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Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406855/untangling-ptsd-and-tbi-challenges-and-strategies-in-clinical-care-and-research
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca C Hendrickson, Abigail G Schindler, Kathleen F Pagulayan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can result from similar injuries and can result in similar symptoms, such as problems with sleep, concentration, memory, and mood. Although PTSD and persistent sequelae due to a TBI (PST) have generally been viewed as pragmatically confounded but conceptually separable entities, we examine emerging evidence emphasizing the breadth of overlap in both clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology between PST and PTSD...
November 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406848/relation-between-stress-granules-and-cytoplasmic-protein-aggregates-linked-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Ioana Dobra, Serhii Pankivskyi, Anastasiia Samsonova, David Pastre, Loic Hamon
ᅟ: A hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of cytoplasmic protein aggregates in neurons of affected subjects. Among recently identified elements of these aggregates are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) involved in RNA metabolism and alternative splicing and have in common the presence of low complexity domains (LCD) that are prone to self-assemble and form aggregates. The mechanism of cytoplasmic protein aggregation remains elusive. Stress granules (SGs) that are micrometric RNA-protein assemblies located in the cytoplasm of cells exposed to environmental stress are suspected to play the role of seeds...
November 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30406315/a-precision-medicine-approach-to-cerebral-edema-and-intracranial-hypertension-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-quo-vadis
#3
REVIEW
Ruchira M Jha, Patrick M Kochanek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Standard clinical protocols for treating cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension after severe TBI have remained remarkably similar over decades. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are treated interchangeably when in fact intracranial pressure (ICP) is a proxy for cerebral edema but also other processes such as extent of mass lesions, hydrocephalus, or cerebral blood volume. A complex interplay of multiple molecular mechanisms results in cerebral edema after severe TBI, and these are not measured or targeted by current clinically available tools...
November 7, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397831/prognostic-factors-in-pediatric-sport-related-concussion
#4
REVIEW
Scott L Zuckerman, Benjamin L Brett, Aaron S Jeckell, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Gary S Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sport-related concussion (SRC) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been thrust into the national spotlight, with youth athletes bearing the burden of this public health problem. The current review aims to provide a practical summary of pediatric SRC, including key terminology, return to play/school, and risk factors for post-concussion syndrome (PCS). RECENT FINDINGS: While the majority of youth athletes recover within 2 to 4 weeks, approximately 10% of athletes experience a protracted recovery with symptoms lasting months, impacting social, scholastic, and sporting activities...
November 5, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382420/comparative-sleep-disturbances-in-myotonic-dystrophy-types-1-and-2
#5
REVIEW
Andrea Romigi, Valentina Franco, Fabio Placidi, Claudio Liguori, Emanuele Rastelli, Giuseppe Vitrani, Diego Centonze, Roberto Massa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update current knowledge regarding sleep disturbances and myotonic dystrophies so as to better understand if sleep symptoms may help in the early recognition of the two genetic subtypes: myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2). RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep, hypersomnia, and REM sleep dysregulation are frequently described in DM1 patients...
October 31, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382405/management-of-episodic-migraine-in-children-and-adolescents-a-practical-approach
#6
REVIEW
Reena Gogia Rastogi, Clarimar Borrero-Mejias, Carolyn Hickman, Kara Stuart Lewis, Robert Little
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Episodic migraine is very common in children and adolescents, seen by primary care and specialists. In kids, this can greatly affect quality of life, including significant disability, specifically in terms of missed school and other activities. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the most up-to-date thoughts on episodic migraine in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Current options for both abortive and preventative treatments in kids, as well as specific non-pharmacological and lifestyle management recommendations for children, will be reviewed, as well as options for status migrainosus in the pediatric patient...
October 31, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353426/overview-of-neurovascular-physiology
#7
REVIEW
Debbie Yi Madhok, Jeffrey R Vitt, Anh T Nguyen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurophysiology is a complex network of cellular, electrical, and vascular systems which function to maximize neuronal functioning and brain performance. The brain exists in a closed system made up of parenchyma, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood with any increase in volume leading to a corresponding decrease in one of the components. Once these compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, there is a precipitous increase in the intracranial pressure leading to decreases in cerebral perfusion and resulting ischemia...
October 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353408/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-upper-extremity-motor-recovery-does-it-help
#8
REVIEW
Heidi M Schambra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) noninvasively modulates brain excitability in humans and influences mediators of plasticity in animals. When applied in humans in the months to years after stroke, potentiation of motor recovery has been limited. Recently, investigators have shifted rTMS administration into the early weeks following stroke, when injury-induced plasticity could be maximally engaged. This article provides an overview of basic mechanisms of rTMS, consideration of its interaction with various forms of neuroplasticity, and a summary of the highest quality clinical evidence for rTMS given early after stroke...
October 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353361/cerebral-microdialysis-in-neurocritical-care
#9
REVIEW
Ting Zhou, Atul Kalanuria
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major goal in neurocritical care is to monitor for and prevent secondary brain injuries. However, injuries occurring at the cellular and molecular levels evade detection by conventional hemodynamic monitoring and the neurological exam. Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) is an invasive means of providing nearly continuous measurements of cerebral metabolism and is a promising tool that can detect signs of cellular distress before systemic manifestations of intracranial catastrophe...
October 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353308/management-of-blunt-cerebrovascular-injury
#10
REVIEW
David K Stone, Vyas T Viswanathan, Christina A Wilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated summary of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) to guide clinicians in its early diagnosis and prevention and treatment of stroke associated with such injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Untreated BCVI causes stroke in 10-40% of patients, but more than half will not present with stroke symptoms initially. Risk of stroke is highest in the first 7 days, with a peak in the first 24 h. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is currently the screening modality of choice, although digital subtraction angiography may still be required in some cases...
