacking for brain functional recovery and structural repair in clinic. Recent studies have suggested that the mature brain harbors neural stem cells which have regenerative capacity following brain insults. Much progress has been made in preclinical TBI model studies in understanding the behaviors, functions, and regulatory mechanisms of neural stem cells in the injured brain...
January 25, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119343/long-term-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumors-impact-on-general-health-and-quality-of-life
#13
REVIEW
Priyamvada Gupta, Rakesh Jalali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review and summarize the key issues affecting general health and quality of life (QOL) of pediatric long-term survivors of brain tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term survivors of brain tumors are at risk of considerable late morbidity and mortality. Lengthening survival in brain tumors has highlighted the deep impact of tumor and its treatment on the physical, psychological, functional, and social health and QOL of these survivors. Evolution in tumor therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, etc...
November 8, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094222/restorative-strategies-in-movement-disorders-the-contribution-of-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Nicholas P Lao-Kaim, Paola Piccini, Yen F Tai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to review the imaging, particularly positron emission tomography (PET), findings in neurorestoration studies in movement disorders, with specific focus on neural transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). RECENT FINDINGS: PET findings in PD transplantation studies have shown that graft survival as reflected by increases in dopaminergic PET markers does not necessarily correlate with clinical improvement...
November 2, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086067/emerging-monogenic-complex-hyperkinetic-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Miryam Carecchio, Niccolò E Mencacci
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperkinetic movement disorders can manifest alone or as part of complex phenotypes. In the era of next-generation sequencing (NGS), the list of monogenic complex movement disorders is rapidly growing. This review will explore the main features of these newly identified conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutations in ADCY5 and PDE10A have been identified as important causes of childhood-onset dyskinesias and KMT2B mutations as one of the most frequent causes of complex dystonia in children...
October 30, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081013/emerging-technologies-in-flow-diverters-and-stents-for-cerebrovascular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Michael Karsy, Jian Guan, Andrea A Brock, Anubhav Amin, Min S Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stents and flow diverters have revolutionized the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Guglielmi coils, flexible microcatheters, and first-generation intracranial stents, such as Neuroform (Stryker Neurovascular) and Enterprise stents (Codman/DePuy-Synthes), have paved the way for the development of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) (ev3/Covidien/Medtronic) and other endovascular approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses the historical development of flow diverter technologies from the PED to similar devices, such as the Surpass stent (Stryker Neurovascular), the Flow-Redirection Endoluminal Device (FRED; MicroVention, Inc...
October 28, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063211/physiopathology-of-migraine-what-have-we-learned-from-functional-imaging
#17
REVIEW
Antonio Russo, Marcello Silvestro, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Alessandro Tessitore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide an overview of the most recent and significant functional neuroimaging studies which have clarified the complex mechanisms underlying migraine pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent data allow us to overcome the concept of a migraine generator suggesting that functional networks abnormalities may lead to changes in different brain area activities and consequent reduced migraine thresholds susceptibility, likely associated with higher migraine severity and burden...
October 23, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039142/microbiota-brain-gut-axis-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges...
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038900/correction-to-dietary-interventions-and-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Ghadah Altowaijri, Allison Fryman, Vijayshree Yadav
The original version of this article contains an error in the second sentence of the second paragraph of the Paleolithic Diet section.
October 17, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986740/integrated-health-care-management-of-moderate-to-severe-tbi-in-older-patients-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Rahel Schumacher, René M Müri, Bernhard Walder
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injuries are common, especially within the elderly population, which is typically defined as age 65 and older. This narrative review aims at summarizing and critically evaluating important aspects of their health care management in covering the entire pathway from prehospital care to rehabilitation and beyond. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of older patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasing, and there seem to be differences in all aspects of care along their pathway when compared to younger patients...
October 7, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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