October 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30353288/serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-and-stroke
#11
REVIEW
F Chollet, J Rigal, P Marque, M Barbieux-Guillot, N Raposo, V Fabry, J F Albucher, J Pariente, I Loubinoux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interest in SSRIs after stroke has increased in the past few years, with better knowledge of post-stroke depression and with the demonstrated capacity of some SSRIs to act on the functional recovery of non-depressed subjects. RECENT FINDINGS: Arguments for the action of SSRIs in favour of post-stroke neurological function recovery have improved through new elements: basic science and preclinical data, positive clinical trials and repeated series of stroke patient meta-analysis, and confirmation of favourable safety conditions in post-stroke patients...
October 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338429/principles-of-octa-and-applications-in-clinical-neurology
#12
REVIEW
Adam Wylęgała
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews the recent findings on the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in neurology. RECENT FINDINGS: OCTA is a new addition to the powerful and complementary technology of the OCT. Due to its noninvasiveness, and reproducibility, it is possible to obtain high-resolution 3D images of the vessels of the human eye. As the vessels of the retina with the presence of endothelial cell's tight junctions resemble the brain vessels, it was hypothesized that the imaging of the retinal vessels might bring insight into brain vessels...
October 18, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328522/closure-of-patent-foramen-ovale-and-cryptogenic-stroke-unresolved-issues
#13
REVIEW
Hans-Christoph Diener, Christian Gerloff, David E Thaler, Jochen Wöhrle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the results of randomised trials comparing closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) with antithrombotic therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Initially, three randomised trials failed to show superiority of PFO closure over antithrombotic therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Three recently performed trials and the prolongation of an earlier trial provided evidence that PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke and an age range of 18-60 years is superior to stroke prevention with antiplatelet therapy...
October 17, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328520/neurodevelopmental-disorders-affecting-sociability-recent-research-advances-and-future-directions-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-williams-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Giacomo Vivanti, Taralee Hamner, Nancy Raitano Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize current knowledge and hypotheses on the nature of social abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS). RECENT FINDINGS: Social phenotypes in ASD and WS appear to reflect analogous disruptions in social cognition, and distinct patterns of social motivation, which appears to be reduced in ASD and enhanced in WS. These abnormalities likely originate from heterogeneous vulnerabilities that disrupt the interplay between domain-general and social domain-specific cognitive and motivational processes during early development...
October 17, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328519/hereditary-motor-neuropathies-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-molecular-and-clinical-update
#15
REVIEW
Rocio Garcia-Santibanez, Matthew Burford, Robert C Bucelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of recent advancements in the fields of hereditary motor neuropathies and ALS. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a robust growth in our knowledge and understanding of hereditary and degenerative motor neuronopathies/neuropathies over the last decade. Many breakthroughs in the field of hereditary motor neuropathies (HMN) have been associated with identification and characterization of the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders...
October 17, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328517/hemicrania-continua-a-clinical-perspective-on-diagnosis-and-management
#16
REVIEW
Amit Mehta, Priyanka Chilakamarri, Adeel Zubair, Deena E Kuruvilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemicrania Continua (HC) is a daily and persistent form of headache that is characterized by side-locked pain which is continuous, varies in severity and can be associated with conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, eyelid edema, forehead or facial sweating and miosis and/or ptosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Functional imaging studies have shown activation of subcortical structures such as the posterior hypothalamus and dorsal rostral pons, which are known to disinhibit the trigeminal autonomic reflex, a reflex responsible for autonomic outflow through trigeminal efferents...
October 17, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324260/interaction-between-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-cognitive-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease-what-do-clinical-and-neuroimaging-studies-tell-us
#17
REVIEW
Alexandru Hanganu, Oury Monchi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parkinson's disease was studied for a long time from the prism of a motor impairment. Recent advances have outlined the importance of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in the PD equation. This review concentrates on the present possibilities of using neuroimaging techniques in order to quantify the cognitive performance and NPS in PD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Mild cognitive impairment as well as many NPS have been acknowledged as important criteria for assessing the quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease and have been shown as potential factors in predicting further evolution of PD from a clinical perspective...
October 15, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324233/aphasia-recovery-when-how-and-who-to-treat
#18
REVIEW
Catherine Doogan, Jade Dignam, David Copland, Alex Leff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We now know that speech and language therapy (SALT) is effective in the rehabilitation of aphasia; however, there remains much individual variability in the response to interventions. So, what works for whom, when and how? RECENT FINDINGS: This review evaluates the current evidence for the efficacy of predominantly impairment-focused aphasia interventions with respect to optimal dose, intensity, timing and distribution or spacing of treatment...
October 15, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302572/pharmacokinetic-considerations-with-the-use-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-patients-with-hiv-and-organ-transplants
#19
REVIEW
Jorge J Asconapé
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antiepileptic drugs are frequently administered to patients with HIV infection or in recipients of organ transplants. The potentially serious drug-drug interactions between the "classic" antiepileptic drugs, antiretrovirals, and immunosuppressants have been extensively studied. Evidence-based information on the second and third generation of antiepileptic drugs is almost non-existent. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pharmacokinetic profile of these newer agents to assess their potential for drug interactions with antiretrovirals and immunosuppressants...
October 9, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298240/the-impact-of-interictal-discharges-on-performance
#20
REVIEW
Edward Faught, Ioannis Karakis, Daniel L Drane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose is to review evidence relating to the concept that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) impair brain performance. RECENT FINDINGS: Sophisticated measures of motor and cognitive performance have clarified older observations, confirming that in both animals and humans, IEDs affect aspects of performance, IED morphology, frequency, anatomical distribution, and duration matter. However, we now know that it is difficult to draw a line between IEDs and seizures, not only by electrical criteria but even by metabolic and molecular measures...
October 8, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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